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Sample records for mill feed control

  1. NIR fingerprint screening for early control of non-conformity at feed mills.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Abbas, Ouissam; Lecler, Bernard; Hogrel, Patrick; Dardenne, Pierre; Baeten, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this work was to devise a complete procedure based on chemometrics and the use NIR spectroscopy at the entrance of a feed mill to provide early evidence of non-conformity and unusual ingredients and thus help to achieve cost-savings. The procedure was validated at laboratory level and was adapted for application at the Cargill Animal Nutrition feed mill. The study focused on the characterisation of pure soybean meal with the aim of creating an early control system for detecting and quantifying any unusual ingredient that might be present in the soybean meal, such as melamine, cyanuric acid or whey powder (milk serum). The study results showed that the use of NIR, combined with some simple chemometric tools based on distances and residuals from regression equations, is appropriate for authenticating important feed products (in this case, soybean meal) and detecting the presence of abnormal samples or impurities in both the laboratory and at the feed mill.

  2. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it is often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.

  3. Nonlinear mill control.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; McGarel, S

    2001-01-01

    A mill is a mechanical device that grinds mined or processed material into small particles. The process is known to display significant deadtime, and, more notably, severe nonlinear behavior. Over the past 25 years attempts at continuous mill control have met varying degrees of failure, mainly due to model mismatch caused by changes in the mill process gains. This paper describes an on-line control application on a closed-circuit cement mill that uses nonlinear model predictive control technology. The nonlinear gains for the control model are calculated on-line from a neural network model of the process.

  4. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  5. 15. STONE BURR MILL PROBABLY USED FOR GRINDING FEED. ONLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. STONE BURR MILL PROBABLY USED FOR GRINDING FEED. ONLY REMAINING MILL MACHINERY William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-14 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-20 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  9. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... new animal drugs are manufactured and labeled in accordance with the applicable regulations published... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  10. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... new animal drugs are manufactured and labeled in accordance with the applicable regulations published... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  11. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10 Section 515.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... contain the following information: (1) The full business name and address of the facility at which...

  12. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing...

  13. 7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled... Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. Feeds and milled products may be treated for khapra beetle using schedule T307-a. The temperature must be 180 °F in any part...

  14. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  15. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  20. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  1. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  2. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  3. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  4. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  5. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  6. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    PubMed Central

    Wierup, Martin; Widell, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU) efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC) No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal) from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%). Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%). These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products. PMID:24959328

  7. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  8. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  9. Rice mill feed as a replacement for broiler litter in diets for growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Stacey, W N; Rankins, D L

    2004-07-01

    The efficacy of replacing broiler litter with rice mill feed was evaluated in four experiments. In Exp. 1, 40 predominantly Angus steers (initial BW = 277+/-18.2 kg) were fed four dietary treatments for 112 d (five steers per pen; two pens per diet). Dietary treatments (DM basis) were as follows: 1) 47% broiler litter:53% corn; 2) 60% rice mill feed:40% corn; 3) 50% rice mill feed:50% corn; and 4) 40% rice mill feed:60% corn. All diets, along with bermudagrass hay, were fed free choice. Daily gains were faster (P < 0.10) for the 50:50 and 40:60 diets (1.26 and 1.30 kg/d, respectively) than for the broiler litter diet (0.89 kg/d). Daily DMI was less (P < 0.10) by steers consuming rice mill feed-based diets than by those consuming broiler litter-based diets. In Exp. 2, 16 Angus x Charolais steers (initial BW = 277+/-22.7 kg) were fed the same four diets used in Exp. 1 while housed in individual metabolism stalls for determination of nutrient digestibility. Daily DMI was not different (P > 0.10) among diets. Nutrient digestibilities did not differ among diets (P > 0.10). In Exp. 3, 40 Continental cross steers (initial BW = 257+/-21.3 kg) were fed one of four dietary treatments for 112 d (five steers per pen; two pens per diet). On a DM basis, diets were as follows: 1) 47% broiler litter:53% soyhulls; 2) 70% rice mill feed:30% soyhulls; 3) 60% rice mill feed:40% soyhulls; and 4) 50% rice mill feed:50% soyhulls. All diets, along with bermudagrass hay, were fed free choice. Daily gains were less (P < 0.05) for the broiler litter diet than for the 60:40 and 50:50 diets (1.05, 1.16, and 1.28 kg/d, respectively), and steers fed the broiler litter diet consumed less DM than did steers fed the varying rice mill feed-based diets (P < 0.10). In Exp. 4, 16 Angus x Charolais steers (initial BW = 292+/-21.1 kg) were fed the same four diets as in Exp. 3 while housed in individual metabolism stalls for determination of nutrient digestibility. Daily DMI was less (P < 0.01) for the

  10. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and... Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a... has had its approval refused, suspended, or revoked....

  11. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  12. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  13. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity.

  14. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. PMID:26561741

  15. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Design and Realization Of Roller Mill Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, QianHong; Zhang, Qiang; Bai, XiaoLi; Yu, HongLiang

    a Distributed Control System(DCS) of cement raw materials is presented for the vertical roller mill by the application of ABB's IndustrialIT. The results demonstrate the practical application of the system's utility and effectiveness and reliability.

  17. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients.

  18. Statistical model and control of a ring-and-roller type grinding mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.

    1992-01-01

    This project explores the use of a ring-and-roller grinding mill for fine grinding or pulverizing. Since the efficiency of this system is low, small improvements in product throughput or energy consumption can result in substantial economic improvements. To better understand this system, experiments were conducted for limestone and cement clinker. From these experiments models were formulated for product throughput, energy consumption and product size distribution. A control loop was implemented to reduce the effect of non-uniform feeding. Steady-state interactions were analyzed using the Relative Gain Array (RGA) method. Next, a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) control system was designed using the Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method to remove variable interactions. The robustness of this controller was explored. Finally, a self-tuning PI controller was designed using the pole placement method to improve system performance. The results of this study provide models for implementation on ring-and-roller grinding mills.

  19. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  20. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  1. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  2. Evaluation of a Biological Pathogen Decontamination Protocol for Animal Feed Mills.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anne R; Cochrane, Roger A; Deliephan, Aiswariya; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2015-09-01

    Animal feed and ingredients are potential vectors of pathogenic bacteria. Contaminated ingredients can contaminate facility equipment, leading to cross-contamination of other products. This experiment was conducted to evaluate a standardized protocol for decontamination of an animal feed manufacturing facility using Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 31282) as an indicator. A pelleted swine diet inoculated with E. faecium was manufactured, and environmental samples (swabs, replicate organism detection and counting plates, and air samples) were collected (i) before inoculation (baseline data), (ii) after production of inoculated feed, (iii) after physical removal of organic material using pressurized air, (iv) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend, (v) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing sodium hypochlorite, (vi) after facility heat-up to 60 8 C for 24 h, (vii) for 48 h, and (viii) for 72 h. Air samples collected outside the facility confirmed pathogen containment; E. faecium levels were equal to or lower than baseline levels at each sample location. The decontamination step and its associated interactions were the only variables that affected E. faecium incidence (P < 0.0001 versus P > 0.22). After production of the inoculated diet, 85.7% of environmental samples were positive for E. faecium. Physical cleaning of equipment had no effect on contamination (P = 0.32). Chemical cleaning with a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend and sodium hypochlorite each significantly reduced E. faecium contamination (P < 0.0001) to 28.6 and 2.4% of tested surfaces, respectively. All samples were negative for E. faecium after 48 h of heating. Both wet chemical cleaning and facility heating but not physical cleaning resulted in substantial E. faecium decontamination. These results confirmed both successful containment and decontamination of biological pathogens in the tested pilot-scale feed mill.

  3. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  4. Mitigation of Chatter Instabilities in Milling by Active Structural Control

    SciTech Connect

    DOHNER, JEFFREY L.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; HINNERICHS, TERRY D.; KWAN, CHI-MAN; XU, ROGER; SHANKAR, NATARAJAN; WINTERBAUER, BILL; REGELBRUGGE, MARK; BRIDGER, KEITH

    2001-09-01

    This report documents how active structural control was used to significantly enhance the metal removal rate of a milling machine. An active structural control system integrates actuators, sensors, a control law and a processor into a structure for the purpose of improving the dynamic characteristics of the structure. Sensors measure motion, and the control law, implemented in the processor, relates this motion to actuator forces. Closed-loop dynamics can be enhanced by proper control law design. Actuators and sensors were imbedded within a milling machine for the purpose of modifying dynamics in such a way that mechanical energy, produced during cutting, was absorbed. This limited the on-set of instabilities and allowed for greater depths of cut. Up to an order of magnitude improvement in metal removal rate was achieved using this system. Although demonstrations were very successful, the development of an industrial prototype awaits improvements in the technology. In particular, simpler system designs that assure controllability and observability and control algorithms that allow for adaptability need to be developed.

  5. Tool compensation using statistical process control on complex milling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    In today`s competitive manufacturing environment, many companies increasingly rely on numerical control (NC) mills to produce products at a reasonable cost. Typically, this is done by producing as many features as possible at each machining operation to minimize the total number of shop hours invested per part. Consequently, the number of cutting tools involved in one operation can become quite large since NC mills have the capacity to use in excess of 100 cutting tools. As the number of cutting tools increases, the difficulty of applying optimum tool compensation grows exponentially, quickly overwhelming machine operators and engineers. A systematic method of managing tool compensation is required. The name statistical process control (SPC) suggests a technique in which statistics are used to stabilize and control a machining operation. Feedback and control theory, the study of the stabilization of electronic and mechanical systems, states that control can be established by way of a feedback network. If these concepts were combined, SPC would stabilize and control manufacturing operations through the incorporation of statistically processed feedback. In its simplest application, SPC has been used as a tool to analyze inspection data. In its most mature application, SPC can be the link that applies process feedback. The approach involves: (1) identifying the significant process variables adjusted by the operator; (2) developing mathematical relationships that convert strategic part measurements into variable adjustments; and (3) implementing SPC charts that record required adjustment to each variable.

  6. Oral and respiratory control for preterm feeding

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Feeding competency is a frequent and serious challenge to the neonatal intensive care unit survivors and to the physician–provider–parent teams. The urgency of effective assessment and intervention techniques is obviated to promote safe swallow, as attainment of oral feeding for the preterm infant/newborn is one of the prerequisites for hospital discharge. If left unresolved, feeding problems may persist into early childhood and may require management by pediatric gastroenterologists and feeding therapists. This review highlights studies aimed at understanding the motor control and development of nonnutritive and nutritive suck, swallow, and coordination with respiration in preterm populations. Recent findings Functional linkages between suck–swallow and swallow–respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation and can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Moreover, brainstem central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system interactions among individual CPGs. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents to activate the suck CPG is one example of a clinical intervention to prime cross-system interactions among ororhythmic pattern generating networks in the preterm and term infants. Summary The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions that optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote robust ororhythmic patterning and safe swallows among preterm infants. PMID:19369871

  7. Mitigation of chatter instabilities in milling by active structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.; Lauffer, James P.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Shankar, Natarajan; Regelbrugge, Mark; Kwan, Chi-Man; Xu, Roger; Winterbauer, Bill; Bridger, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the experimental validation of an active control approach for mitigating chatter in milling. To the authors knowledge, this is the first successful hardware demonstration of this approach. This approach is very different from many existing approaches that avoid instabilities by varying process parameters to seek regions of stability or by altering the regenerative process. In this approach, the stability lobes of the machine and tool are actively raised. This allows for machining at spindle speeds that are more representative of those used in existing machine tools. An active control system was implemented using actuators and sensors surrounding a spindle and tool. Due to the complexity of controlling from a stationary co-ordinate system and sensing from a rotating system, a telemetry system was used to transfer structural vibration data from the tool to a control processor. Closed-loop experiments produced up to an order of magnitude improvement in metal removal rate.

  8. Feed forward control: An implementation at CIRFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy, J.; Lehrman, I.S.; Hartley, R.

    1995-12-31

    An integral part of the Compact InfraRed Free Electron LASER (CIRFEL) is control of the phase and amplitude stability in the RF power system. We have implemented such a Feed Forward system using the LabView software package, by National Instruments. We will discuss implementation and performance data of the Feed Forward control of the RF power system at CIRFEL. We will also briefly discuss some conditions under which the problem is ill-conditioned, and what idealizations can be made to remedy these ill-conditioned systems. Using an arbitrary function generator, we generate a driving signal for a voltage-controlled attenuator at the input side of the RF system, and we monitor the RF voltage in cell I of the photocathode gun using a digital storage oscilliscope in averaging mode. The system is stable enough to use data from one shot to modify the inputs for future shots. After downloading the averaged data to a personal computer via a GPIB (IEEE 488) bus, we use a simple linear transformation on the difference waveform between the current shot and the target to produce a correction signal. This signal is added to the driving signal in the arbitrary function generator, and the process is repeated until we get the flatness we need in the output signals from cell 1. The system for phase control is similar, with a voltage-controlled phase shifter replacing the attenuator, and monitoring of the RF phase in cell I replacing the monitoring of RF voltage. By repeatedly alternating between correcting the RF voltage (equivalent to correcting the RF power) and RF phase in cell 1, we are able to achieve simultaneous phase variations of <{+-}1{degrees} and amplitude variations of <{+-}0.1% over a 3{mu}sec pulse.

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  10. Fast method for obtaining scale dimensions on tape-controlled milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calculator obtains the Rail and Z Scale dimensions on the tape-controlled Sundstrand milling machine. It provides computer with depth information required to process numerical control programs which, in turn, provide the tapes for operation of N/C milling machines.

  11. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  12. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  13. Synchronous control for the hydraulic width system of edger rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shurong; Fan, Zhuoyu

    2008-10-01

    Edger rolling mill is a load system in which the upper and the lower cylinder actuate a side vertical roller at the same time. Due to the linkage of the load, the output and control of two channels influence each other. Synchronic-control issue is discussed aim to the system with serious coupling. Neural network inverse as decoupling controller is proposed to account for the complicated process dynamics characterized by nonlinear, time-varying, uncertain and load couple properties. Firstly, the reversibility of the system is analyzed and the ANN inverse dynamic is constructed based on a feed forward and neural network structure with enlarged back propagation algorithm. Secondly, the system is changed into two pseudo-linear sub-system through connecting the controlled system and inverse dynamic model in series. Aim to two pseudo-linear sub-system pole assignments method is proposed to enhance the whole system performance. A series simulation was conducted and results showed the proposed controller does better than traditional PID not only on decoupling but also on the transient response, as well as robustness under vary conditions.

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  15. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  16. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  17. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  18. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  19. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  1. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  2. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    SciTech Connect

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-12

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  3. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOEpatents

    Kazmer, David O.

    1996-09-17

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  4. Somatosensory integration controlled by dynamic thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gabernet, Laetitia; Jadhav, Shantanu P; Feldman, Daniel E; Carandini, Matteo; Scanziani, Massimo

    2005-10-20

    The temporal features of tactile stimuli are faithfully represented by the activity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex. However, the cellular mechanisms that enable cortical neurons to report accurate temporal information are not known. Here, we show that in the rodent barrel cortex, the temporal window for integration of thalamic inputs is under the control of thalamocortical feed-forward inhibition and can vary from 1 to 10 ms. A single thalamic fiber can trigger feed-forward inhibition and contacts both excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons. The dynamics of feed-forward inhibition exceed those of each individual synapse in the circuit and are captured by a simple disynaptic model of the thalamocortical projection. The variations in the integration window produce changes in the temporal precision of cortical responses to whisker stimulation. Hence, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, classically known to sharpen spatial contrast of tactile inputs, also increase the temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex.

  5. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  6. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  7. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  8. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  9. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  10. Preparation Model Based Control System For Hot Steel Strip Rolling Mill Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, S. E.; Abbassi, H. A.; Moussaoui, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a research project on El-hadjar Hot Steel Rolling Mill Plant Annaba Algeria a new Model based control system is suggested to improve the performance of the hot strip rolling mill process. In this paper off-line model based controllers and a process simulator are described. The process models are based on the laws of physics. these models can predict the future behavior and the stability of the controlled process very reliably. The control scheme consists of a control algorithm. This Model based Control system is evaluated on a simulation model that represents accurately the dynamic of the process. Finally the usefulness to the Steel Industry of the suggested method is highlighted.

  11. Environmental control technology for mining and milling low-grade uranium resources

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Long, L.W.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    This study examined the type and level of wastes that would be generated in the mining and milling of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from four potential domestic sources of uranium. The estimated costs of the technology to control these wastes to different degrees of stringency are presented.

  12. Procedure for computer-controlled milling of accurate surfaces of revolution for millimeter and far-infrared mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, Louisa; De Zafra, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for milling accurate off-axis parabolic mirrors with a computer-controlled milling machine is discussed. For machines with a built-in circle-cutting routine, an exact paraboloid can be milled with few computer commands and without the use of the spherical or linear approximations. The proposed method can be adapted easily to cut off-axis sections of elliptical or spherical mirrors.

  13. H{sub {infinity}} control of chatter in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, C.M.; Xu, H.; Lin, C.; Haynes, L.; Dohner, J.; Regelbrugge, M.; Shankar, N.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, preliminary results on the use of active chatter control in a new type of milling machine is presented. It is expected that this machine will cut metal at twice the rate of conventional machines without an appreciable increase in cost. Performance enhancements are achieved by the integration of active feedback control into an existing machine structure. To reduce computational burden, decoupled control is proposed. Extensive simulations have shown that significant performance enhancements are achievable.

  14. GA-based PID control of the plate width in hot-plate mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byungman; Lee, Dae Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    1999-11-01

    In hot plate mills the slabs from incoming reheat furnace are reduced to the desired width and thickness, being rolled out with considerable accuracy. The process of changing the plate width is controlled by a pair of edge rolls, which is called edger. The objectives of this edging process are to meet tight width tolerances of plates and to reduce the yield loss caused by trimming when irregular width is formed at the plate edge. There are several factors that result in complexity and uncertainty in width control. These include inaccurate edger set-up model, degradation of various mill equipment, variation of operation conditions, environments and variation of the dimension of incoming cast slabs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based PID control is proposed to ensure the control of the desired width at the exit of the mill. The approach adopted here is essentially optimization of the PID controller gains in order to minimize the error between the desired and actual slab width. Since the design parameters associated with genetic algorithm affect convergence performance, the effects of these parameters are investigated in detail. In addition, the control performance is also evaluated for various process parameters such as initial width of the incoming slab and temperature of the slab. Based on the result obtained from a series of simulations, the proposed control method is found to yield satisfactory performance for various process conditions.

