Science.gov

Sample records for milk urea concentration

  1. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  2. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  3. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  4. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH₃-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g

  5. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  6. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  7. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  8. A method for estimation of urea using ammonia electrode and its applicability to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Kaur, Sumandeep; Tomar, Sudhir K

    2008-11-01

    A method for the estimation of urea in milk using ammonia electrode is described. Urea is first degraded by urease enzyme into ammonium ion and carbon dioxide at neutral pH. The ammonium ion is then converted into ammonia at alkaline pH. A linear inverse relationship was observed between logarithmic concentration of ammonia or urea and electrode response. Repeatability, expressed as a coefficient of variation, was 1.77% at a level of 8.92 mm-urea in milk. The method was validated in milk samples spiked with between 2 x 10-3 and 10 x 10-3 m-urea and recovery of added urea was quantitative. Whereas, preservative sodium azide at 0.5 g/l or 2 g/l level did not affect results, lower values of urea concentration in presence of Bronopol at 0.5 g/l were observed. Urea levels in milk samples estimated by this method were comparable to standard enzymatic method. The method is simple, fast and is not prone to interference from other milk constituents.

  9. Wood plastic composite at different urea concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, M. M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss; Hasan, A. J. M. Moynul

    1995-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul ( Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the best co-additive/second solute among all the additives used to yield the composite with the highest polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) at 0.5% urea concentration.

  10. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  11. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  12. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  13. Modeling milk urea of Walloon dairy cows in management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Laloux, L; Gillon, A; Miglior, F; Soyeurt, H; Hammami, H; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an adapted random regression test-day model for milk urea (MU) and to study the possibility of using predictions and solutions given by the model for management purposes. Data included 607,416 MU test-day records of first-lactation cows from 632 dairy herds in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Several advanced features were used. First, to detect the herd influence, the classical herd x test-day effect was split into 3 new effects: a fixed herd x year effect, a fixed herd x month-period effect, and a random herd test-day effect. A fixed time period regression was added in the model to take into account the yearly oscillations of MU on a population scale. Moreover, first autoregressive processes were introduced and allowed us to consider the link between successive test-day records. The variance component estimation indicated that large variance was associated with the random herd x test-day effect (48% of the total variance), suggesting the strong influence of herd management on the MU level. The heritability estimate was 0.13. By comparing observed and predicted MU levels at both the individual and herd levels, target ranges for MU concentrations were defined to take into account features of each cow and each herd. At the cow level, an MU record was considered as deviant if it was <200 or >400 mg/L (target range used in the field) and if the prediction error was >50 mg/L (indicating a significant deviation from the expected level). Approximately 7.5% of the MU records collected between June 2007 and May 2008 were beyond these thresholds. This combination allowed for the detection of potentially suspicious cows. At the herd level, the expected MU level was considered as the sum of the solutions for specific herd effects. A herd was considered as deviant from its target range when the prediction error was greater than the standard deviation of MU averaged by herd test day. Results showed that 6.7% of the herd test-day MU levels

  14. Potentiometric biosensor for determination of urea in milk using immobilized Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Rajendran; Puhazhendi, Puhazhselvan; Kumar, Jitendra; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu

    2015-04-01

    The extracellular urease from Arthrobacter creatinolyticus was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and immobilized on PAN [poly(acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate)] membrane. The urease immobilized PAN membrane exhibited an activity of 97.92U/cm(2) under the optimum conditions of 1.0% enzyme concentration, 15% glutaraldehyde, 24h immobilization time and temperature of 4°C. The changes in surface morphology of the membrane after immobilization were studied by SEM and ATR-FTIR analysis. Immobilized membrane was associated with potentiometric electrode for calibration of biosensor and the results showed a linear response for wide range of urea concentration from 1 to 100mM. The immobilized urease had good storage stability for a period of 70days at 4°C and could be effectively reused for 13cycles. Urease immobilized membrane was also employed in analysis of urea spiked milk samples.

  15. Concentration levels of urea in swimming pool water and reactivity of chlorine with urea.

    PubMed

    De Laat, Joseph; Feng, Wentao; Freyfer, Diab Adams; Dossier-Berne, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the reactivity of chlorine with urea which is the main nitrogen contaminant introduced into swimming pool water by bathers. In the first part of this study, analyses showed that the mean concentrations of urea and TOC determined from 50 samples of municipal swimming pool were equal to 18.0 μM (s.d. 11.7) and 3.5 mg C L(-1) (s.d. 1.6), respectively. The mean value for the urea contribution to the TOC content was 6.3% (s.d. 3.3). The rate of decomposition of urea in swimming pool water measured during the closure time of the facility was very slow (decay at the rate of ≈ 1% per hour in the presence of 1.6-1.8 mg L(-1) of free chlorine). In the second part of this work, experiments carried out with phosphate buffered solutions of urea ([Urea](0) = 1 mM; [Cl(2)](0)/[Urea](0): 0.5-15 mol/mol; pH 7.4 ± 0.2; reaction time: 0-200 h) showed that long term chlorine demand of urea was about 5 mol Cl(2)/mol of urea. Chlorination led to a complete mineralization of organic carbon into CO(2) for a chlorine dose of 3.5 mol/mol and to the formation of 0.7-0.8 mol NO(3)(-)/mol of urea for chlorine dose of 8-10 mol/mol. Experiments conducted with dilute solutions of urea ([Urea](0) = 50 μM; pH ≈ 7.3) confirmed that the degradation rate of urea by chlorine is very slow under conditions simulating real swimming pool water.

  16. Effects of low urea concentrations on protein-water interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Povarova, Olga I; Stepanenko, Olga V; Sulatskaya, Anna I; Madeira, Pedro P; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2017-01-01

    Solvent properties of aqueous media (dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were measured in the coexisting phases of Dextran-PEG aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) containing .5 and 2.0 M urea. The differences between the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the phases in the ATPSs were quantified by analysis of partitioning of the homologous series of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side chains. Furthermore, partitioning of eleven different proteins in the ATPSs was studied. The analysis of protein partition behavior in a set of ATPSs with protective osmolytes (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, and TMAO) at the concentration of .5 M, in osmolyte-free ATPS, and in ATPSs with .5 or 2.0 M urea in terms of the solvent properties of the phases was performed. The results show unambiguously that even at the urea concentration of .5 M, this denaturant affects partitioning of all proteins (except concanavalin A) through direct urea-protein interactions and via its effect on the solvent properties of the media. The direct urea-protein interactions seem to prevail over the urea effects on the solvent properties of water at the concentration of .5 M urea and appear to be completely dominant at 2.0 M urea concentration.

  17. [Effects of urea and coated urea on harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Zeng, Qingru; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Litian; Liao, Bohan; Tie, Baiqing; Liao, Zongwen

    2006-09-01

    With simulation test and plastic greenhouse experiment, this paper studied the effects of urea and minerals- coated urea on the soil pH and harmful gases concentrations in plastic greenhouse. The results showed that under simulated condition, the application of these'two N fertilizers led to an initial increase of soil pH, which reached the maximum (an increment of > 50%) within the first week and dropped to the initial level by the end of the fifth week. In plastic greenhouse, applying urea and coated urea resulted in the increase of NH3, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The daily volatilization amount of NH3 and NO2 was higher in urea treatment than in coated urea treatment, and the highest value in urea treatment was 42.36 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NH3, 41.95 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for NO2, and 86.00 microg x m(-3) x d(-1) for O3. The volatilization intensity of NH3 and NO2 was influenced by temperature and sunlight, while the O3 concentration was influenced by sunlight.

  18. Online measurement of urea concentration in spent dialysate during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Armitage, Ben; Arnold, Mark A.; Flanigan, Michael

    2002-05-01

    We describe on-line optical measurements of urea concentration during the regular hemodialysis treatment of several patients. The spectral measurements were performed in the effluent dialysate stream after the dialysis membrane using an FTIR spectrometer equipped with a flow-through cell. Spectra were recorded across the 5000-4000 cm-1 (2.0-2.5 micrometers at 1-minute intervals. Optically determined concentrations matched concentrations obtained from standard chemical assays with a root-mean-square error of 0.29 mM for urea (0.8 mg/dl urea nitrogen), 0.03 mM for creatinine, 0.11 mM for lactate, and 0.22 mM for glucose. The observed concentration ranges were 0-11 mM for urea, 0-0.35 mM for creatinine, 0-0.75 mM for lactate, and 9-12.5 mM for glucose.

  19. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) tool reduces nitrogen emissions from dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk urea nitrogen (MUN) tool was developed to monitor dietary crude protein (CP) use and feed costs. MUN within the range of 12 to 10 mg/100 ml milk usually indicates the recommended dietary CP level of 16.5%. MUN levels greater than 12 mg/100 ml indicate dietary CP is being wasted and excreted...

  20. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream §...

  1. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangrui; Oguejiofor, Chike F.; Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Carr, Susan; Wathes, D. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cows fed high levels of protein to increase milk yield tend to have reduced fertility but the reasons behind this are unclear. Differing dietary protein levels are reflected in altered urea concentrations in both blood and other tissues including the uterus. We showed that the circulating urea concentration was highly correlated to changed expression levels of many genes in the endometrium shortly after calving. These were predominantly associated with tissue repair, innate immunity and lipid metabolism. A subsequent study found no effect of altered urea concentration on endometrial gene expression in vitro implying that the dietary influence is indirect. Abstract Both high and low circulating urea concentrations, a product of protein metabolism, are associated with decreased fertility in dairy cows through poorly defined mechanisms. The rate of involution and the endometrial ability to mount an adequate innate immune response after calving are both critical for subsequent fertility. Study 1 used microarray analysis to identify genes whose endometrial expression 2 weeks postpartum correlated significantly with the mean plasma urea per cow, ranging from 3.2 to 6.6 mmol/L. The biological functions of 781 mapped genes were analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. These were predominantly associated with tissue turnover (e.g., BRINP1, FOXG1), immune function (e.g., IL17RB, CRISPLD2), inflammation (e.g., C3, SERPINF1, SERPINF2) and lipid metabolism (e.g., SCAP, ACBD5, SLC10A). Study 2 investigated the relationship between urea concentration and expression of 6 candidate genes (S100A8, HSP5A, IGF1R, IL17RB, BRINP1, CRISPLD2) in bovine endometrial cell culture. These were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/L urea, equivalent to low, medium and high circulating values with or without challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS increased S100A8 expression as expected but urea treatment had no effect on expression of any tested gene

  2. Simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongjie; Dong, Wenbin; Bao, Hongliang; Fang, Yue; Fan, Cheng

    2017-04-15

    This paper proposed a nonlinear chemical fingerprint method for simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder using "H(+)+Ce(4+)+BrO3(-)+malonic acid" as reaction system. A multiple linear relationship was obtained between the adulterants content in milk powder and inductive time of corresponding mixed milk powder. System analysis model established with classical least squares (CLS) method was then used to calculate the content of urea and melamine in milk powder. The method was successfully applied to milk powder samples and had good recoveries in the range of 99.17-100.25%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 0.60-4.12%. The limits of detection for urea and melamine were 0.33μg·g(-1) and 0.05μg·g(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification were 1.11μg·g(-1) and 0.18μg·g(-1), respectively. The results indicated that the new method was feasible and had the advantages of low cost, simple operation and without pretreatment of samples.

  3. Estrone and estrone sulfate concentrations in milk and milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Macrina, Ann L; Ott, Troy L; Roberts, Robert F; Kensinger, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Dairy products naturally contain estrogens, and some consumer groups contend these estrogens cause adverse health effects. The objectives of this research were to characterize estrone (E(1)) and estrone sulfate (E(1)S) concentrations in milk from a large number of individual cows, in skim and fat fractions of milk, and in retail milk to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate potential consumption. Milk was from Holstein cows. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in E(1) and E(1)S content of whole milk and its skim and fat fractions. Mean E(1) and E(1)S concentrations (n=173 cows) were 7.0±12.7 and 46.7±62.1 pg/mL (25.89±46.96 and 172.74±229.71 pmol/L), respectively. Analysis of milk fractions (n=50 samples) demonstrated that 55% of E(1) and 14% of E(1)S were associated with the fat fraction with the remainder associated with the skim fraction. Concentrations of E(1) and E(1)S in pasteurized-homogenized whole milk (n=8) averaged 10.3±0.6 and 85.9±7.3 pg/mL (38.09±2.22 and 317.74±27.00 pmol/L), respectively. Production rates of E(1) plus estradiol in human beings range from 54,000 to 630,000 ng/day. US Food and Drug administration guidelines state that no physiologic effects occur when consumption is ≤1% of the endogenous quantities produced by the segment of the population with the lowest daily production. This threshold value for intake would be 540 ng/day. Estimated total E(1) intake from three servings of whole milk was 68 ng/day, which represents 0.01% to 0.1% of daily production rates in human beings. These findings support levels below the current guidelines for safe consumption.

  4. Quantitative determination of urea concentrations in cell culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Zawada, Robert J.X.; Kwan, Peggy; Olszewski, Kellen L.; Llinas, Manuel; Huang, Shu-Gui

    2009-01-01

    Urea is the major nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism in mammals. Here, we describe a quantitative, sensitive method for urea determination using a modified Jung reagent. This assay is specific for urea and is unaffected by ammonia, a common interferent in tissue and cell cultures. We demonstrate that this convenient colorimetric microplate-based, room temperature assay can be applied to determine urea synthesis in cell culture. PMID:19448747

  5. Quantitative determination of urea concentrations in cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Robert J X; Kwan, Peggy; Olszewski, Kellen L; Llinas, Manuel; Huang, Shu-Gui

    2009-06-01

    Urea is the major nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism in mammals. Here, we describe a quantitative, sensitive method for urea determination using a modified Jung reagent. This assay is specific for urea and is unaffected by ammonia, a common interferent in tissue and cell cultures. We demonstrate that this convenient colorimetric microplate-based, room temperature assay can be applied to determine urea synthesis in cell culture.

  6. Urea

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 10 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF UREA ( CAS No . 57 - 13 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in acc

  7. Milk protein concentrations in galactorrhoeic mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Yap, P L; Pryde, E A; McClelland, D B

    1980-02-01

    Milk protein concentrations were determined either by double antibody radioimmunoassay (IgA) or single radial immunodiffusion (IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme and albumin) in the mammayr secretions of one nulliparous and three parous female patients with galactorrhoea due to hyperprolactinaemia. Concentrations of all the proteins studied were found to be similar to the concentrations observed in post-partum colostrum. In particular, secretory IgA was the only form of IgA detected in galactorrhoeic secretions. It is suggested that hyperprolactinaemia alone can result in increased mammary synthesis of the milk proteins since the steroid changes associated with a full-term pregnancy and delivery of the placenta did not immediately precede the galactorrhoea in three of the four patients studied.

  8. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Sunny, N E; Owens, S L; Baldwin, R L; El-Kadi, S W; Kohn, R A; Bequette, B J

    2007-04-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether transfer of blood urea to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or the efficiency of capture of urea N within the GIT is more limiting for urea N salvage, and 2) to establish the relationship between plasma urea concentration and recycling of urea N to the GIT. We used an i.v. urea infusion model in sheep to elevate the urea entry rate and plasma concentrations, thus avoiding direct manipulation of the rumen environment that otherwise occurs when feeding additional N. Four growing sheep (28.1 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were fed a low-protein (6.8% CP, DM basis) diet and assigned to 4 rates of i.v. urea infusion (0, 3.8, 7.5, or 11.3 g of urea N/d; 10-d periods) in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. Nitrogen retention (d 6 to 9), urea kinetics([(15)N2]urea infusion over 80 h), and plasma AA were determined. Urea infusion increased apparent total tract digestibility of N (29.9 to 41.3%) and DM (47.5 to 58.9%), and N retention (1.45 to 5.46 g/d). The plasma urea N entry rate increased (5.1 to 21.8 g/d) with urea infusion, as did the amount of urea N entering the GIT (4.1 to 13.2 g/d). Urea N transfer to the GIT increased with plasma urea concentration, but the increases were smaller at greater concentrations of plasma urea. Anabolic use of urea N within the GIT also increased with urea infusion (1.43 to 2.98 g/d; P = 0.003), but anabolic use as a proportion of GIT entry was low and decreased (35 to 22%; P = 0.003) with urea infusions. Consequently, much (44 to 67%) of the urea N transferred to the GIT returned to the liver for resynthesis of urea (1.8 to 9.2 g/d; P < 0.05). The present results suggest that transfer of blood urea to the GIT is 1) highly related to blood urea concentration, and 2) less limiting for N retention than is the efficiency of capture of recycled urea N by microbes within the GIT.

  9. Effect of urea concentration on growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain mycoplasma).

    PubMed

    Kenny, G E; Cartwright, F D

    1977-10-01

    The effect of urea on growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum type VIII was studied by cultivating the organisms in a dialysate broth, prepared from soy peptone and autoclaved yeast, supplemented with 5% dialyzed horse serum, 100 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid buffer (pH 5.75), and defined amounts of urea. Without urea, growth did not occur. Total growth was directly related to urea concentration. The least amount of urea that supported growth was 0.032 mM, which resulted in 3 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml. The maximum yield of organisms, 8.0 x 10(7) colony-forming units per ml, was observed at 32 mM urea. Growth was limited not only by urea concentration, but also by the buffer capacity of the medium. The maximum amount of 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid buffer that could be employed was 100 mM; at higher concentrations, growth was inhibited. The yield of U. urealyticum was small even in medium with 32 mM urea and 100 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid buffer: 0.63 mg of protein per liter of culture containing 5 x 10(10) total colony-forming units. The molar growth yield was 20 mg of protein per mol of urea. The growth rate was also a function of urea concentration. Generation times ranged from 8 h at 0.032 mM urea to 1.6 h at 3.2 mM urea, where the substrate level was saturating. The K(s) value for growth was 2.0 x 10(-4) M urea. Thus, urea is a growth-limiting factor for U. urealyticum, but remarkably large amounts of this substrate are required.

  10. Preferential Solvation in Urea Solutions at Different Concentrations: Properties from Simulation Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-02-15

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.

  11. Preferential Solvation in Urea Solutions at Different Concentrations: Properties from Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-04-21

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of urea solutions at different concentrations with two urea models (OPLS and KBFF) to examine the structures responsible for the thermodynamic solution properties. Our simulation results showed that hydrogen-bonding properties such as the average number of hydrogen bonds and their lifetime distributions were nearly constant at all concentrations between infinite dilution and the solubility limit. This implies that the characterization of urea-water solutions in the molarity concentration scale as nearly ideal is a result of facile local hydrogen bonding rather than a global property. Thus, urea concentration does not influence the local propensity for hydrogen bonds, only how they are satisfied. By comparison, the KBFF model of urea donated fewer hydrogen bonds than OPLS. We found that the KBFF urea model in TIP3P water better reproduced the experimental density and diffusion constant data. Preferential solvation analysis showed that there were weak urea-urea and water-water associations in OPLS solution at short distances, but there were no strong associations. We divided urea molecules into large, medium, and small clusters to examine fluctuation properties and found that any particular urea molecule did not stay in the same cluster for a long time. We found neither persistent nor large clusters.

  12. Potential use of milk urea nitrogen to abate atmospheric nitrogen emissions from wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Rotz, C A; Wattiaux, M A

    2014-07-01

    Urinary urea N (UUN) is the principal nitrogen (N) source controlling emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the integrative nature of dietary crude protein (CP) management, secretion of milk urea N (MUN), excretion of UUN, and N emissions from dairy production systems; (ii) to evaluate how associative changes in dietary CP, MUN, and UUN affect atmospheric N emissions from dairy farms; and (iii) to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities to an expanded use of MUN to enhance dietary CP use and decrease UUN excretion and N emissions from dairy farms. Milk urea N records of 37,889 cows in 197 herds in Wisconsin revealed that approximately one half of tested cows were likely consuming dietary CP in excess of requirement. Farm simulations were used to quantify the effect of dietary CP on whole-farm N emissions. At a statewide average MUN of 12.5 mg dL, 48 to 87% of UUN was emitted as NH, with the lowest loss from pasture-based farms and the greatest loss from tie-stall farms. Each 1 mg dL decrease of MUN (range, 16-10 mg dL) provided an associated daily decrease in UUN of 16.6 g per cow, which decreased NH and NO emissions from manure by 7 to 12%. Although more site-specific information is required on herd MUN-UUN relationships and more a reliable interpretation of MUN assay results is needed, monitoring of MUN may be used to enhance dietary CP use and to reduce UUN excretion and N emissions from Wisconsin dairy farms.

  13. Protein stability: functional dependence of denaturational Gibbs energy on urea concentration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Ahmad, F

    1999-02-23

    Determination of protein stability (DeltaGD0) from the conformational transition curve induced by a chemical denaturant is problematic; for different values of DeltaGD0, the value of the Gibbs energy change on denaturation (DeltaGD) in the absence of the denaturant are obtained when different extrapolation methods are used to analyze the same set of (DeltaGD, denaturant concentration) data [Pace, C. N. (1986) Methods Enzymol. 131, 266-280]. We propose a practical solution to this problem and use it to test the dependence of DeltaGD of lysozyme, ribonuclease-A, and cytochrome-c on [urea], the molar urea concentration. This method employs (i) measurements of the urea-induced denaturation in the presence of different guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) concentrations which by themselves disrupt the native state of the protein at the same temperature and pH at which denaturations by urea and GdnHCl have been measured; (ii) estimation of DeltaGDcor, the value of DeltaGD corrected for the effect of GdnHCl on the urea-induced denaturation using the relation (DeltaGDcor = DeltaGD + mg [GdnHCl] = DeltaGD0 - mu [urea], where mg and mu are the dependencies of DeltaGD on [GdnHCl] and [urea], respectively) whose parameters are all determined from experimental denaturation data; and (iii) mapping of DeltaGDcor onto the DeltaGD versus [urea] plot obtained in the absence of GdnHCl. Our results convincingly show that (i) [urea] dependence of DeltaGD of each protein is linear over the full concentration range; (ii) the effect of urea and GdnHCl on protein denaturation is additive; and (iii) KCl affects the urea-induced denaturation if the native protein contains charge-charge interaction and/or anion binding site, in a manner which is consistent with the crystal structure data.

  14. Protein degradation and optimum urea concentration in cereal-based diets for sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehrez, A Z; Orskov, E R

    1978-09-01

    1. Early-weaned lambs were used to estimate the concentration of urea required to give the maximum intake and utilization of maize or barley with either a high (HPB) or low (LPB) protein content. 2. Approximately the same concentration of urea (7--11 g urea/kg feed) was required for maximum intake and feed utilization of both HPB and LPB. With maize there was no increase in intake, live weight gain, digestion and feed conversion as a result of adding more than 7 g urea/kg. 3. The proportion of protein degraded in the rumen was estimated by the synthetic fibre bag technique to be 0.69, 0.82 and 0.54 for HPB, LPB and maize respectively. The similarity in concentration of urea required for optimum utilization of LPB AND HPB might be explained by differences in the extent of degradation of protein in the rumen, but the lower concentration of urea required for maize cannot be similarly explained. 4. From estimates of yield of microbial protein in the rumen, the extent of rumen fermentation and the measured extent of protein degradation, theoretical requirements for urea were calculated and compared with other predictions and with the experimentally determined values. For barley, predicted values agreed reasonably well with experimental ones, but for maize all values, including those derived by a new system adopted by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Working Party, were too high.

  15. S100B milk concentration in mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Galvano, Fabio; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Bognanno, Matteo; Iacopino, Anna Maria; Nigro, Francesco; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; Mussap, Michele; Piva, Andrea; Grilli, Ester; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2009-06-01

    S100B is a neurotrophic protein detectable in biological fluids and in human milk. Since there are several maternal-neonatal conditions requiring the administration of animal milks the aim of the present study was to quantify S100B in milk from different mammalian species and to compare protein's concentration among human and mammalian milks. We assessed S100B concentrations in donkey (n=12), goat (n=15) sheep (n=15), commercially available cow (n=8) and human (n=15) milk samples. S100B measurements were performed using an immunoluminometric assay. S100B concentration in human milk (10.41 +/- 4.2 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.001) than mammalian milks. Of note, S100B concentration in cow milk (3.13 +/- 0.56 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than that showed in donkey (1.17 +/- 0.26 microg/L), sheep (0.25 +/- 0.11 microg/L) and goat (0.26 +/- 0.11 microg/L). S100B in donkey milk was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than sheep and goat samples whilst protein's concentration did not differ between goat and sheep. The present study suggests the opportunity of S100B addition to animal milk intended for infant feeding.

  16. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    PubMed

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of ammonia in plasma compared with infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P < 0.01) the increase in blood insulin level seen with the infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  17. Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding lectin under different urea concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kameel, Nurul Iman Ahamed; Wong, Yin How; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Tayyab, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin under different urea concentrations was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence and ANS fluorescence. In all cases, CGB lectin displayed a two-step, three-state transition. The first transition (from the native state to the intermediate state) started at ∼2.0 M urea and ended at ∼4.5 M urea, while the second transition (from the intermediate state to the completely denatured state) was characterized by the start- and end-points at ∼5.75 M and ∼7.5 M urea, respectively, when analyzed by the emission maximum of Trp fluorescence. A marked increase in the Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and -CD values at 218 nm (-CD218 nm) represented the first transition, whereas a decrease in these parameters defined the second transition. On the other hand, emission maximum of the Trp fluorescence showed a continuous increase throughout the urea concentration range. Transformation of tetramer into monomer represented the first transition, whereas the second transition reflected the unfolding of monomer. Far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence and ANS fluorescence spectra were used to characterize the native, the intermediate and the completely denatured states of CGB lectin, obtained at 0.0 M, 5.0 M and 9.0 M urea, respectively. The intermediate state was characterized by the presence of higher secondary structures, increased ANS binding as well as increased Trp fluorescence intensity. A gradual decrease in the hemagglutination activity of CGB lectin was observed with increasing urea concentrations, showing complete loss at 4.0 M urea.

  18. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    PubMed Central

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  19. The effect of CP concentration in the diet on urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea in cattle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Valadares Filho, S C; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares, R F D

    2017-01-10

    In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach. Treatment mean values were compiled from 25 studies with ruminants (beef cattle, dairy cows and sheep) which were published from 2001 to 2016, totalling 107 treatment means. The data set was analyzed according to meta-analysis techniques using linear or non-linear mixed models, taking into account the random variations among experiments. Urea N synthesized in the liver (UER) and urea N recycled to the gut (GER) linearly increased (P<0.001) as N intake (g/BW0.75) increased, with increases corresponding to 71.5% and 35.2% of N intake, respectively. The UER was positively associated (P<0.05) with dietary CP concentration and the ratio of CP to digestible OM (CP:DOM). Maximum curvature analyses identified 17% dietary CP as the point where there was a prominent increase in hepatic synthesis of urea N, likely due to an excess of dietary N leading to greater ammonia absorption. The GER:UER decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration (P<0.05). At dietary CP⩾19%, GER:UER reached near minimal values. The fraction of UER eliminated as urinary urea N and the contribution of urea N to total urinary N were positively associated with dietary CP (P<0.05), both reaching values near the plateau when dietary CP was 17%. The fractions of GER excreted in the feces and utilized for anabolism decreased, whereas the fraction of GER returned to the ornithine cycle increased with dietary CP concentration (P<0.05). Recycled urea N assimilated by

  20. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  1. Determination of fluoride concentration in powdered milk in Iran 2010.

    PubMed

    Hossein Mahvi, Amir; Ghanbarian, Maryam; Ghanbarian, Marjan; Khosravi, Ahmad; Ghanbarian, Masoud

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of fluoride (F) in powdered milk (formula milk) can have adverse health effects on the body. The F concentration in powdered milk was analysed in Iran in 2010. A total of twelve commercial brands of highly consumed powdered milk were selected to analyse the F content through the standard F ion-selective electrode method. From each brand, three samples with different production dates were selected. The means and standard deviation for F concentration in all the samples was 1·73 (sd 0·3) μg F/g. The minimum and maximum F content in powdered milk brands Humana2 and Humana3 was 1·32 (sd 0·1) and 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g, respectively. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in F concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. Humana3 had a high F concentration (with an average of 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g), which can be a risk factor for increased dental fluorosis, especially when being prepared using water with a high content of F.

  2. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed.

  3. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  4. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  5. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition.

    PubMed

    Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-01

    Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595 μg/L; P<0.001). Study 2 found no difference between conventional and Channel Island milk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306 μg/L; P<0.001). UHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331 μg/L; P<0.001 and 268 μg/L: P<0.0001 respectively). The results indicate that replacement of conventional milk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women.

  6. Concentration dependence of the subunit association of oligomers and viruses and the modification of the latter by urea binding.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, G; Da Poian, A T; Silva, J L

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that accounts for the facilitation of the pressure dissociation of R17 phage, and for the partial restoration of the concentration dependence of the dissociation, by the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea. As an indifferent osmolyte urea should promote the stability of the protein aggregates under pressure, and the decrease in pressure stability with urea concentration demonstrates that such indirect solvent effects are not significant for this case, and that the progressive destabilization is the result of direct protein-urea interactions. By acting as a "homogenizer" of the properties of the phage particles, urea addition converts the pressure-induced deterministic dissociation of the phage into a limited stochastic equilibrium. The model establishes the origin of the uniform progression from the stochastic equilibrium of dimers, to the temperature-dependent and partially concentration-dependent association of tetramers, to the fully deterministic equilibrium observed in many multimers and in the virus capsids. PMID:8770195

  7. Abatement of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farms using milk urea N (MUN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary urea N (UUN) excreted by dairy cows is the principal nitrogen (N) source that controls emissions of ammonia (which can be hazardous to human and ecosystem health) and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (1) to inves...