  15. 21 CFR 515.22 - Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assure and preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein, and were... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED... hazard to the health of man or of the animals for which such animal feed is intended. (b)...

  16. Reduced-order observer-based robust synchronisation control of cold rolling mills with measurement delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaohong; Mei, Zhisong

    2010-10-01

    To improve the quality of strip thickness, synchronisation control is investigated for cold rolling mills driven by dual-cylinder electro-hydraulic servo systems. Realising synchronised control in hydraulic automatic gauge control (HAGC) systems of cold rolling mills has challenges with not only the inherent nonlinearities of hydraulic servo systems and uncertainties of load variation but also measurement delay of strip thickness. Since all states are not measurable in practice, output feedback robust synchronisation control problem should be addressed for uncertain nonlinear systems with output delay. Thus, a reduced-order observer-based robust synchronous controller is presented by employing Lyapunov functional stability theory. The controller designed by incorporating the integral of the position synchronisation error of two pistons into state variables successfully guarantees asymptotic convergence to zero of both tracking errors and synchronisation error simultaneously regardless of the nonlinearities and uncertainties as well as the measurement delay. Simulation results in a model obtained from a real cold strip rolling mill demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  18. Implication of milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size of feed in layers on mineral digestibility and retention of minerals in egg contents.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Yousaf, M S; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2015-02-01

    Feed production with different milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size may influence mineral digestibility and retention in eggs. The present study investigated the impact of roller (R) and hammer (H) mills, mash (M) and expandate (E) with fine (F) and coarse (C) particle sizes, on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) and retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron in yolk, albumen, and shell. A total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. The AIA of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron was higher in treatment R in comparison with treatment H (P<0.01, P≤0.03, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment M than treatment E (P<0.01). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment C in comparison with treatment F (P≤0.05) due to particle size. The ATD of copper and iron was higher in treatment R than treatment H (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). The ATD was higher for phosphorus and lower for iron in treatment F than treatment C (P≤0.05 and P≤0.02. respectively). The copper concentration in yolk and albumen was higher in treatment C than treatment F (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). Besides a few overall interactions, the AIA and ATD of copper and manganese were lower in H+M group than R+M group (P≤0.05). The ATD of iron was higher in the M+C group compared to the M+F group (P<0.01), whereas the albumen zinc concentration was higher in the E+C group than E+F group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the feed produced by hammer mill had negative effects on AIA and ATD for trace elements in particular, but mineral concentrations in egg contents were mostly comparable for all treatments. Therefore, milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle sizes

  19. Tandem strip mill's multi-parameter coupling dynamic modeling based on the thickness control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The rolling process is determined by the interaction of a number of different movements, during which the relative movement occurs between the vibrating roll system and the rolled piece, and the roll system's vibration interacts with the strip's deformation and rigid movement. So many parameters being involved leads to a complex mechanism of this coupling effect. Through testing and analyzing the vibration signals of the mill in the rolling process, the rolling mill's coupled model is established with comprehensive consideration of the coupling interaction between the mill's vertical vibration, its torsional vibration and the working roll's horizontal vibration, and vibration characteristics of different forms of rolling mill's vibration are analyzed under the coupling effect. With comprehensive attention to the relationship between the roll system, the moving strip and the rolling parameters' dynamic properties, and also from the strip thickness control point of view, further research is done on the coupling mechanism between the roll system's movement and the moving strip's characteristics in the rolling process. As a result, the law of inertial coupling and the stiffness coupling effect caused by different forms of the roll system's vibration is determined and the existence of nonlinear characteristics caused by the elastic deformation of moving strip is also found. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling-dynamic model is established which takes the tandem strip mill as its research object by making a detailed kinematics analysis of the roll system and using the principle of virtual work. The coupling-dynamic model proposes the instruction to describe the roll system's movement, and analyzes its dynamic response and working stability, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the strip thickness' dynamic control.

  20. Clinical implementation of a computer controlled milling machine for compensating filter production.

    PubMed

    Partridge, M; Donovan, E; Fenton, N; Reise, S; Blane, S

    1999-11-01

    The procedures required for the clinical implementation of a computer controlled milling machine for producing compensators for breast radiotherapy are described. Moulds are cut in a rigid polymer foam block and filled with stainless-steel granulate. Quality assurance procedures are described for ensuring that the compensators produced are consistent and accurate. Relative and absolute dosimetric measurements are presented showing that the compensators are accurate to better than 1% and demonstrate the technique to be clinically acceptable.

  1. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  2. Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sarah A; Kelly, Leah; Latcha, Kaamashri N; Schmidt, Sarah F; Yu, Xiaofei; Nectow, Alexander R; Sauer, Jeremy; Dyke, Jonathan P; Dordick, Jonathan S; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-31

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP-TRPV1). Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase-Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types. PMID:27007848

  3. Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sarah A.; Kelly, Leah; Latcha, Kaamashri N.; Schmidt, Sarah F.; Yu, Xiaofei; Nectow, Alexander R.; Sauer, Jeremy; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP–TRPV1)1. Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase–Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons2. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types. PMID:27007848

  4. Low inhibitory control and restrictive feeding practices predict weight outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Anzman, Stephanie L.; Birch, Leann L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A priority for research is to identify individuals early in development who are particularly susceptible to weight gain in the current, obesogenic environment. This longitudinal study investigated whether early individual differences in inhibitory control, an aspect of temperament, predicted weight outcomes and whether parents’ restrictive feeding practices moderated this relation. Study design Participants included 197 non-Hispanic White girls and their parents; families were assessed when girls were 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years old. Measures included mothers’ reports of girls’ inhibitory control levels, girls’ reports of parental restriction in feeding, girls’ body mass indexes (BMIs), and parents’ BMIs, education, and income. Results Girls with lower inhibitory control at age 7 had higher concurrent BMIs, greater weight gain, higher BMIs at all subsequent time points, and were 1.95 times more likely to be overweight at age 15. Girls who perceived higher parental restriction exhibited the strongest inverse relation between inhibitory control and weight status. Conclusion Variability in inhibitory control could help identify individuals who are predisposed to obesity risk; the current findings also highlight the importance of parenting practices as potentially modifiable factors which exacerbate or attenuate this risk. PMID:19595373

  5. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  6. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous. PMID:18023502

  7. Feed-forward control of a redundant motor system.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Simon R; Latash, Mark L

    2006-09-01

    We describe a model of feed-forward control of a redundant motor system and validate it using, as examples, tasks of multi-finger force production. The model assumes the existence of two input signals at an upper level of the control hierarchy, related and unrelated to a task variable. Knowledge of the Jacobian of the system is assumed at the level of generation of elemental variables (variables at the level of effectors). Variance at the level of elemental variables is considered as the sum of two components, related and unrelated to variability in the task variable. An index of stabilization of the task variable is similarly introduced as to how it was done in several studies using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Several phenomena have been simulated including data point distributions corresponding to presence and absence of force-stabilizing synergies in two-finger tasks, changes in synergies with practice, and changes in synergy indices in preparation to a fast action. The model is discussed in comparison to other models of control of multi-element systems based on feedback processes. It shows that patterns of structured variability in the space of elemental variables can result from feed-forward processes. Relations of the model to the equilibrium-point hypothesis are also discussed. PMID:16838148

  8. Effect of feed characteristics on the controllability of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, J.G.; Elliott, T.R.; Luyben, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    The design and control of binary distillation columns have been the focus of a great deal of industrial and academic research. However, the effect of the feed characteristics on the controllability of the column has remained unclear. This paper first examines how feed tray location affects the inherent controllability of a binary distillation column. It is shown that controllability can be significantly improved by feeding on a nonoptimum tray. The effects of feed thermal condition are also explored. Generic rules are proposed to improve the controllability of the column by changing the thermal condition of the feed.

  9. Randomised controlled trial of support from volunteer counsellors for mothers considering breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    Graffy, Jonathan; Taylor, Jane; Williams, Anthony; Eldridge, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether offering volunteer support from counsellors in breast feeding would result in more women breast feeding. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 general practices in London and south Essex. Participants 720 women considering breast feeding. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was prevalence of any breast feeding at six weeks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women giving any breast feeds, or bottle feeds at four months, duration of any breast feeding, time to introduction of bottle feeds, and satisfaction with breast feeding. Results Offering support in breast feeding did not significantly increase the prevalence of any breast feeding to six weeks (65% (218/336) in the intervention group and 63% (213/336) in the control group; relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.24). Survival analysis up to four months confirmed that neither duration of breast feeding nor time to introduction of formula feeds differed significantly between control and intervention groups. Not all women in the intervention group contacted counsellors postnatally, but 73% (123/179) of those who did rated them as very helpful. More women in the intervention group than in the control group said that their most helpful advice came from counsellors rather than from other sources. Conclusions Women valued the support of a counsellor in breast feeding, but the intervention did not significantly increase breastfeeding rates, perhaps because some women did not ask for help. PMID:14703543

  10. Feed Forward Neural Network and Optimal Control Problem with Control and State Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ova, Maria

    2009-09-09

    A feed forward neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The paper extends adaptive critic neural network architecture proposed by [5] to the optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. The proposed simulation method is illustrated by the optimal control problem of nitrogen transformation cycle model. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  11. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants. PMID:23802943

  12. Feed-Forward Control of Kite Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Kite power technology is a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that can not be reached by conventional wind turbines. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor. This paper describes a method to estimate the wind velocity at the kite using measurement data at the kite and at the ground. Focussing on a kite power system, which is converting the traction power of a kite in a pumping mode of operation, a reel-out speed predictor is presented for use in feed-forward control of the tether reel-out speed of the winch. The results show, that the developed feedforward controller improves the force control accuracy by a factor of two compared to the previously used feedback controller. This allows to use a higher set force during the reel-out phase which in turn increases the average power output by more than 4%. Due to its straightforward implementation and low computational requirements feedforward control is considered a promising technique for the reliable and efficient operation of traction-based kite power systems.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging of trabecular bone using the computer numerically controlled milling technique.

    PubMed

    Beck, J D; Canfield, B L; Haddock, S M; Chen, T J; Kothari, M; Keaveny, T M

    1997-09-01

    Although various techniques exist for high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of trabecular bone, a common limitation is that resolution depends on specimen size. Most techniques also have limited availability due to their expense and complexity. We therefore developed a simple, accurate technique that has a resolution that is independent of specimen size. Thin layers are serially removed from an embedded bone specimen using a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling machine, and each exposed cross section is imaged using a low-magnification digital camera. Precise positioning of the specimen under the camera is achieved using the programmable feature of the CNC milling machine. Large specimens are imaged without loss of resolution by moving the specimen under the camera such that an array of field-of-views spans the full cross section. The images from each field-of-view are easily assembled and registered in the postprocessing. High-contrast sections are achieved by staining the bone black with silver nitrate and embedding it in whitened methylmethacrylate. Due to the high contrast nature and high resolution of the images, thresholding at a single value yielded excellent predictions of morphological parameters such as bone volume fraction (mean +/- SD percent error = 0.70 +/- 4.28%). The main limitations of this fully automated "CNC milling technique" are that the specimen is destroyed and the process is relatively slow. However, because of its accuracy, independence of image resolution from specimen size, and ease of implementation, this new technique is an excellent method for ex situ imaging of trabecular architecture, particularly when high resolution is required.

  14. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. PMID:26643091

  15. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  16. Stable fly control in cattle winter feeding sites with Novaluron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock winter feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...

  17. Effects of flour and milling debris on efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (...

  18. Preparation of Si nano-crystals with controlled oxidation state from SiO disproportionated by ZrO2 ball-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yuji; Harada, Yoshitomo; Ohta, Narumi; Takada, Kazunori; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that a SiO disproportionation reaction can be achieved simply by high energy mechanochemical milling. The planetary ball-milling of ZrO2 for a few minutes generated Si nano-crystals. Milling conditions including rotation speed, ball number, milling time, and type of ball material were able to control the oxidation states of Si. The ball-milled SiO powder was tested as an anode of a lithium battery. ZrO2 contamination from the vial and balls was eliminated by dipping the ball-milled SiO powder in (NH4)HSO4 molten salt and heating for 5 min. The disproportionated SiO powder showed characteristics comparable to those of a powder prepared by a conventional heating process taking several hours.

  19. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system to enteral tube feeding in hospital.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M R; Batista, C R; Aidoo, K E

    2001-10-01

    An HACCP system was implemented for the quality assurance of preparation, storage and delivery of enteral feeds to patients in hospital. Routine methods of feed preparation, storage and delivery to patients were studied and a flow chart was initially made. After identifying hazards, an HACCP team was assembled, a flow chart was modified and critical control points were defined using a decision tree. Control measures for each step of the process and its monitoring and corrective measures to be applied were also defined. In addition, feed samples were analysed for microbiological quality and feed storage temperatures were also recorded, before and after the implementation of the HACCP system. When the control measures were applied and monitored, the hazard was reduced. Bacterial counts in feed were reduced from 105 cfu mL-1 to < 101 cfu mL-1. The results show that contamination of enteral feed may be reduced or eliminated if a systematic approach such as HACCP is applied effectively.

  20. Field Testing LIDAR Based Feed-Forward Controls on the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, A. K.; Fleming, P. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Wright, A. D.; Schlipf, D.; Haizmann, F.; Belen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems driven by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic forces. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a chaotic three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. In order to reduce cost of energy, future large multimegawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and University of Stuttgart are designing, implementing, and testing advanced feed-back and feed-forward controls in order to reduce the cost of energy for wind turbines.

  1. Parallel, redundant circuit organization for homeostatic control of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Betley, J Nicholas; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Ritola, Kimberly D; Sternson, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly defined population that is sufficient to rapidly coordinate voracious food seeking and consumption behaviors. Here, we use cell-type-specific techniques for neural circuit manipulation and projection-specific anatomical analysis to examine the organization of this critical homeostatic circuit that regulates feeding. We show that AGRP neuronal circuits use a segregated, parallel, and redundant output configuration. AGRP neuron axon projections that target different brain regions originate from distinct subpopulations, several of which are sufficient to independently evoke feeding. The concerted anatomical and functional analysis of AGRP neuron projection populations reveals a constellation of core forebrain nodes, which are part of an extended circuit that mediates feeding behavior.

  2. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  3. Improvement of multi-parameter-based feed-forward coagulant dosing control systems with feed-back functionalities.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Ratnaweera, H

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant dosing control in drinking and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often limited to flow proportional concepts. The advanced multi-parameter-based dosing control systems have significantly reduced coagulant consumption and improved outlet qualities. Due to the long retention time in separation stages, these models are mostly based on feed-forward (FF) models. This paper demonstrates the improvement of such models with feed-back (FB) concepts with simplifications, making it possible to use even in systems with long separation stages. Full-scale case studies from a drinking water treatment plant and a WWTP are presented. The model qualities were improved by the dosage adjustment of the FB model, ranging from 66% to 197% of the FF model. Hence, the outlet qualities became more stable and coagulant consumption was further reduced in the range of 3.7%-15.5%.

  4. Control method for steel strip roughness in Two-stand temper mill rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    How to control surface roughness of steel strip in a narrow range for a long time has become an important question because surface roughness would significantly influence the appearance of the products. However, there are few effective solutions to solve the problem currently. In this paper, considering both asperities of work roll pressing in and squeezing the steel strip, two asperity contact models including squeezing model and pressing in model in a two-stand temper mill rolling are established by using finite element method (FEM). The simulation investigates the influences of multiple process parameters, such as work roll surface roughness, roll radius and roll force on the surface roughness of steel strip. The simulation results indicate that work rolls surface roughness and roll force play important roles in the products; furthermore, the effect of roll force in the first stand is opposite to the second. According to the analysis, a control method for steel strip surface roughness in a narrow range for a long time is proposed, which applies higher work roll roughness in the first stand and lower roll roughness in the second to make the steel strip roughness in a required narrow range. In the later stage of the production, decreasing the roll force in the first stand and increasing the roll force in the second stand guarantee the steel strip roughness relatively stable in a long time. The following experimental measurements on the surface topography and roughness of the steel strips during the whole process are also conducted. The results validate the simulation conclusions and prove the effect of the control method. The application of the proposed method in the steel strip production shows excellent performance including long service life of work roll and high finished product rate.

  5. Coupled dynamic modeling of rolls model and metal model for four high mill based on strip crown control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianliang; Peng, Yan; Liu, Hongmin

    2013-01-01

    The crown is a key quality index of strip and plate, the rolling mill system is a complex nonlinear system, the strip qualities are directly affected by the dynamic characteristics of the rolling mil. At present, the studies about the dynamic modeling of the rolling mill system mainly focus on the dynamic simulation for the strip thickness control system, the dynamic characteristics of the strip along the width direction and that of the rolls along axial direction are not considered. In order to study the dynamic changes of strip crown in the rolling process, the dynamic simulation model based on strip crown control is established. The work roll and backup roll are considered as elastic continuous bodies and the work roll and backup roll are joined by a Winkler elastic layer. The rolls are considered as double freely supported beams. The change rate of roll gap is taken into consideration in the metal deformation, based on the principle of dynamic conservation of material flow, the two dimensional dynamic model of metal is established. The model of metal deformation provides exciting force for the rolls dynamic model, and the rolls dynamic model and metal deformation model couple together. Then, based on the two models, the dynamic model of rolling mill system based on strip crown control is established. The Newmark-β method is used to solve the problem, and the dynamic changes of these parameters are obtained as follows: (1) The bending of work roll and backup roll changes with time; (2) The strip crown changes with time; (3) The distribution of rolling force changes with time. Take some cold tandem rolling mill as subject investigated, simulation results and the comparisons with experimental results show that the dynamic model built is rational and correct. The proposed research provides effective theory for optimization of device and technological parameters and development of new technology, plays an important role to improve the strip control precision and

  6. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  7. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i) in ideal conditions, (ii) under sensory deprivation, and (iii) under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i) We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii) To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii) When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control. PMID:22032545

  8. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  9. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation.

  10. Influence of erythromycin on establishment of feeding in preterm infants: observations from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, B.; Middlemist, L.; Lyon, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To determine the effect of erythromycin on the establishment of enteral feeding in ventilated infants <31 weeks gestation.
METHODS—Erythromycin was randomly allocated as an antimicrobial treatment for the first 7 days of life in 76 infants: 35 received erythromycin and 41 acted as controls. Feed toleration, time taken to establish full enteral feeding, vomiting, prescription of glycerine suppositories and occurrence of necrotising enterocolitis were recorded.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the outcomes. The infants treated with erythromycin reached full feeding at a median (quartile) age of 8 (5-12) days compared with 9 (6-14) days for controls.
CONCLUSIONS—Intravenous erythromycin in antimicrobial doses is unlikely to benefit the introduction of feeding in preterm infants.