  8. Estimation of low bacterial concentration: Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Broseta, Stéphanie; Diot, Annabelle; Bastian, Suzanne; Rivière, Jacques; Cerf, Olivier

    2003-01-15

    A time-series bacteriological analysis has been carried out on milk collected on farms from 1997 to 2001 by a plant producing raw milk soft cheese, with the purpose of assessing the time course of the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes. A standard data collection procedure was used, in which farms were tested on a monthly or biweekly basis and 2-3 days after the detection of milk tanker contamination. This procedure yielded low figures for contamination frequencies. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of farms detected positive for L. monocytogenes were 2.4 and 0%, respectively. A seasonal effect (with peaks in winter) was observed. Between 1997 and 2001, there was no significant decrease of contamination rates, in spite of the efforts on the contaminated farms. Over the last year of the study (from March 2000 to February 2001), a new data collection procedure was implemented that allowed much better detection of sporadic occurrences. Milk samples were collected from the bulk tank of each participating farm just before pick-up, then stored and subsequently analysed whenever the milk tanker was found contaminated. The average value and the median of the monthly prevalence of positive farms were found equal to 7.7 and 0%, respectively (for a mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the milk tanker of 3.2%). These results confirm that farm milk contamination is, most often, a sporadic event In addition to this prevalence study, contamination levels were quantified by enumerating L. monocytogenes using direct plating of small volumes of farm milk previously tested positive. Most often, these levels were extremely low. A simple simulation model shows that, when milk tankers were found positive, contamination levels in the corresponding bulk-tank milk are themselves very low (typically, below 3 L. monocytogenes per millilitre with most probable concentration 0.1 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml and median ranging from 5.10(-2) to 0.1 CFU

  9. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    PubMed

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds.

  10. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  11. Assay of ghrelin concentration in infant formulas and breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Petrucci, Elisa; Lupica, Maria Maddalena; Nanni, Giuliana Eva; Oggero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test if total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. METHODS: Using a radioimmunoassay, we measured total ghrelin concentrations in 19 samples of commercial infant formulas and in 20 samples of human milk. We also determined ghrelin concentration in the serum of infants and lactating mothers. RESULTS: Ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in artificial milk (2007.1 ± 1725.36 pg/mL) than in human milk (828.17 ± 323.32 pg/mL) (P = 0.005). The mean ghrelin concentration in infant serum (n = 56) was 1115.86 ± 42.89 pg/mL, and was significantly higher (P = 0.023) in formula-fed infants (1247.93 ± 328.07 pg/mL) than in breast-fed infants (1045.7 ± 263.38 pg/mL). The mean serum ghrelin concentration (mean ± SD) in lactating mothers (n = 20) was 1319.18 ± 140.18 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that total ghrelin is present in infant formulas. This finding raises diverse questions regarding the uptake, absorption and metabolic effects of this hormone. PMID:21528074

  12. Technical note: Effect of determining baseline plasma urea nitrogen concentrations on subsequent posttreatment plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in 20- to 50-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Roux, M L; Frugé, E D; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-12-01

    Plasma urea N (PUN) has been used as an indicator of AA requirements and efficiency of AA utilization in swine. However, PUN concentrations vary among a population of pigs, even a population with a close range of BW and fed the same diet. Thus, pretreatment or baseline PUN concentrations are used as a covariate to reduce variation of posttreatment PUN. However, this procedure increases experimental costs and stress to the pigs. Data from 14 experiments (26 to 28 d in duration) conducted using PUN as a response variable were compiled into 1 data set. Each experiment had 4 to 6 treatments. The purpose of this technical report was to summarize the effect of determining pretreatment baseline PUN concentrations on subsequent posttreatment PUN concentrations in 20- to 50-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets and low-CP diets with various AA additions; pigs were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a minimum of 4 replicates of 3 to 5 pigs each. Before the start of each experiment, all pigs were fed a common diet for a minimum of 3 d. Blood samples were collected from each pig before allotment to dietary treatments (d 0) and at the end of each experiment. The baseline (d 0) PUN was analyzed as a covariate for posttreatment PUN. Data from each experiment were analyzed without and with baseline PUN in the statistical model. In all experiments combined, there were 768 possible treatment comparisons. The covariate baseline PUN was statistically significant (P < 0.10) in 9 of 14 experiments. However, only 8 treatment differences changed statistical significance as a result of analyzing the data with baseline PUN as a covariate. These 8 treatment differences were in 3 experiments. These results indicate that it is not always necessary to determine baseline PUN concentrations when feeding diets with large differences in AA content.

  13. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric urea and ammonium concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D; Rowe, P A; el Nujumi, A M; Dahill, S; McColl, K E

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of measuring the gastric juice urea:ammonium ratio in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS--Twenty three (12 men) patients with established chronic renal failure and dyspepsia were studied. Gastric juice (2 ml) was aspirated during endoscopy to measure urea and ammonium. The upper gastrointestinal tract was routinely inspected and two antral biopsy specimens obtained. The 14C-urea breath test was conducted within 14 days of endoscopic examination to determine H pylori antibody response. RESULTS--The median (range) serum urea concentration in 11 patients with renal failure and H pylori infection was similar to that in 12 without H pylori infection. The median gastric juice urea concentration in subjects with infection was lower than that in the subjects without infection (p < 0.01). The median gastric juice ammonium concentration in subjects with the infection was higher compared with subjects without infection (p < 0.01). There was an overlap of the urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice from both H pylori positive and negative subjects. The urea:ammonium ratio was 0.16 (0.01-1.11) for subjects with H pylori compared with 1.63 (1.0-18.9) in subjects without infection (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION--The urea:ammonium ratio differentiated both groups, with the exception of one false negative result. The urea:ammonium ratio proved almost as effective in identifying the presence of H pylori infection in subjects with chronic renal failure as it had in subjects with normal renal function. PMID:8331178

  14. Detection of low concentrations of ampicillin in milk.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Chrysafis; Mirsafavi, Rustin; Moskovits, Martin; Meinhart, Carl D

    2015-08-07

    Ampicillin, a common antibiotic, is detected at trace concentrations in milk using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in a microfluidic device, using less than 20 μL of sample, in 10 minutes, with minimal off-chip preparation. The device is configured so as to favor the interaction of the analyte with colloidal silver, and the optimization of the aggregation of the silver nanoparticles so as to increase the SERS intensity and the consequential sensitivity of analyte detection.

  15. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  16. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  17. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  18. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  19. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  20. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  1. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  2. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  3. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  4. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  5. Milk yield and composition of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum and graded concentrations of ruminally degradable protein.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Yu, P

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effect of various amounts of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 +/- 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respective percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein) were 30, 35, and 39%. All diets contained 37% alfalfa hay; 3 to 5% cottonseed hulls; 10 to 13% whole cottonseed; 39% steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L); 5% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement; and the different protein supplements. Intake of dry matter was higher for cows fed urea than for cows fed soybean meal or fish meal diets. In cows that yielded more than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment), the soybean meal and fish meal diets resulted in higher yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk and a greater efficiency of conversion of feed to milk than did the urea diet. Cows that yielded less than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment) at the beginning of treatment tended to yield more milk when fed urea than when fed the protein supplements. Nutrient digestibilities were not greatly affected by source of N, suggesting a beneficial effect of urea supplementation on nutrient digestibilities because replacement of protein supplements with cottonseed products caused the neutral detergent fiber content of the urea diet to be about 7% higher than that of the other diets. These data show that response to ruminally undegradable protein in diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum was related to milk yield.

  6. Association between circulating blood or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and reproductive efficiency in beef heifers and cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to examine the effect of circulating blood or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations (BPUNC) on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers and suckled beef cows. Data from nulliparous heifers (n = 284) as well as primiparous (n = 241) and multiparous (n = 806) beef cows were compiled ac...

  7. Short communication: Effects of nanofiltration and evaporation on the physiochemical properties of milk protein during processing of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jialu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shaozong; Liu, Chang; Li, Yan; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Liebing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined. Casein micelles aggregated compactly after evaporation while surface hydrophobicity increased and free sulfhydryl content decreased in evaporated milk compared with skim milk. However, the microstructure of the casein micelles was relatively undisturbed after nanofiltration, with reduced surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content. No significant difference was found in chemical composition between the 2 MPC preparations: approximately 61.40% protein and 28.49% lactose. In addition, the particulate microstructures of both MPC were similar. However, the insolubility index of evaporated MPC was significantly (0.58mL) higher than that of nanofiltered MPC. Nanofiltration may be an effective way to improve the solubility of MPC products.

  8. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  9. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-04-02

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10(-4) to 3.16 × 10(-2) M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R² = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  10. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  11. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level.

  12. Do Human Milk Concentrations of Persistent Organic Chemicals Really Decline During Lactation? Chemical Concentrations During Lactation and Milk/Serum Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Berlin, Cheston M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Paul, Ian M.; Stokes, Jennifer L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Conventional wisdom regarding exposures to persistent organic chemicals via breast-feeding assumes that concentrations decline over the course of lactation and that the mother’s body burden reflects her cumulative lifetime exposure. Two important implications stemming from these lines of thought are, first, that assessments of early childhood exposures should incorporate decreasing breast milk concentrations over lactation; and, second, that there is little a breast-feeding mother can do to reduce her infant’s exposures via breast-feeding because of the cumulative nature of these chemicals. Objectives We examined rates of elimination and milk/serum partition coefficients for several groups of persistent organic chemicals. Methods We collected simultaneous milk and blood samples of 10 women at two times postpartum and additional milk samples without matching blood samples. Results Contrary to earlier research, we found that lipid-adjusted concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and organochlorine pesticides in serum and milk do not consistently decrease during lactation and can increase for some women. Published research has also suggested an approximate 1:1 milk/serum relationship (lipid adjusted) on a population basis for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; however, our results suggest a more complex relationship for persistent, lipophilic chemicals with the milk/serum relationship dependent on chemical class. Conclusions Decreases in concentration of lipophilic chemicals on a lipid-adjusted basis during lactation should no longer be assumed. Thus, the concept of pumping and discarding early milk as means of reducing infant exposure is not supported. The hypothesis that persistent lipophilic chemicals, on a lipid-adjusted basis, have consistent concentrations across matrices is likely too simplistic. PMID:20019916

  13. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  14. Non-enzymatic detection of urea using unmodified gold nanoparticles based aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-10-15

    Biosensing nitrogenous compounds like urea is required to control the incidents of Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA). In this study, we report the FluMag Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (FluMag-SELEX) method to isolate a urea specific DNA aptamer with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 232 nM. The interaction of DNA aptamer with urea has been confirmed by affinity assay, CD analysis, melting curve analysis and truncation studies. Unlike other urea sensing methods reported so far, using this urea aptamer, we demonstrate a simple, 'non-enzymatic' easy-to-use, dual readout aptasensor that exploits unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to transduce the signals of aptamer binding to urea in terms of intrinsic fluorescence differences and color changes simultaneously. This method is free from complicated sample processing and labeling steps. The urea aptasensor displays high selectivity for urea and is free from interference from common milk adulterants. The developed aptasensor reliably detects urea adulteration in milk. The response signals linearly correlate with the increasing concentrations of urea in milk ranging from 20mM to 150 mM with detection limit of 20mM. We also show that this aptasensor can also be used as a simple fluorescence based "turn-on" sensor. The results obtained in this study are comparable to the commercial urease based detection methods.

  15. Estrone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in pasteurized-homogenized milk and commercial dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Roberts, R F; Kensinger, R S

    2010-06-01

    Some individuals fear that estrogens in dairy products may stimulate growth of estrogen-sensitive cancers in humans. The presence of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in raw whole cow's milk has been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to determine if pasteurization-homogenization affects E(2) concentration in milk and to quantify E(1) and E(2) concentrations in commercially available dairy products. The effects of pasteurization-homogenization were tested by collecting fresh raw milk, followed by pasteurization and homogenization at 1 of 2 homogenization pressures. All treated milks were tested for milk fat globule size, percentages of milk fat and solids, and E(2) concentrations. Estrone and E(2) were quantified from organic or conventional skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, as well as half-and-half, cream, and butter samples. Estrone and E(2) were quantified by RIA after organic solvent extractions and chromatography. Pasteurization-homogenization reduced fat globule size, but did not significantly affect E(2), milk fat, or milk solids concentrations. Estrone concentrations averaged 2.9, 4.2, 5.7, 7.9, 20.4, 54.1 pg/mL, and 118.9 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. 17Beta-estradiol concentrations averaged 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.1, 1.9, 6.0 pg/mL, and 15.8 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. The amount of fat in milk significantly affected E(1) and E(2) concentrations in milk. Organic and conventional dairy products did not have substantially different concentrations of E(1) and E(2). Compared with information cited in the literature, concentrations of E(1) and E(2) in bovine milk are small relative to endogenous production rates of E(1) and E(2) in humans.

  16. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  17. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was <1 and similar among all treatments. Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the

  18. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  19. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na(+) and Mg(++), respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na(+) and K(+), in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca(++) and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na(+) and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg(++) was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca(++)/ IP was the highest, while Na(+)/K(+) revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  20. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  1. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  2. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  3. Concentration of trichloroethylene in breast milk and household water from Nogales, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A Eduardo

    2012-08-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled, and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis, and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers' breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ = 0.59, p = 0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR = 5.2, p = 0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed U.S. EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake.

  4. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers’ breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ=0.59, p=0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR=5.2, p=0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed US EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake. PMID:22827160

  5. Leptin concentration in breast milk and its relationship to duration of lactation and hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Hizli, Z Banu; Ozkan, Tanju

    2006-01-01

    Background Leptin, a hormone present in breast milk, is involved in energy regulation and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to assess leptin concentrations in breast milk during the first 180 days postpartum, and to determine the relationship between the concentrations of milk leptin and circulating hormone levels in lactating women. Methods Between April 2005 and January 2006, blood and breast milk samples were collected from 160 breastfeeding women enrolled either in the first three days (n = 37; colostrum), days 4–14 (n = 27; transitional milk), days 15–30 (n = 16; early mature milk), days 31–90 (n = 37; mature milk) or days 91–180 (n = 43; late mature milk) postpartum. Milk and serum leptin levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Serum insulin, estradiol, prolactin and thyroxine were measured by chemiluminescent immunometric method. Results Leptin concentrations in breast milk were highest (3.28 ± 0.41 ng/ml) in colostrum, decreased during the first 180 days of lactation, showing a significant inverse relation (r = -0.694, p < 0.001) with the days of lactation. Colostrum leptin concentrations correlated with maternal serum leptin (r = 0.425, p < 0.01), cortisol (r = 0.549, p < 0.01) and thyroxine (r = -0.530, p < 0.01). Mature milk leptin concentrations correlated with maternal serum leptin (r = 0.547, p < 0.001), insulin (r = 0.331, p < 0.05) and thyroxine (r = -0.329, p < 0.01). Serum leptin concentrations correlated with serum insulin (r = 0.648, p < 0.001), estradiol (r = 0.639, p < 0.001), prolactin (r = 0.530, p < 0.001) and thyroxine (r = -0.327, p < 0.05) concentrations during days 1–3 postpartum. During 15–180 postpartum days, serum leptin concentrations correlated with serum insulin (r = 0.271, p < 0.01), and thyroxine (r = -0.345, p < 0.001). Conclusion Leptin concentrations in breast milk decrease with time during lactation and show significant relationships with

  6. The effect of spray-drying parameters on the flavor of nonfat dry milk and milk protein concentrate 70.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Stout, Mark A; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70). Condensed skim milk (50% solids) and condensed liquid MPC70 (32% solids) were produced using pilot-scale dairy processing equipment. The condensed products were then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and 30, 40, or 50% total solids for NFDM and 12, 22, or 32% for MPC70 in a randomized order. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the NFDM and MPC70 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Surface free fat, particle size, and furosine were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, and 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interactions were not significant. In general, results were consistent for NFDM and MPC70. Increasing inlet temperature and feed solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and decreased cardboard flavor and associated lipid oxidation products. Increases in furosine with increased inlet temperature and solids concentration indicated increased Maillard reactions during drying. Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration. These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in NFDM and MPC70 even though the heat treatment is greater compared with low temperature and low solids.

  7. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: relationship between matrices.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Osmar O; Julião, Fabiana C; Alves, Renato I S; Baena, Antonio R; Díez, Isabel G; Suzuki, Meire N; Celere, Beatriz S; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn were determined in breast milk of women living in Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The potential relationships between metal levels in samples of breast milk, drinking water, and soils collected in the study area were also established. Metal levels in breast milk, except Cr, were lower in comparison to WHO reference concentrations. Zinc was the predominant element in breast milk and drinking water samples, with a median level of 46.2 and 82.2 μg · L(-1), respectively. Soils presented a different pattern of metal concentrations with respect to those found in breast milk and drinking water, Chromium showed the highest median levels (148 mg · kg(-1)), while a certain predominance of Zn and Cu was also observed (47.0 and 43.0 mg · kg(-1), respectively). Similar profiles were observed when comparing metal concentrations in drinking water and breast milk (chi-square χ(2) = 14.36; p < 0.05). In contrast, breast milk-soil and drinking water-soil metal concentration profiles showed significant differences (χ(2) = 635.05 and χ(2) = 721.78, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that drinking water is an important exposure pathway for metals to newborns through breast milk. Further studies should be aimed at assessing the body burdens of metals in that population and at evaluating the potential relationships in the concentrations in biological and environmental matrices as well as at estimating the contribution of dietary intake of metals. In addition, the presence of other chemical pollutants in breast milk should be also studied in order to assess the combined newborn exposure to other contaminants.

  8. Rapid concentration of Bacillus and Clostridium spores from large volumes of milk, using continuous flow centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Réka; Soni, Kamlesh A; McElhany, Katherine; Cepeda, Martha L; Zuckerman, Udi; Tzipori, Saul; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Pillai, Suresh D

    2009-03-01

    Deliberate or accidental contamination of foods such as milk, soft drinks, and drinking water with infectious agents or toxins is a major concern to health authorities. There is a critical need to develop technologies that can rapidly and efficiently separate and concentrate biothreat agents from food matrices. A key limitation of current centrifugation and filtration technologies is that they are batch processes with extensive hands-on involvement and processing times. The objective of our studies was to evaluate the continuous flow centrifugation (CFC) technique for the rapid separation and concentration of bacterial spores from large volumes of milk. We determined the effectiveness of the CFC technology for concentrating approximately 10(3) bacterial spores in 3.7 liters (1 gal) of whole milk and skim milk, using Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Clostridium sporogenes spores as surrogates for biothreat agents. The spores in the concentrated samples were enumerated by using standard plating techniques. Three independent experiments were performed at 10,000 rpm and 0.7 liters/min flow rate. The mean B. subtilis spore recoveries were 71.3 and 56.5% in skim and whole milk, respectively, and those for B. atrophaeus were 55 and 59.3% in skim and whole milk, respectively. In contrast, mean C. sporogenes spore recoveries were 88.2 and 78.6% in skim and whole milk, respectively. The successful use of CFC to concentrate these bacterial spores from 3.7 liters of milk in 10 min shows promise for rapidly concentrating other spores from large volumes of milk.

  9. Changes in the surface protein of the fat globules during homogenization and heat treatment of concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

    2008-08-01

    The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins of both low-preheated and high-preheated concentrated milks, which were homogenized at low or high pressure, were examined. The average fat globule size decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The total surface protein (mg m-2) of concentrated milk increased after homogenization, the extent of the increase being dependent on the temperature and the pressure of homogenization, as well as on the preheat treatment. The concentrates obtained from high-preheated milks had higher surface protein concentration than the concentrates obtained from low-preheated milks after homogenization. Concentrated milks heat treated at 79 degrees C either before or after homogenization had greater amounts of fat globule surface protein than concentrated milks heat treated at 50 or 65 degrees C. This was attributed to the association of whey protein with the native MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and the adsorbed skim milk proteins. Also, at the same homogenization temperature and pressure, the amount of whey protein on the fat globule surface of the concentrated milk that was heated after homogenization was greater than that of the concentrated milk that was heated before homogenization. The amounts of the major native MFGM proteins did not change during homogenization, indicating that the skim milk proteins did not displace the native MFGM proteins but adsorbed on to the newly formed surface.

  10. Longitudinal changes in lactoferrin concentrations in human milk: a global systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rai, Deshanie; Adelman, Alicia S; Zhuang, Weihong; Rai, Gyan P; Boettcher, Julia; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin is the second most abundant whey protein in human milk and is known for its functional benefits, particularly antimicrobial activities. We report a comprehensive evaluation of the published literature on quantitative changes in lactoferrin in term and preterm human milk through the course of lactation. We also considered methods used to quantify lactoferrin. We critically evaluated 94 articles on human milk with 52 meeting study inclusion criteria (2724 women). A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. Lactoferrin concentration was highest during early lactation and rapidly declined to remain relatively unchanged from 1 month to 2 years of lactation. The unweighted mean of mean (±SEM) concentrations of lactoferrin in early milk (<28 days lactation) was 4.91 ± 0.31 g/L (range of means 0.34-17.94 g/L; median 4.03). For mature milk, the mean of means was 2.10 ± 0.87 g/L (range of means 0.44-4.4 g/L; median 1.91). The majority of data were derived from Europe with fewer studies from Africa and South America. There was a paucity of data on preterm milk. This comprehensive dataset explains in detail the longitudinal changes of lactoferrin concentrations in human milk throughout the world and briefly describes factors that may influence these concentrations.

  11. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  12. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese.

  13. Effects of the percentage of concentrate on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk composition in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Serment, A; Schmidely, P; Giger-Reverdin, S; Chapoutot, P; Sauvant, D

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of the dietary percentage of concentrate on patterns of intake, the evolution of rumen fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites after a meal, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition in a medium-term trial in dairy goats. These effects have been well studied in dairy cattle but seldom in goats. Thirteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated dairy goats (95±4 d in milk) fed ad libitum were used in this study. Goats were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: high-concentrate (70% concentrate on dry matter basis) or a low-concentrate (35%) total mixed rations. The experiment was conducted over a period of 10 wk, including 3 wk of adaption to the diets. Patterns of intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, and plasma metabolites after a meal and fatty acids profile of milk fat were compared at the onset and at the end of the experiment. The increase in dietary percentage of concentrate decreased rumen pH, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N concentration, and plasma urea concentration. The percentage of concentrate did not affect total volatile fatty acid concentrations. The high-concentrate diet increased the rate of intake during the morning meal at the onset of the experiment, whereas it decreased total dry matter intake and the rate of intake during the morning meal at the end of the experiment. The high-concentrate diet resulted in greater organic matter digestibility. Raw milk yield and protein yield were greater in goats fed the high-concentrate diet, whereas fat yield was not affected by dietary treatments. The milk fat content was lower in goats fed the high-concentrate diet. Proportions of the trans-C18:1 isomer relative to total fatty acids in milk were higher with the high-concentrate diet, but no modification of the proportion of total trans-C18:1 was detected, in particular no shift from trans-11 C18:1 to trans-10 C18:1 was observed. Further, the isomer trans-10,cis-12 C18

  14. Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.

    PubMed

    Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and β-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However

  15. Investigation of concentration of thiocyanate ion in raw cow's milk from China, New Zealand and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ling; Wang, Yibaina; Yang, Dajin; Liu, Zhaoping; Abernethy, Grant; Li, Jianwen

    2017-01-15

    Thiocyanate ion is a natural component of cow's milk (hereinafter as milk) which may be artificially augmented to activate the lactoperoxidase milk preservation system. This study presents a survey of thiocyanate levels in raw milk and proposes a naturally occurring baseline concentration of thiocyanate in milk, which is the basis for market supervision. 1669 raw milk samples from China, 270 samples from New Zealand and 120 from the Netherlands were collected in the survey. 65% of the samples contained thiocyanate above the detection limit. The average concentration of thiocyanate was 2.11mg/kg (0.10-16.20mg/kg). Differences in the concentrations of thiocyanate were found among three countries, the 12 selected provinces in China, and between summer and winter. The baseline concentration of thiocyanate found in raw cow's milk was statistically calculated and rounded to 9.0mg/kg. Thiocyanate in milk at this level does not present a food safety concern.

  16. HIV-1 concentrations in human breast milk before and after weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M.; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women, who were followed with their infants for 24 months as part of a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breastfeeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breastfeeding cessation i.e. weaning (4.5 months) HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA 2,708 copies/ml and DNA 14 copies/ml) than if breastfeeding continued (median RNA <50 copies/ml and DNA <1 copy/ml, p<0.0001). Among those continuing breastfeeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breastfeeding was non-exclusive (median RNA 293 copies/ml and DNA 2 copies/ml, p=0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breastfeeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breastfeeding peri-weaning and with non-exclusive breastfeeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breastfeeding and may explain why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures are likely to occur after planned weaning. PMID:23596203

  17. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  18. Multiparous cows categorized by milk protein concentration and energy-corrected milk yield during early lactation--metabolism, productivity and effect of a short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Sigl, T; Gellrich, K; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M; Wiedemann, S

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study milk productivity, metabolic adaptation and effect of a short-term feed restriction (FR) on key performance indicators during early lactation in cows classified according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and milk protein concentration. Twenty-three multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were categorized in four groups according to respective averaged values on Days 23-25 postpartum: high ECM yield and high protein concentration; low ECM yield and low protein concentration; high ECM yield and low protein concentration and low ECM yield and high protein concentration. Dry matter intake was reduced to 68.3% for three subsequent days. Our results showed that short-time FR in early lactation succeeded in enhancing energy deficit of cows in all groups. Milk fat, milk protein and lactose concentrations as well as milk fat yield were not influenced by FR. Several hepatic genes encoding for enzymes involved in catabolism of amino acids, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as well as mRNA encoding for insulin receptor showed increased transcript abundances after FR, primarily in cows with high milk yield and low milk protein concentration.

  19. Midazolam and nitrazepam in the maternity ward: milk concentrations and clinical effects.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, I; Lunde, P K; Bredesen, J E

    1990-01-01

    1. In a randomized study of 22 patients in a maternity ward, the residual concentrations of two hypnotics, midazolam 15 mg p.o. and nitrazepam 5 mg p.o., in early breast milk and plasma were measured 7 h after intake on day 2 to day 6 postpartum. Milk pH, milk fat and binding to plasma proteins were also investigated. Sleep variables were scored on questionnaires. 2. No measurable (less than 10 nmol l-1) concentrations of drug in milk were found in the group receiving 15 mg midazolam at night, either after the first night or after the fifth night. Additional investigations in two mothers demonstrated that midazolam and its hydroxymetabolite disappeared rapidly from milk with undetectable levels after 4 h. The mean (s.d.) milk to plasma ratio for midazolam was 0.15 (0.06) in six paired samples. It may be assumed that practically no midazolam is transferred via early milk to the baby if the baby is nursed more than 4 h after tablet intake. 3. Milk nitrazepam concentrations increased significantly from the first (30 nmol l-1) to the fifth morning (48 nmol l-1) in the group receiving 5 mg nitrazepam at night. The mean (s.d.) milk to plasma ratio of nitrazepam after 7 h was 0.27 (0.06) in 32 paired samples, and did not vary from day 1 to day 5. Plasma protein binding of nitrazepam in puerperal women was found to be lower than that in plasma of healthy controls. The average amount of nitrazepam received by the breast-fed baby in the morning was calculated to increase from 1 to 1.5 micrograms 100 ml-1 breast milk, from days 1 to 5. In the mothers nitrazepam was associated with better hypnotic effect, but a higher incidence of complaints than midazolam. 4. Milk pH, assuming anaerobic conditions, was found in 10 women to average 6.91 +/- 0.09 (s.d.) on days 2-6 postpartum, which is less than previously reported. 5. It is concluded that both hypnotics may be used safely for a few days in the maternity ward. However, possible long-term effects in the suckling infant of small

  20. Midazolam and nitrazepam in the maternity ward: milk concentrations and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Matheson, I; Lunde, P K; Bredesen, J E

    1990-12-01

    1. In a randomized study of 22 patients in a maternity ward, the residual concentrations of two hypnotics, midazolam 15 mg p.o. and nitrazepam 5 mg p.o., in early breast milk and plasma were measured 7 h after intake on day 2 to day 6 postpartum. Milk pH, milk fat and binding to plasma proteins were also investigated. Sleep variables were scored on questionnaires. 2. No measurable (less than 10 nmol l-1) concentrations of drug in milk were found in the group receiving 15 mg midazolam at night, either after the first night or after the fifth night. Additional investigations in two mothers demonstrated that midazolam and its hydroxymetabolite disappeared rapidly from milk with undetectable levels after 4 h. The mean (s.d.) milk to plasma ratio for midazolam was 0.15 (0.06) in six paired samples. It may be assumed that practically no midazolam is transferred via early milk to the baby if the baby is nursed more than 4 h after tablet intake. 3. Milk nitrazepam concentrations increased significantly from the first (30 nmol l-1) to the fifth morning (48 nmol l-1) in the group receiving 5 mg nitrazepam at night. The mean (s.d.) milk to plasma ratio of nitrazepam after 7 h was 0.27 (0.06) in 32 paired samples, and did not vary from day 1 to day 5. Plasma protein binding of nitrazepam in puerperal women was found to be lower than that in plasma of healthy controls. The average amount of nitrazepam received by the breast-fed baby in the morning was calculated to increase from 1 to 1.5 micrograms 100 ml-1 breast milk, from days 1 to 5. In the mothers nitrazepam was associated with better hypnotic effect, but a higher incidence of complaints than midazolam. 4. Milk pH, assuming anaerobic conditions, was found in 10 women to average 6.91 +/- 0.09 (s.d.) on days 2-6 postpartum, which is less than previously reported. 5. It is concluded that both hypnotics may be used safely for a few days in the maternity ward. However, possible long-term effects in the suckling infant of small

  1. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content.