 PMID:10194995

  11. Effects of Flour and Milling Debris on Efficacy of Beta-Cyfluthrin for Control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Starkus, Laura A; Mckay, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 wks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in residual efficacy in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2. PMID:26470194

  12. Effects of Flour and Milling Debris on Efficacy of Beta-Cyfluthrin for Control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Starkus, Laura A; Mckay, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 wks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in residual efficacy in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2.

  13. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  14. Milling by product Utilization Research at USDA-ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...

  15. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated. Methods/Design A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months); neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months); and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial. Discussion Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will provide a strong rationale

  16. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  17. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  18. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.; Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T.

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  19. An overview of methodologies, proficiencies, and training resources for controlled feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Most, Marlene M; Ershow, Abby G; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2003-06-01

    Dietary intervention studies of human beings produce valuable information regarding dietary effects on biological processes and risk factors for chronic diseases. Using the well-controlled feeding approach, participants consume only foods that have been precisely prepared in a research kitchen, whereas in behavioral counseling studies, participants self-select their foods within guidelines. Because controlled feeding studies meticulously control experimental diets, they are intellectually and logistically challenging to conduct. They afford exciting opportunities for dietetic professionals in designing protocols, developing budgets, and collaborating in multidisciplinary research teams. Research dietitians use food composition data and chemical analysis of menus to prepare research diets with precision. They determine the energy requirements of subjects and adjust diets as required, most often for weight maintenance, throughout the study. All people involved in research must be attentive to the ethical treatment of the study participants while motivating them to adhere to the protocol requirements. Dietitians possess many of these skills, but may require training specific to well-controlled feeding studies. Information related to the conduct of controlled feeding studies has recently become more accessible. We provide an overview of well-controlled feeding study methodologies, proficiencies for planning and implementing these studies, and training resources.

  20. Control of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by feed-forward cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Yin, Hang; Soleimani, Vahab D; Haque, Takrima; Luchman, H Artee; Chang, Natasha C; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Puram, Sidharth V; Scott, Andrew M; Lorimer, Ian A J; Perkins, Theodore J; Ligon, Keith L; Weiss, Samuel; Rudnicki, Michael A; Bonni, Azad

    2016-01-01

    EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling is important in glioblastoma pathogenesis. Here, we identified the cytokine receptor OSMR as a direct target gene of the transcription factor STAT3 in mouse astrocytes and human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). We found that OSMR functioned as an essential co-receptor for EGFRvIII. OSMR formed a physical complex with EGFRvIII, and depletion of OSMR impaired EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of EGFRvIII phosphorylation inhibited the EGFRvIII-OSMR interaction and activation of STAT3. EGFRvIII-OSMR signaling in tumors operated constitutively, whereas EGFR-OSMR signaling in nontumor cells was synergistically activated by the ligands EGF and OSM. Finally, knockdown of OSMR strongly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth of mouse glioblastoma cells and human BTSC xenografts in mice, and prolonged the lifespan of those mice. Our findings identify OSMR as a critical regulator of glioblastoma tumor growth that orchestrates a feed-forward signaling mechanism with EGFRvIII and STAT3 to drive tumorigenesis. PMID:27110918

  1. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  2. Improving the feed-forward compensator in predictive control for setpoint tracking.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A; López-Estrada, F R

    2014-05-01

    Simple predictive control (MPC) algorithms produce a feed-forward compensator that may be a suboptimal choice. This paper gives some insights into this issue and simple means of modifying the feed-forward to produce a more systematic and optimal design. In particular, it is shown that the optimum procedure depends upon the underlying loop tuning and also that there are, as yet under utilised, potential benefits with regard to constraint handling procedures, which helps to improve the computational efficiency of the online controller implementation. A laboratory test in a programmable logic controller (PLC) was carried out to demonstrate the code on real hardware and the effectiveness of the solution. PMID:24657005

  3. Hardwired Control Changes For NSTX DC Power Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, S.

    2013-06-28

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The original TFTR Hardwired Control System (HCS) with electromechanical relays was used for NSTX DC Power loop control and protection during NSTX operations. As part of the NSTX Upgrade, the HCS is being changed to a PLC-based system with the same control logic. This paper gives a description of the changeover to the new PLC-based system __________________________________________________

  4. Development of a feed-forward controller for a tracking telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Stufflebeam, Joseph L.; Feller, Dan

    2004-07-01

    This paper develops a State Space model of a feed-forward control system in the frequency domain, and time domain. The results of the mathematical model are implemented and the responses of the Elevation and Azimuth servo controller in a tracking telescope called a Cine-Sextant developed for the Utah Test and Training Range.

  5. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Ca and Mg were found to be lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  6. Modeling and Feed-Forward Control of Structural Elastic Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M.; Otter, M.; Ulbrich, H.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper an approach for modeling and control of robots with elasticities in power trains and in structural parts is presented and experimentally verified. For this purpose object-oriented, nonlinear models are developed in the modeling language Modelica. A system theoretical study of the generated models shows that a direct inversion of the models, due to the unstable zero dynamics, is not possible. Therefore an algorithm for the approximate inversion is developed. With this inversion method an approximate inverse model considering structural elasticity for a 6-axis robot is created and verified for the control of the robot. The new control leads to a considerable improvement of the driving characteristics of the robot in the experiment.

  7. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  8. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

  9. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. PMID:25245525

  10. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc in biological samples of paralysed steel mill workers with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif G; Shah, Faheem; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Naveed

    2011-12-01

    The determination of essential trace and toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible effects of environmental exposure on paralysed male workers (n = 75) belonging to the production and quality control departments of a steel mill. In this investigation, the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of exposed paralysis and non-paralysed steel mill workers. For comparative purposes, unexposed healthy subjects of same age group were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). The possible connection of these elements with the aetiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements of workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  11. Real-time pressure monitoring for dynamic control during paper mill operation using fiber optic pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Boyd, Clark; Palmer, Matthew; Eriksen, Oddbjørn

    2006-03-01

    Fiber optic pressure sensors were integrated into the grinding plates of an operational paper pulp mill for real-time monitoring of the pulp grinding process. On-line system monitoring will allow smart, active control of the grinding plates thereby improving the quality and consistency of the pulp produced. Sensors were constructed and calibrated for use in the harsh environment of an operating paper pulp grinder. The sensors were 1.65mm in diameter including titanium housing, and were installed directly into the grooves of the grinding plates. The sensing elements were flush-mounted with the wall and exposed to the wood pulp slurry. Nine sensors were calibrated up to 1000psi. During operation, pressure was sampled at 1.0MHz, and pressure spikes up to 175psi were observed. Pressure pulses measured are due to the relative motion between the grooves and channels on two pulp grinding plates. The consistency, size distribution, and quality of paper pulp exiting from the grinder are directly related to the distance between the channels on the two rotating elements. The pressure pulses produced are also proportional to the distance between channels. Therefore, by monitoring pressure fluctuations, grinding elements can be dynamically controlled thereby producing a "smart mill."

  12. Effects of process control agent on the synthesis of AIN-carbon nanotube by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Rim; Kim, Young Jin; Ahn, Jung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum and its alloy are of importance due to high specific strength. In particular, aluminum matrix composites have good corrosion resistance and mechanical property at high temperatures. However, enhanced mechanical strength and wear resistance via proper heat treatments are strongly required for many structural applications. For this purpose, we synthesized carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced aluminum matrix composites by employing a new method. We employed controlled ball-milling and sintering: the use of some specific process control agents (PCAs) for ball-milling and sintering in a specific atmosphere. The use of our PCAs was beneficial both for homogeneous mixing and for the formation of hard dispersoids. Hardened layers was formed at the surface of the present aluminum-CNT composites as a result of reaction of aluminum with PCAs and nitrogen in the processing atmosphere. The resulting materials after sintering showed interesting mechanical properties, combined with surface hardening. The hardening mainly stems from the formation of Al-N-O phase at the surface of specimens. PMID:24205586

  13. Optimal Control Problem of Feeding Adaptations of Daphnia and Neural Network Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ov, Mria

    2010-09-01

    A neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints and open final time. The optimal control problem is transcribed into nonlinear programming problem, which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network [9] and recurrent neural network for solving nonlinear proprojection equations [10]. The proposed simulation methods is illustrated by the optimal control problem of feeding adaptation of filter feeders of Daphnia. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach and neural network solving of nonlinear equations hold promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints and open final time.

  14. Feed-forward control of a solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Maxime; Brandenburger, Ralf; Friede, Wolfgang; Lapicque, François; Limbeck, Uwe; da Silva, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    In this work a combined heat and power unit (CHP unit) based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is analysed. This unit has a special feature: the anode offgas is partially recycled to the anode inlet. Thus it is possible to increase the electrical efficiency and the system can be operated without external water feeding. A feed-forward control concept which allows secure operating conditions of the CHP unit as well as a maximization of its electrical efficiency is introduced and validated experimentally. The control algorithm requires a limited number of measurement values and few deterministic relations for its description.

  15. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process

  16. Current Status of Parasite Control at the Feed Yard.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, Thomas A; Tucker, Chris A; Powell, Jeremy; Beck, Paul; Wray, Eva; Weingartz, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Fly and louse infestations are readily discerned and remedied in feedlot cattle. Tapeworm and fluke infections are accepted as probable but, given the lack of anthelmintics with realistic efficacy against these infections, these helminths are allowed to persist without treatment. Nematode infections are considered ubiquitous with cattle coming from pasture and are targeted with a macrocyclic lactone, usually in combination with a benzimidazole. Populations of nematodes seem to be effectively controlled by a combination of anthelmintic treatment, animal resistance and resilience, lack of reinfection, and diet.

  17. Chemical feed control using coagulation computer models and a streaming current detector.

    PubMed

    Yavich, Alex A; Van De Wege, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of both the streaming current detector (SCD) and coagulation computer models to provide real-time data for required coagulant feed rates. The method for computer modeling of coagulation and other water treatment processes/operations was originally developed for Lake Michigan Filtration Plant in Grand Rapids, Michigan (MI). Since the initial implementation, a number of water treatment plants (WTPs) in the United States have begun routinely utilizing computer models for chemical feed control and process performance optimization. One plant, Holland WTP in Holland, MI, currently employs both an SCD and a coagulation computer model for chemical feed control. Case studies presented in this paper compare the performance of coagulation computer models and the SCD in full-scale operation.

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parental control in child feeding has focused primarily on directive types of control, such as pressure to eat and food restriction. This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess other types of directive control and two additional aspects of parental child feeding, non-directive and food envir...

  19. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

  20. Field testing of fugitive dust control techniques at a uranium mill tailings pile - 1982 Field Test, Gas Hills, Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-12-01

    A field test was conducted on a uranium tailings pile to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 chemical stabilizers for control of fugitive dust from uranium mill tailings. A tailings pile at the Federal American Partners (FAP) Uranium Mill, Gas Hills, Wyoming, was used for the field test. Preliminary laboratory tests using a wing tunnel were conducted to select the more promising stabilizers for field testing. Fourteen of the chemical stabilizers were applied with a field spray system pulled behind a tractor; one--Hydro Mulch--was applied with a hydroseeder. A portable weather station and data logger were installed to record the weather conditions at the test site. After 1 year of monitoring (including three site visits), all of the stabilizers have degraded to some degree; but those applied at the manufacturers' recommended rate are still somewhat effective in reducing fugitive emissions. The following synthetic polymer emulsions appear to be the more effective stabilizers: Wallpol 40-133 from Reichold Chemicals, SP-400 from Johnson and March Corporation, and CPB-12 from Wen Don Corporation. Installed costs for the test plots ranged from $8400 to $11,300/ha; this range results from differences in stabilizer costs. Large-scale stabilization costs of the test materials are expected to range from $680 to $3600/ha based on FAP experience. Evaluation of the chemical stabilizers will continue for approximately 1 year. 2 references, 33 figures, 22 tables.

  1. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  2. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  3. Enteral feeding as sole treatment for Crohn's disease: controlled trial of whole protein v amino acid based feed and a case study of dietary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Raouf, A H; Hildrey, V; Daniel, J; Walker, R J; Krasner, N; Elias, E; Rhodes, J M

    1991-01-01

    A controlled trial was performed to compare enteral feeding with either an amino acid based feed or a whole protein feed as sole treatment for active Crohn's disease. Twenty four patients were studied (nine with ileal, 11 with ileocolonic, and four with colonic disease). Both feeds proved effective; nine of 13 patients randomised to receive the amino acid based feed were in clinical remission within three weeks as defined by a simple activity index compared with eight of 11 treated with the whole protein feed. Patients in clinical remission were then crossed over onto the other feed. None of the six patients who were changed to the whole protein feed relapsed over the subsequent three week period compared with three of seven patients who were changed to the amino acid based feed. In responders the median serum C reactive protein concentration fell from 21 mg/l (range 9-82) on entry to 6 mg/l (range 3-19) at six weeks. Seven patients relapsed within eight months of starting solid food (mean 3.7 months), while nine were still in remission (follow up period 3-9 months, median six months). Detailed studies of staged reintroduction of food and permitted food additives were carried out over a four year period in a patient with extensive stricturing small bowel Crohn's disease who had been brought into remission by open treatment with enteral feeding. Carrageenan, other permitted emulsifiers, bread, meat, potatoes, oranges, refined sugar, dairy produce, flour, and rice were all reintroduced without any objective ill effect, but green vegetables provoked a clinical and biochemical relapse within one week of introduction. Remission was rapidly achieved by switching back to the enteral feed but reintroduction of the low residue diet that had been previously tolerated produced a brisk relapse. Clinical and biochemical remission was again achieved by a return to the enteral feed but relapse again occurred with reintroduction of the low residue diet. These studies confirm the

  4. The Petrocarb pneumatic feeding system: A proven method for feeding particulate solids at controlled rates. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reintjes, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the principal features of the Petrocarb Pneumatic Feeding System is given. Early development and various commercial applications are included. It is concluded that the Petrocarb Injection System is capable of feeding dry solids into most of the processes being developed for utilizing coal.

  5. Feed-forward control of gear mesh vibration using piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald T.; Kascak, Albert F.; Palazzolo, Alan; Manchala, Daniel; Thomas, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel means for suppressing gear mesh-related vibrations. The key components in this approach are piezoelectric actuators and a high-frequency, analog feed-forward controller. Test results are presented and show up to a 70-percent reduction in gear mesh acceleration and vibration control up to 4500 Hz. The principle of the approach is explained by an analysis of a harmonically excited, general linear vibratory system.

  6. SCR-based feed control enables 100% core recovery in slim-hole wildcats

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerker, H.F.; Dhindsa, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    As part of a multi-year slim hole drilling project in Venezuela, large scale automization of the drilling/coring process has been achieved. An SCR-based constant feed control system has been implemented and proven to be a distinct advantage over standard weight-on-bit (WOB) oriented controls. The rather abrupt feeding when trying to hold WOB constant resulted in feed-off cycle frequencies of approximately 1 s{sup {minus}1}, propagating through the drill string and thus inducing core breakage and jamming in the core barrel. The system is completely based on the control of the drill string movement using the drawworks` DC motors and SCR system drive, thus eliminating the need for additional sensors in the derrick. It can be retrofitted to any SCR driven rig at low cost in minimum time. Its application is specially suited for slim hole drilling where the constant, smooth feed limits WOB fluctuations to only {+-}200 lbs, but can be used during any drilling operation, improving drilling performance and extending the service life of downhole equipment. This paper describes the technical realization of the system, its application during 4{1/2} inch coring operations and recommendations how to use it for optimum drilling performance and core recovery.

  7. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  8. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  9. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  10. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  11. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  12. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  13. Design and evaluation of a Stochastic Optimal Feed-forward and Feedback Technology (SOFFT) flight control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a stochastic optimal feed-forward and feedback technology (SOFFT) control architecture with emphasis on the feed-forward controller design. The SOFFT approach allows the designer to independently design the feed-forward and feedback controllers to meet separate objectives and then integrate the two controllers. The feed-forward controller has been integrated with an existing high-angle-of-attack (high-alpha) feedback controller. The feed-forward controller includes a variable command model with parameters selected to satisfy level 1 flying qualities with a high-alpha adjustment to achieve desired agility guidelines, a nonlinear interpolation approach that scales entire matrices for approximation of the plant model, and equations for calculating feed-forward gains developed for perfect plant-model tracking. The SOFFT design was applied to a nonlinear batch simulation model of an F/A-18 aircraft modified for thrust vectoring. Simulation results show that agility guidelines are met and that the SOFFT controller filters undesired pilot-induced frequencies more effectively during a tracking task than a flight controller that has the same feedback control law but does not have the SOFFT feed-forward control.

  14. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics. PMID:25996624

  15. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics.

  16. Modular feed-forward active noise control units for ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Gardonio, P; Rohlfing, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental work on feed-forward active noise control for a ventilation duct. In particular three single channel control arrangements are investigated: (a) A classical widespread-mid-span configuration, where the control loudspeakers are located approximately half way through the duct and the reference and error microphones are placed close to inlet and outlet duct sections, respectively; (b) a compact-mid-span configuration, where both the reference and error microphones are moved close to the control loudspeakers to form a self-contained control unit, and (c) a compact-outlet configuration where the self-contained control unit is moved to the duct outlet. The two compact configurations offer self-evident practical installation and operation advantages. Moreover, the paper shows that they are characterized by much simpler control filters, which can be effectively implemented on modern audio digital signal processing boards and produce similar control performance to the classical widespread configuration. PMID:25480054

  17. Flatness and Edge Drop Decoupling Control for the Tandem Cold Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The flatness and edge drop is a strong-coupled multivariable control system, so realizing the decoupling control of them is one of the most important issues to achieve the highprecision control. In this paper, the modelling of system and decoupling control method of flatness and edge drop are analyzed. Simulation results represent that the flatness and edge drop control is decoupled to improve the control performance of flatness and edge drop.

  18. Factors in the control of feed intake of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L; Baile, C A

    1983-01-01

    Ponies are large nonruminant herbivores which are capable of utilizing the products of both enzymatic digestion in the small intestine and bacterial fermentation (volatile fatty acids, VFAs) in the cecum and large colon as sources of metabolizable energy. Recent studies have demonstrated that ponies utilize nutrient stimuli from both carbohydrate and fat digestion in the small intestine and VFAs in the cecum and large colon in the control of meal frequency. These animals, however, rely primarily upon oropharyngeal and external stimuli to control the size and duration of meals. This is perhaps an adaptation to a feeding pattern of small frequent meals and food sources which provide significant amounts of nutrients to the animal system only after microbial fermentation in the hind gut. Nutrient cues which are operant in controlling feed intake in omnivores, carnivores, and ruminants appear to be important primarily in the regulation of meal frequency and long-term energy balance in the equine animal. The emphasis on oropharyngeal stimuli in the immediate control of feed intake of ponies reflects the unusual digestive physiology of these animals relative to other species studied to date.

  19. Calculations and Experimental Investigations on the Feed-Power Requirement of Airplanes with Boundary-Layer Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, W.

    1947-01-01

    Calculations and test results are given about the feed-power requirement of airplanes with boundary-layer control. Curves and formulas for the rough estimate of pressure-loss and feed-power requirement are set up for the investigated arrangements which differ structurally and aerodynamically. According to these results the feed power for three different designs is calculated at the end of the report.

  20. An automatic pellet dispenser for precise control of feeding topography in granivorous birds

    PubMed Central

    Berkhoudt, H.; Van Der Reijden, D.; Heijmans, M.

    1987-01-01

    Design and construction of an automatic pellet dispenser for granivorous birds are described. The dispenser permits rapid pneumatic delivery of pellets (five pellets per second maximum) to one controlled position and does not interfere with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. In addition, the device continuously indicates presence or absence of a pellet in the delivery position. This automatic dispenser proved very effective in our studies of stereotyped topographies of feeding in granivorous birds, such as pigeons and chickens. PMID:16812503

  1. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part I: analytical methods and models

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B

    1985-01-01

    The redox state of glass from electric melters with complex feed compositions is determined by balance between gases above the melt, and transition metals and organic compounds in the feed. Part I discusses experimental and computational methods of relating flowrates and other melter operating conditions to the redox state of glass, and composition of the melter offgas. Computerized thermodynamic computational methods are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing individual process variations. Melter redox state can be predicted by combining monitoring of melter operating conditions, redox measurement of fused melter feed samples, and periodic redox measurement of product. Mossbauer spectroscopy, and other methods which measure Fe(II)/Fe(III) in glass, can be used to measure melter redox state. Part II develops preliminary operating limits for the vitrification of High-Level Radioactive Waste. Limits on reducing potential to preclude the accumulation of combustible gases, accumulation of sulfides and selenides, and degradation of melter components are the most critical. Problems associated with excessively oxidizing conditions, such as glass foaming and potential ruthenium volatility, are controlled when sufficient formic acid is added to adjust melter feed rheology.

  2. Validation of an official control method for enumeration of authorised probiotic yeast in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Renata G K; Bew, Jan; Bertin, Gérard

    2003-03-01

    An official control method in the framework of Council Directive 70/524/EEC for probiotic yeast used as feed additives was validated in a collaborative study by twenty laboratories in 12 European Countries. A pour plate method following ISO 7954 using chloramphenicol glucose yeast extract (CGYE) and a plate count method using CHROMagar Candida were used. Precision data in terms of repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the method using different feeding stuffs and three inoculation levels were determined. Yeast was present in the samples in mixtures with other probiotic feed additives at a lower, a higher concentration or not present. The enumeration of yeast on CGYE agar showed for the lower and higher concentration a RSD(r) of 2.4-4.9% and a RSD(R) of 7.7-8%, respectively and was preferred by the majority of labs. CHROMagar Candida had a RSD(r) of 1.9-2.8% and a RSD(R) of 1.9-5.9%. For routine analysis the use of the pour plate technique is recommended. CHROMagar Candida can be used for confirmation of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The methods are not recommended for mineral feeds. The results from this study are intended for consideration for adoption as CEN and ISO standards. PMID:12747423

  3. The Research on Optimization of Edge Drop Control for Cold Tandem Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The cold tandem rolling of metal strip presents a significant control challenge because of nonlinearities and process complexities. And reducing edge drop of cold rolling strips and meeting uniform thickness will be a new tough shape theories and technologies. In this paper, the existing edge drop control are analyzed and optimized. The simulation results and practical data show that the optimized control system can effectively control the edge drop.

  4. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for the hydraulic APC system of the rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruicheng; Chen, Zhikun

    2011-10-01

    Considering uncertain external disturbance, the model of automatic position control system is established. Then, according to the information of input and output, using extended states observer (ESO), a newer observer is proposed to observe and compensate this integrated disturbance, and a controller is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). This controller has very strong robustness not only to external disturbance, but also to unpredictable plant parameter variations.

  5. DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL BELOW AND BEHIND IT. STRAIGHT HORIZONTAL PIPE IS SLIME FEED FROM ROD MILL. PIPE OUT TOP OF CYCLONE AND CURVING AT LOWER RIGHT CARRIED FINELY GROUND SLIME TO FLOTATION CONDITIONER TANK. PIPE NOT VISIBLE OUT BOTTOM OF CYCLONE CONVEYED COARSER SLIME TO BALL MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. Higher order feed-forward control of reticle writing error fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Sundermann, Frank; Gatefait, Maxime

    2015-10-01

    The understanding and control of the intra-field overlay budget becomes crucial particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications. The intra-field overlay budget is built-up out of many contributors, each with its own characteristic. Some of them are (semi-)static like the reticle writing error (RWE) fingerprint, the scanner lens fingerprint, or the intra-field processing signature. Others are more dynamic. Examples are reticle heating and lens heating due to the absorption of a small portion of the exposure light. Ideally, all overlay contributors that are understood and known could be taken out of the feed-back control loop and send as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. As a consequence, only non-correctable overlay residuals are measured on the wafer. In the current work, we have studied the possibility to characterize the reticle writing error fingerprint by an off-line position measurement tool and use this information to send feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool. The current work is an extension of the work we published earlier. To this end, we have selected a reticle pair out of 50 production reticles that are used to manufacture a 28-nm technology device. These two reticles are special in the sense that the delta fingerprint contains a significant higher order RWE signature. While previously only the linear parameters were sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool, this time we additionally demonstrate the capability to correct for the non-linear terms as well. Since the concept heavily relies on the quality of the off-line mask registration measurements, a state-of-the-art reticle registration tool was chosen. Special care was taken to eliminate any effects of the tool induced shifts that may affect the quality of the measurements. The on-wafer overlay verification measurements were performed on an ASML YieldStar metrology tool as well as on a different vendor tool. In conclusion

  7. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    PubMed

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  8. Dynamic control of a central pattern generator circuit: a computational model of the snail feeding network.

    PubMed

    Vavoulis, Dimitris V; Straub, Volko A; Kemenes, Ildikó; Kemenes, György; Feng, Jianfeng; Benjamin, Paul R

    2007-05-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are networks underlying rhythmic motor behaviours and they are dynamically regulated by neuronal elements that are extrinsic or intrinsic to the rhythmogenic circuit. In the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, the extrinsic slow oscillator (SO) interneuron controls the frequency of the feeding rhythm and the N3t (tonic) has a dual role; it is an intrinsic CPG interneuron, but it also suppresses CPG activity in the absence of food, acting as a decision-making element in the feeding circuit. The firing patterns of the SO and N3t neurons and their synaptic connections with the rest of the CPG are known, but how these regulate network function is not well understood. This was investigated by building a computer model of the feeding network based on a minimum number of cells (N1M, N2v and N3t) required to generate the three-phase motor rhythm together with the SO that was used to activate the system. The intrinsic properties of individual neurons were represented using two-compartment models containing currents of the Hodgkin-Huxley type. Manipulations of neuronal activity in the N3t and SO neurons in the model produced similar quantitative effects to food and electrical stimulation in the biological network indicating that the model is a useful tool for studying the dynamic properties of the feeding circuit. The model also predicted novel effects of electrical stimulation of two CPG interneurons (N1M and N2v). When tested experimentally, similar effects were found in the biological system providing further validation of our model.

  9. Forebrain networks and the control of feeding by environmental learned cues

    PubMed Central

    Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The motivation to eat is driven by a complex sum of physiological and non-physiological influences computed by the brain. Physiological signals that inform the brain about energy and nutrient needs are the primary drivers, but environmental signals unrelated to energy balance also control appetite and eating. The two components could act in concert to support the homeostatic regulation of food intake. Often, however, environmental influences rival physiological control and stimulate eating irrespective of satiety, or inhibit eating irrespective of hunger. If persistent, such maladaptive challenges to the physiological system could lead to dysregulated eating and ultimately to eating disorders. Nevertheless, the brain mechanisms underlying environmental contribution in the control of food intake are poorly understood. This paper provides an overview in recent advances in deciphering the critical brain systems using rodent models for environmental control by learned cues. These models use associative learning to compete with the physiological control, and in one preparation food cues stimulate a meal despite satiety, while in another preparation fear cues stop a meal despite hunger. Thus far, four forebrain regions have been identified as part of the essential cue induced feeding circuitry. These are telencephalic areas critical for associative learning, memory encoding, and decision making, the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and the lateral hypothalamus, which functions to integrate feeding, reward, and motivation. This circuitry also engages two orexigenic peptides, ghrelin and orexin. A parallel amygdalar circuitry supports fear cue cessation of feeding. These findings illuminate the brain mechanisms underlying environmental control of food intake and might be also relevant to aspects of human appetite and maladaptive overeating and undereating. PMID:23562305

  10. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosbi, Norlin; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5-15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  11. Determination of florfenicol dose rate in feed for control of mortality in nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotica infected with streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dose titration study was conducted to determine the dosage of florfenicol (FFC) in feed to control Streptococcus iniae-associated mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six tanks were assigned to each of five treatments: (1) not challenged with S. iniae and fed unmedicated feed; (2) chal...

  12. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area. PMID:22031836

  13. Redox Control For Hanford HLW Feeds VSL-12R2530-1, REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Matlack, Keith S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Kot, Wing K.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-13

    The principal objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of processing simulated Hanford HLW at the estimated maximum concentrations of nitrates and oxalates and to identify strategies to mitigate any processing issues resulting from high concentrations of nitrates and oxalates. This report provides results for a series of tests that were performed on the DM10 melter system with simulated C-106/AY-102 HLW. The tests employed simulated HLW feeds containing variable amounts of nitrates and waste organic compounds corresponding to maximum concentrations proj ected for Hanford HLW streams in order to determine their effects on glass production rate, processing characteristics, glass redox conditions, melt pool foaming, and the tendency to form secondary phases. Such melter tests provide information on key process factors such as feed processing behavior, dynamic effects during processing, processing rates, off-gas amounts and compositions, foaming control, etc., that cannot be reliably obtained from crucible melts.

  14. Decoupling control based on terminal sliding mode and wavelet network for the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yiming; Liu, Le; Li, Jianxiong; Xu, Yanze

    2015-08-01

    To weaken the nonlinear coupling influences among the variables in the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill, a novel dynamic decoupling control strategy is proposed based on nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) and wavelet neural network (WNN). First, nonlinear disturbance observers are developed to counteract the mismatched uncertainties, and then input/output dynamic decoupling and linearisation for the speed and tension nonlinear coupling system are realised by utilising the inverse system theory. Second, nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode controller (NFTSMC) for each pseudo linear subsystem is presented based on backstepping and two-power reaching law, so as to improve the global convergence speed and robust stability of the system. Third, adaptive WNNs are used to approximate the uncertain items of the system, so as to improve the control precision of the speed and tension of reversible cold strip rolling mill. Theoretical analyses show that the NFTSMs satisfy reachability condition, the system error variables can converge to equilibrium point in finite time, and the resulting closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, simulation research is carried out on the speed and tension system of a 1422 mm reversible cold strip rolling mill by using the actual data, and results show the superiority of the proposed control strategy in comparison with the strategies of cascade PI, linear sliding mode control and internal model control.

  15. Neuroendocrine control of appetite in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): changes during metamorphosis and effects of feeding.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana S; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Olsen, Kjetil; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2015-05-01

    Hormones and neuropeptides play a crucial role in the appetite control system of vertebrates, yet few studies have focused on their importance during early teleost development. In this study, we analysed the expression patterns of the appetite-controlling factors ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC-C), and cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART) by quantitative PCR. Transcript expression was investigated in response to feeding in developing Atlantic halibut larvae: before (premetamorphic stage 5) and during metamorphosis (stages 8 and 9B), and also in response to a fast-refeed challenge. We show that ghrelin transcript expression increased in synchrony with stomach development, while CART was significantly reduced during larval development. PYY was up-regulated 1 and 3 h after feeding in stage 5. Transcript abundance of other appetite-controlling factors did not change in response to feeding. Fasting-refeeding trials (majority of larvae in metamorphosing stage 7) revealed a down-regulation of POMC-C 30 min after refeeding, while ghrelin, PYY and NPY transcript expression increased 2, 4 and 5 h after refeeding, respectively. In summary, transcripts for key appetite-controlling factors were detected early during development in Atlantic halibut and their emergence was not correlated with metamorphosis, with the exception of ghrelin. Our results suggest that PYY may mediate satiety early in larval development. The differing response times of POMC-C, ghrelin, PYY and NPY to a meal are intriguing and require further exploration to understand the role of each player in appetite control.

  16. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  17. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  18. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    PubMed Central

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  19. A Novel Hybrid Error Criterion-Based Active Control Method for on-Line Milling Vibration Suppression with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Gao, Robert X; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-01-06

    Milling vibration is one of the most serious factors affecting machining quality and precision. In this paper a novel hybrid error criterion-based frequency-domain LMS active control method is constructed and used for vibration suppression of milling processes by piezoelectric actuators and sensors, in which only one Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used and no Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is involved. The correction formulas are derived by a steepest descent procedure and the control parameters are analyzed and optimized. Then, a novel hybrid error criterion is constructed to improve the adaptability, reliability and anti-interference ability of the constructed control algorithm. Finally, based on piezoelectric actuators and acceleration sensors, a simulation of a spindle and a milling process experiment are presented to verify the proposed method. Besides, a protection program is added in the control flow to enhance the reliability of the control method in applications. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is an effective and reliable way for on-line vibration suppression, and the machining quality can be obviously improved.

  20. A Novel Hybrid Error Criterion-Based Active Control Method for on-Line Milling Vibration Suppression with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Gao, Robert X.; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Milling vibration is one of the most serious factors affecting machining quality and precision. In this paper a novel hybrid error criterion-based frequency-domain LMS active control method is constructed and used for vibration suppression of milling processes by piezoelectric actuators and sensors, in which only one Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used and no Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is involved. The correction formulas are derived by a steepest descent procedure and the control parameters are analyzed and optimized. Then, a novel hybrid error criterion is constructed to improve the adaptability, reliability and anti-interference ability of the constructed control algorithm. Finally, based on piezoelectric actuators and acceleration sensors, a simulation of a spindle and a milling process experiment are presented to verify the proposed method. Besides, a protection program is added in the control flow to enhance the reliability of the control method in applications. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is an effective and reliable way for on-line vibration suppression, and the machining quality can be obviously improved. PMID:26751448

  1. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  2. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: a review.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-04-01

    feed cost per unit of pork produced provided that their price per unit NE or digestible lysine is less than that of the traditional feedstuffs and that negative effects of their ANF are controlled. PMID:24492540

  3. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: a review.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-04-01

    feed cost per unit of pork produced provided that their price per unit NE or digestible lysine is less than that of the traditional feedstuffs and that negative effects of their ANF are controlled.

  4. Regulation of Feed-forward and Feedback Strategies at the Human Ankle during Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    Finley, James M.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of sway during quiet stance have often been approximated by the movement of an unstable inverted pendulum. Controlling this unstable load requires the nervous system to balance the reliance on feed-forward volitional activation and feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. It has been demonstrated that reflex excitability is heightened when postural stability is threatened by destabilizing forces in the environment. However, the relationship between postural stability, volitional activation, and stretch reflex excitability remains unclear. We addressed this question by characterizing feed-forward and feedback activation strategies during balance of a simulated inverted pendulum. We hypothesized that feed-forward co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would scale together as the external support provided by the environment was reduced. Electromyographic (EMG) responses in 5 muscles of the lower limb were used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the simulated loads. Our results revealed that co-contraction magnitude did indeed scale with increasingly destabilizing torques; however reflex amplitude was attenuated as stability was reduced. These findings suggest that the contribution of feedback mechanisms to postural stability depends on both the level of stability provided by the environment and how the environment influences the pattern of volitional activation. PMID:19965100

  5. Regulation of feed-forward and feedback strategies at the human ankle during balance control.

    PubMed

    Finley, James M; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Perreault, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of sway during quiet stance have often been approximated by the movement of an unstable inverted pendulum. Controlling this unstable load requires the nervous system to balance the reliance on feed-forward volitional activation and feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. It has been demonstrated that reflex excitability is heightened when postural stability is threatened by destabilizing forces in the environment. However, the relationship between postural stability, volitional activation, and stretch reflex excitability remains unclear. We addressed this question by characterizing feed-forward and feedback activation strategies during balance of a simulated inverted pendulum. We hypothesized that feed-forward co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would scale together as the external support provided by the environment was reduced. Electromyographic (EMG) responses in 5 muscles of the lower limb were used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the simulated loads. Our results revealed that co-contraction magnitude did indeed scale with increasingly destabilizing torques; however reflex amplitude was attenuated as stability was reduced. These findings suggest that the contribution of feedback mechanisms to postural stability depends on both the level of stability provided by the environment and how the environment influences the pattern of volitional activation.

  6. Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

  7. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  8. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed × breed approach.

    PubMed

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-01

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (p<0.001) as well as in study II (p=0.012). Breed, animal age, live weight, sex and the interaction of breed and treatment did not affect FEC in either study. The main nematode genera found in the sacrificed lambs of study II were Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55

  9. Broadening the polyethylene molecular weight distribution by controlling the hydrogen concentration and catalyst feed rates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Emad M; Ali, Mohammad Al-haj

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of an industrial gas-phase polyethylene reactor to produce a desired molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymer. The controller objective is to regulate online the entire molecular weight distribution by either manipulating the hydrogen content inside the reactor or coordinating the feed rates of two different types of catalysts. In this work, the molecular weight distribution is modeled as a function of the reaction kinetics and hydrogen to monomer ratio. Nonlinear model predictive controller (NLMPC) algorithm is used to maintain the desired molecular weight distribution online. The closed-loop simulations indicated the effectiveness of NLMPC to achieve its goal even in the presence of modeling errors. Moreover, the results showed that, altering the hydrogen concentration solely can produce the required polymer quality provided that an efficient mechanism is available to readily alter the hydrogen composition. Alternatively, the desired MWD can also be guaranteed with proper manipulation of the catalyst feed rates while the other process inputs are kept constant.