  2. Analysis of serotonin concentrations in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeda, Rika; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-03-25

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in milk volume homeostasis in the mammary gland during lactation; 5-HT in milk may also affect infant development. However, there are few reports on 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. To address this issue, we developed a simple method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) for measuring 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. Breast milk samples were provided by four healthy Japanese women. Calibration curves for 5-HT in each sample were prepared with the standard addition method between 5 and 1000 ng/ml, and all had correlation coefficients >0.999. The recovery of 5-HT was 96.1%-101.0%, with a coefficient of variation of 3.39%-8.62%. The range of 5-HT concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was 11.1-51.1 ng/ml. Thus, the HPLC-FD method described here can effectively extract 5-HT from human breast milk with high reproducibility.

  3. Milk concentrations of flupenthixol, nortriptyline and zuclopenthixol and between-breast differences in two patients.

    PubMed

    Matheson, I; Skjaeraasen, J

    1988-01-01

    Flupenthixol (FP), nortriptyline (NT) and zuclopenthixol, (ZCP) were determined in breast milk and plasma from 2 puerperal, lactating women with psychiatric disorders. The milk concentrations were equal to, higher and lower than those in plasma for FP, NT and ZCP, respectively. Variation in milk triglyceride concentration, but not milk pH, could partly explain between-breast differences in the milk concentrations. The study demonstrates the need for appropriate and representative milk sampling procedures. The estimated daily infant exposure averaged 0.5, 2.3 and 0.3% of the corresponding maternal weight related doses of FP, NT and ZCP. FP was also detectable in infant plasma. These drugs are not known to be harmful in small doses to breast-fed infants. However, concern about the effect of dopamine blocking agents on neurobehavioral mechanisms in animals warrants caution. If neuroleptics are required for a long period this risk must be weighed against the benefits of breast-feeding, also considering the psychological effects of the latter.

  4. Influence of coagulation concentration on properties of regenerated kenaf core membranes produced in NaOH/urea aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari, Nor Aziawati; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Zakaria, Sarani

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core pulp by a series of bleaching processes and subsequently dissolved using an alkaline NaOH/urea solvent at low temperature. The produced cellulose solution was coagulated with H2SO4 at concentration from 5 to 12 wt% to produce a series of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes. The surface morphology, structure and physical properties of the membranes were measured with variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and tensile testing. The results from VPSEM revealed that the pore size of the membranes changed as a function of the concentration of H2SO4 coagulant. RC membranes coagulated with relatively dilute H2SO4 solution exhibited better mechanical properties. Thus, this work provided a promising way to prepare cellulose membranes with different pore sizes and good physical properties.

  5. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk β-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; van Hulzen, K J E; Teweldemedhn, T G; Jorritsma, R; Nielen, M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-day milk ketone bodies for genetic improvement. Blood and test-day milk samples were collected on randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands from cows of various parities between 5 and 60 d in milk. Plasma samples were analyzed for BHBA (reference test for hyperketonemia) and test-day milk samples were analyzed for BHBA and acetone using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The final data set consisted of plasma BHBA concentrations of 1,615 cows from 122 herds. Milk BHBA and milk acetone concentrations were determined for 1,565 cows. Genetic variation, heritability, and proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to the herd were estimated using an animal model with fixed effects for parity and season, a covariate for days in milk, and random effects for herd, animal, and error. Genetic correlations for plasma BHBA, milk BHBA, and milk acetone were estimated using bivariate analyses. The heritability estimate for plasma BHBA concentrations in early lactation was 0.17, whereas heritability estimates for milk BHBA and milk acetone were 0.16 and 0.10, respectively. This indicates that selective breeding may contribute to a lower incidence of hyperketonemia in early lactation. For the 3 traits, the proportion of variance attributable to herd was larger than the additive genetic variance, underlining the importance of on-farm feeding and management in the etiology of hyperketonemia in fresh cows. Prevention strategies for hyperketonemia can, therefore, include both feeding and management strategies at dairy farms (short-term) and genetic improvement through breeding programs (long-term). Genetic correlations between concentrations of plasma BHBA and milk BHBA (0

  6. High Concentrations of Interleukin 15 in Breast Milk Are Associated with Protection against Postnatal HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jan; Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the central role that interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity, we hypothesized that IL-15 in breast milk may protect against postnatal HIV transmission. In a nested case-control study, we compared breast milk IL-15 levels in 22 HIV-infected women who transmitted HIV to their infants to those in 72 nontransmitters. Samples were collected in the first month of life, prior to HIV infection. IL-15 concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of HIV transmission in unadjusted analysis and after adjusting for milk viral load, CD4 cell count, and other cytokines in breast milk. IL-15–mediated immunity may protect against HIV transmission during breast-feeding. PMID:19835475

  7. High concentrations of interleukin 15 in breast milk are associated with protection against postnatal HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jan; Ghosh, Mrinal K; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2009-11-15

    Given the central role that interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity, we hypothesized that IL-15 in breast milk may protect against postnatal HIV transmission. In a nested case-control study, we compared breast milk IL-15 levels in 22 HIV-infected women who transmitted HIV to their infants to those in 72 nontransmitters. Samples were collected in the first month of life, prior to HIV infection. IL-15 concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of HIV transmission in unadjusted analysis and after adjusting for milk viral load, CD4 cell count, and other cytokines in breast milk. IL-15-mediated immunity may protect against HIV transmission during breast-feeding.

  8. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition.

  9. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of

  10. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation.

  11. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  12. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  13. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite.

  14. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  15. Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding123

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inefficiency of HIV breast-milk transmission may be caused by the presence of immunologically active factors, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Objective: We investigated whether HMO concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of postnatal HIV transmission. Design: A nested case-control study was conducted within a larger cohort study of HIV-infected women and their infants followed from birth to 24 mo in Lusaka, Zambia. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo from 81 HIV-infected women who transmitted via breastfeeding, a random sample of 86 HIV-infected women who did not transmit despite breastfeeding, and 36 uninfected breastfeeding women were selected. Total and specific HMO concentrations were measured by HPLC and compared between groups with adjustment for confounders by using logistic regression. Results: HIV-infected women with total HMOs above the median (1.87 g/L) were less likely to transmit via breastfeeding (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.97; P = 0.04) after adjustment for CD4 count and breast-milk HIV RNA concentrations; a trend toward higher concentrations of lacto-N-neotetraose being associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.04; P = 0.06) was also observed. The proportion of 3′-sialyllactose (3′-SL) per total HMOs was higher among transmitting than among nontransmitting women (P = 0.003) and correlated with higher plasma and breast-milk HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts. Neither Secretor nor Lewis status distinguished between transmitting and nontransmitting women. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of non-3′-SL HMOs were associated with protection against postnatal HIV transmission independent of other known risk factors. Further study of these novel, potentially anti-HIV components of breast milk is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00310726. PMID:22894939

  16. The effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation during lactation on maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, N.F.; Reidinger, C.; Westcott, J.L.; Hartley, S.; Hambidge, K.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the effect of a dietary Zn supplement on maternal Zn states and milk Zn concentrations under a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study design. Sixty women, 30 {plus minus} 3.8 yrs, received either 15 mg Zn/day or placebo through {ge} 7 mos. of lactation. Dietary intake data, biochemical indices of Zn status and milk Zn concentrations were obtained at monthly intervals. Three day test-weighing was done at 2 wks and 3, 5, and 7 mos. Overall mean daily dietary intake for the non-Zn-supplemented group (n = 28) was 12.9 {plus minus} 2.2 mg, and for the Zn-supplemented group (n = 32), 25.7 {plus minus} 2.9 mg, including an average of 14 mg/d from a supplement. Plasma Zn concentrations did not differ between groups across lactation. Milk Zn concentrations were similar to those published previously and did not differ in monthly means or rate of decline according to group. Maternal Zn outputs to the infants at 2 wks and 3, 5 and 7 mos. were 2.17 {plus minus} 0.7, 0.92 {plus minus} 0.4, 0.72 {plus minus} 0.3, and 0.48 {plus minus} 0.26, respectively. The data suggest that average maternal Zn intake of {ge}10 mg/day during lactation is sufficient to maintain adequate maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations.

  17. Persistent environmental contaminants in human milk: concentrations and time trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Abballe, Annalisa; Ballard, Terri J; Dellatte, Elena; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferri, Fabiola; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Grisanti, Giulio; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Malisch, Rainer; Miniero, Roberto; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Risica, Serena; Ziemacki, Gianni; De Felip, Elena

    2008-08-01

    Breast milk monitoring studies of persistent and toxic environmental contaminants are of primary importance for carrying out an adequate risk assessment at the actual levels of human exposure and represent a major source of information on infant perinatal exposure. Milk specimens from mothers of the general population of the Venice and Rome areas were collected over the 1998-2001 period, pooled, and analyzed for selected persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, and Zn. The goal was to verify whether mother milk from the Venice area, whose lagoon is partly under direct industrial impact, had a contaminant load greater than that from the Rome area, primarily urban. For mothers from the Venice area, the correlation between fish and fishery product consumption and contaminant concentrations in milk was also explored, with however inconclusive results. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and organochlorinated pesticides determined in this study were compared with those available from a previous analytical work carried out on 1987 human milk pools of domestic origin: the declining trend of the aforesaid contaminants in milk is confirmed to be in agreement with what was observed in other European countries. The breast milk content of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclides was also determined and compared with data obtained in other research programmes carried out in Italy: the health risk for breastfed infants was deemed to be not significant.

  18. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Kamata, H; Fukuda, Y; Murasugi, E; Sato, T; Uwatoko, K; Pan, I J

    2000-12-01

    We previously reported that body weight on day 14 after birth in male offspring of rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) was significantly heavier than that in offspring of rats given tap water (TPW), but no significant difference was noted in milk yield and in suckled milk volume between the two groups. Additionally, the offspring in the AKW group and TPW group were given AKW and TPW, respectively, at weaning, and unexpectedly, the necrotic foci in the cardiac muscle were observed at the 15-week-old age in the AKW group, but not in the TPW group. The present study was designed to clarify the factors which are involved in that unusual increase of body weight and occurrence of cardiac necrosis. Eight dams in each group were given AKW or TPW (control) from day 0 of gestation to day 14 of lactation. The milk samples were collected on day 14 of lactation and analyzed for concentrations of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chloride (Cl). The AKW and TPW were also analyzed. Ca, Na and K levels in milk were significantly higher in the AKW group compared to the TPW group. No significant difference was noted in the Mg and Cl levels between the two groups. These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW.

  19. Effect of dietary organic zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt supplementation on milk production, follicular growth, embryo quality, and tissue mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hackbart, K S; Ferreira, R M; Dietsche, A A; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated potential effects of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive measures in lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by breed and randomly assigned at dry-off to receive inorganic trace mineral supplementation (control; n = 32) or to have a portion of supplemental inorganic Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co replaced with an equivalent amount of the organic forms of these minerals (treatment; n = 31). Trace minerals were provided through control or treatment premixes fed at 100 g·cow(-1)·d(-1). Premixes were fed to dry cows (range = 40 to 72 d before calving) in 1.8 kg·cow(-1)·d(-1) concentrate pellets through a computer feeder to provide 40, 26, 70, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, and to lactating cows (range = 69 to 116 d after calving) in a total mixed ration to provide 22, 14, 40, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively. Treatment increased milk production at wk 14 (P = 0.047) postcalving, milk urea N content (P = 0.039), and BW loss from calving to 1 mo postcalving (P = 0.040), and decreased milk fat percentage (P = 0.045) and BCS (P = 0.048). Treatment tended to increase milk production at wk 13 (P = 0.089) postcalving and endometrial tissue concentrations of Fe (P = 0.070), BW at mo 1 (P = 0.056), and milk protein percentage (P = 0.064). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.1) DMI, health events, first-wave follicular dynamics, first cycle luteal measures, embryo quality, liver trace mineral concentrations, or luteal trace mineral concentrations. Cows with a rectal temperature ≥39°C at the time of AI had a smaller percentage of fertilized entities (P < 0.001). However, of the entities that were fertilized, the percentage of viable embryos, embryo quality, accessory sperm number, and embryo cell number were not affected (P > 0.1) by treatment. We conclude that replacing a portion of inorganic supplemental trace minerals with an equivalent amount of these organic trace minerals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co

  20. Short communication: Timing of first milking affects serotonin (5-HT) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Gross, J J; Crenshaw, T D; Bruckmaier, R M; Hernandez, L L

    2014-05-01

    Hormonal signals differentially regulate the timing of parturition, as well lactogenesis and, potentially, colostrum formation in the mammary gland. Non-neuronal serotonin (5-HT) is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland. In the current study, we manipulated the timing of first milking to investigate its effects on serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations in the maternal and calf circulation, as well as in colostrum. Twenty-three cows were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) group, milked for the first time at 4h postcalving, or a treatment (TRT; n=13) group, milked for the first time approximately 1 d before calving in addition to 4h postcalving. Maternal blood samples were collected for 4 d precalving, 3 times daily, and 1 blood sample was taken 4h postcalving. Calf blood samples were collected 4 (before first colostrum feeding) and 12h after birth, and at 3 wk of age. Calves from both treatments were fed colostrum from their respective mothers. Serum 5-HT concentrations were greater in CON cows and decreased significantly in TRT cows after milking was initiated precalving (951 vs. 524 ± 111 ng/mL, respectively). Cow serum calcium concentrations were affected by time, beginning to decrease 1 d precalving until 4h postcalving, but this drop in serum calcium was more pronounced in TRT cows. Serum 5-HT and calcium concentrations were negatively correlated (r=-0.57) for the CON cows and positively correlated (r=0.6) for the TRT cows. Maternal calcium and 5-HT decreased similarly due to precalving milking. Calcium and 5-HT concentrations were greater in colostrum collected from TRT cows milked precalving. Overall, calves had higher circulating 5-HT concentrations than cows, and calves born to TRT cows had increased 5-HT concentrations compared with the CON. Precalving milking could affect 5-HT synthesis within the mammary gland and therefore affect maternal 5-HT and calcium concentrations. Further research is needed in ruminants to assess the extent of 5-HT

  1. Probing the colloidal properties of skim milk using acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy. Effect of concentration, heating and acidification.

    PubMed

    Gülseren, Ibrahim; Alexander, Marcela; Corredig, Milena

    2010-11-15

    In colloidal systems physical-chemical changes are often a function of volume fraction and sample dilutions are critical. While most methods to characterize colloidal particles either require dilution or some disruption, acoustic spectroscopy can be performed in situ, without dilution. Objective of this work was to determine the effects of concentration, heating and acidification on the acoustic and electroacoustic properties of casein micelles in skim milk. The ultrasonic attenuation of skim milk increased with concentration of milk and frequency, and the average size of the colloidal particles calculated from the frequency dependence of attenuation was about 0.15 μm for both unheated and heated milk. When milk was concentrated by ultrafiltration, at 3× and 4× concentration (based on volume reduction), the calculated size deviated from that derived in undiluted or mildly concentrated milk, most likely because of increased particle-particle interactions. Electroacoustic measurements revealed a constant dynamic mobility of the particles in undiluted and concentrated milk, while lower mobilities were observed for milk diluted in permeate. The ζ-potential measured was significantly higher than the values measured using dynamic light scattering, with a value of -45.8 mV for casein micelles in unheated milk. With acidification, the ζ-potential decreased monotonically. Heating profoundly affected the change in charge with pH of the micelles, and it was concluded that the interaction of casein micelles with the whey proteins increased the surface charge of the casein micelles.

  2. Relationship between physical properties of casein micelles and rheology of skim milk concentrate.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A O; Ipsen, R; Schrader, K; Ardö, Y

    2005-11-01

    The properties of casein micelles in milk concentrates are of interest for the use of ultrafiltered (UF) skim milk concentrates in dairy products, and for the general understanding of colloidal stability and behavior of the casein micelle. The rheological behavior of UF skim milk concentrate with a casein concentration of 19.5% (wt/wt) was investigated at different pH and NaCl concentrations by analyzing flow viscometry and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements. Viscometric flow curves were fitted to the Carreau-Yasuda model with the aim of determining values for the viscosity at infinite high shear rates and thereby estimate the voluminosity of the casein micelles (nu(casein)) in the UF concentrate. The voluminosity of the casein micelles increased with addition of NaCl and decreased when pH was decreased from 6.5 to 5.5. At pH 5.2, nu(casein) increased because of acid-induced aggregation of the casein micelles. The changes in nu(casein) could be interpreted from transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fractured samples of the UF concentrate and partly from dynamic light scattering measurements. Altered interactions between casein micelles due to different pH and NaCl concentrations are proposed to occur due to collapse of the kappa-casein layer, changed ionic strength, and altered distance between casein micelles.

  3. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a... by adding thereto cream, concentrated milk, dry whole milk, skim milk, concentrated skim milk,...

  4. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

    PubMed

    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  5. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  6. Manufacture of modified milk protein concentrate utilizing injection of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marella, Chenchaiah; Salunke, P; Biswas, A C; Kommineni, A; Metzger, L E

    2015-06-01

    Dried milk protein concentrate is produced from skim milk using a combination of processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), evaporation or nanofiltration, and spray drying. It is well established that dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) that contains 80% (MPC80) and greater protein content (relative to dry matter) can lose solubility during storage as a result of protein-protein interactions and formation of insoluble complexes. Previous studies have shown that partial replacement of calcium with sodium improves MPC80 functionality and prevents the loss in solubility during storage. Those studies have used pH adjustment with the addition of acids, addition of monovalent salts, or ion exchange treatment of UF retentate. The objective of this study was to use carbon dioxide to produce MPC80 with improved functionality. In this study, reduced-calcium MPC80 (RCMPC) was produced from skim milk that was subjected to injection of 2,200 ppm of CO2 before UF, along with additional CO2 injection at a flow rate of 1.5 to 2 L/min during UF. A control MPC80 (CtrlMPC) was also produced from the same lot of skim milk without injection of CO2. The above processes were replicated 3 times, using different lots of skim milk for each replication. All the UF retentates were spray dried using a pilot-scale dryer. Skim milk and UF retentates were tested for ζ-potential (net negative charge), particle size, and viscosity. All the MPC were stored at room (22±1°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 mo. Solubility was measured by dissolving the dried MPC in water at 22°C and at 10°C (cold solubility). Injection of CO2 and the resultant solubilization of calcium phosphate had a significant effect on UF performance, resulting in 10 and 20% loss in initial and average flux, respectively. Processing of skim milk with injection of CO2 also resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistances. Compared with control, the reduced-calcium MPC had 28 and 34% less ash and calcium, respectively

  7. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  8. Changes in Llama (Lama glama) milk composition during lactation.

    PubMed

    Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2006-09-01

    Milk samples were collected weekly from 10 llamas during the first 27 wk after parturition under controlled stable conditions. Mean values for the concentrations of the major milk components across the lactation period were 4.70% fat, 4.23% protein, 5.93% lactose, 15.61% dry matter, and 22.62 mg/dL of milk urea N. All constituents were affected by the stage of lactation. There was an increase in fat to protein ratio as protein concentration declined and fat concentration increased. Fat, protein, and lactose concentrations changed during the transition from colostrum to milk. In the first month postpartum, fat concentration remained constant, protein decreased, and lactose increased. Starting with wk 5 postpartum, fat and protein increased and lactose decreased until the end of lactation. Among the major constituents fat had the highest variation. The mean gross energy concentration of milk was 3.88 kJ/g and showed a similar course as protein. Fat contributed 48.0%, protein 26.3%, and lactose 25.7% to the gross energy in the milk. Milk urea N values were higher than those found in ruminants and increased with stage of lactation, whereas the pH decreased. The analyzed milk components were not affected by the lactation number of the animal, except milk urea N. Somatic cell counts indicated the absence of mastitis and revealed that the average somatic cell count of uninfected llamas is lower than in animals usually used for milk production. The 2 algebraic models fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in suitable prediction curves for the constituents (R2 = 0.76 to 0.94). The courses of major milk constituents in llamas during lactation are similar to those in domesticated ruminants, although different in their values. The established curves facilitate the composition of milk replacers at different stages of lactation for nursing llamas whose dams died or are agalactic.

  9. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  10. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  11. The type and concentration of milk increase the in vitro bioaccessibility of coffee chlorogenic acids.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Davide; Helal, Ahmed; Verzelloni, Elena; Conte, Angela

    2012-11-07

    Coffee with different types and concentrations of milk was digested with pepsin (2 h) and pancreatin (2 h) to simulate gastropancreatic digestion. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in ultrafiltrate (cutoff 3 kDa) to evaluate their bioaccessibility. After digestion, bioaccessible CGAs decreased from 80.2 to 53.0 and 69.5 μmol/200 mL in coffee without milk and coffee-whole milk, respectively. When whole, semiskimmed, skimmed, or diluted milk were present, the increase in bioaccessibility was dependent on fat content (r = 0.99, p < 0.001). No relationship was observed between bioaccessibility and proteins, carbohydrates, and calcium content. The addition of milk to coffee caused an immediate decrease in the bioaccessibility due to CGAs binding to proteins. After digestion, 86-94% of bound CGAs remained in the high molecular weight fraction. Casein bound 5-caffeoylquinic acid with high affinity (K(D) of 37.9 ± 2.3 μmol/L; n = 0.88 ± 0.06).

  12. Dietary fiber suppresses elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum of rats with renal dysfunction induced by dietary adenine.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Takashi; Koguchi, Hiromi; Nakajima, Hisao; Takano, Saburo; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokoro, Tadahiro

    2004-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of several kinds of dietary fiber (DF) with different physical properties on the elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum of rats induced by dietary adenine. DF decreased an uptake of 14C-labeled adenine in the rat jejunum in vitro, but the reduction varied with the physical property of DF. Male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed a diet with or without a 0.4% adenine and a 5% DF (cellulose, chitin, chitosan, or xanthan gum) for 20 days. Feeding of adenine in the fiber-free group elevated the concentrations of uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen in serum, but decreased the excretions of these compounds into urine and increased the amounts of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) in kidney and urine. The test DF was found to suppress the elevation of uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum induced by dietary adenine, and to mitigate the decreased excretions of these compounds into urine and the increased retention of 2,8-DHA in kidney and urine. This phenomenon was remarkable in the xanthan gum group. These results suggest that DF suppresses the elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum by attenuating the absorption of dietary adenine.

  13. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  14. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  15. Milk pH as a function of CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure in a heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-12-01

    Raw skim milk, with or without added CO2, was heated, held, and cooled in a small pilot-scale tubular heat exchanger (372 ml/min). The experiment was replicated twice, and, for each replication, milk was first carbonated at 0 to 1 degree C to contain 0 (control), 600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 ppm added CO2 using a continuous carbonation unit. After storage at 0 to 1 degree C, portions of milk at each CO2 concentration were heated to 40, 56, 72, and 80 degrees C, held at the desired temperature for 30 s (except 80 degrees C, holding 20 s) and cooled to 0 to 1 degree C. At each temperature, five pressures were applied: 69, 138, 207, 276, and 345 kPa. Pressure was controlled with a needle valve at the heat exchanger exit. Both the pressure gauge and pH probe were inline at the end of the holding section. Milk pH during heating depended on CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure. During heating of milk without added CO2, pH decreased linearly as a function of increasing temperature but was independent of pressure. In general, the pH of milk with added CO2 decreased with increasing CO2 concentration and pressure. For milk with added CO2, at a fixed CO2 concentration, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater at a higher temperature. At a fixed temperature, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater for milk with a higher CO2 concentration. Thermal death of bacteria during pasteurization of milk without added CO2 is probably due not only to temperature but also to the decrease in pH that occurs during the process. Increasing milk CO2 concentration and pressure decreases the milk pH even further during heating and may further enhance the microbial killing power of pasteurization.

  16. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  17. Changes in fat concentration of human milk during delivery by intermittent bolus and continuous mechanical pump infusion.

    PubMed

    Greer, F R; McCormick, A; Loker, J

    1984-11-01

    The changes in fat concentration and cumulative fat losses that occur during the delivery of human milk using two different continuous infusion systems were compared with the changes in fat concentration during simulated intermittent gavage or bolus feedings. With both mechanical pumps the largest cumulative fat losses and the greatest decreases in fat concentrations occurred at the slowest infusion rates. State of homogenization of the milk generally made little difference in the changes in fat concentration using the syringe pump, whereas homogenizing the milk increased the fat concentration significantly with the roller pump. With the syringe pump the positioning of the syringe tip (horizontal or vertical) made no difference in fat concentration at an infusion rate of 1 ml/hr, whereas at 4 and 7 ml/hr the fat concentration was increased significantly by keeping the syringe tip vertical. With either mechanical pump a large fat bolus was delivered during the eighth and final hour of infusion if the milk remaining in the tubing was recovered by using air infusion at the same infusion rate. Intermittent bolus delivery of human milk resulted in no significant loss of human milk fat, no changes in fat concentration, and no terminal delivery of a large fat load. Thus intermittent bolus feedings are preferred over continuous mechanical pump infusion systems for the delivery of human milk to low-birth-weight infants.

  18. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  19. Milk and serum concentration of ceftiofur following intramammary infusion in goats.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E F; Dirikolu, L; Grover, G S

    2015-12-01

    Five dairy goats were used to determine the milk and serum concentrations along with elimination characteristics of ceftiofur following intramammary administration. One udder half of each goat was infused twice with 125 mg ceftiofur with a 24-h interval between infusions. Milk samples were collected at 1, 2, 8, and 12 h after the last infusion and then every 12 h for a total of 7 days. Blood was collected from each animal at 3, 8, 12, and 24 h after infusion and then every 24 h for 6 days. Following a washout period of 1 week, the experiment was repeated using the opposite udder half. The elimination half-life of ceftiofur from the mammary gland was 4.7 h. The concentration of ceftiofur was greater than published MIC90 values for Staphylococcus spp. bacteria for 24 h. Ceftiofur was absorbed into systemic circulation from the mammary gland. The maximum concentration was 552 ng/mL at 3 h after infusion, and the serum elimination half-life was 10 h. Intramammary infusion of 125 mg ceftiofur every 24 h can be expected to maintain drug concentration in milk above published MIC90 for Staphylococcus spp.

  20. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  1. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Hearn, Laurence; Kennedy, Karen; Harden, Fiona; Bartkow, Michael; Temme, Christian; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples of human milk, indoor air and dust collected in 2007-2008 in Brisbane, Australia. In addition, temporal analysis was investigated comparing the results of the current study with PBDE concentrations in human milk collected in 2002-2003 from the same region. PBDEs were detected in all matrices and the median concentrations of BDEs -47 and -209 in human milk, air and dust were: 4.2 and 0.3 ng/g lipid; 25 and 7.8 pg/m(3); and 56 and 291 ng/g dust, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of BDE-99 in air and human milk (r=0.661, p=0.038) and BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in human milk (r=0.697, p=0.025). These correlations do not suggest causal relationships - there is no hypothesis that can be offered to explain why BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in milk are correlated. The fact that so few correlations were found in the data could be a function of the small sample size, or because additional factors, such as sources of exposure not considered or measured in the study, might be important in explaining exposure to PBDEs. There was a slight decrease in PBDE concentrations from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 but this may be due to sampling and analytical differences. Overall, average PBDE concentrations from these individual samples were similar to results from pooled human milk collected in Brisbane in 2002-2003 indicating that pooling may be an efficient, cost-effective strategy of assessing PBDE concentrations on a population basis. The results of this study were used to estimate an infant's daily PBDE intake via inhalation, dust ingestion and human milk consumption. Differences in PBDE intake of individual

  2. Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation.

  3. The influence of cosolvents on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Calorimetric studies of parent and alkylated cyclomaltooligosaccharides in concentrated aqueous solutions of ethanol or urea.

    PubMed

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina; Niccoli, Marcella

    2008-11-03

    Heats of dilution in water and in aqueous 7 mol kg(-1) urea and 3 mol kg(-1) ethanol of binary solutions containing cyclomaltohexaose, cyclomaltoheptaose, cyclomaltooctaose, 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltohexaose (HPαCD), 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltoheptaose (HPβCD), methyl-cyclomaltohexaose (MeαCD), methyl-cyclomaltoheptaose (MeβCD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclomaltooctaose (HPγCD) have been determined at 298.15K by flow microcalorimetry. The purpose of this study is to gain information about the influence of urea and ethanol, which have different effects on water structure, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The pairwise interaction coefficients of the virial expansion of the excess enthalpies were evaluated and compared to those previously obtained for binary solutions of cyclomaltohexaose and cyclomaltoheptaose. The particular behaviour of cyclomaltooligosaccharides in water is put in evidence with respect to that shown by simple oligosaccharides. The values of the interaction coefficients greatly change in dependence of the solvent medium. They are negative in water for unsubstituted cyclomaltooligosaccharides, and positive for the alkyl-substituted ones, thus marking the major role of the hydrophobic interactions. In concentrated aqueous ethanol, coefficients are negative, while they are positive in concentrated aqueous urea. Urea solvates the hydroxyl group provoking the attenuation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Instead, the presence of the cosolvent ethanol, which lowers the relative permittivity of the medium, enhances the strength of hydrophilic interactions.