  10. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  11. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  12. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-06-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R2 > 0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced strongly fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 25.4 mm screens and fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  13. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Yang, Yuechuan T; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-11-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin-Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R(2)>0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced 'strongly fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 12.7-25.4 mm screens and 'fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  14. How protective is breast feeding against diarrhoeal disease in infants in 1990s England? A case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M A; Cumberland, P; Cowden, J M; Rodrigues, L C

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of several measures of infant feeding on diarrhoeal disease, and whether these effects vary according to markers of social deprivation. Methods Case‐control study of diarrhoeal disease cases presenting to 34 general practices in England. Controls were stratified on age group, area deprivation index for the practice, and whether or not the practice was in London. Data were available on 304 infants (167 cases and 137 controls). Results After adjustment for confounders, breast feeding was associated with significantly less diarrhoeal disease. Associations were striking even in infants aged ⩾ 6 months. They did not vary by social class, but were greater in those living in rented council accommodation and in more crowded households. The effect of receiving no breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. The effect of not receiving exclusive breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. In formula fed infants, there was significantly more diarrhoeal disease in those not sterilising bottles/teats with steam or chemicals. The protective effect of breast feeding did not persist beyond two months after breast feeding had stopped. Conclusions Breast feeding protects against diarrhoeal disease in infants in England although the degree of protection may vary across infants and wear off after breast feeding cessation. Education about the benefits of breast feeding and the risks of inadequate sterilisation should be targeted at carers in deprived areas or households. PMID:16308409

  15. Control of transcriptional variability by overlapping feed-forward regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Ratushny, Alexander V; Ramsey, Stephen A; Roda, Oriol; Wan, Yakun; Smith, Jennifer J; Aitchison, John D

    2008-10-01

    In yeast, beta-oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) takes place in the peroxisome, an organelle whose size and number are controlled in response to environmental cues. The expression of genes required for peroxisome assembly and function is controlled by a transcriptional regulatory network that is induced by FAs such as oleate. The core FA-responsive transcriptional network consists of carbon source-sensing transcription factors that regulate key target genes through an overlapping feed-forward network motif (OFFNM). However, a systems-level understanding of the function of this network architecture in regulating dynamic FA-induced gene expression is lacking. The specific role of the OFFNM in regulating the dynamic and cell-population transcriptional response to oleate was investigated using a kinetic model comprised of four core transcription factor genes (ADR1, OAF1, PIP2, and OAF3) and two reporter genes (CTA1 and POT1) that are indicative of peroxisome induction. Simulations of the model suggest that 1), the intrinsic Adr1p-driven feed-forward loop reduces the steady-state expression variability of target genes; 2), the parallel Oaf3p-driven inhibitory feed-forward loop modulates the dynamic response of target genes to a transiently varying oleate concentration; and 3), heterodimerization of Oaf1p and Pip2p does not appear to have a noise-reducing function in the context of oleate-dependent expression of target genes. The OFFNM is highly overrepresented in the yeast regulome, suggesting that the specific functions described for the OFFNM, or other properties of this motif, provide a selective advantage. PMID:18621837

  16. Robust design of feedback feed-forward iterative learning control based on 2D system theory for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifu; Hu, Yueming; Li, Di

    2016-08-01

    For a class of linear discrete-time uncertain systems, a feedback feed-forward iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is proposed, which is comprised of an iterative learning controller and two current iteration feedback controllers. The iterative learning controller is used to improve the performance along the iteration direction and the feedback controllers are used to improve the performance along the time direction. First of all, the uncertain feedback feed-forward ILC system is presented by an uncertain two-dimensional Roesser model system. Then, two robust control schemes are proposed. One can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is bounded-input bounded-output stable along time direction, and the other can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is asymptotically stable along time direction. Both schemes can guarantee the system is robust monotonically convergent along the iteration direction. Third, the robust convergent sufficient conditions are given, which contains a linear matrix inequality (LMI). Moreover, the LMI can be used to determine the gain matrix of the feedback feed-forward iterative learning controller. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  17. Control of Y₂O₃ phase and its nanostructure formation through a very high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.K.; Park, E.K.; Park, J.J.; Rhee, C.K.

    2013-05-01

    The formation behavior of Y₂O₃ ceramic particles was studied by employing a very high energy ball milling (milling energy: ~165 kJ/g·hit, milling speed: 1000 rpm). Both the XRD and HRTEM studies revealed that the high impact strain energy generated during the milling caused a drastic phase transition from the original C-type cubic (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) to the metastable B-type monoclinic (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å), finally followed by a partial solid-state amorphization. The cubic phase was difficult to be reduced down to smaller than 10 nm, while the monoclinic phase was stabilized at sizes smaller than 10 nm with a mean crystallite size of 7.57 nm. Consequently, the existence of Y₂O₃ at a nanoscale smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming metastable monoclinic crystals, which are strain-induced. - Graphical abstract: The fig shows the solid-state phase formation of Y₂O₃ by very high energy input into the particles during milling: ordered body-centered cubic phase (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) nanocrystalline monoclinic phase (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å) disordered monoclinic phase partial amorphous phase. The formation of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm was strongly dependent on whether the phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred. Highlights: • This paper analyses very high energy milling behavior of coarse Y₂O₃ particles. • A drastic phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred with a partial amorphization. • An existence of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming strain-induced monoclinic crystals.

  18. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions.

  19. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase).

  20. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase). PMID:25624137

  1. Dust control in pulp/paper mills. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning machine design developments for dust control and extraction relative to paper/pulp mill processes such as radiation pulp/paper dryers, handling empty packaging sacks, packaging powdered products, sulfite pulping processes, and pigment conveying systems. The removal of electrostatic charges which generate dust circulation, measurement of the dust concentrations of paper, and procedures for eliminating dust from glassware in the bottling industry are among the topics examined. Also included are factors related to dust-generated health hazards to mill employees. Examples include dust effects on the human body, protective clothing, regulations, plant design, and good housekeeping operations. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Central pattern generation involved in oral and respiratory control for feeding in the term infant

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Drinking and eating are essential skills for survival and benefit from the coordination of several pattern generating networks and their musculoskeletal effectors to achieve safe swallows. Oral-pharyngo-esophageal motility develops during infancy and early childhood, and is influenced by various factors, including neuromuscular maturation, dietary and postural habits, arousal state, ongoing illnesses, congenital anomalies, and the effects of medical or surgical interventions. Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent in neonates and infants, and its role in neonatal morbidity including dysphagia, chronic lung disease, or apparent life-threatening events is not well understood. This review highlights recent studies aimed at understanding the development of oral feeding skills, and cross-system interactions among the brainstem, spinal, and cerebral networks involved in feeding. Recent Findings Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation through the first year of life which can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Relevant central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system CPG interactions. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents accelerates pattern genesis for the suck CPG and transition-to-oral feed in the RDS preterm infant. Summary The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions which optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote safe swallows among newborn and pediatric patients. PMID:19417662

  3. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  4. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  5. New inducible genetic method reveals critical roles of GABA in the control of feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fantao; Han, Yong; Srisai, Dollada; Belakhov, Valery; Farias, Monica; Xu, Yong; Palmiter, Richard D.; Baasov, Timor; Wu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Currently available inducible Cre/loxP systems, despite their considerable utility in gene manipulation, have pitfalls in certain scenarios, such as unsatisfactory recombination rates and deleterious effects on physiology and behavior. To overcome these limitations, we designed a new, inducible gene-targeting system by introducing an in-frame nonsense mutation into the coding sequence of Cre recombinase (nsCre). Mutant mRNAs transcribed from nsCre transgene can be efficiently translated into full-length, functional Cre recombinase in the presence of nonsense suppressors such as aminoglycosides. In a proof-of-concept model, GABA signaling from hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) was genetically inactivated within 4 d after treatment with a synthetic aminoglycoside. Disruption of GABA synthesis in AgRP neurons in young adult mice led to a dramatic loss of body weight due to reduced food intake and elevated energy expenditure; they also manifested glucose intolerance. In contrast, older mice with genetic inactivation of GABA signaling by AgRP neurons had only transient reduction of feeding and body weight; their energy expenditure and glucose tolerance were unaffected. These results indicate that GABAergic signaling from AgRP neurons plays a key role in the control of feeding and metabolism through an age-dependent mechanism. This new genetic technique will augment current tools used to elucidate mechanisms underlying many physiological and neurological processes. PMID:26976589

  6. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  7. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  8. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control.

  9. 6. Level 7, launder feeding vibrating screens, view to southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Level 7, launder feeding vibrating screens, view to southeast. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  10. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  11. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27043974

  12. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June, 2001 to September, 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient ‘control’ diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, American Heart Association (AHA) diet, Atkins® lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets’ total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins®, AHA, vegan, and the high-phytosterol DASH diet (163, 340, 445 and 500 mg/2000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9 ± 5.9% (mean±SD) of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies. PMID:19942022

  13. Excitatory orexinergic innervation of rat nucleus incertus--Implications for ascending arousal, motivation and feeding control.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, Anna; Siwiec, Marcin; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Blasiak, Tomasz; Czerw, Anna; Blasiak, Ewa; Kania, Alan; Rajfur, Zenon; Lewandowski, Marian H; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Orexin/hypocretin peptides play a central role in the integrated control of feeding/reward and behavioural activation, principally via interactions with other neural systems. A brainstem area involved in behavioural activation is the nucleus incertus (NI), located in the posterior ventromedial central grey. Several studies have implicated NI in control of arousal/stress and reward/feeding responses. Orexin receptor mRNA expression identifies NI as a putative target of orexin modulation. Therefore, in this study we performed neural tract-tracing and immunofluorescence staining to characterise the orexinergic innervation of NI. Our results indicate a convergent innervation of the NI area by different orexin neuron populations, with an abundance of orexin-A-containing axons making putative synaptic contacts with relaxin-3-positive NI neurons. The influence of orexin-A on NI neuron activity was investigated using patch-clamp recordings. Orexin-A depolarised the majority (64%) of recorded neurons and this effect was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating a likely postsynaptic action. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that in 'type I' NI neurons comprising relaxin-3-positive cells, orexin-A acted via L-type calcium channels, whereas in 'type II' relaxin-3-negative neurons, activation of a sodium/calcium exchanger was involved. A majority of the orexin-A sensitive neurons tested for the presence of orexin receptor mRNA, were OX2 mRNA-positive. Immunohistochemical staining for putative orexin receptors on NI neurons, confirmed stronger expression of OX2 than OX1 receptors. Our data demonstrate a strong influence of orexin-A on NI neurons, consistent with an important role for this hypothalamic/tegmental circuit in the regulation of arousal/vigilance and motivated behaviours. PMID:26265304

  14. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  15. Mitigation of ground motion effects in linear accelerators via feed-forward control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfingstner, J.; Artoos, K.; Charrondiere, C.; Janssens, St.; Patecki, M.; Renier, Y.; Schulte, D.; Tomás, R.; Jeremie, A.; Kubo, K.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground motion is a severe problem for many particle accelerators, since it excites beam oscillations, which decrease the beam quality and create beam-beam offset (at colliders). Orbit feedback systems can only compensate ground motion effects at frequencies significantly smaller than the beam repetition rate. In linear colliders, where the repetition rate is low, additional counter measures have to be put in place. For this reason, a ground motion mitigation method based on feed-forward control is presented in this paper. It has several advantages compared to other techniques (stabilization systems and intratrain feedback systems) such as cost reduction and potential performance improvement. An analytical model is presented that allows the derivation of hardware specification and performance estimates for a specific accelerator and ground motion model. At the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF2), ground motion sensors have been installed to verify the feasibility of important parts of the mitigation strategy. In experimental studies, it has been shown that beam excitations due to ground motion can be predicted from ground motion measurements on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Correlations of up to 80% between the estimated and measured orbit jitter have been observed. Additionally, an orbit jitter source was identified and has been removed, which halved the orbit jitter power at ATF2 and shows that the feed-forward scheme is also very useful for the detection of installation issues. We believe that the presented mitigation method has the potential to reduce costs and improve the performance of linear colliders and potentially other linear accelerators.

  16. Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: what's so spatial about our methods?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial chemical injection (ICI) methods have been used to identify the locations in the brain where feeding behavior can be controlled acutely. Scientists conducting ICI studies often document their injection site locations, thereby leaving kernels of valuable location data for others to use to further characterize feeding control circuits. Unfortunately, this rich dataset has not yet been formally contextualized with other published neuroanatomical data. In particular, axonal tracing studies have delineated several neural circuits originating in the same areas where ICI injection feeding-control sites have been documented, but it remains unclear whether these circuits participate in feeding control. Comparing injection sites with other types of location data would require careful anatomical registration between the datasets. Here, a conceptual framework is presented for how such anatomical registration efforts can be performed. For example, by using a simple atlas alignment tool, a hypothalamic locus sensitive to the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can be aligned accurately with the locations of neurons labeled by anterograde tracers or those known to express NPY receptors or feeding-related peptides. This approach can also be applied to those intracranial “gene-directed” injection (IGI) methods (e.g., site-specific recombinase methods, RNA expression or interference, optogenetics, and pharmacosynthetics) that involve viral injections to targeted neuronal populations. Spatial alignment efforts can be accelerated if location data from ICI/IGI methods are mapped to stereotaxic brain atlases to allow powerful neuroinformatics tools to overlay different types of data in the same reference space. Atlas-based mapping will be critical for community-based sharing of location data for feeding control circuits, and will accelerate our understanding of structure-function relationships in the brain for mammalian models of obesity and metabolic disorders

  17. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  18. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  19. Development and implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point plans by several U.S. feed manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Herrman, Timothy J; Langemeier, Michael R; Frederking, Matt

    2007-12-01

    The commitment to consumer food safety, global trade, and proposed new regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has led to increased adoption of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) by the U.S. feed industry. A project supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Integrated Food Safety Initiate titled "Development and Implementation of a Voluntary HACCP Program for the US Feed Industry" enabled faculty from three land grant universities to assist individuals from 14 feed companies that collectively manufacture 15 million metric tons of feed in 100 facilities to develop HACCP plans. The process flow in these plans averaged 20 steps, and the most detailed plan included 60 process steps. Chemical hazards were more commonly identified in HACCP plans (average of four hazards per plan) than were biological hazards (average of one per plan). The most prevalent chemical hazards were cross-contamination of type A medicated articles and type B medicated feeds, aflatoxin, and wrong ingredient inclusion in feed. The most common biological hazard was mammalian protein contamination of feed ingredients and finished feed for cattle. An assessment of time and costs associated with developing HACCP plans revealed that approximately 29% of the companies needed additional personnel or additional equipment to implement a HACCP plan, and on average 268 additional person hours were needed to develop and implement a HACCP plan. Plan design, compliance monitoring, and record keeping were the three most time-consuming activities needed for developing and implementing a HACCP plan. The average cost of additional equipment needed to implement a HACCP plan was $250.

  20. Control of particle size by feed composition in the nanolatexes produced via monomer-starved semicontinuous emulsion copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-05-01

    Conventional batch and semicontinuous emulsion copolymerizations often produce large particles whose size cannot be easily correlated with the comonomer feed compositions, and are to some degree susceptible to composition drift. In contrast, we found that copolymer nanolatexes made via semicontinuous monomer-starved emulsion copolymerizations are featured with an average nanoparticle size being controlled by the feed composition, a high conversion achieved, and a high degree of particle composition uniformity. This was achieved because the rate of particle growth, during nucleation, was controlled by the rate of comonomer addition, and the copolymer composition, surfactant parking area on the particles, and nucleation efficiency determined by the comonomer feed composition. Two model systems, methyl methacrylate/styrene and vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate, with significant differences in water solubility were studied. Monomers were added to the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and potassium persulfate at a low rate to achieve high instantaneous conversions. PMID:25617612

  1. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  2. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Sung, C. C.; Liou, D. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Cha, H. C.

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars.

  3. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P < 0.05) in perceived appetite, satiety, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY responses compared with reduced eating frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  4. 17. Woodworking Mill (basement): view looking north showing Ames Iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Woodworking Mill (basement): view looking north showing Ames Iron Works steam boiler; note turbine control handle in middle right of photo - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  5. Controlling the Ecotourist in a Wild Dolphin Feeding Program: Is Education the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orams, Mark B.; Hill, Greg J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an education program for tourists who hand-feed wild dolphins at Tangalooma, Moreton Island in eastern Australia was evaluated. Data were gathered on tourist behavior during feeding sessions before and after the education policy was implemented. After implementation of the education program, inappropriate behaviors such as…

  6. A semi-active milling procedure in view of preparing implantation beds in robot-assisted orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Ham, G; Denis, K; Vander Sloten, J; Van Audekercke, R; Van der Perre, G; De Schutter, J; Simon, J P; Fabry, G

    2005-05-01

    Bone cutting in total joint reconstructions requires a high accuracy to obtain a well-functioning and long-lasting prosthesis. Hence robot assistance can be useful to increase the precision of the surgical actions. A drawback of current robot systems is that they autonomously machine the bone, in that way ignoring the surgeon's experience and introducing a safety risk. This paper presents a semi-active milling procedure to overcome that drawback. In this procedure the surgeon controls robot motion by exerting forces on a force-controlled lever that is attached to the robot end effector. Meanwhile the robot constrains tool motion to the planned motion and generates a tool feed determined by the feed force that the surgeon executes. As a case study the presented milling procedure has been implemented on a laboratory set-up for robot-assisted preparation of the acetabulum in total hip arthroplasty. Two machining methods have been considered. In the first method the surgeon determines both milling trajectory and feed by the forces that he/she executes on the force-controlled lever. In the second method the cavity is machined contour by contour, and the surgeon only provides the feed. Machining experiments have shown that the first method results in large surface irregularities and is not useful. The second method, however, results in accurate cavity preparation and has therefore potential to be implemented in future robot systems.

  7. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the opening of...