  4. Impact of industrial production and packaging processes on the concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Still, Mona; Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Wolz, Gerd

    2013-09-25

    Perfluorinated alkylated compounds (PFAA) have been identified in milk and dairy products at sub ppb levels, however, knowledge on the impact of industrial milk processing on PFAA levels is rare. This study examined industrial milk processing first by analytical screening of products of a cooperating dairy, which varied in kind and number of processing steps. Second, amounts of PFAA in raw milk, cream, skim milk, butter milk, and butter were mass balanced in industrial production. For migration testing, unpacked butter was sampled from the production and exposed to original packaging at 5 °C for 45 days. Screening identified dairy products with high fat contents to bear higher loads of PFAA. The mass balance of butter production revealed a significant impact of phase separation processes on concentrations in fat rich and aqueous phases. Storage of butter in packaging coated with a fluorinated polymer increased butter levels of both PFAA and FTOH.

  5. Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, B A; Pilecki, A

    2000-01-01

    A total of 905 human milk samples collected in all provinces of Poland, between 12 and 75 days of lactation, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The distribution of Se levels in milk between the provinces was narrow and varied from 8.81 to 11.58 ng/mL, with the mean value (+/- SD) of 10.24 +/- 2.82 ng/mL. The regions with lower levels of Se were in the central and eastern part of Poland; the areas with higher values were in the northern, western, and southern parts of Poland. No significant correlations were found between Se levels in milk and the age of lactating mothers or between Se levels and the postpartum period. The calculated daily Se intakes by breast-fed infants varied from 6.46 to 8.50 microg/day, with the mean value of 7.52 microg/day. This amount does not meet the recommended dietary allowances for infants between 0 and 6 months of age. Based on Se levels in human milk, we present a selenium map of Poland. PMID:11102294

  6. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  7. Breast milk sodium concentration, sodium intake and weight loss in breast-feeding newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Rosa; Marseglia, Lucia; Mamì, Carmelo; Palmara, Antonella; Paolata, Antonina; Loddo, Saverio; Gargano, Romana; Mondello, Maurizio; Gemelli, Marina

    2007-02-01

    Elevated breast milk (BM) Na concentration is regarded as responsible for elevated Na intake. To verify the clinical significance of milk Na concentration, we studied the relationship between BM Na+ concentration and infants' daily Na+ intake, infants' daily BM intake (DBMI) and percentage weight loss (%WL) in healthy newborn infants. All mothers who gave birth to a single healthy infant, between February and March 2004 at the Obstetric Clinic of University of Messina (Italy), were invited to participate if they were willing to attempt to breastfeed exclusively. BM Na+ concentration, DBMI, Na+ intake and %WL were determined on the third day after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's correlation test, classification and regression trees and the generalised linear model. Of the 270 eligible mothers, 208 participated in the study. The results showed that on the third day postpartum BM Na+ concentration was 23.05 (SD 1.10) mmol/l, mean DBMI was 202 (SD 68.9) g/d, and mean Na+ intake was 4.36 (SD 0.22) mmol/d and 1.36 (SD 0.07) mmol/kg per d. BM Na+ concentration was inversely related to infant DBMI, and Na+ intake was directly related to infant DBMI and not to BM Na+ concentration. %WL was significantly correlated only to DBMI. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate, for the first time, that when lactogenesis is suboptimal, BM Na+ concentration is higher, but infants' Na+ intake is lower. Finally, the present data probably suggest that for the clinical assessment of breast-feeding, evaluation of milk intake remains the best method.

  8. Nutritional status of lactating mothers and their breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Masayo; Ninh, Nguyen Xuan; Isomura, Haruhiko; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Nhug, Bui Thi; Nhien, Nguyen Van; Nakano, Takashi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Breast milk is considered to be the best nutrient source for infants. However, nutritional compositions of breast milk in developing countries, especially among malnourished women, have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to assess nutritional status and nutrient composition of breast milk in lactating mothers in rural Vietnam. Sixty breastfeeding mothers at 6 to 12 mo postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication, and not pregnant were randomly selected in Yen The, Bac Giang, Vietnam. Their nutritional status, breast milk concentration and dietary intakes were assessed. Among the study participants, anemia (39.0%) and low serum zinc concentration (55.4%) were frequently observed. Dietary assessment revealed lower intakes of iron (10.2+/-2.5 mg/d) and zinc (10.4+/-2.2 mg/d) than estimated requirements. The breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper was 0.43+/-0.15 mg/L, 0.56 (0.37, 0.82) mg/L and 0.19+/-0.05 mg/L, respectively. The breast milk concentration of iron, zinc and copper was not correlated to the serum concentration or dietary intakes. In conclusion, we uncovered a high prevalence of anemia and zinc deficiency in lactating mothers in rural Vietnam. The findings demonstrate a low breast milk zinc concentration among the participants, but need further investigation.

  9. Immunoglobulin concentrations in feline colostrum and milk, and the requirement of colostrum for passive transfer of immunity to neonatal kittens.

    PubMed

    Claus, Melissa A; Levy, Julie K; MacDonald, Kristin; Tucker, Sylvia J; Crawford, P Cynda

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether cats have a colostral and milk phase of lactation differentiated by concentrations of immunoglobulins, and whether colostrum ingestion by newborn kittens is essential for optimal transfer of passive immunity. Milk from specific pathogen-free queens was analyzed for IgG and IgA concentrations from parturition through 6 weeks of lactation. Serum IgG and IgA concentrations from birth through 8 weeks of age were determined for colostrum-fed kittens, colostrum-deprived kittens that were fed a milk replacer, and colostrum-deprived kittens that were fostered onto queens in the milk phase of lactation. The total IgG and IgA concentrations in milk were significantly higher on the day of parturition than on day 7 of lactation, indicating cats do have a colostral phase of lactation. The predominant immunoglobulin in both colostrum and milk was IgG. The serum IgG concentrations in colostrum-deprived kittens fostered on queens in the milk phase of lactation were similar to colostrum-deprived kittens fed a milk replacer, and the concentrations were significantly lower than in colostrum-fed kittens for the first 4 weeks of life. The serum IgA concentrations in both colostrum-deprived groups were significantly lower than colostrum-fed kittens on day 2 after parturition, but were similar thereafter. Colostrum-deprived kittens fostered onto queens in the milk phase of lactation had failure of passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Protective concentrations of immunoglobulins can be restored in kittens with failure of passive transfer of immunity by parenteral administration of adult cat serum, but not by fostering on queens in mid-lactation.

  10. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored.

  11. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  12. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  13. Effects of partial replacement of concentrate with feed blocks on nutrient utilization, microbial N flow, and milk yield and composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Morales-García, E Y; Martín-García, A I; Ben Salem, H; Nefzaoui, A; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R

    2010-05-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with 2 types of feed blocks (FB) on rumen protozoa numbers, nutrient utilization, microbial N flow to the duodenum, and milk yield and composition in goats. The concentrate included oat, corn grain, barley, soybean meal, salt, and vitamin-mineral mixture. The FB (types I and II) were composed of crude 2-stage olive cake (120 or 100g/kg), fava beans (0 or 400g/kg), barley (320 or 200g/kg), beet molasses (220 or 100g/kg), sunflower meal (180 or 0g/kg), quicklime (70 or 90g/kg), salt (60g/kg), urea (0 or 20g/kg), and vitamin-mineral mixture (30g/kg). In experiment 1, 6 adult, dry, nonpregnant, rumen-fistulated Granadina goats (46.9+/-2.15kg of BW) were used and 3 trials were carried out. In each trial, 2 goats were randomly assigned to receive 600g of alfalfa hay and 400g of concentrate (diet AC), 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB I (diet ACBI), or 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB II (diet ACBII) with 6 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The ratio of purine bases to N was higher in solid- and liquid-associated bacteria for FB goats than for AC goats. In experiment 2, 18 Granadina goats (39.6+/-1.89kg of BW) in the middle of the third lactation were used, and 3 trials were carried out by following a 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. In every trial, 6 animals randomly received 1.0kg of alfalfa hay supplemented with 1.0kg of concentrate (diet AC) or 0.5kg of concentrate and FB I and II (diets ACBI and ACBII) with 18 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The intakes of organic matter and fat were higher with the AC diet than with the FB diets. The intake of acid detergent fiber was higher for FB-containing diets than for the AC diet. The neutral detergent fiber digestibility of FB diets was higher than that of the AC diet. Energy intake was higher for diets AC and ACBII than for ACBI. Microbial N flow was

  14. Serum protein and casein concentration: effect on pH and freezing point of milk with added CO2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type [i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)] on pH (0 degree C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0 degree C. CN-free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing CN content (2.4, 4.8, and 7.2%) were prepared using a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. CO2 was injected into milks at 0 degree C using a continuous flow carbonation unit (230 ml/min). Increasing SP or CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. At the same CO2 concentration at 0 degree C, a milk with a higher SP or a higher CN concentration had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease. The buffering capacity provided by an increase of CN was contributed by both the CN itself and the colloidal salts solublized into the serum phase from CN upon carbonation. Skim milks with the same true protein content (3%), one with 2.4% CN plus 0.6% SP and one with 3% SP, were compared. At the same true protein content (3%), increasing the proportion of CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. Milk with a higher proportion of CN had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease at the same carbonation level at 0 degree C. Once CO2 was dissolved in the skim portion of a milk, the extent of pH reduction and FP depression depended on protein concentration and protein type (i.e., CN and SP).

  15. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  16. Fluoride Concentration of Some Brands of Fermented Milks Available in the Market

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Manareli, Michele Maurício; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the fluoride ion concentration in some fermented milks present in the market. Methods: Three brands of 6 fermented milks (Parmalat®-uva, Chamyto®, Paulista®, Batavito®, Yakult®, Vigor Club®) were analyzed. Fluoride concentration was evaluated after facilitated microdiffusion by HDMS. Results: Parmalat® products ranged from 0.022 μgF/g to 0.031 μgF/g, Chamyto® from 0.228 μgF/g to 0.272 μgF/g, Paulista® from 0.182 μgF/g to 0.220 μgF/g, Batavito® from 0.028 μgF/g to 0.030 μgF/g, Yakult® from 0.115 μgF/g to 0.206 μgF/g and Vigor Club® from 0.808 μgF/g to 1.171 μgF/g. Conclusions: The presence of fluoride could be observed in all of the fermented milks analyzed which can contribute with the total fluoride daily intake. PMID:21494379

  17. Effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the yield and concentration of milk protein in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, T G; Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    2001-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the availability of glucose or its precursors can influence the response of milk protein concentration to the intravenous infusion of amino acids, five cows were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with period lengths of 7 d. The five treatments were the basal diet of grass silage ad lib. plus 5 kg/d of a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal (Basal); Basal plus 4 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (4H); Basal plus 8 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (SH); and these two amino acid mixtures together with 600 g/d of gluctose (4HG and 8HG respectively). Earlier experiments with this basal diet had shown that histidine was first-limiting for secretion of milk protein, followed by methionine and lysine. The yield of milk protein was increased progressively with the amount of histidine infused. The efficiency of transfer of histidine into milk protein was 0.42 for the 4H and 4HG and 0.35 for the 8H and 8HG treatments, and the concentration of milk protein was increased over Basal by all infusion treatments. However, milk protein concentrations were higher, and lactose concentrations in the milk were lower, in the absence of added glucose. Concentrations of insulin in blood plasma were not affected by treatment. It is concluded that, with the treatments without added glucose, a shortage of glucose prevented an increase in lactose secretion, and hence limited the increase in milk yield, leading to an increased concentration of protein in the milk.

  18. Effect of a high-concentrate diet on milk components and mammary health in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z L; Zhang, J; Zhang, D M; Li, J F; Lin, Y H

    2017-03-22

    In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P < 0.05), but significantly lower milk protein percentage (P < 0.05), milk protein yield (P < 0.05), and milk fat percentage (P < 0.05) throughout the five periods than LC feeding. Milk somatic cell count and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity (P < 0.01) were higher than those observed under LC feeding. mRNA expression levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL5), and lactalbumin alpha (α-LA) were investigated by qPCR and found to be significantly lower (P < 0.01) in cattle fed the HC diet. The amino acid content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the content of Asp (P < 0.01), Gln (P < 0.01), Ala (P < 0.05), Leu (P < 0.05), Lys (P < 0.05), and Ile (P < 0.01) was significantly lower in the HC group, whereas the content of Arg (P < 0.05) and Phe (P < 0.01) was significantly higher. These results suggest that the HC diet might have an important influence on mammary health. The amino acid content was lower, suggesting that depletion of amino acids, resulting in depleted milk protein, affects milk quality.

  19. The Nickel Concentration in Breast Milk during the First Month of Lactation in Yazd, Center of Iran.

    PubMed

    Salmani, Mohammad Hossein; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Rezaei, Zeynab

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding plays an important role in the growth and development of breastfed infants, especially in the first 6 months of their lives. The present study was conducted to determine the nickel concentrations in breast milk of lactating women in Yazd, Iran. One hundred fifty volunteers were selected among nursing mothers referring to health centers in Yazd. In the first month of lactation, milk samples were collected three times, on days 3 to 5 (first), 16 (Second), and 30 (third) after delivery. Nickel concentration of the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Demographic variables were collected through a questionnaire which was completed by mothers. The mean age of the study group was 27.40 ± 4.66 years. The mean nickel concentrations in breast milk at the first, second, and third samples were 47.3 ± 7.40, 49.9 ± 8.05, and 54.8 ± 7.38 μg/l, respectively. The concentration of nickel in the breast milk of more than 86 % of mothers was higher than the permissible range for it. There was no significant relationship between the mean value of nickel in breast milk and education, age, and job of mothers. High level of nickel in breast milk may be attributed to consumed food and drinking water containing nickel. Monitoring the nickel level in breast milk regularly is recommended.

  20. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  1. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  3. Concentrations of preptin, salusins and hepcidins in plasma and milk of lactating women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Onder; Gurates, Bilgin; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ulas, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Kumru, Selahattin

    2013-11-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether human milk contains preptin, salusin-alpha (salusin-α) and -beta (salusin-β) and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25, and whether there are relationships between plasma and milk preptin, salusin-α and -β and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations in lactating mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Blood was obtained from non-lactating women (n = 12), non-diabetic lactating women (n = 12), and GDM lactating women (n = 12). Colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk samples were collected just before suckling from healthy and GDM lactating women. Peptides concentrations were determined by ELISA and EIA. Mammary gland tissues were screened immunohistochemically for these peptides. Women with GDM had significantly higher plasma and colostum preptin concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral and transitional milk period. Salusin-alpha and -beta levels in milk and plasma were lower in women with GDM. Salusin-α and -β were significantly lower in both plasma and colostrums of GDM than of healthy lactating women. Women with GDM had significantly higher colostum prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral period. Plasma prohepcidin was also higher in women with GDM than in healthy lactating women during the colostral period, but plasma prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels decreased during mature milk period. Transitional milk pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels in women with GDM were higher than in healthy lactating women. All these results revealed that the mammary gland produces those peptides, which were present in milk at levels correlating with plasma concentrations.

  4. Selective concentration of IgD class-specific antibodies in human milk.

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, S D; Zehr, B D; Insel, R A

    1990-01-01

    The participation of human IgD class antibody in local immune responses of breast tissue was studied by analysing the sera-to-milk ratios of total IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG isotypes and albumin found in matched samples, and by analysing the sera-to-milk (S/M) ratios of IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae capsular polysaccharide (PRP), phosphorylcholine, tetanus and in some cases diphtheria antigens. The study group consisted of eight women immunized during pregnancy with PRP, and control, unimmunized women. Albumin, and total IgG showed high S/M ratios. IgA had a low S/M ratio as expected, consistent with reports that IgA is locally concentrated. Total IgD and IgM isotype ratio values were intermediate between IgG and IgA suggesting they were selectively concentrated in breast fluids due to local production or transport mechanisms, or both. Ratios for specific antibodies of IgA and IgM isotypes and for total IgA and IgM isotype showed parallel data. Among the IgD antibodies, those specific for PRP and phosphorylcholine suggested a higher degree of selective concentration as compared with tetanus antigen. In the group of unimmunized women, although selective concentration of total IgD was observed, specific antibody studies were inconclusive due to the low milk IgD antibody levels encountered. The results indicate that IgD (and also IgM) may participate in local immune responses of human breast tissues and fluids; possibly influenced by the nature of the antigen, the state of immunization and the hormonal environment (pregnancy). PMID:2357855

  5. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future.

  6. Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jorjong, S; van Knegsel, A T M; Verwaeren, J; Lahoz, M Val; Bruckmaier, R M; De Baets, B; Kemp, B; Fievez, V

    2014-11-01

    Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as "at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA ≥ 0.6 mmol/L) and "not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose

  7. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  8. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J.; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. Objective To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Results Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, p<0.001). No difference was observed between obese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Conclusion Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period. PMID:28005966

  9. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  10. Assessment of Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations in Lactating Women in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Anita; O’Leary, Peter; James, Ian; Skeaff, Sheila; Sherriff, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Breast-fed infants may depend solely on an adequate supply of iodine in breast milk for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are essential for optimal growth and cognitive development. This is the first study to measure breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) among lactating women in Western Australian (n = 55). Breast milk samples were collected between 2014 and 2015 at a mean (±SD) of 38.5 (±5.5) days post-partum. The samples were analysed to determine median BMIC and the percentage of samples with a BMIC < 100 µg/L, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants. The influence of (a) iodine-containing supplements and iodised salt use and (b) consumption of key iodine-containing foods on BMIC was also examined. The median (p25, p75) BMIC was 167 (99, 248) µg/L and 26% of samples had a BMIC < 100 µg/L. Overall, BMIC tended to be higher with iodine-containing supplement usage (ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.04, 1.70), p = 0.030), cow’s milk consumption (ratio 1.66, 95% CI (1.23, 2.23), p = 0.002) and lower for Caucasians (ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.45, 0.83), p = 0.002), and those with secondary school only education (ratio 0.66, 95% CI (0.46, 0.96), p = 0.030). For most women, BMIC was adequate to meet the iodine requirements of their breast-fed infants. However, some women may require the use of iodine-containing supplements or iodised salt to increase BMIC to adequate levels for optimal infant nutrition. PMID:27827913

  11. Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

    1991-12-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

  12. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  13. The safety of whey protein concentrate derived from the milk of cows immunized against Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Young, Karen W H; Munro, Ian C; Taylor, Steve L; Veldkamp, Peter; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2007-04-01

    A whey protein concentrate prepared from the milk of cows that have been immunized against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and its toxins, toxin A and toxin B, is produced for use as a medical food for the dietary management of patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) to prevent a relapse of the infection. The safety of anti-C. difficile whey protein concentrate (anti-CD WPC) is supported by analytical data comparing the composition of raw milk from immunized cows versus that from non-immunized cows, and the composition of anti-CD WPC versus that of regular whey protein concentrate. Additionally, a prospective clinical study was conducted in 77 patients with CDAD to demonstrate the safety of consuming anti-CD WPC to prevent relapse of the infection. This study, which included adverse event monitoring, physical examinations, and extensive hematological and biochemical assessments, showed that anti-CD WPC is safe to consume by patients with CDAD. The available analytical and clinical evidence demonstrate that anti-CD WPC is safe for use by individuals with CDAD, under the described conditions of use.

  14. Plasma concentrations of carbohydrates and sugar alcohols in term newborns after milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Cavalli, Claudio; Harwood, Jeri E F; Casadei, Annachiara; Teng, Cecilia C; Traggiai, Cristina; Serra, Giovanni; Bevilacqua, Giulio; Battaglia, Frederick C

    2008-08-01

    Nonglucose carbohydrates such as galactose, mannose, and inositol play a clinically important role in fetal and neonatal nutrition, though little is known about their metabolism in the neonate. The aim of this study was to determine whether postprandial changes in plasma carbohydrate and sugar alcohol concentrations are affected by clinical variables such as postnatal age (PNA), milk type, feeding volume, or feeding duration in term newborns. Neonates (n = 26) taking intermittent enteral feedings were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (immediately before the start of a feeding) and at 2-3 subsequent time points up to 110 min. Postprandial rise was only observed for plasma glucose concentrations [Glu] and plasma galactose concentrations [Gal] and clinical variables did not predict this change. Despite equimolar delivery in milk, the median of [Glu] rise minus [Gal] rise from baseline to second postprandial plasma sample was 674 microM (-38, 3333 microM; p < 0.0001), reflecting efficient hepatic first-pass metabolism of galactose. A significant PNA effect on [Gal] was observed such that for each day PNA there was an 18% decrease in [Gal] (p = 0.03). [Gal] are a function of PNA, suggesting maintenance of a significant ductus venosus shunt in term infants.

  15. Concentrations of volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids in sheep and goat milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Kayademir, Yasemin; Heid, Carolina; Vetter, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Goat and sheep milk and dairy products thereof are characterized by a strong and unique flavor. In this context, the volatile minor fatty acid 4-ethyloctanoic acid plays a prominent role along with 4-methyloctanoic acid when both are present in free form. Using a novel GC/MS method in the selected ion-monitoring mode, previously developed for sheep subcutaneous adipose tissue, we were able to analyze the total concentrations of these flavor-relevant minor fatty acids as methyl esters in goat and sheep milk as well as in their products. Differences between the concentrations and ratios of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-ethyloctanoic acid in goat milk (n = 4), goat cheese (n = 4), sheep milk (n = 2), and sheep cheese (n = 4) were observed. Goat milk and cheese resulted in higher concentrations for both fatty acids (190 to 480 μg/g milk fat) and smaller 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratios (1.4 to 2.7) compared to sheep milk and cheese (78 to 220 μg/g milk fat; 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratio: 15 to 42). In all samples, the concentration of 4-Me-8:0 exceeded the one of 4-Et-8:0. However, due to its lower flavor threshold value the contribution of 4-Et-8:0 to the flavor was generally >76%. The calculated flavor values were >1400 for goat milk and cheeses and >200 for sheep milk and cheeses. In goat milk and its products, only a proportion of <0.1% 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids present in free form in the goat milk and <0.5% in the sheep samples would be sufficient to generate the characteristic goaty flavor. Parameters that promote or prevent the release of 4-Me-8:0, and especially 4-Et-8:0, will be decisive for the flavor in the resulting dairy product.

  16. Isolation and genetic identification of spore-forming bacteria associated with concentrated-milk processing in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bismarck A; Stratton, Jayne; Bianchini, Andreia

    2017-02-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are heat-resistant microorganisms capable of surviving and germinating in milk after pasteurization. They have been reported to affect the quality of dairy products by the production of enzymes (lipolytic and proteolytic) under low-temperature conditions in fluid milk, and have become a limiting factor for milk powder in reaching some selective markets. The objective of this research was to isolate and identify the population of spore-forming bacteria (psychrotrophic and thermophilic strains) associated with concentrated milk processing in Nebraska. During 2 seasons, in-process milk samples from a commercial plant (raw, pasteurized, and concentrated) were collected and heat-treated (80°C/12 min) to recover only spore-formers. Samples were spread-plated using standard methods agar and incubated at 32°C to enumerate mesophilic spore counts. Heat-treated samples were also stored at 7°C and 55°C to recover spore-formers that had the ability to grow under those temperature conditions. Isolates obtained from incubation or storage conditions were identified using molecular techniques (16S or rpoB sequencing). Based on the identification of the isolates and their relatedness, strains found in raw, pasteurized, and concentrated milk were determined to be similar. Paenibacillus spp. were associated with both raw and concentrated milk. Due to their known ability to cause spoilage under refrigeration, this shows the potential risk associated with the transferring of these problematic organisms into other dairy products. Other Bacillus species found in concentrated milk included Bacillus clausii, Bacillus subtilis, Lysinibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sonorensis, and Brevibacillus sp., with the last 3 organisms being capable of growing at thermophilic temperatures. These strains can also be translocated to other dairy products, such as milk powder, representing a quality problem. The results of this research

  17. Studies on the increase in serum concentrations of urea cycle amino acids among subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Shiroishi, K. ); Kagamimori, S.; Naruse, Y. ); Watanabe, M. )

    1988-05-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is a combination of renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis among subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd). When the renal tubular damage progresses, the excretion of amino acids, especially, threonine, hydroxyproline, proline, citrulline, ornithine, arginine, etc. increase in urine. It was reported that the increase in urinary excretion of citrulline, arginine and ornithine may be associated with an inhibition of urea synthesis in the urea cycle. The authors have found that serum citrulline, arginine and ornithine also increased in I disease patients. In order to investigate the mechanism of the increase in these serum amino acids, comparative studies were performed using both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease as control groups.

  18. Effect of bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism on concentrations in milk of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Otero, J A; García-Mateos, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2016-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is involved in the secretion of several drugs into milk. The bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism increases the secretion into milk of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin in Holstein cows. Danofloxacin and enrofloxacin are the fluoroquinolones most widely used in veterinary medicine. Both enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) reach milk at relatively high concentrations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism on in vitro transport as well as on concentrations in plasma and in milk of ENRO and CIPRO. Experiments using cells overexpressing bovine ABCG2 showed the effects of ABCG2 on the transport of CIPRO, demonstrating more efficient in vitro transport of this antimicrobial by the S581 variant as compared with the Y581 variant. Animal studies administering 2.5mg/kg of ENRO subcutaneously to Y/Y 581 and Y/S 581 cows revealed that concentrations in plasma of ENRO and CIPRO were significantly lower in Y/S animals. Regardless of the genotype, the antimicrobial profile in milk after the administration of ENRO was predominantly of CIPRO. With respect to the genotype effects on the amounts of drugs present in milk, AUC0-24 values were more than 1.2 times higher in Y/S cows for ENRO and 2.2 times for CIPRO, indicating a greater capacity of Y581S to transfer these drugs into milk. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of this polymorphism as a factor affecting the concentrations in plasma and in milk of drugs of importance in veterinary medicine.

  19. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  20. The essential mineral concentration of Torba yoghurts and their wheys compared with yoghurt made with cows', ewes' and goats' milks.

    PubMed

    Güler, Zehra; Sanal, Hasan

    2009-03-01

    Comparative studies on yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milks with respect to mineral concentrations are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyse the gross chemical composition as well as the concentration of essential minerals in concentrated (torba) yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milk compared with those in regular yoghurts and wheys. The elements were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Ewe torba yoghurt was significantly higher in calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, zinc, cobalt, copper and iron concentrations compared with goat and cow torba yoghurts. It is recommended that torba yoghurts made from different types of milk may be considered an important source of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc over the regular yoghurts and wheys. Whey samples are also an excellent source of lactose as well as sodium and potassium.

  1. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  2. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  3. The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.

  4. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  5. Redberry juniper as a roughage source in lamb feedlot rations: performance and serum nonesterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Muir, J P

    2010-04-01

    Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with dry redberry juniper leaves on performance and serum NEFA, urea N, and IGF-1 were investigated in Rambouillet lambs (n = 24, initial BW = 28.6 +/- 4.94 kg). In a study with 2 feeding periods (period 1 = 65% concentrate ration, 28 d; period 2 = 85% concentrate ration, 49 d), lambs were individually fed ad libitum treatment diets containing cottonseed hulls (control; CSH), one-half of the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (CSHJ), or all the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (JUN). Lamb BW was similar on d 0 and 14, but increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.04) BW on d 28. Differences in BW during period 1 are attributed to ADG and average daily DMI linearly decreasing (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of juniper, with lambs fed CSH, CSHJ, or JUN diets having ADG of 0.34, 0.30, and 0.14 kg, respectively. Differences in average daily DMI are attributed to secondary compounds in the cottonseed hulls and juniper and nutrient-toxin interactions. Lambs fed CSHJ diets had the greatest (P = 0.04) G:F compared with lambs fed CSH and JUN during period 1. Lambs fed JUN diets tended to have the greatest (P = 0.09) NEFA concentrations during period 1, and increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.006) serum urea N and IGF-1 on d 14 and 28, respectively. During period 2, intake and growth of lambs fed JUN diet rapidly increased, resulting in all lambs having similar ADG, DMI, G:F, and BW. When period 2 began (d 33), serum NEFA and urea N were similar (P > 0.12) among lambs, but serum IGF-1 tended to be linearly reduced (P = 0.09) by increasing juniper in the diet. At times during period 2, lambs fed CSHJ had the greatest (P < 0.02) serum urea N (d 40 and 82) and IGF-1 (d 54) concentrations. Results were interpreted to indicate that air-dried redberry juniper leaves can replace all of the cottonseed hulls in lamb feedlot rations. Feeding 30% juniper in the diet for a longer

  6. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw.

  7. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot

  8. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy alters breast milk composition, but there is little information about the impact of oily fish consumption. We determined whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy alters breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors. Women (n = 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to consume their habitual diet or to consume 2 portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 wk of pregnancy until delivery. The salmon provided 3.45 g long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA/wk. Breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors [soluble CD14, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)1, TGFβ2, and secretory IgA] were analyzed at 1, 5, 14, and 28 d postpartum (PP). Breast milk from the salmon group had higher proportions of EPA (80%), docosapentaenoic acid (30%), and DHA (90%) on d 5 PP compared with controls (P < 0.01). The LC (n-6) PUFA:LC (n-3) PUFA ratio was lower for the salmon group on all days of PP sampling (P ≤ 0.004), although individual (n-6) PUFA proportions, including arachidonic acid, did not differ. All breast milk immune factors decreased between d 1 and 28 PP (P < 0.001). Breast milk secretory IgA (sIgA) was lower in the salmon group (d 1-28 PP; P = 0.006). Salmon consumption during pregnancy, at the current recommended intakes, increases the LC (n-3) PUFA concentration of breast milk in early lactation, thus improving the supply of these important fatty acids to the breast-fed neonate. The consequence of the lower breast milk concentration of sIgA in the salmon group is not clear.