  8. A feed-forward controlled AC-DC boost converter for biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Lan, Di; Lin, Dahsien; Zhang, Junmin; Liou, Shyshenq; Shahnasser, Hamid; Shen, Ming; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2012-01-01

    Miniaturization is important to make implants clinic friendly. Wireless power transfer is an essential technology to miniaturize implants by reducing their battery size or completely eliminating their batteries. Traditionally, a pair of inductively-coupled coils operating at radio-frequency (RF) is employed to deliver electrical power wirelessly. In this approach, a rectifier is needed to convert the received RF power to a stable DC one. To achieve high efficiency, the induced voltage of the receiving coil must be much higher than the turn-on voltage of the rectifying diode (which could be an active circuit for low turn-on voltage) [1]. In order to have a high induced voltage, the size of the receiving coil often is significantly larger than rest of the implant. A rotating magnets based wireless power transfer has been demonstrated to deliver the same amount of power at much lower frequency (around 100 Hz) because of the superior magnetic strength produced by rare-earth magnets [2]. Taking the advantage of the low operating frequency, an innovative feed-forward controlled AC to DC boost converter has been demonstrated for the first time to accomplish the following two tasks simultaneously: (1) rectifying the AC power whose amplitude (500 mV) is less than the rectifier's turn-on voltage (1.44 V) and (2) boosting the DC output voltage to a much higher level (5 V). Within a range, the output DC voltage can be selected by the control circuit. The standard deviation of the output DC voltage is less than 2.1% of its mean. The measured load regulation is 0.4 V/kΩ. The estimated conversion efficiency excluding the power consumption of the control circuits reaches 75%. The converter in this paper has the potential to reduce the size of the receiving coil and yet achieve desirable DC output voltage for powering biomedical implants. PMID:23366230

  9. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  10. Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, Dragan R.; Škrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health. PMID:22069600

  11. PEDF and IL-6 CONTROL PROSTATE NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION VIA FEED-FORWARD MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Norm D.; Schulze-Hoepfner, Frank Thilo; Veliceasa, Dorina; Filleur, Stephanie; Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xue-Mei; Volpert, Olga V.

    2010-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes differentiation and survival of neuronal cells and expands the adult neuronal stem cell niche. In the prostate, PEDF is suppressed by androgen, with unclear physiological consequences. Ectopic and endogenous PEDF cause neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, manifested by neurite-like outgrowths and expression of chromogranin A. The trans-differentiated cells expressed both axonal and dendritic markers, as was ascertained by immunoblotting specific markers. Neuroendocrine cells formed multiple synaptophysin-positive protrusions resembling dendritic spines, and vesicles containing serotonin, pointing to a possibility of synapse formation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a known trans-differentiating agent, induced PEDF secretion. Moreover, PEDF neutralizing antibodies abolished trans-differentiation of IL-6 treated cells, suggesting an autocrine loop. Neurogenic events were independent of cyclic AMP. Instead, PEDF activated, in this order, RhoA, NFκB and Stat3. Inhibitors of Rho, NFκB or STAT pathways abolished differentiation and synapse formation. Additionally, NFκB activation caused IL-6 expression. Thus we discovered that NFκB controls formation of neuronal communications in the prostate due to PEDF and defined a feed-forward loop where NFκB induction elicits Stat3 activation and pro-differentiating IL-6 expression causing further expansion of the neuroendocrine communications. Our findings point to the role of NFκB and PEDF in coordinated prostate development. PMID:18433784

  12. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  13. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  14. Novel muscle and connective tissue design enables high extensibility and controls engulfment volume in lunge-feeding rorqual whales.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Robert E; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Potvin, Jean; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vogl, A Wayne

    2013-07-15

    Muscle serves a wide variety of mechanical functions during animal feeding and locomotion, but the performance of this tissue is limited by how far it can be extended. In rorqual whales, feeding and locomotion are integrated in a dynamic process called lunge feeding, where an enormous volume of prey-laden water is engulfed into a capacious ventral oropharyngeal cavity that is bounded superficially by skeletal muscle and ventral groove blubber (VGB). The great expansion of the cavity wall presents a mechanical challenge for the physiological limits of skeletal muscle, yet its role is considered fundamental in controlling the flux of water into the mouth. Our analyses of the functional properties and mechanical behaviour of VGB muscles revealed a crimped microstructure in an unstrained, non-feeding state that is arranged in parallel with dense and straight elastin fibres. This allows the muscles to accommodate large tissue deformations of the VGB yet still operate within the known strain limits of vertebrate skeletal muscle. VGB transverse strains in routine-feeding rorquals were substantially less than those observed in dead ones, where decomposition gas stretched the VGB to its elastic limit, evidence supporting the idea that eccentric muscle contraction modulates the rate of expansion and ultimate size of the ventral cavity during engulfment.

  15. The circadian clock controls fluctuations of colonic cell proliferation during the light/dark cycle via feeding behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Daisuke; Aoki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Mizuho; Aoyama, Shinya; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is controlled not only by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also by the peripheral clocks located in tissues such as liver, kidney, small intestine, and colon, mediated through signals such as hormones. Peripheral clocks, but not the SCN, can be entrained by food intake schedules. While it is known that cell proliferation exhibits a circadian rhythm in the colon epithelium, it is unclear how this rhythm is influenced by food intake schedules. Here, we aimed to determine the relationships between feeding schedules and cell proliferation in the colon epithelium by means of immunochemical analysis, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), as well as to elucidate how feeding schedules influence the colonic expression of clock and cell cycle genes, using real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal mice exhibited a daily fluctuation, which was abrogated in Clock mutant mice. The day/night pattern of cellular proliferation and clock gene expression under daytime and nighttime restricted feeding (RF) schedules showed opposite tendencies. While daytime RF for every 4 h attenuated the day/night pattern of cell proliferation, this was restored to normal in the Clock mutant mice under the nighttime RF schedule. These results suggest that feeding schedules contribute to the establishment of a daily fluctuation of cell proliferation and RF can recover it in Clock mutant mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that the daily fluctuation of cell proliferation in the murine colon is controlled by a circadian feeding rhythm, suggesting that feeding schedules are important for rhythmicity in the proliferation of colon cells.

  16. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Mechanical intervention for reducing dust concentration in traditional rice mills.

    PubMed

    Pranav, Prabhanjan K; Biswas, Mrinmoy

    2016-08-01

    A huge number of workers are employed in traditional rice mills where they are potentially exposed to dust. In this study a dust collection system was developed to capture the airborne dust in the rice mill. The feeding and sieving section of the mill was identified as major dust creating zone. The dust was captured by creating suitable air stream at feeding and sieving sections of the mill and collected in cyclone dust collector. The air stream was created by blower which was selected on the basis to get minimum air speed of 0.5 m/s in the working zones of workers. It was observed that the developed system is successfully collects the significant amount of dust and able to reduce the dust concentration up to 58%. Further, the respirable dust concentration reduced to below 5 mg/m(3) throughout the mill which is within the recommended limit of dust exposure.

  18. Mechanical intervention for reducing dust concentration in traditional rice mills

    PubMed Central

    PRANAV, Prabhanjan K.; BISWAS, Mrinmoy

    2016-01-01

    A huge number of workers are employed in traditional rice mills where they are potentially exposed to dust. In this study a dust collection system was developed to capture the airborne dust in the rice mill. The feeding and sieving section of the mill was identified as major dust creating zone. The dust was captured by creating suitable air stream at feeding and sieving sections of the mill and collected in cyclone dust collector. The air stream was created by blower which was selected on the basis to get minimum air speed of 0.5 m/s in the working zones of workers. It was observed that the developed system is successfully collects the significant amount of dust and able to reduce the dust concentration up to 58%. Further, the respirable dust concentration reduced to below 5 mg/m3 throughout the mill which is within the recommended limit of dust exposure. PMID:26829976

  19. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed.

  20. Maternal controlling feeding practices and girls’ inhibitory control interact to predict changes in BMI and eating in the absence of hunger from 5 to 7 y1234

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mothers use a range of feeding practices to limit children's intake of palatable snacks (eg, keeping snacks out of reach, not bringing snacks into the home), but less is known about the effects of these practices on children's eating and weight outcomes. Objective: The objective was to identify distinct feeding practice profiles and evaluate the interactive effects of these profiles and girls’ temperament (inhibitory control and approach) on girls’ eating behaviors and weight outcomes at 5 and 7 y. Design: Participants included 180 mother-daughter dyads; measures were mothers’ reports of controlling feeding practices and girls’ height and weight, eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at 5 y, and inhibitory control (a measure of behavioral inhibition) and approach (a measure of appetitive motivation) at 7 y. Results: Latent profile analysis of maternal feeding practices showed 4 feeding profiles based on maternal use of limit-setting practices and keeping snacks out of girls’ physical reach, a restrictive practice: Unlimited Access to Snacks, Sets Limits+Does Not Restrict Snacks, Sets Limits+Restricts High Fat/Sugar Snacks, and Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks. Girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks had a higher approach and EAH at 5 y. Low inhibitory control girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks or Unlimited Access to Snacks had greater increases in EAH and body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y. Conclusions: Effects of maternal control on girls’ EAH and BMI may differ by the type of practice used (eg, limit-setting or restrictive practices). Girls with low inhibitory control were more susceptible to the negative effects of low and high control. PMID:24284443

  1. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study123

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. Design: In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Results: Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P < 0.01) increased total fecal cholesterol excretion (36 ± 6% and 74 ± 10%, respectively) and biliary cholesterol excretion (38 ± 7% and 77 ± 12%, respectively) and reduced percentage intestinal cholesterol absorption (−10 ± 1% and −25 ± 3%, respectively). Serum LDL cholesterol declined significantly only with the highest phytosterol dose (−8.9 ± 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (−5.0 ± 2.1%; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054. PMID:19889819

  2. Flatness-based model inverse for feed-forward braking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Edwin; Fehn, Achim; Rixen, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    For modern cars an increasing number of driver assistance systems have been developed. Some of these systems interfere/assist with the braking of a car. Here, a brake actuation algorithm for each individual wheel that can respond to both driver inputs and artificial vehicle deceleration set points is developed. The algorithm consists of a feed-forward control that ensures, within the modelled system plant, the optimal behaviour of the vehicle. For the quarter-car model with LuGre-tyre behavioural model, an inverse model can be derived using v x as the 'flat output', that is, the input for the inverse model. A number of time derivatives of the flat output are required to calculate the model input, brake torque. Polynomial trajectory planning provides the needed time derivatives of the deceleration request. The transition time of the planning can be adjusted to meet actuator constraints. It is shown that the output of the trajectory planning would ripple and introduce a time delay when a gradual continuous increase of deceleration is requested by the driver. Derivative filters are then considered: the Bessel filter provides the best symmetry in its step response. A filter of same order and with negative real-poles is also used, exhibiting no overshoot nor ringing. For these reasons, the 'real-poles' filter would be preferred over the Bessel filter. The half-car model can be used to predict the change in normal load on the front and rear axle due to the pitching of the vehicle. The anticipated dynamic variation of the wheel load can be included in the inverse model, even though it is based on a quarter-car. Brake force distribution proportional to normal load is established. It provides more natural and simpler equations than a fixed force ratio strategy.

  3. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  4. Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Peterson, Sabrina; Chen, Chu; Makar, Karen W.; Schwarz, Yvonne; King, Irena B; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; Kestin, Mark; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase-II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared to the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione-S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance, such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, cross-over feeding trial in humans (n=70), 3 test diets, (single- and double-“dose” cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared to a fruit-and-vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11 and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity, and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared to the basal diet (p<0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in: *1/*1 in both single and double-dose cruciferous diets compared to basal (p<0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to single-dose cruciferous (p<0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared to basal (p<0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals. PMID:19336732

  5. Comparisons of toxic baits for controlling the cockroach, Blattella germanica: attractiveness and feeding stimulation.

    PubMed

    Durier, V; Rivault, C

    2000-12-01

    Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.

  6. Optimization of pocket milling operation of rectangular shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Andijani, A.

    1994-12-31

    An optimization model to setup machine parameters (feed, speed, width, and depth of cut) for pocket milling on a vertical mill is developed. We propose an approach to determine the optimal set of operating conditions that minimize the total milling cost. The part to be milled has a square or a rectangular shape. The pocket milling mathematical model in this paper is an explicit, multi-variable, nonlinear objective function, and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. We provide a study of some optimization algorithms that are suitable for the optimization of the pocket milling operation. We describe the general and the relative features for each algorithm. However, the final choice of the best algorithm depends upon individual preference, experience, and the case being investigated. An illustrative example is presented.

  7. Mills at Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William

    1995-01-01

    Offers an insightful and perceptive portrait of the legendary sociologist C. Wright Mills by one of his former graduate students. Traces Mills's areas of interest from occupational characteristics to power groups leading to the publication of his seminal work, "The Power Elite." Discusses Mills's teaching styles and academic career. (MJP)

  8. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  9. Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-10-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress.

  10. Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-10-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress

  11. Thalamocortical control of feed-forward inhibition in awake somatosensory 'barrel' cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Swadlow, Harvey A

    2002-01-01

    Intracortical inhibition plays a role in shaping sensory cortical receptive fields and is mediated by both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. Feed-forward inhibition is the faster of the two processes, being generated by inhibitory interneurons driven by monosynaptic thalamocortical (TC) input. In principle, feed-forward inhibition can prevent targeted cortical neurons from ever reaching threshold when TC input is weak. To do so, however, inhibitory interneurons must respond to TC input at low thresholds and generate spikes very quickly. A powerful feed-forward inhibition would sharpen the tuning characteristics of targeted cortical neurons, and interneurons with sensitive and broadly tuned receptive fields could mediate this process. Suspected inhibitory interneurons (SINs) with precisely these properties are found in layer 4 of the somatosensory (S1) 'barrel' cortex of rodents and rabbits. These interneurons lack the directional selectivity seen in most cortical spiny neurons and in ventrobasal TC afferents, but are much more sensitive than cortical spiny neurons to low-amplitude whisker displacements. This paper is concerned with the activation of S1 SINs by TC impulses, and with the consequences of this activation. Multiple TC neurons and multiple S1 SINs were simultaneously studied in awake rabbits, and cross-correlation methods were used to examine functional connectivity. The results demonstrate a potent, temporally precise, dynamic and highly convergent/divergent functional input from ventrobasal TC neurons to SINs of the topographically aligned S1 barrel. Whereas the extensive pooling of convergent TC inputs onto SINs generates sensitive and broadly tuned inhibitory receptive fields, the potent TC divergence onto many SINs generates sharply synchronous activity among these elements. This TC feed-forward inhibitory network is well suited to provide a fast, potent, sensitive and broadly tuned inhibition of targeted spiny neurons that will suppress spike

  12. Controlled preparation of cellulases with xylanolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) by continuous-feed cultivation using soluble sugars.

    PubMed

    Ike, Masakazu; Park, Jeung-yil; Tabuse, Mine; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient production system for cellulase preparation with a high level of xylanolytic enzymes using soluble carbon sources. When xylose and arabinose were simultaneously fed with glucose and cellobiose, a mutant of Trichoderma reesei, M3-1, showed sufficient levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, indicating that xylose and arabinose are good inducers for the production of xylanolytic enzymes. In a continuous feeding experiment using glucose/cellobiose and glucose/xylose/cellobiose, cellulase preparations with various levels of xylanolytic enzymes were obtained by altering the feeding solutions and the timing of their addition. The volumetric production rates for xylanolytic activities at the glucose/xylose/cellobiose-feeding phase were significantly higher than at the glucose/cellobiose-feeding phase, while those for cellulolytic activities were comparable under the two conditions. Thus the composition of the enzyme preparation produced by the mutant was readily controlled by varying the inducers and the pattern of their addition, facilitating the tailored production of enzymes in a diversity of bioconversion processes.

  13. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A portion of each filtrate sample was freeze-dried and the resulting solids were analyzed for ash content. Adsorption experiments with calcium and barium were carried at 70{degrees}C in a temperature controlled incubator under continuous mixing in order to simulate the environment experienced by brownstock as it moves through the Q stage. In the calcium experiments, it was difficult to accurately determine the calcium adsorbed on the pulp by measuring the depletion of calcium in the aqueous phase. Consequently, the technique was modified. In the modified technique, the calcium-adsorbed pulp is acid washed again to release the calcium. The calcium concentration in the washings is measured, and the calcium adsorbed on the pulp is estimated by material balance. Measurement of calcium adsorption on the brownstock pulp fibers from the L-P/Samoa mill have been obtained.

  14. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  15. Novel method for producing amorphous cellulose only by milling.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Ryoichiro; Nishioka, Akihiro; Kano, Ichiro; Koda, Tomonori; Nishio, Taichi

    2014-02-15

    The present study investigated a novel method for producing amorphous cellulose by milling without adding water. A new type of milling machine was developed (called a shear and cooling milling machine (SCMM)), which was capable of applying mechanical shear and cooling during the milling process. The SCMM consisted of a pair of mortars attached to a servomotor and a ring cooler. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis was used to determine the cellulose crystallinity in samples produced using the SCMM at different milling temperatures. The results of WAXD for cellulose powder milled at lower temperatures exhibited no diffraction peaks. This experimental result demonstrates that the SCMM produces amorphous cellulose easily by cooled milling without the addition of water. The milling conditions, such as the applied shear and cooling, can be used to control the crystallinity of cellulose.

  16. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  17. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central U...

  18. Vermiconversion of wastewater sludge from textile mill mixed with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry employing Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Kaushik, Priya; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2006-11-01

    Vermicomposting is commonly used for the management of organic wastes. We have investigated the potential of an epigeic earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to transform solid textile mill sludge (STMS) spiked with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry (BPS) into vermicompost to evaluate the feasibility of vermicomposting in industries for waste management. The growth and reproduction of E. foetida was monitored in a range of different feed mixtures for 15 weeks in laboratory under controlled experimental conditions. E. foetida did not survive in fresh STMS. But worms grew and reproduced in STMS spiked with BPS feed mixtures. A greater percentage of STMS in feed mixture affected biomass gain and cocoon production by earthworms. The maximum growth was recorded in 100% BPS. The net weight gain by E. foetida in 100% BPS was two-four-fold higher than STMS-containing feed mixtures. After 15 weeks, maximum cocoons (78) were counted in 100% BPS and minimum (26) in 60% BPS+40% STMS feed. Vermicomposting resulted in pH shift toward acidic, significant reduction in C:N ratio, and increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Microbial activity measured as dehydrogenase activity increased with time up to day 75 but decreased on day 90, indicating the exhaustion of feed and decrease in microbial activity. These experiments demonstrate that vermicomposting can be an alternate technology for the recycling and environmentally safe disposal/management of textile mill sludge using an epigeic earthworm, E. foetida, if mixed with anaerobically digested BPS in appropriate ratios.

  19. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

  20. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Opapeju, F O; Pluske, J R; Kim, J C; Hampson, D J; Nyachoti, C M

    2013-04-01

    For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used to promote piglet growth at weaning through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. There are, however, increasing concerns in relation to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the potential of these and associated resistance genes to impact on human health. As a consequence, European Union (EU) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine and livestock production on 1 January 2006. Furthermore, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are not feasible alternatives/replacements to antibiotics because their excretion is a possible threat to the environment. Consequently, there is a need to develop feeding programs to serve as a means for controlling problems associated with the weaning transition without using antimicrobial compounds. This review, therefore, is focused on some of nutritional strategies that are known to improve structure and function of gastrointestinal tract and (or) promote post-weaning growth with special emphasis on probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, trace minerals and dietary protein source and level. PMID:22416941

  1. Maternal control of child feeding during the weaning period: differences between mothers following a baby-led or standard weaning approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2011-11-01

    A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.