  9. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on the quality of ewe's milk, especially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Liponi, Gian Battista; Salari, Federica

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk quality of Massese ewes receiving diets with different forage:concentrate ratios (FC ratio), specially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition. The diet is one of the main environmental factors that influence the lipidic content of milk. A trial was carried out on twenty ewes, which had been subdivided into two homogeneous groups and kept indoors at 25 days post partum. The experiment lasted 60 days, from 40 to 100 days post partum and the animals were fed two diets that differed in terms of the FC ratio: 60:40 and 40:60, as fed. The results obtained in this study showed that a greater proportion of forage, compared with an higher percentage of concentrate, led to an increase in the percentage of fat (+8.66%) and to a decrease in the percentage of milk fat globules with a size between 2 and 5 microm (-17.32%). However, the average diameter was not affected. There was also a decrease in the percentages of some medium chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0; -14.89% and -4.03 respectively) and an increase in mono and polyunsaturated ones such as trans11-C18:1 (+31.71%), total CLA (+22%), EPA (+18.18%) and DHA (+66.67%). In conclusion, a greater proportion of forage seem to improve the milk fatty acid profile by the increase of some fatty acid identified has being beneficial for human health.

  10. Correlations between periparturient serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, bilirubin, and urea and the occurrence of clinical and subclinical postpartum bovine endometritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postpartum endometritis in cattle is a multifactorial disease with high economic impact. Both, clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) result in decreased reproductive performance. Results from in vitro studies led to the implication that non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), bilirubin, and urea could be used as predictors for endometritis in veterinary practice. In this field study, we set out to establish optimal predictor cut points of these metabolic parameters for the detection of CE and SCE. Serum samples were collected one week prior to parturition (wk -1), in the first week postpartum (wk +1) and between 28 and 35 days postpartum (wk +5) from 209 Holstein-Friesian cows. At wk +5, all cows were examined for signs of CE and SCE. Results Higher concentrations of urea at wk +1 were associated with increased odds of CE (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04) in primiparous (PP) cows. A predictor cut point of 3.9 mmol/L (sensitivity: 61%, specificity: 70%) was determined. In multiparous (MP) cows, the logistic regression model revealed that higher concentrations of NEFA at wk -1 were associated with increased odds of CE and SCE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 9.1, P = 0.05; healthy vs. SCE: OR = 12.1, P = 0.04). A predictor cut point of 0.3 mmol/L (sensitivity: 38%, specificity: 87% and sensitivity: 35%, specificity: 89%, respectively) was determined. Increasing concentrations of urea at wk +5 were associated with decreased odds of CE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 0.6, P = 0.01; SCE vs. CE: OR = 0.5, P = 0.03). A predictor cut point of 3.8 mmol/L (sensitivity: 52%, specificity: 81%) was determined. For BHBA and bilirubin relationships with CE or SCE were not detected. Conclusions The corresponding combinations of sensitivity and specificity of the determined predictor cut points were not satisfactory for practical use. Thus, the analysed parameters, i.e. NEFA, BHBA, bilirubin, and urea, at the chosen time points, i.e. at wk -1, at wk +1

  11. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck Pereira, Richard; Lima, Svetlana; Siler, Julie D; Foditsch, Carla; Warnick, Lorin D; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR), and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR) by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment), until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of taxonomic levels above

  12. Review-Factors involving in fluctuation of trace metals concentrations in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perween, Rubina

    2015-05-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to human diet through provision of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies with species among domestic animals according to their neonatal needs. It is recognized that imbalance in the quantity of minerals and trace elements is a serious health hazard especially for infants. Many studies reported the fluctuation in the level of metals in milk due to the influence of several factors such as geographical and exposure to environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activity. Amongst all sources, industries take lion's share to alter the metal content in milk. The importance of different nutritional and toxic metals in milk from different geographical areas is discussed.

  13. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  14. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  15. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source.

  16. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  17. Effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo FA, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. The hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated FA (UFA) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-UFA and lower-fermentability diet. Eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulated multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated Latin square design. During each period milk fat depression was induced for 10 d by feeding a low-fiber, high-UFA diet [25.9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 3.3% C18:2]. Following the induction phase, cows were switched to recovery treatments for 18 d designed to correct dietary fermentability, UFA, or both fermentability and UFA concentration. Treatments during recovery were (1) correction of fiber and UFA diet [control; 31.8% NDF and 1.65% C18:2], (2) a diet predominantly correcting fiber, but not UFA [high oil (HO); 31.3% NDF and 2.99% C18:2], and (3) a diet predominantly correcting UFA, but not fiber concentration [low fiber (LF); 28.4% NDF and 1.71% C18:2]. Milk and milk component yield, milk FA profile, ruminal pH, and 11 rumen microbial taxa were measured every third day during recovery. Milk yield decreased progressively in HO and control, whereas it was maintained in the LF diet. Milk fat concentration increased progressively during recovery in all treatments, but was on average 9% lower in LF than control from d 12 to 18. Milk fat yield increased progressively in all treatments and was not different between control and LF at any time point, but was lower in HO than control on d 15. Milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased progressively in all treatments, but was higher in HO than control from d 3 to 18 [136 ± 50 and 188 ± 57% (mean ± SD

  18. An investigation of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of additives to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, four chemicals, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and melamine, were mixed into liquid nonfat milk at concentrations starting from 0.1% to a maximum concentration determined for each chemical according to its maximum solubility, and two Raman spectrometers—a commercial Nicolet...

  19. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance.

  20. Effect of insoluble calcium concentration on endogenous syneresis rate in rennet-coagulated bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-09-01

    The rennet coagulation of milk has been extensively studied. Mathematical modeling of the gelation process has been performed, mainly for the purpose of predicting the gel point. Rheological profiles of rennet gels during aging (long reaction times) have indicated that the gel stiffness (modulus) attains a maximum and thereafter decreases. We wanted to model this type of behavior and used the Carlson model, which includes terms for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs (creating active sites) and the crosslinking of these activated sites. To account for the observed decrease in the gel modulus with time, we modified the Carlson model by adding an exponential decay term, which we ascribe to endogenous syneresis. We believe that this decay (i.e., syneresis rate) would likely be influenced by the mobility of bonds within casein micelles (in gels as indicated by the rheological loss tangent parameter). To modify the internal structural bonding of casein micelles, reconstituted skim milk was acidified to pH values 6.4, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, and 5.4, or EDTA was added to milk at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, and 6mM, and the final pH values of EDTA-treated samples were subsequently adjusted to pH 6.0. These treatments were then used to prepare rennet gel samples that were monitored by dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheometry. When the modified Carlson model was fitted to the actual experimental storage modulus values of each sample, it fitted the data reasonably well (especially the pH trial data). As the pH values of milk decreased, the modulus values at infinite reaction time (G'∞) increased; however, G'∞ decreased with an increase in the EDTA concentration. In the pH trial, the rate constants for the proteolysis of κ-casein hairs and the crosslinking of these activated sites exhibited a maximum at pH 5.6 and 6.0, respectively. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis increased at pH values <6.0. The rate constant for endogenous syneresis was significantly positively

  1. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J.; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  2. [Progesterone and pregnanediol-glucuronid concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas and their application in pregnancy diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Volkery, Janine; Wittek, Thomas; Sobiraj, Axel; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almuth

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the measurement of the pregnancy associated hormones progesterone (P4) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) in saliva, milk and urine of alpacas and their potential use in pregnancy diagnosis. Sample of blood, saliva, milk and urine were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and throughout the pregnancy. Concentrations of P4 and PdG were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Pregnancy was checked by ultrasonography at any sampling time. The milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm progesterone kit which was designed for dairy cattle. EIA-Concentrations of P4 in blood, milk and urine and urine PdG concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in not pregnant alpacas. There was no difference in concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The accuracy of the progesterone kit was 90% for diagnosis of pregnancy and 69% for non-pregnancy. However, 70% of the false positive results also showed relatively high P4 milk concentrations in the EIA. Values of P4 in blood and PdG in urine are comparable to previous reports in alpacas and therefore can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. Saliva seems unsuitable in pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas milk seems to be an adequate alternative. The use of milk and urine would simplify the pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas since in contrast to the current methods (e. g. blood progesterone) the owners can take the samples. The avoidance of blood sampling results in a considerable stress reduction for the animals. P4 measurement in milk and PdG measurement in urine are good alternatives in pregnancy diagnosis during the first month of pregnancy, when a trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination is not yet reliable. However, since high values of P4 and PdG only show the presence of active luteal tissue and therefore are indirect markers of pregnancy the diagnosis should be confirmed using ultrasound later in pregnancy.

  3. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  4. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  5. Effect of varying the concentrations of carbohydrate and milk protein in rehydration solutions ingested after exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Evans, Gethin H; Madin, Joshua; Scott, Darren; Stepney, Michael; Harris, Russell; Stone, Robert; Clayton, David J

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the milk protein content of a rehydration solution and fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. On three occasions, eight healthy males were dehydrated to an identical degree of body mass loss (BML, approximately 1·8%) by intermittent cycling in the heat, rehydrating with 150% of their BML over 1 h with either a 60 g/l carbohydrate solution (C), a 40 g/l carbohydrate, 20 g/l milk protein solution (CP20) or a 20 g/l carbohydrate, 40 g/l milk protein solution (CP40). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and for a further 4 h. Subjects produced less urine after ingesting the CP20 or CP40 drink compared with the C drink (P<0·01), and at the end of the study, more of the CP20 (59 (SD 12)%) and CP40 (64 (SD 6)%) drinks had been retained compared with the C drink (46 (SD 9)%) (P<0·01). At the end of the study, whole-body net fluid balance was more negative for trial C (- 470 (SD 154) ml) compared with both trials CP20 (- 181 (SD 280) ml) and CP40 (2107 (SD 126) ml) (P<0·01). At 2 and 3 h after drink ingestion, urine osmolality was greater for trials CP20 and CP40 compared with trial C (P<0·05). The present study further demonstrates that after exercise-induced dehydration, a carbohydrate--milk protein solution is better retained than a carbohydrate solution. The results also suggest that high concentrations of milk protein are not more beneficial in terms of fluid retention than low concentrations of milk protein following exercise-induced dehydration.

  6. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Werner, J; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Gehman, A; Parys, C

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk randomized complete block-design trial. Cows were fed a covariate diet for 2 wk and then assigned to one of the following treatments for an 8-wk experimental period: (1) MP-adequate diet [AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council (NRC, 2001)]; (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein, and urinary N and urea-N excretions were decreased by DMP, compared with AMP. Addition of slow-release urea to the DMP diet increased urinary urea-N excretion. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (on average 44.0±0.9kg/d) were not affected by treatments, except DMPUMH increased DMI and numerically increased milk yield, compared with DMPUM. Milk true protein concentration and yield were increased and milk fat concentration tended to be decreased by DMPUMH, compared with DMPUM. Cows gained less body weight on the DMP diet, compared with AMP. Plasma concentrations of His and Lys were not affected by treatments, whereas supplementation of RPMet increased plasma Met concentration. Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine was or tended to be higher for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. Addition of RPHis to the DMPUM diet tended to increase plasma glucose and creatinine. In conclusion, feeding a 5% MP-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) did not decrease DMI and yields of milk and milk components, despite a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of RPHis increased

  7. Hot topic: pathway confirmed for the transmission of melamine from feed to cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, C W; Stander, M A; Adonis, M; Calitz, T

    2009-05-01

    Eight lactating Holstein cows were randomly allotted to 2 groups in a trial to establish whether a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to milk. All cows received oat hay ad libitum and 15 kg of concentrate pellets per cow daily. The concentrate pellets contained either melamine-contaminated corn gluten meal of Chinese origin (melamine treatment) or locally produced melamine-free corn gluten meal (control treatment). Cows in the melamine treatment ingested 17.1 g of melamine per day. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk samples were taken once daily during the afternoon milking for melamine and milk component analyses. Melamine appeared in the milk within 8 h after first ingestion of the melamine containing pellets. Melamine concentration reached a maximum of 15.7 mg/kg within 56 h after first ingestion, with an excretion efficiency of approximately 2%. Milk solids and milk urea nitrogen were not affected by treatment. The melamine concentration dropped rapidly after changing all cows back to the control pellets, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the milk more than 6 d (152 h) after last ingestion of melamine. Results from the current trial are important to the feed and dairy industries because, until now, any melamine found in milk and milk products was attributed only to the deliberate external addition of melamine to these products, not to adulterated ingredients in animal feeds.

  8. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  9. Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate powder upon ageing and its effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Fibrianto, Kiki; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2012-10-01

    Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder upon short-term (up to 67 h) storage at 25 °C and aw 0.85, and long-term (up to 48 days) storage at 25 °C and a range of aw values (0-0.85) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The short-term study showed a rapid recovery of enthalpy for the first 48 h, followed by a slower steady increase with time. The non-exponential β parameter was calculated using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function and found to be 0.39. Long-term storage showed that enthalpy relaxation depends on both storage period and water activity. The enthalpy value was much less for lower moisture content (mc) (aw ≤ 0.23, mc ≤ 5.5%) than for higher mc (aw ≥ 0.45, mc ≥ 8%) samples for a particular storage period. The results suggest that the presence of more water molecules, in close proximity to the protein surface facilitates kinetic unfreezing and subsequent motion of molecular segments of protein molecules towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Although de-ageing of stored samples did not reverse storage-induced solubility losses, the timescale of enthalpy relaxation was similar to that of solubility loss. It is suggested that enthalpy relaxation within stored samples allows structural rearrangements that are responsible for subsequent solubility decreases.

  10. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  11. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Renata; Wójcik, Jerzy; Czerniak, Paweł; Sablik, Piotr; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of toxic heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb)) and major nutritional and trace elements (Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn) were analyzed in the milk of Simmental (n = 20) and Holstein-Friesian (n = 20) cows from an organic farm. Elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission atomic spectrometry. The conducted research showed that the milk of Simmental cows was characterized by the more advantageous mineral composition and lower concentration of noxious heavy metals compared to the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows. In the milk of Simmental cows, significantly lower concentrations of Pb and Cd (P < 0.001) and Cu (P < 0.05) and significantly higher concentrations of Fe and Mg (P < 0.05) as well as nonsignificantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mn, and Se were found. In the milk of both breeds, very low Cu concentrations were recorded. The higher-than-recommended concentration of Pb in milk was also found. In the milk of both breeds, the significant positive correlations between concentrations of the following elements were observed: Pb-Cd, Pb-Se, Cd-Se, Cd-Mn, Zn-Cu, Zn-P, Ca-P, Ca-Mg, and Mg-P. The correlations between other elements within each of the analyzed breeds separately were also found.

  12. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  13. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  14. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  15. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleck Pereira, Richard; Lima, Svetlana; Siler, Julie D.; Foditsch, Carla; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR), and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR) by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment), until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of taxonomic levels above

  16. Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J

    2008-03-01

    The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

  17. The breast cancer resistance protein BCRP (ABCG2) concentrates drugs and carcinogenic xenotoxins into milk.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Johan W; Merino, Gracia; Musters, Sandra; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Bolscher, Ellen; Wagenaar, Els; Mesman, Elly; Dale, Trevor C; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2005-02-01

    Contamination of milk with drugs, pesticides and other xenotoxins can pose a major health risk to breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. Here we show that the multidrug transporter BCRP (encoded by ABCG2) is strongly induced in the mammary gland of mice, cows and humans during lactation and that it is responsible for the active secretion of clinically and toxicologically important substrates such as the dietary carcinogen PhIP, the anticancer drug topotecan and the antiulcerative cimetidine into mouse milk.

  18. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  19. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Fisher, W J; Tweed, J K S; Wilkins, R J

    2003-08-01

    Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silage with either white clover silage or red clover silage (50/50, on a DM basis). Silages were prepared in round bales, using a biological inoculant additive, and wilting for up to 48 h. Although the legumes were less suited to silage-making than grass, because of their higher buffering capacity and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content, all silages were well-fermented. A standard concentrate was offered at a flat-rate (8 kg/d in yr 1, and 4 or 8 kg/d in yr 2). All of the legume silages led to higher DM intake and milk yields than for the grass silage, with little effect on milk composition. Intake and production responses to legumes were similar at the two levels of concentrate feeding and with forage mixtures they were intermediate to those for the separate forages. An additional benefit of the clover silages, particularly red clover silage, was the increase in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, in milk. Legume silages also led to a lower palmitic acid percentage in milk. The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account.

  20. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

  1. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

  2. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes.

  3. Characterisation of the metabolites of 1,8-cineole transferred into human milk: concentrations and ratio of enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-30

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100-250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20.

  4. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

  5. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin implants on serum concentrations of somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-I and blood urea nitrogen in steers.

    PubMed

    Roeder, R A; Garber, M J; Dalke, B S; Kasser, T R; Veenhuizen, J; Schelling, G T

    1994-09-01

    Four cross-bred beef steers averaging 346 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of prolonged-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbGH) implants on serum concentrations of somatotropin (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Recombinant bGH implants of 0, 40, 80 or 160 mg were administered subcutaneously in the tailhead during the 4 trial periods. Each steer received each treatment starting at 06:00 on day 0 with 21 days between treatments. Jugular vein blood samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 (4 day time course for GH, IGF-I and BUN) and every 15 min (GH profile) for 6 h on day 3. Serum baseline GH values were higher (P < 0.10) for the 80 and 160 mg treatments than for the control, and peak amplitude was decreased (P < 0.05) by the 40 and 160 mg treatments. There was a trend (P < 0.11) for fewer GH peaks during the 160 mg treatment. Somatotropin concentrations decreased from day 1 to day 3 (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. Serum IGF-I concentrations increased (P < 0.05) in a linear dose-dependent manner from the 0 mg to the 160 mg treatment. BUN concentrations were not significantly altered by rbGH treatment. Results from this experiment indicate that rbGH implants significantly increase serum IGF-I and GH baseline concentrations while suppressing GH peak amplitude in finishing steers.

  6. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  7. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  8. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  9. UREA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UREA SCR NOX REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G.

    2000-08-20

    Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.

  10. Short communication: elevated concentrations of oleic acid and long-chain fatty acids in milk fat of multiparous subclinical ketotic cows.

    PubMed

    Van Haelst, Y N T; Beeckman, A; Van Knegsel, A T M; Fievez, V

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of lactation. Milk fatty acid profiles of cows classified as healthy (n = 8) or as subclinically ketotic (n = 8) based on a blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate threshold concentration of 1.2 mmol/L were compared. Subclinically ketotic cows showed an elevated proportion of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat during the whole registration period.

  11. Dietary vitamin A modulates the concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in plasma lipoproteins from calves fed milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Ametaj, B N; Nonnecke, B J; Franklin, S T; Horst, R L; Bidlack, W R; Stuart, R L; Beitz, D C

    2000-03-01

    The practice of supplementing milk replacers fed to neonatal calves with high concentrations of vitamin A has raised concerns regarding the effect of excess vitamin A on the bioavailability of vitamin E. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment evaluated the effects of four dietary amounts of vitamin A [0, 1.78 [National Research Council (NRC)(6) requirement, control], 35.6 and 71.2 micromol daily as retinyl acetate] and two forms of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, 155 micromol daily) on plasma RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-gamma-tocopherol and RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with plasma lipoproteins (Lp) from milk replacer-fed Holstein calves from birth to 28 d of age. The VLDL, LDL, HDL and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions were separated by ultracentrifugal flotation, and the amount of vitamin E associated with each fraction was determined by normal-phase HPLC. The amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in Lp fractions were unaffected by the form of dietary vitamin E. Plasma and Lp RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased with age (P < 0.0001) and were maximal at 28 d of age. Concentrations of RRR-alpha-tocopherol associated with Lp were 25% (P < 0.01) to 39% (P < 0.0001) lower in calves fed 35.6 and 71.2 micromol of vitamin A daily than in control calves at 28 d of age. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol concentrations were unaffected by dietary vitamin A (P >/= 0.05). In conclusion, dietary vitamin A modulated the amount and distribution of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the circulation of milk replacer-fed neonatal calves. Because of the essential antioxidant role of vitamin E, the health-related consequences associated with the depression of the LP RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentrations in calves fed vitamin A at 35.6 and 71.2 micromol need to be investigated.

  12. Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (≤32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

  13. Effectiveness of extruded rapeseed associated with an alfalfa protein concentrate in enhancing the bovine milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dang Van, Q C; Bejarano, L; Mignolet, E; Coulmier, D; Froidmont, E; Larondelle, Y; Focant, M

    2011-08-01

    Linseed and rapeseed, good sources of 18:3 n-3 and cis9-18:1, respectively, have been shown to improve the bovine milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, rapeseed, unlike linseed, has little effect on the concentration of 18:3 n-3 in milk fat. Alfalfa protein concentrate (APC), besides being a valuable protein source for milk production, contains lipids rich in 18:3 n-3. Therefore, this experiment aimed at (1) evaluating the transfer efficiency of unsaturated FA (UFA), especially 18:3 n-3, of APC to bovine milk fat, and (2) evaluating whether extruded rapeseed (ER) associated with APC is as effective as extruded linseed (EL) in enhancing the bovine milk fat composition. Six lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design with 2 iso-energy, iso-nitrogen and iso-FA corn silage-based diets (EL and ER-APC) and two 21-d periods. Extruded linseed, as main UFA source, was included in the first diet, whereas ER, as main UFA source, and APC, as supplemental 18:3 n-3, were included in the second diet. Diets were distributed as a restricted total mixed ration. Compared with the EL diet, the ER-APC diet, where ER was associated with APC, increased milk concentration of 18:3 n-3 (1.18 vs. 1.31% of FA) and cis9-18:1 (18.35 vs. 20.01% of FA). The apparent transfer efficiency of 18:3 n-3 from diet to milk was almost twice as much for the ER-APC diet than for the EL diet (7.4 vs. 3.8% of intake). Extruded linseed accounted for 84% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the EL diet, whereas ER and APC accounted for 33 and 38% of 18:3 n-3 provided in the ER-APC diet, respectively. Because both EL and ER underwent extrusion in similar conditions, these results suggest that 18:3 n-3 of EL in the EL diet and ER in the ER-APC diet were subjected to more extensive ruminal biohydrogenation than 18:3 n-3 of APC in the ER-APC diet. This experiment shows that corn silage-based diets supplemented with ER as the main UFA source, associated with APC as supplemental 18:3 n-3, are as

  14. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents.

  15. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM.

  16. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P < 0.05) for hay than for silage diets (12.1, 9.6, 9.6 and 9.3 and 5.00, 3.51, 4.27 and 2.93 g/kg total fatty acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P < 0.001) riboflavin, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations, but had no effect on ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P < 0.001) 16:0 concentrations from 348 to 338 g/kg fatty acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P < 0.05) increases in milk 13:0 anteiso and 15

  17. Effect of synchronization of follicle-wave emergence with estradiol and progesterone and superstimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone on milk estrogen concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lucilene B; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the effects of hormonal synchronization of follicle waves and superovulation on the estrogen content of a cow's milk. The objective of this study was to determine the effect in dairy cows of synchronization with estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) on milk E2 concentrations and to compare these levels with those achieved during superstimulation for 4 d with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The milk E2 concentrations were raised significantly above pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) for 2 d after synchronization, the mean peak being 40.2 ± 18.5 (standard error) pg/mL and the pretreatment mean 1.5 ± 0.5 pg/mL. The mean peak E2 concentration during ovarian stimulation was 4.4 ± 0.7 pg/mL. The mean E2 concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after synchronization than during superstimulation for the 1st milking after synchronization but not subsequent milkings. The milk estrone concentrations were above pretreatment levels for 1 d after synchronization and were not different from those observed during superstimulation.

  18. Nutrient demand interacts with grass maturity to affect milk fat concentration and digestion responses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-09-01

    Effects of grass maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 23.5 to 28.2 kg/d (mean=26.1 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield ranged from 30.8 to 57.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage harvested either (1) early-cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut orchardgrass contained 44.9 and 54.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 20.1 and 15.3% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratio was 58:42 and 46:54 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. The EC diet decreased milk yield and increased milk fat concentration compared with the LC diet. Grass maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect FCM yield, DMI, rumen pH, or microbial efficiency. The EC diet increased rates of ruminal digestion of potentially digestible NDF and passage of indigestible NDF (iNDF) compared with the LC diet. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of iNDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of iNDF, total NDF, organic matter, and dry matter for EC than LC. Ruminal passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and starch were related to level of intake (quadratic and linear interactions, respectively) and subsequently affected ruminal digestibility of these nutrients

  19. Urea metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency.

  20. Hyperspectral sensing based analysis for determining milk adulteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbahune, Sanjay; Ghouse, Syed M.; B. S., Mithun; Shinde, Sujit; Jha, Amit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This research work was designed to evaluate the suitability and applicability of hyperspectral radiometry technology for robustly detecting adulterants in diary milk. The most common milk adulterants are (a) soda, (b) urea, (c) water and (d) detergents. The main contribution of this paper is to build a mathematical model to enable quantifying the degree of common adulterants present in milk. Data was collected using a portable spectroradiometer (Eko MS-720) which measures the spectral irradiance in the range from visible to near-infrared irradiance (350 nm 1050 nm) using samples of milk contaminated with four different adulterants (soda, urea, water and detergent) with known degree of contamination deliberately added in milk. In this study, we used the data in the range of 350 - 1050 nm to identify spectral signatures of different adulterants with different degree of concentration. Data cleansing, in the form of pre-processing was followed by machine learning techniques to create a model to capture the adulterants and also the degree of adulteration. Linear regression along with wrapper subset eval as attribute evaluator and best first search as search option was found to create the best model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficient (CC) metrics were used to select the best model. The best model for detecting the degree of adulteration due to soda, urea, water and detergent in milk was found to have an RMSE of 0.027, 0.0069, 0.0382 and 0.0281 respectively while CC was 0.9919, 0.9997, 0.9887 and 0.9938 respectively. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the effective use of spectroradiometer and machine learning technique in reliably detecting adulterants in milk.

  1. Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of serum and traditional whey protein manufactured from the same lot of milk. At each replication, SPC and WPC were spray dried (SD) and freeze dried (FD) to determine the effect of the heat used in spray drying on sensory properties. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of rehydrated SD or FD powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Whey protein concentrates had higher fat content, calcium, and glycomacropeptide content than SPC. Color differences (Hunter L, a, b) were not evident between SPC and WPC powders, but when rehydrated, SPC solutions were clear, whereas WPC solutions were cloudy. No consistent differences were documented in sensory profiles of SD and FD SPC and WPC. The SD WPC had low but distinct buttery (diacetyl) and cardboard flavors, whereas the SD SPC did not. Sensory profiles of both rehydrated SD products were bland and lower in overall aroma and cardboard flavor compared with the commercial WPC. Twenty-nine aroma impact compounds were identified in the SPC and WPC. Lipid and protein oxidation products were present in both products. The SPC and WPC manufactured in this study had lower total volatiles and lower concentrations of many lipid oxidation compounds when compared with commercial WPC. Our results suggest that when SPC and WPC are manufactured under controlled conditions in a similar manner from the same milk using the same ultrafiltration equipment, there are few sensory

  2. The effect of long term under- and over-feeding of sheep on milk and plasma fatty acid profiles and on insulin and leptin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Chadio, Stella; Zervas, George

    2012-05-01

    Since sheep's milk is mainly used for cheese making and milk chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile affect cheese yield and quality, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different feeding levels on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA profile, and on insulin and leptin concentrations. Twenty-four sheep were assigned to three homogeneous sub-groups. Throughout the experimental period each group was fed the same diet but in quantities which met 70% (under-feeding), 100% (control) and 130% (over-feeding) of their respective energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed that the underfed sheep had higher milk fat content compared with overfed. In blood plasma the concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 in the underfed sheep were significantly higher compared with control and overfed sheep. The concentrations of leptin and insulin were significantly higher in overfed compared with underfed sheep. Underfeeding reduced the concentrations of short chain FA (SCFA) and medium chain FA (MCFA) and increased that of C18:0 and mono unsaturated FA (MUFA) in sheep milk fat compared with controls and overfed. The concentrations of C18:0, long chain FA (LCFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in milk were significantly higher and those of SCFA, MCFA and saturated FA (SFA) significantly lower in the underfed compared with the overfed sheep. In conclusion, long term under- and over-feeding affected the sheep milk chemical composition and FA profile which consequently has an impact on milk products yield (cheese and yogurt) and quality (human health).

  3. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  4. Transfer of linoleic and linolenic acid from feed to milk in cows fed isoenergetic diets differing in proportion and origin of concentrates and roughages.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Soliva, Carla R; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-08-01

    The transfer of ingested alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) determines the nutritional quality of milk, but the factors determining this transfer are unclear. The present experiment investigated the influence of roughage to concentrate proportions and the effect of concentrate types on milk fat composition. Respectively, six lactating dairy cows were fed one of three isoenergetic (5.4+/-0.05 MJ net energy for lactation/kg dry matter; DM) and isonitrogenous (215+/-3.5 g crude protein/kg DM) diets, consisting of ryegrass hay only (33 g fatty acids/kg DM; ALA-rich, no concentrate), maize (straw, whole maize pellets and gluten; 36 g fatty acids/kg DM; LA-rich; 560 g concentrate/kg DM), or barley (straw and grain plus soybean meal; 19 g fatty acids/kg DM; LA-rich; 540 g concentrate/kg DM). The fatty acid composition of feeds and resulting milk fat were determined by gas chromatography. The ALA concentration in milk fat was highest (P<0.001) with the hay-diet, but the proportionate transfer of ALA from diet to milk was lower (P<0.001) than with the maize- or barley-diets. The LA concentration in milk fat was highest with the maize-diet (P<0.05, compared with hay) but relative transfer rate was lower (P=0.01). The transfer rates of ALA and LA were reciprocal to the intake of individual fatty acids which thus contributed more to milk fat composition than did roughage to concentrate proportions. The amount of trans-11 18:1 in milk fat was lowest with the barley-diet (P<0.001) and depended on the sum of ALA and LA consumed. The milk fat concentration of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (rumenic acid) was more effectively promoted by increasing dietary LA (maize) than ALA (hay). Amounts of 18:0 secreted in milk were four (maize) to seven (hay) times higher than the amounts ingested. This was suggestive of a partial inhibition of biohydrogenation in the maize-diet, possibly caused by the high dietary LA level.

  5. Progesterone, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, relaxin and oestrone sulphate concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and their application in pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Volkery, J; Gottschalk, J; Sobiraj, A; Wittek, T; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-25

    The pregnancy-associated hormones, progesterone (P4), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), relaxin (RLN) and oestrone sulphate (E1S) in plasma, saliva, milk and urine of alpacas were measured in order to assess their potential use for pregnancy diagnosis. Samples were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and at different stages throughout pregnancy (confirmed by ultrasonography). The hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm P4 kit, designed for dairy cattle. Although the concentration of P4 in plasma, milk and urine, and the concentration of PdG in urine were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant alpacas, there was no difference in the concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The on-farm milk P4 kit showed a sensitivity of 90 per cent for diagnosis of pregnancy and a specificity of 69 per cent for non-pregnancy. The concentration of RLN in plasma increased significantly after the second month, and concentration of E1S in plasma and urine during the last month of pregnancy, whereas, there were no significant differences in RLN or E1S concentrations in saliva and milk between pregnant and non-pregnant alpacas. Values of P4, RLN and E1S in plasma, and PdG and E1S in urine are comparable with the previous reports in alpacas and, therefore, can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. This is the first study to include determination of pregnancy-associated hormones in the saliva and milk of alpacas. However, saliva seems to be unsuitable for pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas, P4 in milk, as well as PdG and E1S in urine, seem to be adequate tools for diagnosis.

  6. Lactational changes in concentration and distribution of ganglioside molecular species in human breast milk from Chinese mothers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Xihong; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul; Fong, Bertram Y

    2015-11-01

    Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification.

  7. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  8. The partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea and its effect on the performance, metabolism and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L A; Blake, C W; Griffin, P; Jones, G H

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of the partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea on the performance, metabolism and whole-tract digestibility in mid-lactation dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in each of three periods of 5 weeks duration in a Latin square design. Control (C) cows were offered a total mixed ration based on grass and maize silages and straight feeds that included 93 g/kg dry matter (DM) soyabean meal and 61 g/kg DM rapeseed meal. Cows that received either of the other two treatments were offered the same basal ration with the replacement of 28 g/kg DM soyabean and 19 g/kg DM rapeseed meal with either 5 g/kg DM feed grade urea (U) or 5.5 g/kg DM of the slow-release urea (S; Optigen®; Alltech Inc., Kentucky, USA), with the content of maize silage increasing. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on DM intake, which averaged 22.5 kg/day. Similarly, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on daily milk or milk fat yield but there was a trend (P = 0.09) for cows offered either of the diets containing urea to have a higher milk fat content (average of 40.1 g/kg for U and S v. 38.9 g/kg for C). Milk true protein concentration and yield were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Milk yield from forage and N efficiency (g milk N output/g N intake) were highest (P < 0.01) in cows when offered S and lowest in C, with cows receiving U having intermediate values. Cows offered S also tended to have the highest live weight gain (0.38 kg/day) followed by U (0.23 kg/day) and C (0.01 kg/day; P = 0.07). Plasma urea concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) at 2 and 4 h post feeding in cows when offered U and lowest in C, with animals receiving S having intermediate values. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on whole-tract digestibility. In conclusion, the partial replacement of soyabean meal and

  9. Detection and quantification of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Mo, Changyeun

    2017-02-01

    Milk is a vulnerable target for economically motivated adulteration. In this study, a line-scan high-throughput Raman imaging system was used to authenticate milk powder. A 5 W 785 nm line laser (240 mm long and 1 mm wide) was used as a Raman excitation source. The system was used to acquire hyperspectral Raman images in a wave number range of 103-2881 cm(-)(1) from the skimmed milk powder mixed with two nitrogen-rich adulterants (i.e., melamine and urea) at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 10,000 ppm. The powdered samples were put in sample holders with a surface area of 150 ×100 mm and a depth of 2 mm for push-broom image acquisition. Varying fluorescence signals from the milk powder were removed using a correction method based on adaptive iteratively reweighted penalised least squares. Image classifications were conducted using a simple thresholding method applied to single-band fluorescence-corrected images at unique Raman peaks selected for melamine (673 cm(-)(1)) and urea (1009 cm(-)(1)). Chemical images were generated by combining individual binary images of melamine and urea to visualise identification, spatial distribution and morphological features of the two adulterant particles in the milk powder. Limits of detection for both melamine and urea were estimated in the order of 50 ppm. High correlations were found between pixel concentrations (i.e., percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images) and mass concentrations of melamine and urea, demonstrating the potential of the high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method for the detection and quantification of adulterants in the milk powder.

  10. Concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk during the first months of lactation and in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the 2nd (colostrum, n = 17), 14th (n = 30), 30th (n = 27) and 90th day of lactation (n = 19), along with 90 samples of commercially available initial and follow-on infant formulas. Concentrations of tocopherols were determined using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Depending on the stage of lactation, human breast milk contained 2.07-9.99 mg L⁻¹ of alpha-tocopherol and 0.22-0.60 mg L⁻¹ of gamma-tocopherol. Breast milk concentrations of alpha-tocopherol decreased with the time of lactation, while significant differences in gamma-tocopherol concentration were observed only between the 14th and 30th day of lactation. There was no significant correlation between the dietary intake of vitamin E and its estimated breast milk concentration, also in women who declared vitamin supplementation. Compared with colostrum, infant formulas were characterised by significantly lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E. This finding indicates the need of additional vitamin E supplementation of bottle-fed infants during the initial 2-3 days of life.

  11. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jensen, Signe Marie; Trolle, Ellen; Larnkjær, Anni

    2012-12-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P < 0.02). There were no significant changes in plasma C-peptide in the skim milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

  12. Stability of urea in solution and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Panyachariwat, Nattakan; Steckel, Hartwig

    2014-01-01

    The stability of urea in solution and pharmaceutical preparations was analyzed as a function of temperature (25°-60°C), pH (3.11-9.67), and initial urea concentration (2.5%-20%). This study was undertaken to (i) obtain more extensive, quantitative information relative to the degradation of urea in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations, and (ii) test the effects of initial urea concentration, pH, buffer, and temperature values on urea degradation. The stability analysis shows that urea is more stable at the pH range of 4-8 and the stability of urea decreases by increase in temperature for all pH values. Within the experimental range of temperature and initial urea concentration values, the lowest urea degradation was found with lactate buffer pH 6.0. The urea decomposition rate in solution and pharmaceutical preparations shows the dependence of the initial urea concentrations. At higher initial urea concentrations, the rate of degradation is a decreasing function with time. This suggests that the reverse reaction is a factor in the degradation of concentrated urea solution. For non-aqueous solvents, isopropanol showed the best effort in retarding the decomposition of urea. Since the losses in urea is directly influenced by its stability at a given temperature and pH, the stability analysis of urea by the proposed model can be used to prevent the loss and optimize the operating condition for urea-containing pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

    2007-12-01

    Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed.

  14. Pelleting in Associated with Sodium Monensin Increases the Conjugated Linoleic Acids Concentration in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Canola Seeds

    PubMed Central

    De Marchi, Francilaine Eloise; Romero, Jakeline Vieira; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Grande, Paula Adriana; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the pelleting and the addition of sodium monensin on production, the chemical and lipid composition of milk and butter physical characteristics, 4 Holstein dairy cows (135 days of lactation) with an average milk production of 14.7 kg/d, were supplemented with a concentrate containing ground canola seeds. The cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: i) ground maize, soybean meal, mineral and vitamin supplements, and ground canola seeds (CG); ii) CG concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg of dry matter (DM); iii) CG pelleted concentrate; iv) CG concentrate with monensin addition pelleted. There was no difference in milk production and composition. The addition of monensin increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio, and omega 6. The pelleting increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, the PUFA/SFA ratio, and the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, but decreased the concentration of SFA. The association between pelleting and the addition of monensin increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids by 46.9%. The physical characteristics of butter were not affected by the evaluated diets. We concluded that the concentrate with 31.5 mg of monensin added per kg DM basis combined with the pelleting improves the lipid composition of milk from Holstein cows that are on pasture and supplemented with ground canola seeds, without changing the production, milk composition, and spreadability of butter. PMID:26104517

  15. Optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea-containing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) antagonists: Reducing hERG-associated liabilities.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Susanne; Egner, Bryan J; Gradén, Henrik; Gradén, Joakim; Morgan, David G A; Inghardt, Tord; Giordanetto, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery and optimization of piperidin-4-yl-urea derivatives as MCH-R1 antagonists is herein described. Previous work around the piperidin-4-yl-amides led to the discovery of potent MCH-R1 antagonists. However, high affinity towards the hERG potassium channel proved to be an issue. Different strategies to increase hERG selectivity were implemented and resulted in the identification of piperidin-4-yl-urea compounds as potent MCH-R1 antagonists with minimized hERG inhibition.

  16. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  17. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    cows of high than in low group, while plasma urea was lower in the high than in the low group. No relationship between plasma GGT and milk GGT activity was observed. Our results show an important effect of lactation stage on milk GGT activity. The individual effect observed from consecutive lactations and the relationship between milk GGT activity and milk protein concentration in healthy cows could open prospects for GGT as a future tool in improving milk protein content.

  18. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  19. Spraying Leaves of Pear Nursery Trees with Urea and Copper Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Alters Tree Nitrogen Concentration without Influencing Tree Susceptibility to Phytophthora syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of nitrogen (N) availability and spraying trees with urea, copper chelate (CuEDTA), and phosphonate-containing fungicides on tree N status and susceptibility to infection by Phytophthora syringae. Increasing soil N availability increased susceptibility and increased N and...

  20. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  1. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation from Mid-Pregnancy to Parturition Influenced Breast Milk Fatty Acid Concentrations at 1 Month Postpartum in Mexican Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff‐Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D.; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, are essential for neural development and accumulate extensively in the fetal and infant brain. (n-3) PUFA concentrations in breast milk, which are largely dependent on maternal diet and tissue stores, are correlated with infant PUFA status. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on PUFA concentrations in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition. Fatty acid concentrations in breast milk obtained from 174 women at 1 mo postpartum were determined using GLC and were expressed as % by weight of total detected fatty acids. Breast milk DHA concentrations in the DHA and placebo groups were (mean ± SD) 0.20 ± 0.06 and 0.17 ± 0.07 (P < 0.01), respectively, and those of α-linolenic acid (ALA) were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.24 ± 0.46 (P = 0.01), respectively. Concentrations of EPA and arachidonic acid did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Maternal plasma DHA concentrations at 1 mo postpartum correlated positively with breast milk DHA at 1 mo postpartum in both the placebo and DHA groups (r = 0.4; P < 0.01 for both treatment groups). Prenatal DHA supplementation from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition increased concentrations of DHA and ALA in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum, providing a mechanism through which breast-fed infants could benefit. PMID:21178076

  3. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  4. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  5. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other.

  6. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  7. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    PubMed

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  8. The Human Milk Metabolome Reveals Diverse Oligosaccharide Profiles123

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; O’Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4–120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4–84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  9. The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4-120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2'-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4-84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127.

  10. Management, nutrition, and lactation performance are related to bulk tank milk de novo fatty acid concentration on northeastern US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Woolpert, M E; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Melilli, C; Chase, L E; Grant, R J; Barbano, D M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship of management practices, dietary characteristics, milk composition, and lactation performance with de novo fatty acid (FA) concentration in bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms with Holstein, Jersey, and mixed-breed cows. It was hypothesized that farms with higher de novo milk FA concentrations would more commonly use management and nutrition practices known to optimize ruminal conditions that enhance de novo synthesis of milk FA. Farms (n=44) located in Vermont and northeastern New York were selected based on a history of high de novo (HDN; 26.18±0.94g/100g of FA; mean ± standard deviation) or low de novo (LDN; 24.19±1.22g/100g of FA) FA in bulk tank milk. Management practices were assessed during one visit to each farm in March or April, 2014. Total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition using near infrared spectroscopy. We found no differences in days in milk at the farm level. Yield of milk fat, true protein, and de novo FA per cow per day were higher for HDN versus LDN farms. The HDN farms had lower freestall stocking density (cows/stall) than LDN farms. Additionally, tiestall feeding frequency was higher for HDN than LDN farms. No differences between HDN and LDN farms were detected for dietary dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, or percentage of forage in the diet. However, dietary ether extract was lower for HDN than LDN farms. This research indicates that overcrowded freestalls, reduced feeding frequency, and greater dietary ether extract content are associated with lower de novo FA synthesis and reduced milk fat and true protein yields on commercial dairy farms.

  11. Impact of urea on detergent micelle properties.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro

    2013-07-09

    Co-solvents, such as urea, can entail drastic changes in the micellization behavior of detergents. We present a systematic quantification of the impact of urea on the critical micellar concentration, the micellization thermodynamics, and the micelle size in three homologous series of commonly used non-ionic alkyl detergents. To this end, we performed demicellization experiments by isothermal titration calorimetry and hydrodynamic size measurements by dynamic light scattering on alkyl maltopyranosides, cyclohexyl alkyl maltopyranosides, and alkyl glucopyranosides at urea concentrations of 0-8 M. For all detergents studied, we found that the critical micellar concentration increases exponentially because the absolute Gibbs free energy of micellization decreases linearly over the entire urea concentration range, as does the micelle size. In contrast, the enthalpic and entropic contributions to micellization reveal more complex, nonlinear dependences on urea concentration. Both free energy and size changes are more pronounced for long-chain detergents, which bury more apolar surface area upon micelle formation. The Gibbs free energy increments per methylene group within each detergent series depend on urea concentration in a linear fashion, although they result from the entropic term for alkyl maltosides but are of enthalpic origin for cyclohexyl alkyl maltosides. We compare our results to transfer free energies of amino acid side chains, relate them to protein-folding data, and discuss how urea-induced changes in detergent micelle properties affect in vitro investigations on membrane proteins.

  12. Dioxin concentrations in breast milk of Vietnamese nursing mothers: a survey four decades after the herbicide spraying.

    PubMed

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Naganuma, Rie; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Morikawa, Yuko; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke; Tawara, Kenji; Nishijo, Hisao

    2011-08-01

    In an operation by United States Armed Forces during 1961 to 1971, large quantities of herbicides were sprayed in South Vietnam. These herbicides contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins. Several decades after the herbicide spraying ceased, dioxin concentrations in the environment and human remained elevated in the sprayed areas. Breast milk samples from 520 nursing mothers residing in areas including the hot spots as well as the sprayed and unsprayed areas were collected to quantify the levels of dioxins. The total toxic equivalents of 2,3,7,8-substitued PCDDs/PCDFs in breast milk of mothers living in the hot spots, and the sprayed and unsprayed areas were 14.10 pg/g lipid, 10.89 pg/g lipid, and 4.09 pg/g lipid for primiparae and 11.48 pg/g lipid, 7.56 pg/g lipid, and 2.84 pg/g lipid for multiparae, respectively, with significant differences in the values among the three areas. In the hot spots, dioxin levels were highly correlated with the residency of mothers after adjustment for their age and parity.

  13. Vatless manufacturing of low-moisture part-skim mozzarella cheese from highly concentrated skim milk microfiltration retentates.

    PubMed

    Ardisson-Korat, A V; Rizvi, S S H

    2004-11-01

    Low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were made from concentration factor (CF) 6, 7, 8, and 9, pH 6.0 skim milk microfiltration (MF) retentates using a vatless cheese-making process. The compositional and proteolytic effects of cheese made from 4 CF retentates were evaluated as well as their functional properties (meltability and stretchability). Pasteurized skim milk was microfiltered using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C to a retentate CF of 6, 7, 8, and 9. An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein:fat ratio in the 4 cheesemilks. The ratio of rennet to casein was also kept constant in the 4 cheesemilks. The compositional characteristics of the cheeses made from MF retentates did not vary with retentate CF and were within the legal range for LMPS Mozzarella cheese. The observed reduction in whey drained was greater than 90% in the cheese making from the 4 CF retentates studied. The development of proteolytic and functional characteristics was slower in the MF cheeses than in the commercial samples that were used for comparison due to the absence of starter culture, the lower level of rennet used, and the inhibition of cheese proteolysis due to the inhibitory effect of residual whey proteins retained in the MF retentates, particularly high molecular weight fractions.

  14. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  15. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  16. Effect of duration and level of supplementation of diets of lactating dairy cows with selenized yeast on selenium concentrations in milk and blood after the withdrawal of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, C R; Gill, H S

    2011-05-01

    Cows' milk containing elevated concentrations of Se provides a rich nutritional source of this essential element for meeting daily nutritional requirements or providing health benefits in humans with low immune function or at risk of cancer. An experiment involving either 2 or 6 wk of dietary supplementation with Se yeast (with the yeast supplying about 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 2 wk, and about 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 6 wk), and 21 wk of monitoring of Se status after the withdrawal of supplementation, was undertaken between September 2008 and April 2009 using 35 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Using milk and blood Se concentrations as surrogates, the research examined the time taken for Se build-up in tissue due to supplementation of lactating dairy cows with Se yeast to dissipate back to normal levels. At the end of Se supplementation, a significant relationship was found between milk Se concentration and Se intake, whereby milk Se concentration had increased by 4.5 μg of Se/kg of milk for each mg of Se eaten per day, but no effect of duration of supplementation on this relationship was observed. At the same time, both Se intake and duration of supplementation affected blood Se concentration; it increased by 3.6 μg of Se/kg of blood for each mg of Se eaten per day, and was 86 μg of Se/kg higher after 6 wk compared with 2 wk of supplementation. After the withdrawal of Se supplementation, milk Se concentrations responded quickly to the change in the quantity of Se consumed, and again, duration of supplementation had no effect on the response, but any effect that Se intake had on milk Se had completely dissipated by 4 wk. In contrast to milk, blood Se concentrations continued to be affected by both amount and duration of Se supplementation for at least 4 mo after the withdrawal of supplementation, although by 5 mo the effects of the previous supplementation treatments had virtually disappeared. The slow

  17. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  18. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of urea in water-soluble urea-formaldehyde fertilizer products and in aqueous urea solutions: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hojjatie, Michael M; Abrams, Dean E; Parham, Thomas M; Balthrop, J; Beine, R; Dickinson, V; Hartshorn, J; Herald, S; Latimer, G; Padmore, J; Pleasants, S; Riter, K; Roser, R; Schmunck, G; Sensmeier, R; Smith, V; Taylor, L; Volgas, G

    2004-01-01

    Water soluble urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizers, manufactured by complex reaction of urea and formaldehyde, typically contain varying amounts of unreacted urea. A liquid chromatography method for the analysis of urea in these products, and in aqueous urea solutions, was collaboratively studied. An amine chromatography column was used to separate the unreacted urea from numerous UF reaction products present in these liquid fertilizers. Unreacted urea was determined by using external urea standards with UV detection at 195 nm. The standards and test samples were prepared in the mobile phase of 85% (v/v) acetonitrile in water. Ten laboratories analyzed 5 different UF-based commercial products containing unreacted urea in the range of 6 to 17% by weight, and 5 different concentrations of urea in water equivalent to commercial products of that nature. The aqueous urea solutions contained 2-20% urea (w/w). The range of s(R) values for the 5 UF-based commercial fertilizers was 0.49-1.02 and the %RSD(R) was 1.94-6.14. The s(R) range for the 5 urea solutions was 0.10 to 0.79 and the %RSD(R) range was 2.54 to 4.88. The average recovery of urea from the aqueous urea solutions was 96-103%. Therefore, this method is capable of monitoring urea nitrogen manufacturers' label claims and total nitrogen claims in those cases where urea is the sole source of plant food nitrogen. Based on the collaborative study data, the authors recommend this method be approved for AOAC Official First Action status.

  20. Two Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Inhibit CYP2C9-Mediated Warfarin Metabolism at Clinically Achievable Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC50 of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 μM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9*1 (6.7 versus 12 μM), rCYP2C9*2 (9.3 versus 19 μM), and rCYP2C9*3 (2.4 versus 9.3 μM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1–15 μM) and six inhibitor (1–80 μM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (Ki values of 4.8 and 10 μM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5–75 μM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  1. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  2. Effect of prepartum photoperiod and melatonin feeding on milk production and prolactin concentration in dairy heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Vinet, C M; Petitclerc, D

    2014-01-01

    Holstein multiparous cows (n = 29) and primiparous heifers (n = 32) calving over a 1-yr period were subjected to photoperiod-melatonin treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial design. Starting 8 wk before expected calving, all animals were subjected to 1 of the following treatments: 8h of light and 16 h of dark (8L:16D), 16 h of light and 8h of dark (16L:8D), or 16L:8D plus melatonin feeding (16L:8D-melatonin). Each day at 1355 h, the animals in the melatonin treatment received orally a gelatin capsule containing 25mg of melatonin. The treatments ended at calving, when the animals were moved to the lactation barn; all animals were then subjected to about 16 h of light per day. At the beginning and end of the treatment period before calving, blood samples were taken from 6 heifers and 6 cows through a jugular cannula for 24h at 30-min intervals to monitor serum melatonin and prolactin concentrations. Milk production in the heifers was not affected by the photoperiod treatments. Early-lactation milk production was higher in the cows exposed to the short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod (16L:8D and 16L:8D-melatonin), with averages of 36.7 ± 0.9, 33.1 ± 0.8, and 34.1 ± 0.9 kg/d for 8L:16D, 16L:8D, and 16L:8D-melatonin, respectively. Photoperiod had no effect on late-lactation milk production in the cows. During lactation, the dry matter intake of heifers was not affected by the treatments, but dry matter intake of the cows exposed to a short-day photoperiod was greater than that of the cows exposed to a long-day photoperiod. Feed efficiency of heifers was improved by short-day photoperiod. During the treatment period, prolactin concentration was lower in the animals exposed to a short-day photoperiod than in those exposed to a long-day photoperiod, was lower with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment than with the 16L:8D treatment, and tended to be lower with the 8L:16D treatment than with the 16L:8D-melatonin treatment, with averages of 3

  3. Development of a Raman chemical image detection algorithm for authenticating dry milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2013-05-01

    This research developed a Raman chemical imaging method for detecting multiple adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0%. A Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1 for a 25×25 mm2 area of each mixture. A polynomial curve-fitting method was used to correct fluorescence background in the Raman images. An image classification method was developed based on single-band fluorescence-free images at unique Raman peaks of the adulterants. Raman chemical images were created to visualize identification and distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the milk powder. Linear relationship was found between adulterant pixel number and adulterant concentration, demonstrating the potential of the Raman chemical imaging for quantitative analysis of the adulterants in the milk powder.

  4. A High-Concentrate Diet Induced Milk Fat Decline via Glucagon-Mediated Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Cao, Yang; Xie, Zhenglu; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and decreases milk fat. Therefore, we investigated the effects of liver lipid metabolism on milk fat synthesis. Ten lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly into HC and LC (low-concentrate) diet groups. After 20 weeks of feeding, milk fat declined, and lipopolysaccharide levels in the jugular, portal, and hepatic veins increased in the HC group. Liver consumption and release of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) into the bloodstream also decreased. AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) was up-regulated significantly in the livers of the HC-fed cows. The HC diet also up-regulated the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and its downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1,2 (CPT-1, CPT-2), liver-fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). The HC diet increased blood glucagon (GC) levels, and liver glucagon receptor (GCGR) expression was elevated. Cumulatively, a long-term HC diet decreased plasma concentrations of NEFA via the GC/GCGR-AMPK-PPARα signalling pathway and reduced their synthesis in the liver. The decreased NEFA concentration in the blood during HC feeding may explain the decline in the milk fat of lactating cows. PMID:28287130

  5. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    PubMed

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  6. Short communication: Urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different temperature, urea, and pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L E; Burgos, S A; DePeters, E J; Zhang, R; Fadel, J G

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the rate of urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different initial urea concentration, temperature, and pH conditions. In particular, by varying all 3 factors simultaneously, the interactions between them could also be determined. Fresh feces and artificial urine solutions were combined into a slurry to characterize the rate of urea hydrolysis under 2 temperatures (15°C and 35°C), 3 urea concentrations in urine solutions (500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL), and 3 pH levels (6, 7, and 8). Urea N concentration in slurry was analyzed at 0.0167, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after initial mixing. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to determine the effects of urea concentration, pH, and temperature treatments on the exponential rate of urea hydrolysis and to predict the hydrolysis rate for each treatment combination. We detected a significant interaction between pH and initial urea level. Increasing urea concentration from 1,000 to 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL decreased the rate of urea hydrolysis across all pH levels. Across all pH and initial urea levels, the rate of urea hydrolysis increased with temperature, but the effect of pH was only observed for pH 6 versus pH 8 at the intermediate initial urea concentration. The fast rates of urea hydrolysis indicate that urea was almost completely hydrolyzed within a few hours of urine mixing with feces. The estimated urea hydrolysis rates from this study are likely maximum rates because of the thorough mixing before each sampling. Although considerable mixing of feces and urine occurs on the barn floor of commercial dairy operations from cattle walking through the manure, such mixing may be not as quick and thorough as in this study. Consequently, the urea hydrolysis rates from this study indicate the maximum loss of urea and should be accounted for in management aimed at mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure under similar urea concentration, p

  7. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  8. Urea transport through composite polyallylamine membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Kubo, L. Y.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.; Clark, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Polyallylamine composite reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by plasma polymerization and deposition onto small-pored cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate films. The polyallylamine coated the porous substrate with a thin uniform polymer film which exhibited water permeability and urea rejection, of interest because of the potential application of reverse osmosis to urine purification in closed environmental systems. The flux of C-14 labeled urea was studied under the influence of osmotic gradients provided by sodium chloride solutions. The urea flux was found to be enhanced by an osmotic pressure gradient in the same direction and diminished, but not prevented, by an opposing osmotic pressure gradient. Consideration is given to the mechanism of the urea transport, as well as to the influence of concentration polarization on the experimental results. The minimization of coupled flow in pores of a critical size range is apparently necessary to improve urea rejection.

  9. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed.

  10. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    PubMed

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  11. Milk fever and dietary cation-anion balance effects on concentration of vitamin D receptor in tissue of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Reinhardt, T A; Horst, R L

    1995-11-01

    Milk fever is the clinical disease associated with severe hypocalcemia in dairy cows. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that calcium homeostasis is a result of a decreased concentration of receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the tissues of cows that develop milk fever. Samples of colon mucosa were obtained for analysis of vitamin D receptor concentration in a longitudinal study of Jersey cows during the 2 wk before and after parturition. In the first study, 21 cows fed an alfalfa hay diet were biopsied every 3rd d from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. The concentration of vitamin D receptor in the colon during late gestation was three- to fourfold higher than the concentration of vitamin D receptor in the colon mucosa in nonpregnant cows (90 +/- 8 vs. 26 +/- 5 fmol/mg of protein). At parturition, colon concentration of vitamin D receptor decreased to 66 +/- 7.5 fmol/mg of protein. During early lactation, concentrations of vitamin D receptor in the colon were similar to precalving concentrations. There was no significant difference of concentrations of vitamin D receptor in the colon prior to calving, at calving, or in early lactation between cows that did develop milk fever and those that did not. Results were similar in a second study, in which 7 cows were fed a high cation alfalfa diet, and 6 cows were fed the same diet with anionic salts added. Those data do not support the hypothesis that decreased concentrations of vitamin D receptor prior to calving is a causative factor of milk fever within the Jersey breed. However, a decline of concentrations of vitamin D receptor in tissue at calving may reduce the ability of all cows to respond to the calcium demands of lactation.

  12. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  13. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  14. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-05-20

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  15. [Urea formation in the after operational liver].

    PubMed

    Savilov, P N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of resection of the left lobe of the liver (LR, 15-20% og the organ weight) on hepatic urea formation was investigated in 84 albino rats. The objects of study were the surgery left (LLP), inoperable middle (MLP) lobe of the liver, blood (aorta, v. hepatica, v. porta) and choledochal bile. They studied the urea content. Arginase activity was examined in liver homogenate. On the day 3 and day 7 after resection reduced arginase activity was detected. LR caused a decrease of urea in v. hepatica, but increased urea content in the arterial blood and v. porta. Increase in bile urea on day 7 it was replaced by a decrease observed on day 14 of the postsurgery period. The concentration of urea in the liver on the 3rd day after LR was below the norm, and on the 7th and 14th day was within it. The results indicate a violation of urea operated by hepatocytes of the liver and extrahepatic activation mechanisms of the formation of urea.