  2. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  3. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased.

  4. A novel model-based adaptive control strategy for step-feed SBRs dealing with influent fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Min; Han, Jingyi; Sun, Peide

    2014-09-01

    A novel model-based adaptive control strategy for step-feed sequence batch reactors (SBRs) was developed and compared with traditional fixed-parameters control strategy and statically optimal parameters control strategy under influent fluctuation period. The SBR was operated with automatic alteration of the operating parameters based on the numerical calculation results of fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM). Since the influent fluctuated from one cycle to another, model-based adaptive control strategy was applied to optimize the operating parameters of the SBR accordingly. By using the model-based adaptive control strategy, the average removal efficiencies for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) achieved in fluctuation tests were over 84% and 98%, respectively. Compared to traditional fixed-parameters strategy, the TN removal efficiency was improved by 25.11%.

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  10. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Arcuate NPY neurons sense and integrate peripheral metabolic signals to control feeding.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Daisuke; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-12-01

    NPY neuron in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is a key feeding center. Studies have shown that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus has a role to induce food intake. The arcuate nucleus is structurally unique with lacking blood brain barrier. Peripheral energy signals including hormones and nutrition can reach the arcuate nucleus. In this review, we discuss sensing and integrating peripheral signals in NPY neurons. In the arcuate nucleus, ghrelin mainly activates NPY neurons. Leptin and insulin suppress the ghrelin-induced activation in 30-40% of the ghrelin-activated NPY neurons. Lowering glucose concentration activates 40% of NPY neurons. These results indicate that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is a feeding center in which major peripheral energy signals are directly sensed and integrated. Furthermore, there are subpopulations of NPY neurons in regard to their responsiveness to peripheral signals. These findings suggest that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is an essential feeding center to induce food intake in response to peripheral metabolic state.

  12. Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

    2011-07-30

    The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for δ(13)C. For these samples, the δ(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The δ(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High δ(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

  13. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part II: preliminary limits for radioactive waste melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B; Iverson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Melter redox control is necessary for safe and continued melter operation. A combination of feed composition control, melter operational controls and monitors, and periodic determination of product glass redox state is sufficient to meet operating and safety requirements. Mossbauer spectroscopy, or other methods which determine the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of the glass product, can be used to determine the oxidation state of the glass and thereby assess operating conditions. Slightly reducing conditions can eliminate radio-Ru volatility by suppressing the formation of RuO4. Reducing conditions also limit foaming resulting from the release of oxygen as transition metal oxides are dissolved in the melt. The calcination and partial combustion of organic compounds in the melter feed generates combustible mixtures of CO, H2 and benzene. The organics must be essentially completely incinerated to avoid the accumulation of combustible offgas mixtures, and prevent fouling of the equipment by soot and tars. Operation of the melter plenum above the autoignition temperature, metering in of purge air in excess of that required for complete combustion, and dilution by water vapor from reacted feed all preclude this occurrence in the melter. Prevention of dangerous offgas compositions after water vapor removal is assured by combustion in the melter, the addition of dilution air, and by continuous monitoring by % Lower Explosive Limit meters. Melter reducing power must be restricted to prevent formation of molten sulfides or selenides in the melter, and to prevent carburization and sulfidation attack of Inconel-690 melter components. Control of average oxygen partial pressure in the melter plenum is insufficient to assure prevention of localized attack of Inconel-690. An additional requirement is therefore necessary, that no soot or tarry substances be deposited on the Inconel-690.

  14. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2...

  15. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of rodent bait treated with fipronil for feed through and systemic control of Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Derbali, M; Polyakova, L; Boujaâma, A; Burruss, D; Cherni, S; Barhoumi, W; Chelbi, I; Poché, R; Zhioua, E

    2014-07-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of Leishmania major, etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), which is endemic in North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In North Africa, Meriones shawi is one of the two main reservoir hosts of L. major. P. papatasi populations are maintained in borrowing rodents such as M. shawi. Three fipronil-treated rodent baits were evaluated for systemic and feed through insecticidal activity against P. papatasi feeding on M. shawi. Through blood feeding bioassays, mortality rates of females P. papatasi increased with the concentration of fipronil in the rodent bait varying from 0.001% to 0.005%. In the laboratory, more than 90.0% of P. papatasi were killed within 48h after blood feeding on the desert's jirds, M. shawi, treated up to 29 days prior with a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.001%, 0.0025% and 0.005%. Through larval bioassays, mortality rates of larvae that have fed on faeces of treated bait for M. shawi increase with the concentrations of fipronil. Faeces of orally-treated Meriones were significantly toxic to larvae for 5 weeks with a concentration of 0.005%. In the field, application of treated bait resulted in 80.0% reduction in the populations of P. papatasi up to 6 weeks after a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.005%. This is the first study to demonstrate field efficacy of fipronil-treated rodent baits for P. papatasi control and the first study to evaluate this approach in M. shawi, a principal ZCL reservoir host. These results suggest that fipronil-treated rodent baits can be used to effectively reduce the populations of P. papatasi associated with M. shawi in ZCL endemic areas.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of rodent bait treated with fipronil for feed through and systemic control of Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Derbali, M; Polyakova, L; Boujaâma, A; Burruss, D; Cherni, S; Barhoumi, W; Chelbi, I; Poché, R; Zhioua, E

    2014-07-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of Leishmania major, etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), which is endemic in North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In North Africa, Meriones shawi is one of the two main reservoir hosts of L. major. P. papatasi populations are maintained in borrowing rodents such as M. shawi. Three fipronil-treated rodent baits were evaluated for systemic and feed through insecticidal activity against P. papatasi feeding on M. shawi. Through blood feeding bioassays, mortality rates of females P. papatasi increased with the concentration of fipronil in the rodent bait varying from 0.001% to 0.005%. In the laboratory, more than 90.0% of P. papatasi were killed within 48h after blood feeding on the desert's jirds, M. shawi, treated up to 29 days prior with a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.001%, 0.0025% and 0.005%. Through larval bioassays, mortality rates of larvae that have fed on faeces of treated bait for M. shawi increase with the concentrations of fipronil. Faeces of orally-treated Meriones were significantly toxic to larvae for 5 weeks with a concentration of 0.005%. In the field, application of treated bait resulted in 80.0% reduction in the populations of P. papatasi up to 6 weeks after a single application of fipronil at a concentration of 0.005%. This is the first study to demonstrate field efficacy of fipronil-treated rodent baits for P. papatasi control and the first study to evaluate this approach in M. shawi, a principal ZCL reservoir host. These results suggest that fipronil-treated rodent baits can be used to effectively reduce the populations of P. papatasi associated with M. shawi in ZCL endemic areas. PMID:24681222

  18. Predictors of head start and child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices with children aged 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Donovan, Sharon M; Cho, Hyun Keun

    2014-09-01

    Few child-care providers meet the national recommendations for healthful feeding practices. Effective strategies are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on child-care providers' feeding practices is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices for children aged 2 to 5 years. In this cross-sectional study, child-care providers (n=118) from 24 center-based programs (six Head Start [HS], 11 Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and seven non-CACFP) completed self-administered surveys during 2011-2012. Multilevel multivariate linear regression models were used to predict seven feeding practices. Working in an HS center predicted teaching children about nutrition and modeling healthy eating; that may be attributed to the HS performance standards that require HS providers to practice healthful feeding. Providers who reported being concerned about children's weight, being responsible for feeding children, and had an authoritarian feeding style were more likely to pressure children to eat, restrict intake, and control food intake to decrease or maintain children's weight. Providers with nonwhite race, who were trying to lose weight, who perceived nutrition as important in their own diet, and who had a greater number of nutrition training opportunities were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices. These findings suggest that individual- and child-care-level factors, particularly provider race, education, training, feeding attitudes and styles, and the child-care context may influence providers' feeding practices with young children. Considering these factors when developing interventions for providers to meet feeding practice recommendations may add to the efficacy of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:24618036

  19. Biological nitrogen removal in a step-feed CAST with real-time control treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ma; Chengyao, Peng; Li, Wang; Shuying, Wang; Yang, Liu; Ningping, Ma; Xia, Yu; Yongzhen, Peng

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a 18 L step-feed cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) combined with real-time control treating real municipal wastewater was evaluated. The operation strategies employed pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) as on-line control parameters, which can control the durations of oxic and anoxic phases flexibly. The obtained results showed that the studied process had achieved advanced and enhanced nitrogen removal by several phases of consecutive oxic/anoxic periods. Total nitrogen in effluent was lower than 2 mg/L and the average TN removal efficiency was higher than 98%, while only requiring small amount of external carbon source. Unexpected characteristic points in pH and ORP profiles denoting the depletion of nitrate were also observed during the last anoxic phase. Denitrification rate was found to be more dependent on the system temperature compared to nitrification rate. Moreover, a stable and efficient phosphorus removal rate above 90% was achieved by using step-feed strategy which enabled the influent carbon source to be fully used and the favourable condition for phosphorus releasing to be created during the anoxic phases.

  20. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented.

  1. A role of the histaminergic system for the control of feeding by orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Nomura, Sachiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2006-10-30

    A considerable number of neuropeptides are involved in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We previously reported that leptin, the ob gene product, expressed its anorectic effect though the histaminergic system via histamine H(1) receptors. However, the interactions among the orexigenic neuropeptides, such as orexin-A, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin, and the histaminergic system have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of the neuropeptides on the hypothalamic histamine release in rats, and on food intake and locomotor activity in H(1)-receptor knockout (H1R-KO) mice. Orexin-A increased the histamine release and locomotor activity, but not food intake, suggesting that the histaminergic system participates in arousal rather than feeding by orexin-A. NPY also increased histamine release, but its effect was not immediate. NPY-injected H1R-KO mice consumed more food than the wild-type mice; thus, the histaminergic system may act as a feedback factor downstream of NPY. Ghrelin did not affect histamine release, and it increased food intake, even in H1R-KO mice. Thus, ghrelin expresses its action in a histamine-independent manner.

  2. Kerf modelling in abrasive waterjet milling using evolutionary computation and ANOVA techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberdi, A.; Rivero, A.; Carrascal, A.; Lamikiz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Many researchers demonstrated the capability of Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) technology for precision milling operations. However, the concurrence of several input parameters along with the stochastic nature of this technology leads to a complex process control, which requires a work focused in process modelling. This research work introduces a model to predict the kerf shape in AWJ slot milling in Aluminium 7075-T651 in terms of four important process parameters: the pressure, the abrasive flow rate, the stand-off distance and the traverse feed rate. A hybrid evolutionary approach was employed for kerf shape modelling. This technique allowed characterizing the profile through two parameters: the maximum cutting depth and the full width at half maximum. On the other hand, based on ANOVA and regression techniques, these two parameters were also modelled as a function of process parameters. Combination of both models resulted in an adequate strategy to predict the kerf shape for different machining conditions.

  3. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Yang, Y.T.; Smith, D.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  4. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  6. Goldfish spexin: solution structure and novel function as a satiety factor in feeding control.

    PubMed

    Wong, Matthew K H; Sze, Kong Hung; Chen, Ting; Cho, Chi Kong; Law, Henry C H; Chu, Ivan K; Wong, Anderson O L

    2013-08-01

    Spexin (SPX) is a neuropeptide identified recently by bioinformatic approach. At present not much is known about its biological actions, and comparative studies of SPX in nonmammalian species are still lacking. To examine the structure and function of SPX in fish model, SPX was cloned in goldfish and found to be highly comparable with its mammalian counterparts. As revealed by NMR spectroscopies, goldfish SPX is composed of an α-helix from Gln(5) to Gln(14) with a flexible NH2 terminus from Asn(1) to Pro(4), and its molecular surface is largely hydrophobic except for Lys(11) as the only charged residue in the helical region. In goldfish, SPX transcripts were found to be widely expressed in various tissues, and protein expression of SPX was also detected in the brain. In vivo feeding studies revealed that SPX mRNA levels in the telencephalon, optic tectum, and hypothalamus of goldfish brain could be elevated by food intake. However, brain injection of goldfish SPX inhibited both basal and NPY- or orexin-induced feeding behavior and food consumption. Similar treatment also reduced transcript expression of NPY, AgRP, and apelin, with concurrent rises in CCK, CART, POMC, MCH, and CRH mRNA levels in different brain areas examined. The differential effects of SPX treatment on NPY, CCK, and MCH transcript expression could also be noted in vitro in goldfish brain cell culture. Our studies for the first time unveil the solution structure of SPX and its novel function as a satiety factor through differential modulation of central orexigenic and anorexigenic signals.

  7. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  8. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pristerà, Alessandro; Lin, Wei; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Brimblecombe, Katherine R.; Threlfell, Sarah; Dodson, Paul D.; Magill, Peter J.; Fernandes, Cathy; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion of Foxa1/2 results in down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, specifically in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In addition, DA synthesis and striatal DA transmission were reduced after Foxa1/2 deletion. Furthermore, the burst-firing activity characteristic of SNc mDA neurons was drastically reduced in the absence of FOXA1/2. These molecular and functional alterations lead to a severe feeding deficit in adult Foxa1/2 mutant mice, independently of motor control, which could be rescued by l-DOPA treatment. FOXA1/2 therefore control the maintenance of molecular and physiological properties of SNc mDA neurons and impact on feeding behavior in adult mice. PMID:26283356

  9. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. PMID:27027102

  10. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  11. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of

  12. Controlling calcium precipitation in an integrated anaerobic-aerobic treatment system of a "zero-discharge" paper mill.

    PubMed

    van Lier, J B; Boncz, M A

    2002-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry uses significant amounts of water and energy for the paper production process. Closing the water cycles in this industry, therefore, promises large benefits for the environment and has the potential of huge cost savings for the industry. Closing the water cycle on the other hand also introduces problems with process water quality, quality of the end-product and scaling, owing to increased water contamination. An inline treatment system is discussed in which anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors perform a central role for removing both organic and inorganic pollutants from the process water cycle. In the proposed set-up, the organic compounds are converted to methane gas and reused for energy supply, while sulphur compounds are stripped from the process cycle and calcium carbonate is removed by precipitation. Improved control of the treatment system will direct the inorganic precipitates to a location where it does not adversely affect paper production and process water treatment. A simulation program for triggering and controlling CaCO3 precipitation was developed that takes both biological conversions and all relevant chemical equilibria in the system into account. Simulation results are in good agreement with data gathered in a full-scale "zero-emission" paper plant and indicate that control of CaCO3 precipitation can be improved, e.g. in the aerobic post-treatment. Alternatively, a separate precipitation unit could be considered.

  13. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  16. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Control of activation of liver RNA polymerase I occurring after re-feeding of protein-depleted mice.

    PubMed Central

    Haim, L; Iapalucci-Espinoza, S; Conde, R; Franze-Fernández, M T

    1983-01-01

    Shortly after feeding protein-depleted mice with a meal containing protein, the RNA polymerase I activity in isolated liver nuclei shows a 2-fold increase over the values in the nuclei of either normal or protein-depleted mice. The activity of the RNA polymerase I solubilized from nuclei of re-fed mice was slightly enhanced, probably reflecting an increase in enzyme amount. However, this increase only accounts for about 30% of the stimulation of transcription in the intact nuclei. Administration of pactamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, to normal or protein-depleted mice has almost no inhibitory effect on the RNA polymerase I activity in the isolated nuclei. On the contrary, within 15 min after treatment with the drug, the stimulated activity in nuclei from re-fed mice declines towards the values in normal or protein-depleted mice and then remains constant. The activity of the solubilized enzyme remains slightly elevated for at least 2 1/2 h after re-fed mice are treated with pactamycin. These observations indicate that the stimulation of the RNA polymerase I activity in the intact nuclei after re-feeding is controlled by mechanisms other than an increase in the enzyme amount and suggest the presence of short-lived proteins required for inducing an activated state of transcription. PMID:6870809

  19. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus-like (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) wing asymmetry under controlled conditions of population density and feeding frequency.

    PubMed

    Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2013-09-01

    Habitat change in Rhodnius spp may represent an environmental challenge for the development of the species, particularly when feeding frequency and population density vary in nature. To estimate the effect of these variables in stability on development, the degree of directional asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the wing size and shape of R. prolixus and R. robustus-like were measured under laboratory controlled conditions. DA and FA in wing size and shape were significant in both species, but their variation patterns showed both inter-specific and sexual dimorphic differences in FA of wing size and shape induced by nutrition stress. These results suggest different abilities of the genotypes and sexes of two sylvatic and domestic genotypes of Rhodnius to buffer these stress conditions. However, both species showed non-significant differences in the levels of FA between treatments that simulated sylvan vs domestic conditions, indicating that the developmental noise did not explain the variation in wing size and shape found in previous studies. Thus, this result confirm that the variation in wing size and shape in response to treatments constitute a plastic response of these genotypes to population density and feeding frequency.

  20. Oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for feed-through and systemic control of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2013-01-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli is the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor), which is maintained in populations of burrowing rodents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a laboratory study to determine the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for control of sand flies that feed on rodent feces as larvae or on rodent blood as adults. We determined through larval bioassays that fipronil was eliminated in feces of orally-treated hamsters at a level that was significantly toxic to sand fly larvae for 21 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from a fipronil-treated diet. Through bloodfeeding bioassays, we also found that fipronil was present in the peripheral blood of hamsters at a concentration that was significantly toxic to bloodfeeding adult female sand flies for 49 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from their treated diet. The results of this study suggest that fipronil acts as well as or better than feed-through or systemic insecticides that previously have been measured against sand flies, and is particularly promising because this single compound acts against both larvae and bloodfeeding adults. An area-wide approach using rodent baits containing a fipronil could suppress vector populations that originate in the vicinity of rodent reservoirs, and could be used to eliminate the most epidemiologically important part of the vector population: female sand flies that take bloodmeals on rodent reservoirs.