  16. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  17. Short communication: Variation of total immunoglobulin G and β-lactoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Fleming, K; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hodgins, D C; Miglior, F; Corredig, M; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate IgG and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) concentrations in colostrum and milk of Canadian Holsteins (n=108) classified as high (H), average (A), or low (L) for antibody-mediated (AMIR) or cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) based on estimated breeding values. It was hypothesized that H-AMIR and H-CMIR cows produce colostrum (first milking) and milk (d 5 postcalving) with higher concentrations of IgG and β-LG. Data for IgG and β-LG in colostrum and milk were analyzed independently using mixed linear models. Least squares means were compared using Tukey's test. Cows classified as H-AMIR had higher IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum compared with A- and L-AMIR cows; 84% of H-AMIR, 69% of A-AMIR, and 68% of L-AMIR cows had over 5,000 mg/dL IgG in colostrum. No differences in IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum were noted among cows ranked on CMIR or in milk of cows ranked on AMIR. β-Lactoglobulin and IgG concentrations were positively correlated in colostrum. Breeding cows for H-AMIR status may reduce failure of passive transfer of IgG in their calves; β-LG may play a role in bovine immune defenses. Colostrum from H-AMIR cows may serve as a more economical feedstock source for manufacturing natural health products.

  18. Short communication: Annatto in Cheddar cheese-derived whey protein concentrate is primarily associated with milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Damodaran, S

    2012-02-01

    The yellow color of Cheddar cheese whey arises from a residual amount of annatto that partitions into the whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture. Bleaching of the color using hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide is often a prerequisite to produce an acceptable neutral-colored whey protein concentrate and isolate. However, the use of these strong oxidizing agents often generates off-flavors as a result of lipid oxidation and results in loss of nutritive value due to protein oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of partitioning of annatto between protein, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and aqueous (serum) phases of cheese whey so that a simple method can be developed to remove annatto from cheese whey. The MFGM was separated from Cheddar cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of annatto in the fat-free whey protein isolate (WPI), the MFGM fractions, and the serum phase revealed that annatto was not bound to the protein fraction but was mostly distributed between the serum phase and the MFGM fraction. The results showed that a colorless WPI or whey protein concentrate could be produced from Cheddar cheese whey by separation of MFGM from the whey, followed by diafiltration. This approach will negate the need for using bleaching agents.

  19. Effect of concentration, homogenization and stabilizing salts on heat stability and rheological properties of cow skim milk ultrafiltered retentate.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Panjagari, Narender Raju

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) of skimmed milk altered the composition of UF retentate and decreased the heat stability. Heat stability further reduced upon its subsequent homogenization or diafiltration. Poor heat stability of UF retentate restricts its processing at elevated temperatures. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of protein concentration, homogenization and addition of stabilizing salts on the heat stability and rheological properties of UF retentates. Changes in the heat stability of fivefold homogenized UF retentate (5× HUFR) was studied in the pH range of 6.1-7.0. Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate significantly increased the heat coagulation time (HCT) from 1.45 min (pH 6.41) to 120 min (at pH 6.5, 6.6, 7.0) and 80 min (pH 6.6), respectively. Significant reduction in ζ-potential of UF retentates was observed with an increase in calcium and reduction in pH during UF process. Rheological behaviour of retentates above threefold concentration exhibited Herschel-Bulkley behavior with linear increase in flow behavior index (n). Changes in the viscosity of the homogenized retentates were measured at the respective pH of maximum heat stability as a function of temperature (20-80 °C). Promising approaches that might improve the heat stability, solubility and other functional properties of protein rich powders have been discussed in this article.

  20. Concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins facilitate osteogenesis through activation of the JNK-ATF4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro; Jack, Ralph W

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated fractions of low molecular weight whey proteins (1-30 kDa), that is concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins (CBP), have been found to enhance bone formation in both in vivo and clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we found that CBP promoted osteoblastic differentiation in normal human osteoblasts, and determined the involvement of the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. We observed that alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were significantly induced by CBP treatment. In addition, mRNA expression of ATF4 was intensely elevated in CBP-treated osteoblasts, indicating that the late-phase events of differentiation were promoted. We found that CBP activated the phosphorylation of JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the various signaling pathway-specific inhibitors revealed that JNK activation, but not ERK activation, is essential for CBP-induced mineralization and ATF4 expression. Our results indicate that the JNK-mediated ATF4 pathway is required for CBP-promotive osteogenesis.

  1. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-02-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence.

  2. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, M R; Valtorta, S E; Leva, P E; Gaggiotti, M C; Conti, G A; Gregoret, R F

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  3. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  4. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products.

  5. Decreasing retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in human milk and infant formula using varied bottle systems.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Dickton, Darby; Twedt, Roxanna; Pardini, Ron

    2012-04-01

    Expressing human milk has become a more common alternative for mothers, as the average work demand has increased. As more mothers must work, bottle feeding trends are increasingly common. The handling and storage of human milk introduce the risk of degradation to expressed human milk and infant formula. In following a 20-minute simulated feeding, Vitamin C has been found to degrade. Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant and is responsible for shielding other nutrients from oxidation, such as retinol and alpha-tocopherol. By analyzing a 20-minute simulated feeding, retinol and alpha-tocopherol each displayed decreases over time significantly different than that of the Control, which was milk not exposed to bottle feeding. In human milk, retinol showed as high as a 9.5% decrease compared to the Control. Similar trends were seen with the infant formula samples. The correlation between degradation and bottle feeding systems was dependent upon the formation of bubbles in the milk as the milk was removed from the bottle. The analysis indicated a decrease of up to 12%, as seen in retinol, and 35%, as seen in alpha-tocopherol. These decreases in retinol and alpha-tocopherol should be considered when using a bottle feeding system to deliver either human milk or formula to an infant. More research is necessary to determine the effect of this decrease on the nutritional status of infants, particularly premature infants, who are at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies.

  6. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.

  7. Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C.

  8. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  9. How does the urea dynamics differ from water dynamics inside the reverse micelle?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Abhigyan; Khade, Rahul V; Hazra, Partha

    2011-09-29

    In this study, the urea dynamics inside AOT reverse micelle (RM) has been monitored without intervention of water using time-resolved fluorescence techniques from the picosecond to nanosecond time regime. It has been observed that urea dynamics inside the reverse micelle is severely retarded compared to water RM due to the formation of highly networked urea cluster inside the RM. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy study also confirms the existence of a confined environment around the dye at higher concentrations of urea inside the reverse micelle. The dynamics of urea-water mixtures inside AOT reverse micelle has also been monitored with increasing urea concentration to get insight about the effect of urea on the overall solvation dynamics feature. It has been observed that with the increase in urea concentration, the overall dynamics becomes slower, and it infers the presence of few water or urea molecules, those strongly associated with surrounding urea and (or) water by hydrogen bonds.

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth parameters in milk as measured by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Martin, J D; Werner, B G; Hotchkiss, J H

    2003-06-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth by dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) has been well established in many foods including dairy foods. However, the effects of dissolved CO2 on specific growth parameters such as length of lag phase, time to maximum growth rate, and numbers of organisms at the stationary phase have not been quantified for organisms of concern in milk. The effect of dissolved CO2 concentrations of 0.6 to 61.4 mM on specific bacterial growth parameters in raw or single organism inoculated sterile milk was determined at 15 degrees C by conductance. Commingled raw or sterile milks were amended to a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml each of urea and arginine HCl. Sterile milks were inoculated singly with one of six different microorganisms to a final concentration of approximately 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/ml; raw milk was adjusted to a final indigenous bacterial population of approximately 10(3) cfu/ml. Conductivity of the milk was recorded every 60 s over 4 to 5 d in a circulating apparatus at 15 degrees C. Conductivity values were fit to Gompertz equations and growth parameters calculated. Conductance correlated with plate counts and was satisfactory for monitoring microbial growth. Data fit the Gompertz equation with high correlation (R2 = 0.96 to 1.00). In all cases, dissolved CO2 significantly inhibited growth of raw milk bacteria, influencing lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases as well as all tested monocultures.

  11. Combined urea-thin layer chromatography and silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography for micro separation and determination of hard-to-detect branched chain fatty acids in natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yijun; Xiang, Jingying; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Huijun; Yao, Yunping; Liu, Ruijie; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe

    2015-12-18

    A simple, fast and efficient procedure was developed for micro separation and enrichment of branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) from natural products using successive thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique coupling novel urea-TLC with AgNO3-TLC, which rely on the formation of urea adduction and AgNO3 bonding in methanol. These natural lipids contain a significant amount of straight chain fatty acids (FA). Fresh and fast urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC plate making techniques were developed with more even coating and less coating material contamination before being utilized for separation. Goat milk fat was used as a model. Various experimental parameters that affect urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC separation of BCFA were investigated and optimized, including coating of urea, concentration of original oil sample, mobile phase and sample application format. High efficiency of removal of straight chain FA was achieved with a low amount of sample in an easy and fast way. A total BCFA mix with much higher purity than previous studies was successfully achieved. The developed method has also been applied for the concentration and analysis of BCFA in cow milk fat and Anchovy oil.

  12. Determination of free Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in breast milk of U.S. women using a sensitive LC/MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, Stephanie M; Browne, Eva P; O'Keefe, Patrick W; Anderton, Douglas L; Kramer, Lawrence; Reckhow, David A; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic, endocrine-disrupting compound. Free BPA has been detected in human samples indicating that humans are internally exposed to estrogenically active BPA. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect free BPA in human breast milk. BPA was isolated from the milk of 21 nursing mothers in the U.S. by solid-phase extraction. It was then derivatized to improve sensitivity and subsequently analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPA was detected in 62% of the milk samples (≤ 0.22-10.8 ng mL(-1), median 0.68 ng mL(-1), mean 3.13 ng mL(-1)). No statistical difference in BPA concentrations was observed between women with a low or high Body Mass Index (BMI) (<30 (n=11) and>30 (n=10), respectively). However, there was a significant association between BPA concentration and race. Caucasian women had significantly higher levels of free BPA in their breast milk than non-Caucasian women (mean=4.44 (n=14) and 0.52 (n=7), respectively; p<0.05). The difference between races could be attributed to variations in exposure, lifestyle or metabolism and suggests that certain populations should take extra precautions to limit BPA exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation.

  13. [Plasma urea along with every plasma creatinine test?].

    PubMed

    van Zwam, Marloes; Wetzels, Jack F M; Willems, Hans L

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of plasma creatinine and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated from plasma creatinine, age, weight, and gender, are used to assess kidney function. In routine clinical practice the concentration of plasma urea is often determined at the same time as the creatinine concentration. Urea is a waste product of the breakdown of amino acids and is excreted by the kidneys. Thus reduced kidney function results in a rise of blood urea. In addition, the urea concentration is determined by protein supply and catabolism. The sensitivity and specificity of urea in the diagnosis of kidney dysfunction are therefore low. In only a limited number of cases might measuring urea be helpful in determining the cause of reduced kidney function.

  14. Instrumental and Sensory Texture Attributes of High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-05-01

    Previous instrumental study of high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars formulated with extruded milk protein concentrate (MPC) indicated slower hardening compared to bars formulated with unmodified MPC. However, hardness, and its change during storage, insufficiently characterizes HPN bar texture. In this study, MPC80 was extruded at 2 different conditions and model HPN bars were prepared. A trained sensory panel and instrumental techniques were used to measure HPN bar firmness, crumbliness, fracturability, hardness, cohesiveness, and other attributes to characterize texture change during storage. Extrusion modification, storage temperature, and storage time significantly affected the instrumental and sensory panel measured texture attributes. The HPN bars became firmer and less cohesive during storage. When evaluated at the same storage conditions, the texture attributes of the HPN bars formulated with the different extrudates did not differ significantly from each other. However, textural differences were noted most of the time between the control and the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80. An adapted HPN bar crumbliness measurement technique produced results that were correlated with sensory panel measured crumbliness (r = 0.85) and cohesiveness (r = -0.84). Overall, the HPN bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were significantly softer, less crumbly, and more cohesive than the control during storage.

  15. Ovarian dynamics and milk progesterone concentrations in cycling and non-cycling buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis) during Ovsynch program.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Fahmy, S

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate ovarian dynamics and progesterone concentrations in cyclic (CYC, n=10) and non-cyclic (NCY, n=8) buffalo-cows during Ovsynch program. All cows received GnRH on day 0, PGF2alpha on day 7, and GnRH on day 9, and AI 14 h later. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound and milk samples were collected for progesterone (P4) analysis. The first GnRH resulted in ovulation in CYC (90%) and NCY (62.5%) cows. By day 7, almost all cows had large follicle and lutein tissue. Luteolytic responses to PGF2alpha were 80 and 87.5% for CYC and NCY cows, respectively. Following second GnRH, ovulation occurred in 80% of CYC and 100% of NCY cows. Ovulation began earlier (12 h following second GnRH) and extended for longer (36 h) in NCY cows, when compared to CYC cows (36 and 12 h, respectively). The mean P4 levels increased from days 0 through 7 in CYC and NCY cows and levels were higher in CYC group. Conception rates were 60 and 37.5% in CYC and NYC cows, respectively. Early and asynchronous ovulation and luteal sub-function seemed to be a problem in NCY cows. Inseminating NCY cows twice, at 0 and 24 h of the second GnRH is recommended.

  16. Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2010-07-14

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility.

  17. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  18. Replacing soybean meal for wet brewer's grains or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for wet brewer's grains (WBG) or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The second investigated whether WBG ensiled with corn kept animal performance in low- and high-producing dairy cows compared with WBG. In experiment I, 40 Holstein cows were used in 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments comprised WBG or urea as partial replacement for SBM, as follows: control (diet based on SBM and 1 % of urea), 10 % of WBG, 20 % of WBG, and 2 % of urea. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by treatments. WBG increased milk yield linearly, but it decreased with urea. Milk fat content responded quadratically to WBG levels. Milk protein content decreased, while plasma urea nitrogen increased with high urea addition. In experiment II, 42 Holstein cows were divided into two groups according to production levels. Eighteen cows composed the group of low producing, while the high-producing group comprised 24 cows. The experimental design was a crossover with two periods of 14 days. The experimental treatments consisted of feeding WBG or WBG ensiled with ground corn. Regardless of the production level, no difference in milk yield and milk composition between treatments was observed.

  19. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  20. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2016-12-20

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  1. The effect of feeding canola meal on concentrations of plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2014-03-01

    An initial meta-analysis on isonitrogenous experiments where a protein source was replaced by canola meal (CM) showed that CM feeding increased yields of milk and milk protein and apparent N efficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if these responses were related to increased changes in plasma AA concentrations. Although only half of the experiments of the initial meta-analysis reported concentrations of plasma AA and could be used in the current meta-analysis, lactational responses to CM feeding were similar to those reported previously. In the current meta-analysis, CM feeding increased plasma concentrations of total AA, total essential AA (EAA) and all individual EAA, but decreased concentrations of blood and milk urea-N. The current meta-analysis suggests that CM feeding increased the absorption of EAA, which would be responsible for the increased milk protein secretion and the increased apparent N efficiency.

  2. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    PubMed

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  3. Messenger RNA expression and immunolocalization of psoriasin in the goat mammary gland and its milk concentration after an intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G W; Lai, S J; Yoshimura, Y; Isobe, N

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasin (S100A7) is a member of the S100 protein family of calcium-binding proteins and plays a crucial role in local host defenses. The present study aimed to identify the expression of S100A7 in the goat mammary gland and in milk. The goat S100A7 coding DNA sequence was identified using direct sequencing. An S100A7 antibody was raised in rabbits by immunization with a synthetic S100A7 peptide consisting of 13 amino acids. Messenger RNA expression and protein localization in different regions of a healthy mammary gland were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in the concentration of S100A7 in the milk after an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined by an enzyme immunoassay. The goat S100A7 peptide had 98% and 86% sequence similarity to that of sheep and bovines, respectively. The S100A7 mRNA expression was higher in the teat and udder skin than in the cistern and parenchyma of the mammary gland. Immunoreactive S100A7 was localized in the epithelial cells of the alveolus and gland cistern, and stratified squamous epithelium of the teat. Psoriasin as a secreted protein was detectable in healthy milk, and an intramammary LPS infusion increased the concentration of S100A7 in the milk. The results suggest that S100A7 is produced in the epithelial cells of the mammary gland and is secreted into the milk.

  4. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of jujube fruit on the concentrations of some toxic trace elements in human milk

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hasanghaliaei, Najmeh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ghannadi, Alireza; Yazdi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to investigate the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in the human milk, and to assess the effect of jujube fruit consumption by lactating mothers in reducing the concentration of these heavy metals in their milk. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014 among forty postpartum mothers in Isfahan, the second largest and polluted city in Iran. Mothers were randomized into two groups; the intervention group received 15 g/day of fresh jujube fruit, and the controls received routine care for 8 weeks. Results: In the beginning, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic were high, without significant difference between groups. The mean (standard deviation) concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic were 29.49 (16.6), 4.65 (3.51), and 1.23 (0.63) μg/L, respectively. The smoothed empirical distribution of environmental pollutants showed that in both groups the mean values and variance of toxic metals decreased after 8 weeks, with a sharper decline in the intervention group. Quantile regression analysis showed that in the intervention group, lead concentration decreased by 2.54 μg/L at the 90th quintile, and cadmium decreased by 0.19 μg/Lat 75th quintile; without significant change in arsenic level. The corresponding figures were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The concentrations of heavy metals were high in human milk, and the consumption of jujube fruit had some beneficial effects in reducing these harmful elements. Pregnant and lactating mothers should be advised to reduce their exposure to environmental pollutants, and consumption of some natural medicinal foods can be useful in reducing the concentration of pollutants in human milk. Because of numerous benefits of breast milk, in spite of the existence of some toxic trace elements, breastfeeding must be encouraged because such contaminants are also found in water and formula. The impact of the current findings on the

  5. Performance of tropical dairy cows fed whole crop rice silage with varying levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Sadudee

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of concentrate/milk yield ratios on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and milk production in dairy cows fed with a basal diet of whole crop rice silage (WCRS). Sixteen crossbred cows (75 % Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 25 % Thai cows) in mid-lactation were assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments corresponding to four concentrate/milk yield ratios (0, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 (kg/kg)) were used. All cows were offered WCRS (with 1.5 % urea and 3 % molasses) ad libitum. Silage and concentrate were fed individually twice a day. Results revealed that dry matter intake (12.8-14.5 kg/day), nutrient digestibility (62.5-68.7 %), and rumen fermentation efficiency were not significantly affected by concentrate supplementation. Milk yield (10.2-11.5 kg/day) and milk composition were similar between cows fed with sole WCRS and those supplemented with concentrate mixture, although milk fat tended to increase in cows fed with sole WCRS. In conclusion, sole WCRS fed to dairy cows without concentrate supplementation resulted in similar feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and milk production as compared to those supplemented with concentrate in lactating dairy cows. These results suggest that in tropical areas where rice crop is surplus, WCRS could sustain reasonable levels of milk production among dairy cows with little or no concentrate supplementation provided that urea and molasses are included in the silage.

  6. Coulometric titration of urea with electrogenerated hypobromite.

    PubMed

    Kato, Jun; Koseki, Takuma; Aoki, Yukie; Yamada, Ayako; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A definitive method is described for the indirect assay of several tens of milligrams of urea by coulometric titration. Urea was decomposed in concentrated sulfuric acid using a Kjeldahl flask. Subsequently, the formed ammonium ion was titrated with electrogenerated hypobromite ion in a sodium bromide-sodium tetraborate medium of pH 8.6, with amperometric end-point detection. Parameters affecting the pretreatment procedure were evaluated. The optimized conditions included the heating of 2 g of urea at around 300°C for 2 h with 10 cm(3) of sulfuric acid. Under the proposed conditions, the assay value with expanded uncertainty (k = 2), 99.870 ± 0.026%, agreed well with the certified value of NIST SRM 912a urea, 99.9 ± 0.1%.

  7. Evaluating percentage of roughage in lamb finishing diets containing 40% dried distillers grains: growth, serum urea nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin growth factor-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of percentage of roughage on growth, serum urea N, NEFA, and IGF-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid (FA) characteristics were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs (n = 33). Lambs were individually fed ad libitum pelleted diets for 98 d containing 40% dried distillers grains and other ingredients, with 10% (CSH10), 20% (CSH20), or 30% (CSH30) cottonseed hulls replacing an increasing amount of ground sorghum grain. Results indicated no interaction between diet and day for lamb BW, ADG, or G:F. Percentage of roughage did not affect lamb BW, even though ADG linearly increased (P = 0.005) as cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Increasing percentage of cottonseed hulls in the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) daily DMI, which resulted in a linear increase (P = 0.001) in degradable protein intake. All lambs had similar G:F: 0.200, 0.181, and 0.190 for lambs fed CSH10, CSH20, and CSH30 diets, respectively. Diet x day interactions were not observed (P > 0.45) for serum urea N, NEFA, or IGF-1 concentrations. Serum urea N linearly increased (P = 0.005) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. All lambs had similar NEFA concentrations, but serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Lambs had similar wool fiber characteristics except that average fiber curvature and SD of fiber curvature linearly increased (P = 0.03) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were not affected (P > 0.19) by diet, except for body wall thickness (quadratic, P = 0.03) and a linear decrease in sustained tenderness (P = 0.02) as the percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. As cottonseed hulls increased in the diet, percentages of myristic and palmitoleic (linear, P < 0.05) and arachidic SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) decreased and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased (linear, P = 0.007). When sorghum grain and cottonseed hull prices

  8. Particle Size of Milk Protein Concentrate Powder Affects the Texture of High-Protein Nutrition Bars During Storage.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2017-03-07

    Milk protein concentrate powder with 85% protein (MPC85) was jet-milled to give 2 particle size distributions (that is, JM-Coarse and JM-Fine) or freeze-dried (FD), in order to improve the functional properties of MPC85 for use in high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars. Volume-weighted mean diameter decreased from 86 μm to 49, 22, and 8 μm in FD, JM-Coarse, and JM-Fine, respectively (P < 0.05). The MPC85 powders modified by jet-milling and freeze-drying were significantly denser than the control MPC85 (P < 0.05). Volume of occluded air in the modified powders decreased (P < 0.05) by an order of magnitude, yet only FD possessed a lower volume of interstitial air (P < 0.05). Particle size reduction and freeze-drying MPC85 decreased its water holding capacity and improved its dispersibility by at least 20%. Contact angle measurements showed that these modifications increased initial hydrophobicity and did not improve wettability. HPN bars made from JM-Fine or FD were firmer by 40 or 17 N, respectively, than the control on day 0 (P < 0.05). HPN bar maximum compressive force increased by 38%, 33%, and 242% after 42 d at 32 °C when formulated with JM-Fine, FD, or control MPC85, respectively. HPN bars prepared with JM-Fine were less crumbly than those formulated with control or FD MPC85. Physically altering the particle structure of MPC85 improved its ability to plasticize within HPN bars and this improved their cohesiveness and textural stability.

  9. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  10. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E

    2014-11-01

    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more

  11. Yield and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbeliarde cows milked twice or once daily.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Pradel, P; Verdier-Metz, I; Rémond, B

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk properties and the yield and sensory properties of Cantal cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbéliarde cows milked once or twice daily. Sixty-four grazing cows [32 Holstein (H) and 32 Montbéliarde (M) cows] in the declining phase of lactation (157 d in milk) were allocated to 1 of 2 equivalent groups milked once daily (ODM) or twice daily (TDM) for 7 wk. The full-fat raw milk collected during 24 h from the 4 groups of cows (M-TDM, M-ODM, H-TDM, and H-ODM) was pooled and processed into Cantal cheese 4 times during the last 4 wk of the experimental period. In all, 16 cheeses were made (2 milking frequencies x 2 breeds x 4 replicates) and analyzed after a ripening period of 15 and 28 wk. The results showed that for both breeds, the pooled milk content of fat, whey protein, casein, total protein, and phosphorus as well as rennet clotting time and curd firming time were significantly higher with ODM cows, whereas the casein-to-total protein ratio was lower, and lactose, urea, calcium, and free fatty acids contents of milk remained unchanged. The acidification and draining kinetics of the cheese as well as cheese yields and the chemical and rheological properties of the ripened cheese were not significantly modified by milking frequency. For both breeds, the cheeses derived from ODM cows had a slightly yellower coloration but the other sensory attributes, except for pepper odor, were not significantly affected by milking frequency, thereby demonstrating that ODM does not have an adverse effect on the sensory properties of Cantal cheese. Compared with that of Holstein cows, milk from Montbéliarde cows resulted in a higher cheese yield (+1.250 kg/100 kg of milk) and ripened cheeses with lower pH, dry matter, calcium, sodium chloride, and water-soluble nitrogen concentrations. These cheeses had also a less firm and more elastic texture, a more acidic taste, and a yogurt/whey aroma.

  12. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  13. Effects of corn silage particle size, supplemental hay, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen pH, feed preference, and milk fat profile of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared

  14. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring.

  15. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; March, Kaitlin M.; Chen, Nancy N.; Stamm, Rosemary A.; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I.; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Green, Tim J.; Whitfield, Kyly C.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001). PMID:28287490

  16. Slow ammonia release from urea: rumen and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N; Lusby, K S; Mizwicki, K; Forero, O

    1980-03-01

    A new slow-release urea (SRU) made by coating prilled urea with a tung oil-linseed oil-talc-catalyst mixture was evaluated for ammonia-nitrogen release rate, animal acceptability, toxicity and effects on dry matter digestibility, diet intake and nitrogen retention. When added at a level equal to 1% urea in an 80% concentrate steer diet and fed twice daily, SRU gave a ruminal ammonia-nitrogen peak 1 hr postfeeding of 32 mg/dl compared to a peak from prilled urea of 53 mg/dl at 30 minutes. Bi-hourly feeding of prilled urea and SRU produced similar rumen ammonia-nitrogen levels and demonstrated that SRU was almost completely hydrolyzed in the rumen. Steers fasted for 26 hr and refed with supplements containing 10% urea from prilled urea had rumen ammonia levels of 120 ml/dl and showed muscle tremors 35 min after feeding. Rumen ammonia levels of steers fed equivalent urea from SRU remained below 35 ml/dl and exhibited no toxicity symptoms. Sheep fed ad libitum cottonseed hulls were offered a supplement containing 5% or 10% urea from urea or SRU once daily. Intake of SRU supplement was 7 and 17% greater, while cottonseed hull intakes were similar for sheep fed urea or SRU at the 5 and 10% levels. In a nitrogen balance trial, steers were fed ad libitum cottonseed hulls unsupplemented or supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of SRU, prilled urea or soybean meal. Added nitrogen from all sources increased cottonseed hull intake. Steers fed SRU consumed more (P less than .05) cottonseed hulls than steers fed urea. Dry matter digestibility and nitrogen retention values tended to be highest for steers fed soybean meal supplement with little difference noted between prilled urea and SRU supplements.

  17. Preparation and affinity identification of glutamic acid-urea small molecule analogs in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zheng; Yang, Deyong; Fan, Weiwei; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Xiancheng; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Qifeng; Song, Xishuang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, study concerning activity inhibitors of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been concentrated on the glutamic urea (Glu-urea-R) small molecule and its analogs. The present study aimed to synthesize 4 analogs of Glu-urea-R and identify the affinities of these compounds to PSMA. The compounds were synthesized from raw materials, and the experimental procedures of the present study were in accordance with standard techniques under anhydrous and anaerobic conditions. Glu-urea-Lysine (Glu-urea-Lys), Glu-urea-Ornithine (Glu-urea-Orn), Glu-urea-Glutamine (Glu-urea-Gln) and Glu-urea-Asparagine (Glu-urea-Asn) were successfully synthesized, and their structures were confirmed to be as desired using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. An affinity assay was performed to detect the affinity between the various compounds and PSMA expressed from the prostate cancer LNCap cell line. Glu-urea-Gln had the highest affinity to PSMA, followed by Glu-urea-Asn, Glu-urea-Orn and Glu-urea-Lys. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Glu-urea-R specifically binds PSMA expressed in the LNCap cell line and inhibits its activity. PMID:27446384

  18. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rösgen, Jörg; Bolen, D. Wayne; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins. PMID:17693466

  19. Molecular Basis of the Apparent Near Ideality of Urea Solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Rosgen, Jorg; Bolen, D Wayne; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-11-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Activity coefficients of urea solutions are calculated to explore the mechanism of its solution properties, which form the basis for its well-known use as a strong protein denaturant. We perform free energy simulations of urea solutions in different urea concentrations using two urea models (OPLS and KBFF models) to calculate and decompose the activity coefficients. For the case of urea, we clarify the concept of the ideal solution in different concentration scales and standard states and its effect on our subsequent analysis. The analytical form of activity coefficients depends on the concentration units and standard states. For both models studied, urea displays a weak concentration dependence for excess chemical potential. However, for the OPLS force-field model, this results from contributions that are independent of concentration to the van der Waals and electrostatic components whereas for the KBFF model those components are nontrivial but oppose each other. The strong ideality of urea solutions in some concentration scales (incidentally implying a lack of water perturbation) is discussed in terms of recent data and ideas on the mechanism of urea denaturation of proteins.

  20. Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Munirul Islam, M; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bruce German, J; Gillies, Laura A; Shafiqur Rahman, Ahmed; Drake, Christiana; Jamil, Kazi M; Lewis, Bess L; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-06-01

    Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

  1. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  2. Monitoring and estimating concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans in cattle milk and soils of Rhine-Delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Wever, H; Olie, K; van de Guchte, K; Liem, A K; van Oosterom, R A; van Zorge, J

    1996-08-01

    In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 microg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation.

  3. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Mustafa, A F; Seguin, P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio. Soybean silage and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, energy-corrected milk and milk efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and total solids concentrations were not influenced by dietary treatments (average 3.0, 4.7, and 12.6%, respectively). However, cows fed SS produced milk with greater milk fat (3.8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by silage type. We concluded that forage SS, when compared with AS, had a negative impact on feed intake and milk yield, whereas energy-corrected milk, milk efficiency, and total tract nutrient digestion were similar.

  4. Bone mass and breast milk calcium concentration are associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Cabello, Giselda M K; Mendonça, Laura M C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2008-02-01

    Lactation-associated bone loss has been reported in adolescent mothers. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may contribute to differences in the physiologic skeletal response to lactation in these mothers. We evaluated the influence of VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI, BsmI, and TaqI on bone mass, bone and calcium-related hormones, and breast milk calcium of lactating adolescents with habitually low calcium intake. Total body bone mineral content (TBMC), total body bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD), serum hormones [intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1), prolactin, and estradiol), and breast milk calcium were measured in 40 lactating Brazilian adolescents (15-18 y), and compared by VDR genotype subgroups after adjustment for calcium intake and postmenarcheal and lactational periods. TBMD and LSBMD Z scores were -0.55 +/- 1.01 and -1.15 +/- 1.48, respectively. LSBMD was higher (21%; P < 0.05) in adolescents with the aa genotype (n = 5) compared with those with the AA genotype (n = 7). TBMC and IGF1 were higher (23 and 50%, respectively; P < 0.05) in adolescents with tt (n = 4) than those with TT (n = 29) and Tt (n = 7) genotypes. Breast milk calcium and serum iPTH were higher (24 and 80%, respectively; P < 0.05) in adolescents with bb (n = 8) compared with those with BB (n = 21) genotype. These results indicate that bone mass and breast milk calcium are significantly associated with VDR genotypes in lactating Brazilian adolescents. Those with aa and tt genotypes had a better bone status and those with bb genotype had greater breast milk calcium.

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  6. A Sustainable Alternative to a U.S. Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  7. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  8. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  9. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with ( sup 14 C)urea

    SciTech Connect

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R. )

    1990-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, (14C)urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of (14C)urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed.

  10. High aluminium content of infant milk formulas.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, R; Hams, G; Meerkin, M; Rosenberg, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aluminium content of several commercially available infant milk formulas was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were compared with those for fresh breast milk, cow's milk, and local tap water. Differences in aluminium concentration of greater than 150-fold were found, with the lowest concentrations in breast milk. PMID:3767424

  11. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC), a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Karen; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-06-05

    We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark-light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  12. The effect of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on grass-fed dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Elliott, C T; Bailey, J S; Watson, C J; Lalor, S T J; Corrigan, B; Fenelon, M A; Lewis, E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The concentrates [4kg of dry matter (DM) concentrate per cow daily] were fed to grazing dairy cows (13kg DM grass) during early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving dairy cows were allocated to 4 treatments: high CP, high P (HPrHP; 302g/kg DM CP, 6.8g/kg DM P), medium CP, high P (MPrHP; 202g/kg DM CP, 4.7g/kg DM P), low CP, high P (LPrHP; 101g/kg DM CP, 5.1g/kg DM P), and low CP, low P (LPrLP; 101g/kg DM CP, 0.058g/kg DM P), for 8wk. Levels of N excretion were significantly higher in animals fed the HPrHP and MPrHP concentrates; P excretion was significantly lower in animals fed the LPrLP concentrate. Reducing the level of P in the diet (LPrLP concentrate) resulted in a significantly lower blood P concentration, whereas milk yield and composition (fat and protein) were not affected by either CP or P in the diet. The effect of the interaction between treatment and time on milk urea N was significant, reflecting the positive correlation between dietary CP and milk nonprotein N. Increasing supplementary CP and P (HPrHP) in the diet resulted in significantly lower milk heat stability at pH 6.8. The findings show that increasing dietary CP caused a decrease in milk heat stability, which reduced the suitability of milk for processing. The study also found that increasing dietary CP increased milk urea N and milk nonprotein N. Increasing dietary P increased fecal P excretion. These are important considerations for milk processors and producers for control of milk processing and environmental parameters.

  13. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  14. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  15. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  16. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes) had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota). It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina). Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal gene transfer event from

  17. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer as in-line concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of quinolones in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Lara, Francisco J; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2014-09-19

    In this work molecularly imprinted polymers have been evaluated as sorbent for the construction of an in-line solid phase extraction analyte concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of the eight regulated veterinary quinolones in bovine milk samples. Different parameters affecting the analyte concentrator performance, such as sample pH, volume and composition of the elution plug and injection time, were studied. Sample volumes of 22μL (2bar for 15min) were loaded on the MISPE microcartridge and the retained analytes were eluted by injecting a plug of MeOH/H2O/NH3 (60/37/3 by volume) for 125s at 50mbar (60nL). The proposed method is simple for the monitoring of these antibiotic residues in milk samples, allowing the direct injection of the samples with minimum sample pretreatment, achieving limits of detection between 3.8 and 4.7μgkg(-1) and unequivocal identification of the compounds working in tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries ranging from 70.0 to 102.3% were obtained and satisfactory intra-day and inter-day RSDs were achieved (≤12% and 15% respectively). Reproducibility among different constructed analyte concentrators showed RSD≤11%.

  19. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the kidney urea transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2010-03-19

    Urea is highly concentrated in the mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow owing to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 {angstrom} structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate several dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed {alpha}-helix dipoles provide further compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity.

  20. Crystal structure of a bacterial homolog of the kidney urea transporter

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Elena J.; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Urea is highly concentrated in mammalian kidney to produce the osmotic gradient necessary for water re-absorption. Free diffusion of urea across cell membranes is slow due to its high polarity, and specialized urea transporters have evolved to achieve rapid and selective urea permeation. Here we present the 2.3 Å structure of a functional urea transporter from the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The transporter is a homotrimer, and each subunit contains a continuous membrane-spanning pore formed by the two homologous halves of the protein. The pore contains a constricted selectivity filter that can accommodate multiple dehydrated urea molecules in single file. Backbone and side chain oxygen atoms provide continuous coordination of urea as it progresses through the filter, and well-placed α-helix dipoles provide additional compensation for dehydration energy. These results establish that the urea transporter operates by a channel-like mechanism and reveal the physical and chemical basis of urea selectivity. PMID:19865084

  1. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the usual cause, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo and other mammals also can cause a ... react to cow's milk will react to sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk. Less commonly, people allergic to ...

  2. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (P<0·01) and milk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (P<0·05) milk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (P<0·05) the output of ΣC18 and Σcis-18 : 1 and increased (P<0·05) the output of trans-10-18 : 1 in milk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  3. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  4. Evolutionary aspects of urea utilization by fungi

    PubMed Central

    Navarathna, Dhammika H.M.L.P.; Harris, Steven D.; Roberts, David D.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    The higher fungi exhibit a dichotomy with regard to urea utilization. The hemiascomycetes use urea amidolyase (DUR1,2) whereas all other higher fungi use the nickel-containing urease. Urea amidolyase is an energy dependent biotin-containing enzyme. It likely arose prior to the Euascomycete/Hemiascomycete divergence ca. 350 million years ago by insertion of an unknown gene into one copy of a duplicated methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MccA). The dichotomy between urease and urea amidolyase coincides precisely with that for the Ni/Co transporter (Nic1p) which is present in the higher fungi that use urease and absent in those that do not. We suggest that the selective advantage for urea amidolyase is that it allowed the hemiascomycetes to jettison all Ni2+ and Co2+ dependent metabolism and thus to have two fewer transition metals whose concentrations need to be regulated. Also, the absence of MccA in the hemiascomycetes coincides with and may explain their production of fusel alcohols. PMID:20100286

  5. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  6. Separation and concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk by ionic-liquid-based foam flotation solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Cao, Bocheng; Yao, Di; Yu, Runzhong; Yu, Changqing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-05-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid foam flotation solid-phase extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk was developed and validated. The proteins and lipids were isolated from the sample matrix by adding salt and adjusting the pH value. The target analytes eluted from the solid-phase extraction cartridge were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Some experimental parameters, including the pH value of sample solution, amount of NaCl, ionic liquid type, extraction time, flow rate of carrier gas, flotation time, and solid-phase extraction cartridge type were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection for metsulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl, and nicosulfuron were 1.3, 0.6, 0.7, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of milk samples the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 84.3 to 105.2% and relative standard deviations were >5.7%.

  7. Discrimination of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS).

    PubMed

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong

    2013-12-01

    A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk.

  8. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  9. Protein stabilization by urea and guanidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Abani K

    2002-11-12

    The urea, guanidine hydrochloride, salt, and temperature dependence of the rate of dissociation of CO from a nonequilibrium state of CO-bound native ferrocytochrome c has been studied at pH 7. The heme iron of ferrocytochrome c in the presence of denaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) and urea prepared in 0.1 M phosphate, pH 7, binds CO. When the unfolded protein solution is diluted 101-fold into CO-free folding buffer, the protein chain refolds completely, leaving the CO molecule bonded to the heme iron. Subsequently, slow thermal dissociation of the CO molecule yields to the heme coordination of the native M80 ligand. Thus, the reaction monitors the rate of thermal conversion of the CO-liganded native ferrocytochrome c to the M80-liganded native protein. The rate of this reaction, k(diss), shows a characteristic dependence on the presence of nondenaturing concentrations of the denaturants in the reaction medium. The rate decreases by approximately 1.9-3-fold as the concentration of GdnHCl in the refolding medium increases from nearly 0 to approximately 2.1 M. Similarly, the rate decreases by 1.8-fold as the urea concentration is raised from 0.l to approximately 5 M. At still higher concentrations of the denaturants the denaturing effect sets in, the protein is destabilized, and hence the CO dissociation rate increases sharply. The activation energy of the reaction, E(a), increases when the denaturant concentration in the reaction medium is raised: from 24.1 to 28.3 kcal mol(-1) for a 0.05-2.1 M rise in GdnHCl and from 25.2 to 26.9 kcal mol(-1) for a 0.1-26.9 M increase in urea. Corresponding to these increases in denaturant concentrations are also increases in the activation entropy, S(diss)/R, where R is the gas constant of the reaction. The denaturant dependence of these kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the CO dissociation reaction suggests that binding interactions with GdnHCl and urea can increase the structural and energetic

  10. Urea enhances the photodynamic efficiency of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Silvia C; Yoshimura, Tania M; Ribeiro, Martha S; Junqueira, Helena C; Maciel, Cleiton; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D; Baptista, Maurício S

    2015-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a well-known photosensitizer used mostly for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). MB tends to aggregate, interfering negatively with its singlet oxygen generation, because MB aggregates lean towards electron transfer reactions, instead of energy transfer with oxygen. In order to avoid MB aggregation we tested the effect of urea, which destabilizes solute-solute interactions. The antimicrobial efficiency of MB (30 μM) either in water or in 2M aqueous urea solution was tested against a fungus (Candida albicans). Samples were kept in the dark and irradiation was performed with a light emitting diode (λ = 645 nm). Without urea, 9 min of irradiation was needed to achieve complete microbial eradication. In urea solution, complete eradication was obtained with 6 min illumination (light energy of 14.4 J). The higher efficiency of MB/urea solution was correlated with a smaller concentration of dimers, even in the presence of the microorganisms. Monomer to dimer concentration ratios were extracted from the absorption spectra of MB solutions measured as a function of MB concentration at different temperatures and at different concentrations of sodium chloride and urea. Dimerization equilibrium decreased by 3 and 6 times in 1 and 2M urea, respectively, and increased by a factor of 6 in 1M sodium chloride. The destabilization of aggregates by urea seems to be applied to other photosensitizers, since urea also destabilized aggregation of Meso-tetra(4-n-methyl-pyridyl)porphyrin, which is a positively charged porphyrin. We showed that urea destabilizes MB aggregates mainly by causing a decrease in the enthalpic gain of dimerization, which was exactly the opposite of the effect of sodium chloride. In order to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level, we computed the free energy for the dimer association process (ΔG(dimer)) in aqueous solution as well as its enthalpic component in aqueous and in aqueous/urea solutions by molecular dynamics

  11. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  12. Effect of dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and nitrogen losses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Agle, M; Hristov, A N; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P M; Vaddella, V K

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of level of dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and N losses in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a replicated 3x3 Latin square design with 6 cows and 16-d adaptation periods. Ruminal contents were exchanged between cows at the beginning of each adaptation period. Data for 2 of the diets tested in this experiment are presented here. The diets contained (dry matter basis): 52% (LowC; control) and 72% (HighC) concentrate feeds. Crude protein contents of the diets were 16.5 and 16.4%, respectively. The HighC diet decreased ruminal pH and ammonia concentration and increased propionate concentration compared with LowC. Acetate:propionate ratio was greater for LowC than for HighC. Rumen methane production and microbial protein synthesis were unaffected by diet. Dry matter intake was similar among diets, but milk yield was increased by HighC compared with LowC (36.0 and 33.2 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat percentage and yield and total-tract apparent NDF digestibility were decreased by HighC compared with LowC. More ruminal ammonia N was transferred into milk protein with HighC than with LowC. Urinary N excretion, plasma urea N, and milk urea N concentration were not affected by diet. The ammonia emitting potential of manure was similar between LowC and HighC diets. Increased concentrate proportion in the diet of dairy cows resulted in reduced ruminal ammonia concentration and enhanced ammonia utilization for milk protein synthesis. These effects, however, did not result in reduced urinary N losses and only marginally improved milk N efficiency. Increasing dietary concentrate was not a successful strategy to mitigate enteric methane production and ammonia emissions from manure.

  13. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations, Iodine Status, and Thyroid Function of Breastfed Infants Aged 2-4 Months and Their Mothers Residing in a South African Township

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Jennifer; Andersson, Maria; van der Reijden, Olivia; Dold, Susanne; Smuts, Cornelius M.; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lactating women and their infants are susceptible to iodine deficiency and iodine excess. In South Africa, no data exist on the iodine status and thyroid function of these vulnerable groups. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), thyroid function, and breast-milk iodine concentrations (BMIC) were assessed in 100 lactating women from a South African township and their 2-4-month-old breastfed infants. Potential predictors of UIC, thyroid function, and BMIC, including household salt iodine concentrations (SIC) and maternal sodium excretion, were also investigated. Results: The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC was 373 (202-627) μg/L in infants and 118 (67-179) μg/L in mothers. Median household SIC was 44 (27-63) ppm. Household SIC and maternal urinary sodium excretion predicted UIC of lactating mothers. Median BMIC was 179 (126-269) μg/L. Age of infants, SIC, and maternal UIC predicted BMIC. In turn, infant age and BMIC predicted UIC of infants. Forty-two percent of SIC values were within the South African recommended salt iodine fortification level at production of 35-65 ppm, whilst 21% of SIC were >65 ppm. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, and thyroglobulin concentrations in the dried whole blood spot specimens from the infants were 1.3 (0.8-1.9) mU/L, 128±33 mmol/L, and 77.1 (56.3-105.7) μg/L, respectively, and did not correlate with infant UIC or BMIC. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the salt fortification program in South Africa provides adequate iodine to lactating women and indirectly to their infants via breast milk. However, monitoring of salt iodine content of the mandatory salt iodization program in South Africa is important to avoid over-iodization of salt. PMID:27217155

  14. [Identification of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization and BP neural network].

    PubMed

    Miao, Jing; Cao, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Ren-Jie; Liu, Rong; Sun, Hui-Li; Xu, Ke-Xin

    2013-11-01

    Discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were established using BP neural network combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization. Forty pure milk samples, 40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1-20 g x L(-1)) and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-3 g x L(-1)) were prepared respectively. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation near-infrared spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk, 5 apparent statistic parameters were calculated based on the parameterization theory. Using 5 characteristic parameters, discriminant models of urea adulterated milk, melamine adulterated milk and two types of adulterated milk were built by BP neural network The prediction rate of unknown samples were 95%, 100% and 96.7%, respectively. The results show that this method can extract effectively feature information of adulterant, reduce the input dimensions of BP neural network, and better realize qualitative analysis of adulterant in milk.

  15. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  16. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1997-12-16

    A sensor is disclosed to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects. 16 figs.

  17. [Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].

    PubMed

    Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, two hundred and eighty seven raw milks collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding areas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets. Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples, which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea, or ammonium nitrate), were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets. The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15%~ 0.45% (starch or dextrin), 700-2,100 mg · kg(-1) (ammonium nitrate), 524-1,572 mg · kg(-1) (urea), and 365.5-1,096.5 mg · kg(-1) (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3%. All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models. The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i. e. , dextrin, starch, melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of support vector machine (ν-SVM) method. The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated. The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01%, 61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51%, respectively. Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study, it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy. However, the average accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66%, 77.29% and 85.08%, respectively. Most discrimination results of ν-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN. The

  18. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  19. Use of polyurea from urea for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panfang; Zhang, Yanfei; Jia, Cong; Li, Yufeng; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new type of controlled release fertilizers coated with polyurea was prepared. The granulated urea was firstly changed into a liquid urea by heating as the coating liquid. By spraying uniformly the urea was coated with the polyurea synthesized by the reaction of isocyanates with a liquid urea. The effects of different modifiers on N release characteristics of polyurea-coated urea (PCU) were studied. The morphology and chemical structure of PCU coating materials was investigated by SEM and FTIR. We studied the nitrogen release characteristics of the PCU applied in both water and soil, and the biodegradability of PCU coating after buried in soil. The results showed that PCU reduced nitrogen release rate and exhibited excellent controlled release property. The PCU coating materials could biodegrade in soil. This indicated that the low cost PCU products from urea are expected to use in agricultural and horticultural applications.

  20. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2016-02-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (J(urea)) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of J(urea) by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while J(urea) increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of J(urea), while the gills became the dominant site for J(urea) only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial J(urea). Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity.

  1. Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents.

  2. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Whyte, T D; Chouinard, P Y

    2006-11-01

    Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary addition of essential oils (0 vs. 2 g/d; EO) and monensin (0 vs. 350 mg/d; MO) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Intake of dry matter averaged 22.7 kg/d and was not significantly affected by dietary additives. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were similar among treatments. Apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber was increased when diets were supplemented with EO (48.9 vs. 46.0%). Apparent digestibility of crude protein was higher for cows fed MO compared with those fed no MO (65.0 vs. 63.6%). Nitrogen retention was not changed by additive treatments and averaged 27.1 g/d across treatments. Ruminal pH was increased with the addition of EO (6.50 vs. 6.39). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration was lower with MO-supplemented diets compared with diets without MO (12.7 vs. 14.3 mg/100 mL). No effect of EO and MO was observed on total volatile fatty acid concentrations and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Protozoa counts were not affected by EO and MO addition. Production of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk was similar among treatments (33.6 and 33.4 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content was lower for cows fed MO than for cows fed diets without MO (3.8 vs. 4.1%). The reduced milk fat concentration in cows fed MO was associated with a higher level of trans-10 18:1, a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was increased by MO supplementation, but this effect was not apparent when MO was fed in combination with EO (interaction EO x MO). Results from this study suggest that feeding EO (2 g/d) and MO (350 mg/d) to lactating dairy cows had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk

  3. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    PubMed

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics.

  4. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  5. Physiological Concentrations of Choline Activate Native α7-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Presence of PNU-120596 [1-(5-Chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-urea

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of PNU-120596 [1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-urea], a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), may be beneficial for enhancing cholinergic therapies. However, the effects of PNU-120596 on activation of native α7-containing nAChRs by physiological concentrations of choline are not known and were investigated in this study using patch-clamp electrophysiology and histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons in hypothalamic slices. In the presence of PNU-120596, subthreshold (i.e., inactive) physiological concentrations of choline (∼10 μM) elicited repetitive step-like whole-cell responses reminiscent of single ion channel openings that were reversibly blocked by 20 nM methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 nAChR antagonist. The effects of choline and PNU-120596 were synergistic as administration of 10 to 40 μM choline or 1 to 4 μM PNU-120596 alone did not elicit responses. In voltage clamp at −60 mV, the persistent activation of α7-containing nAChRs by 10 μM choline plus 1 μM PNU-120596 was estimated to produce a sustained influx of Ca2+ ions at a rate of 8.4 pC/min (∼0.14 pA). In the presence of PNU-120596 in current clamp, transient step-like depolarizations (∼5 mV) enhanced neuronal excitability and triggered voltage-gated conductances; a single opening of an α7-containing nAChR channel appeared to transiently depolarize the entire neuron and facilitate spontaneous firing. Therefore, this study tested and confirmed the hypothesis that PNU-120596 enhances the effects of subthreshold concentrations of choline on native α7-containing nAChRs, allowing physiological levels of choline to activate these receptors and produce whole-cell responses in the absence of exogenous nicotinic agents. In certain neurological disorders, this activation may be therapeutically beneficial, more efficacious, and safer than treatments with nAChR agonists. PMID:19923442

  6. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the

  7. Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

    2009-07-22

    Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.

  8. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were together mixed into nonfat dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1%-5.0% for each adulterant. A benchtop point-scan Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1. Each mixture was imaged in an area of 25×25 mm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Selfmodeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualize identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated.

  9. The use of lithium chloride to study human milk micelles.

    PubMed

    Sood, S M; Slattery, C W

    2003-01-01

    Various methods have been used to study the dissociation of milk micelles in attempts to determine their structure and the interactions that stabilize them. These include the addition of urea, cooling to alter hydrophobic bonding, the addition of EDTA to sequester calcium, and changes in pH to alter molecular charge. For this study, the mild chaotropic agent LiCl was added to human milk micelles, and measurements were made on the relative percentages of the six different phosphorylation levels of beta-casein (CN) at various LiCl concentrations for different lengths of time and at different temperatures. Added LiCl had little effect at 37 degrees C but caused maximal dissociation, mainly of the beta-CN species with higher phosphorylation levels, at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C between 1 and 2 M concentration. Comparison was made with 2-M additions of NaCl, MgCl2, and KCl at 4 degrees C, with LiCl showing the only appreciable change. The results suggest that Li+ may displace Ca2+ in protein-Ca2+-protein or protein-colloidal calcium phos+ phate-protein salt bridges and that the nonphosphorylated form of human beta-CN may change its conformation and mode of interaction upon phosphorylation. Lithium chloride may be useful to study the dissociation of the different CN in bovine milk micelles.

  10. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy.

  11. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  12. Urea and ureolytic activity in lakes of different trophic status.

    PubMed

    Siuda, Waldemar; Chróst, Ryszard J

    2006-01-01

    Urea and uraease (U-ase) activity were determined in water samples taken from the surface layers of 17 lakes of different trophic status. Urea concentrations were inversely correlated with the trophic status of the studied lakes and varied from below the detection limit to 25 micromol l(-1). Maximal potential ureolytic activity (V(max)) ranged from 0.2 to 7.0 micromol l(-1) h(-1). The highest urea concentrations and the lowest U-ase activities were recorded in the spring, whereas the lowest urea concentrations and the highest rates of urea hydrolysis were observed late in summer, during heavy phytoplankton blooms. Since in the majority of the Great Mazurian Lakes microplankton growth was limited by nitrogen supply, urea was an important N source for both auto- and heterotrophic planktonic microorganisms throughout the growth period. U-ase activity was mainly related to the seston. Only up to 25% of total activity could be attributed to free enzymes dissolved in lake water. In epilimnetic water samples the bulk of the ureolytic activity originated from seston-attached bacteria. However, a positive, statistically significant correlation between ureolytic activity and chlorophyll a (Chl(a)) concentrations suggests that phytoplankton may also be responsible for at least a some of the observed ureolytic activity in the highly eutrophic Great Mazurian Lakes.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [<0.5%], 1%, 2%, and whole [>3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  14. Urea biosensors based on PVC membrane containing palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule; Esma, Kiliç

    2005-01-01

    A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease with four different procedures on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid by using nonactine as an ammonium-ionophore. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the biosensor prepared by using carboxylated PVC. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, temperature, urease concentration, stirring rate and enzyme immobilization procedures on the response to urea of the enzyme electrode were investigated. The linear working range and sensitivity of the biosensor were also determined. The urea biosensor prepared by using the PVC membranes containing palmitic acid showed more effective performance than those of the carboxylated PVC based biosensors. Additionally, urea assay in serum was successfully carried out by using the standard addition method.

  15. Influence of Ficoll on urea induced denaturation of fibrinogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Meenakshisundaram, N.

    2016-03-01

    Ficoll is a neutral, highly branched polymer used as a molecular crowder in the study of proteins. Ficoll is also part of Ficoll-Paque used in biology laboratories to separate blood to its components (erythrocytes, leukocytes etc.,). Role of Ficoll in the urea induced denaturation of protein Fibrinogen (Fg) has been analyzed using fluorescence, circular dichroism, molecular docking and interfacial studies. Fluorescence studies show that Ficoll prevents quenching of Fg in the presence of urea. From the circular dichroism spectra, Fg shows conformational transition to random coil with urea of 6 M concentration. Ficoll helps to shift this denaturation concentration to 8 M and thus constraints by shielding Fg during the process. Molecular docking studies indicate that Ficoll interacts favorably with the protein than urea. The surface tension and shear viscosity analysis shows clearly that the protein is shielded by Ficoll.

  16. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet

  17. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    ammonia-nitrogen and milk concentration of urea, corresponding to an increase in percentage of protein in milk. Compared with multiparous cows, primiparous cows had greater rumen pH, metabolite concentrations in plasma (glucose, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, total protein, and globulins), milk production, and concentrations of milk components. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage at up to 12% of dietary dry matter can be beneficial during heat stress conditions.

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  19. The determination of the concentrations of Isoforms of Vitamin E in tissues, milk and blood via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after short-term feeding in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of change in the concentrations of the four isoforms of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) in bovine tissues (liver, mammary and muscle), blood and milk after short-term feeding of a vegetable-derived oil (Tmix) particularl...

  20. Cortisol-sensitive urea transport across the gill basolateral membrane of the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta).

    PubMed

    Rodela, Tamara M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Walsh, Patrick J; McDonald, M Danielle

    2009-08-01

    Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) use a unique pulsatile urea excretion mechanism that allows urea to be voided in large pulses via the periodic insertion or activation of a branchial urea transporter. The precise cellular and subcellular location of the facilitated diffusion mechanism(s) remains unclear. An in vitro basolateral membrane vesicle (BLMV) preparation was used to test the hypothesis that urea movement across the gill basolateral membrane occurs through a cortisol-sensitive carrier-mediated mechanism. Toadfish BLMVs demonstrated two components of urea uptake: a linear element at high external urea concentrations, and a phloretin-sensitive saturable constituent (K(m) = 0.24 mmol/l; V(max) = 6.95 micromol x mg protein(-1) x h(-1)) at low urea concentrations (<1 mmol/l). BLMV urea transport in toadfish was unaffected by in vitro treatment with ouabain, N-ethylmaleimide, or the absence of sodium, conditions that are known to inhibit sodium-coupled and proton-coupled urea transport in vertebrates. Transport kinetics were temperature sensitive with a Q(10) > 2, further suggestive of carrier-mediated processes. Our data provide evidence that a basolateral urea facilitated transporter accelerates the movement of urea between the plasma and gills to enable the pulsatile excretion of urea. Furthermore, in vivo infusion of cortisol caused a significant 4.3-fold reduction in BLMV urea transport capacity in lab-crowded fish, suggesting that cortisol inhibits the recruitment of urea transporters to the basolateral membrane, which may ultimately affect the size of the urea pulse event in gulf toadfish.

  1. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p < 0.05). Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in serum of clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p < 0.05). The concentrations of phosphorus were significantly lower in test groups than control group (p < 0.05). Sodium concentrations were significantly higher in clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p < 0.05). Potassium and magnesium concentrations were not affected by clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need

  2. Straightforward process for removal of milk fat globule membranes and production of fat-free whey protein concentrate from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2011-09-28

    A straightforward method for the separation of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and production of fat-free whey protein concentrate/isolate from cheese whey has been developed. Lowering of the conductivity of the whey from its initial value of about 5600 μS cm(-1) to about 2000-500 μS cm(-1) via diafiltration with water caused selective precipitation of MFGM when incubated for 30 min at pH 4.2 and 35 °C. The whey proteins remained soluble in the supernatant under these conditions. Experimental evidence suggested that precipitation of MFGM at pH 4.2 was not due to a nonspecific effect of lowering of the conductivity of the whey but due to the specific effect of removal of Ca2+ from the whey. The lipid content of whey protein isolate obtained by this process was <0.2%, and the protein loss was <14%. The method provides an industrially feasible process for the production of fat-free whey protein concentrate/isolate. The MFGM, which is reported to contain bioactive/nutraceutical lipids and proteins, is a valuable byproduct of the process.

  3. Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L

    2010-08-01

    Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 1.75 kg/cm(2) pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more (P < 0.05) grams of N/d, had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower (P < 0.05) overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more (P < 0/05) grams

  4. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  9. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aarons, S R; Gourley, C J P

    2012-10-01

    Feed conversion into milk, nutrient excretion in manure and subsequent environment impacts of manure management are highly influenced by the diets that farmers feed their lactating cows (Bos taurus). On confinement-based dairy farms, determinations of diet composition are relatively straightforward because the types, amounts and nutrients contained in stored feeds are often well known. However, on grazing-based dairy farms, diet composition is more difficult to determine because forage intake during grazing must be estimated. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between (1) feed N intake (NI), milk production, milk urea N (MUN), feed N use efficiency (FNUE) and excreted manure N (ExN); and (2) between feed P intake (PI), dung P concentrations (g/kg dry matter (DM)) and excreted manure P (ExP) for grazing-based lactating cows having a very wide range of diets and milk production. An additional objective was to evaluate how well these relationships compare with similar relationships based on more direct measurement of feed-milk-manure on confinement-based dairy farms. Four dairy farms located in southeastern