  1. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-01-01

    Background Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. Methods A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master–slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master–slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Results Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. Conclusions The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271710

  2. A Multifaceted Sampling Approach to Better Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrogeological Controls on Uranium Mobility at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, W. L.; Johnson, R. H.; Campbell, S.; Bone, S. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding uranium mobility in subsurface environments is not trivial. Obtaining sufficient data to accurately represent soil and aquifer characteristics can require unique approaches that evolve with added site knowledge. At Riverton, the primary source of uranium mill tailings remaining from ore processing was removed but contaminant plumes have persisted longer than predicted by groundwater modeling. What are the primary mechanisms controlling plume persistence? DOE is conducting new characterization studies to assist our understanding of underlying biogeochemical and hydrogeological mechanisms affecting secondary sources. A variety of field sampling techniques are being sequentially employed including augering, trenching, pore water sampling, and installing multi-level wells. In August 2012, vadose zone soil samples from 34 locations and groundwater from 103 boreholes were collected with Geoprobe ® direct push rods. Lower than expected uranium concentrations in composited shallow soils indicated the need for more focused and deeper samples. In May 2014, soil samples containing evaporites were collected along the bank of the Little Wind River; elevated uranium concentrations in evaporite minerals correlated with plume configurations and reflect contaminated groundwater discharge at the river. In September 2014, hand anger samples collected by the river and oxbow lake also indicated the presence of organic rich zones containing elevated uranium (>50 mg/kg). Subsequent samples collected from five backhoe trenches in May 2015 revealed a highly heterogeneous vadose zone composed of clay, silt, sand and cobbles containing evaporites and organic rich zones which may interact with groundwater plumes.Plans for August 2015 include sonic drilling to obtain continuous cores from the surface down to the base of the surficial aquifer with multi-level monitoring wells constructed in each borehole to assess vertical variation in groundwater chemistry. Temporary well

  3. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization. PMID:23239889

  4. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization.

  5. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  6. Efficient cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei in continuous cultivation on lactose medium with a computer-controlled feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M J; Tähtiharju, J

    2003-08-01

    A low-foaming hydrophobin II deletant of the Trichoderma reesei strain Rut-C30 was used for production of cellulases by continuous cultivation on lactose medium in a laboratory fermenter. The control paradigm of the addition of new medium to the continuous process was based on the growth dynamics of the fungus. A decrease in the rate of base addition to the cultivation for pH-minimum control was used as an indicator of imminent exhaustion of carbon source for growth and enzyme induction. When the amount of base added per 5 min computation cycle decreased below a given value, new medium was added to the fermenter. When base addition for pH control thereafter increased above the criterion value, due to increased growth, the medium feed was discontinued or decreased. The medium feeding protocol employed was successful in locking the fungus in the stage of imminent, but not actual, exhaustion of carbon source. According to the results of a batch cultivation of the same strain on the same medium, this is the phase of maximal enzyme productivity. The medium addition protocol used in this work resulted in a very stable continuous process, in which cellulase productivity was maintained for several hundred hours at the maximum level observed in a batch cultivation for only about 10 h. Despite a major technical disturbance after about 420 h, the process was restored to stability. When the cultivation was terminated after 650 h, the level of enzyme production was still maximal, with no signs of instability of the process.

  7. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  8. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, K A; Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Stein, R B; Etienne-Cummings, R; Mushahwar, V K

    2012-01-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1=6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm; ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future. PMID:22328615

  9. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  10. 13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN FROM THE SECOND FLOOR TO THE GRINDING STONES, WITH GRAIN ELEVATORS IN BACKGROUND (NOTE OUTLINE ON THE FLOOR WHERE ROLLER MILLS WERE ORIGINALLY PLACED) - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  11. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  13. Analysis of the Face Milling Process Based on the Imitation Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, V. A.; Cherdancev, A. O.; Cherdancev, P. O.; Goncharov, V. D.; Kulawik, A.

    2016-04-01

    The results of simulation modeling of the face milling process allowed to analyze the surface finish dependence on cutting conditions. It is noted that the surface irregularity in the form of unevenness appears in face milling. Besides, the ratio of feed rate to spindle revolutions speed influences dimensions of surface roughness. The data received are experimentally confirmed.

  14. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  15. Flat acoustic sources with frequency response correction based on feedback and feed-forward distributed control.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur P

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an acoustic source with a small thickness and high bending stiffness. The high bending stiffness is obtained with a sandwich structure in which the face of the sandwich structure internal to the source is perforated to increase the acoustic compliance, thereby leading to increased electroacoustic conversion efficiency. Multiple actuators are used to drive the moving component of the acoustic source. Control of the acoustic resonances and structural resonances is required to obtain an even frequency response. The use of collocated decentralized feedback control based on velocity sensing was found to be ineffective for controlling these resonances due to the destabilizing asymmetric modes caused by the coupling of the internal acoustic cavity and the rigid body vibration of the moving component. Resonances can be controlled by a set of independent combinations of symmetric driving patterns with corresponding velocity feedback controllers such that the fundamental mass-air resonance is effectively controlled, as is the lowest bending mode of the moving component. Finally, a compensation scheme for low frequencies is used which enables a flat frequency response in the range of 30 Hz to 1 kHz with deviations smaller than 3 dB.

  16. Spectral multiplexing for scalable quantum photonics using an atomic frequency comb quantum memory and feed-forward control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Neil; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Mallahzadeh, Hassan; Slater, Joshua A; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Hedges, Morgan P; Oblak, Daniel; Simon, Christoph; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Future multiphoton applications of quantum optics and quantum information science require quantum memories that simultaneously store many photon states, each encoded into a different optical mode, and enable one to select the mapping between any input and a specific retrieved mode during storage. Here we show, with the example of a quantum repeater, how to employ spectrally multiplexed states and memories with fixed storage times that allow such mapping between spectral modes. Furthermore, using a Ti:Tm:LiNbO_{3} waveguide cooled to 3 K, a phase modulator, and a spectral filter, we demonstrate storage followed by the required feed-forward-controlled frequency manipulation with time-bin qubits encoded into up to 26 multiplexed spectral modes and 97% fidelity.

  17. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  18. Effect of Fructose on Established Lipid Targets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Wang, David D; Yu, Matthew; Carleton, Amanda J; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effects models and expressed as mean difference with 95% CI. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Eligibility criteria were met by 51 isocaloric trials (n=943), in which fructose was provided in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials (n=125), in which fructose supplemented control diets with excess calories compared to the control diets alone without the excess calories. Fructose had no effect on LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL-C in isocaloric trials. However, in hypercaloric trials, fructose increased apolipoprotein B (n=2 trials; mean difference = 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.30; P=0.005) and triglycerides (n=8 trials; mean difference = 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.41; P<0.001). The study is limited by small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and low quality scores of the included trials. Conclusions Pooled analyses showed that fructose only had an adverse effect on established lipid targets when added to existing diets so as to provide excess calories (+21% to 35% energy

  19. Reproduction effects on Monoporeia affinis of HPLC-fractionated sediment extracts from a pulp mill recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, A.K.; Sundelin, B.; Broman, Naef, C.

    1995-12-31

    Fractionated organic extracts of bottom sediments collected outside a pulp and paper mill on the coast of the Bothnian Sea were tested in soft bottom microcosms using the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. The pulp mill recipient was investigated in terms of changes in the biological effects of extracts from bottom sediments. Sediment samples (0--2 cm depth, corresponding to the period after changing the bleaching process at the mill to elemental chlorine free (ECF)-bleaching) from the mill recipient, as well as reference sediments from an uncontaminated area in the Baltic proper were Soxhlet-extracted with toluene. The extracts from the pulp mill recipient were fractionated on HPLC into fractions containing; aliphatic/monoaromatic, diaromatic and polyaromatic compounds respectively. Unextracted reference sediments were then dosed with the fractionated and the nonfractionated extracts and placed in soft bottom microcosm test systems, after which the amphipods were added. After an exposure period of 5 months, the following variables were studied: reproduction success, fecundity, embryonic development and different types of embryonic malformations. Results of experiments from two consecutive years showed that all fractionated extracts except the polyaromatic fraction were toxic. The effects of the separate fractions were of the same order as for the non-fractionated sediment extract as well as for a recombination of fractionated extracts, indicated that the main-toxicity is associated with the aliphatic/monoaromatic and diaromatic fractions. The sediment extract from the reference area exerted no toxicity in comparison with control microcosms without any addition of sediment extract.

  20. Evaluation of Solarization for Control of Stable Flies in Hay Feeding Circles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sites where large round hay bales are fed to cattle during the winter have been identified as the primary developmental site for stable flies during the early summer in eastern Nebraska. Due to the high levels of microbial activity in these sites, the use of insecticides to control immature stable f...

  1. Controlling the state of polarization via optical nanoantenna feeding with surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu-Bo; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Qian-Jin; Sun, Guang-Hou; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Optical nanoantennas, usually referring to metal structures with localized surface plasmon resonance, could efficiently convert confined optical energy to free-space light, and vice versa. But it is difficult to manipulate the confined visible light energy for its nanoscale spatial extent. Here, a simple method is proposed to solve this problem by controlling surface plasmon polaritons to indirectly manipulate the localized plasmons. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate an optical rotation device which is a grating with central circular polarization optical nanoantenna. It realized the arbitrary optical rotation of linear polarized light by controlling the retard of dual surface plasmon polaritons sources from both side grating structures. Furthermore, we use a two-parameter theoretical model to explain the experimental results.

  2. Utilization of geothermal energy in a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hotson, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Tasman Pulp and Paper Company Ltd.`s Mill at Kawerau, New Zealand, has been utilizing geothermal energy for more than 30 years. The mill produces approximately 200,000 tonnes of kraft pulp and 400,000 tonnes of newsprint per annum. Geothermal energy produces 26% of the process steam requirements and 6% of the mill`s electrical load. The management of the mill`s energy sources is complex and ever changing, which has resulted in unique control strategies being developed over the years to improve efficiencies in the operation of the plant. Complete utilization of the geothermal resource has been the aim of the company and has led to pioneering plant and process developments.

  3. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  4. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  5. 10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. To the left of the horizontal (fluted) cylinder is the water pump which moved the boiler feed water through the engine's pre-heat system (the exhaust steam heated the boiler feedwater before it was pumped on to the boiler). The steam-feed port, manual throttle valve, and fly-ball governor and pulley and to the right of the cylinder. The drive shaft with flywheel to the left and pulley to the right are seen behind the piston rod, cross-head, wrist pen, connecting rod and the slide valve and eccentric. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. 21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model no. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. Steam-feed pipe at top left of engine. Steam exhaust pipe leaves base of engine on right end and projects upwards. The boiler feed and supply pipe running water through the engine's pre-heat system are seen running to the lower left end of the engine. Pulley in the foreground was not used. The centrifugals were powered by a belt running from the flywheel in the background. Ball-type governor and pulley are on left end of the engine. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  8. Contributions of feed-forward and feedback strategies at the human ankle during control of unstable loads

    PubMed Central

    Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system can regulate the mechanical properties of the human ankle through feed-forward mechanisms such as co-contraction and rapid feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. Though each of these strategies may contribute to joint stability, it is unclear how their relative contribution varies when ankle stability is threatened. We addressed this question by characterizing co-contraction and stretch reflexes during balance of an inverted pendulum simulated by a rotary motor configured as an admittance servo. The stability of this haptic environment was manipulated by varying the stiffness of a virtual spring supporting the pendulum. We hypothesized that co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would increase as the stability of the haptic load attached to the ankle was reduced. Electromyographic activity in soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the haptic load. Our results revealed that co-contraction was heightened as stability was reduced, but that the resulting joint stiffness was not sufficient to fully counteract the imposed instability. Reflex amplitude, in comparison, was attenuated as load stability was reduced, contrary to results from upper limb studies using similar paradigms. Together these findings suggest that the nervous system utilizes feed-forward co-contraction rather than rapid involuntary feedback to increase ankle stability during simple balance tasks. Furthermore, since the stiffness generated through co-contraction was not sufficient to fully balance the haptic load, our results suggest an important role for slower, volitional feedback in the control of ankle stability during balancing tasks. PMID:22169978

  9. Colloid Microthruster Feed System Development for Fine Pointing and Drag-Free Control of Multi-Year Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemer, John; Mueller, J.; Spence, D.; Hruby, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new Colloid Microthruster feed system, including a propellant tank and redundant Microvalves, is being developed for fine pointing and drag-free operations of multi-year astronomical observatories under the PCOS SAT program. Almost all Gravitational Wave Observatory (GWO) concepts require microthrusters to maintain a drag-free environment for the inertial sensor instrument to meet the mission science objectives. The current state-of-the-art microthruster in the US is the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) originally developed under the New Millennium Program for the Space Technology 7 (ST7) and ESA's LISA Pathfinder (LPF) technology demonstration mission. The ST7 CMNT design includes a bellows propellant storage tank that is sized to provide up to 90 days of maximum thrust (30 µN). The new propellant tank is based on a blow-down, metal-diaphragm spherical tank design with enough capacity for a 5-year GWO mission. The new feed system will also include the third generation of Busek’s Microvalve, currently being developed under a NASA Phase II SBIR. The Microvalve is responsible for the picoliter per second control of the propellant from the tank to the thruster head, demanding parts with micron-level tolerances, critical alignments, and challenging acceptance test protocols. This microthruster system could also be considered for replacement of reaction wheels for slewing and fine pointing of other astronomical observatories, including Exo-Planet Observatory concepts. The goal of the PCOS SAT effort is to raise the new system to TRL 5 with performance and environmental testing within the next two years.

  10. Short-chain fatty acids and L-lactate as feed additives to control Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers.

    PubMed

    Van Deun, Kim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank

    2008-08-01

    The usefulness of butyrate, acetate, propionate and l-lactate for the control of Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers was assessed. For this purpose, the effect of these acids on the growth of C. jejuni in broth and intestinal mucous was determined, as well as their influence on the invasiveness of C. jejuni in intestinal epithelial cells. From these in vitro obtained results, one acid was retained for use as a feed additive in an in vivo trial. Butyrate was the most successful of the short-chain fatty acids, with 12.5 mM being bactericidal for C. jejuni at pH 6.0. Propionate and acetate had a bacteriostatic effect at 50 mM. None of the short-chain fatty acids had a bactericidal effect at pH 7.5 at a maximum concentration of 50 mM. Mucous increased the minimum bactericidal concentration of butyrate, but not the bacteriostatic concentrations of propionate or acetate. When C. jejuni was incubated in growth subinhibitory concentrations of butyrate, acetate or propionate or 25 mM L-lactate, no alteration in the invasive capabilities of C. jejuni in Caco-2 cells was observed. The addition of butyrate-coated micro-beads to the feed was unsuccessful to reduce C. jejuni caecal colonization in a seeder model using 2-week-old broilers. In conclusion, despite the marked bactericidal effect of butyrate towards C. jejuni in vitro, butyrate-coated micro-beads do not protect broilers from caecal colonization with C. jejuni in the applied test conditions. This might be partially ascribed to the protective effect of mucous and the rapid absorption of butyrate by the enterocytes. PMID:18622853

  11. Contributions of feed-forward and feedback strategies at the human ankle during control of unstable loads.

    PubMed

    Finley, James M; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Perreault, Eric J

    2012-03-01

    The nervous system can regulate the mechanical properties of the human ankle through feed-forward mechanisms such as co-contraction and rapid feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. Though each of these strategies may contribute to joint stability, it is unclear how their relative contribution varies when ankle stability is threatened. We addressed this question by characterizing co-contraction and stretch reflexes during balance of an inverted pendulum simulated by a rotary motor configured as an admittance servo. The stability of this haptic environment was manipulated by varying the stiffness of a virtual spring supporting the pendulum. We hypothesized that co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would increase as the stability of the haptic load attached to the ankle was reduced. Electromyographic activity in soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the haptic load. Our results revealed that co-contraction was heightened as stability was reduced, but that the resulting joint stiffness was not sufficient to fully counteract the imposed instability. Reflex amplitude, in comparison, was attenuated as load stability was reduced, contrary to results from upper limb studies using similar paradigms. Together these findings suggest that the nervous system utilizes feed-forward co-contraction rather than rapid involuntary feedback to increase ankle stability during simple balance tasks. Furthermore, since the stiffness generated through co-contraction was not sufficient to fully balance the haptic load, our results suggest an important role for slower, volitional feedback in the control of ankle stability during balancing tasks.

  12. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  14. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated. PMID:26920568

  15. Feeding schedule controls circadian timing of daily torpor in SCN-ablated Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Kauffman, Alexander S; Zucker, Irving

    2004-06-01

    Timing of daily torpor was assessed in suprachiasmatic nucleus-ablated (SCNx) and sham-ablated Siberian hamsters fed restricted amounts of food each day either in the light or dark phase of a 14:10 light-dark cycle. Eighty-five percent of sham-ablated and 45% of SCNx hamsters displayed a preferred hour for torpor onset. In each group, time of torpor onset was not random but occurred at a mean hour that differed significantly from chance. Time of food presentation almost completely accounted for the timing of torpor onset in SCNx animals and significantly affected timing of this behavior in intact hamsters. These results suggest that the circadian pacemaker in the SCN controls the time of torpor onset indirectly by affecting timing of food intake, rather than by, or in addition to, direct neural and humoral outputs to relevant target tissues.

  16. Preliminary survey report. Karastan Rug Mill, Fieldcrest Mills, Inc. , Eden, North Carolina, July 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1982-01-19

    A visit was made to the Karastan Rug Mill, Eden, North Carolina to evaluate control methods taken to protect workers from hazards associated with the use of adhesives. Adhesives were mixed in a small room just beyond the rollup area of the backsizing operation. In the backsizing operation, the carpet feed and roller/coating operations were followed by a drying oven, a cool-down unit, and the roll-up or doffing area. Two workers per shift were required on the backsizing line. The coating of the underside of the carpet with a latex adhesive binds the carpet fibers to the backing and stiffens the carpet. A styrene/butadiene (SBR) latex containing ammonia as an emulsion stabilizer was used as the base. Exhaust ventilation was used for the oven. Ammonia was the only contaminant noticeable in the workplace environment. At the edge of the coated carpet as it was entering the oven a level of 25 parts per million (ppm) ammonia was detected. A level of 30 ppm was detected alongside the coating rollers. A canopy hood was operated in the compounding room to draw away dust released when adding powdered chemicals to the reactor. An exhaust fan was mounted on the wall opposite the doorway of the latex storage building. If the carpet industry is included in the in-depth study phase, this site would be a prime candidate for a detailed survey.

  17. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  18. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose may benefit glycaemic control without harming cardiometabolic risk factors: a small meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials

    PubMed Central

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J.; Mirrahimi, Arash; Cozma, Adrian I.; Ha, Vanessa; Wang, D. David; Yu, Matthew E.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Beyene, Joseph; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wolever, Thomas M. S.; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; Jenkins, David J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, there is evidence that small, ‘catalytic’ doses ( ≤ 10 g/meal) of fructose decrease the glycaemic response to high-glycaemic index meals in human subjects. To assess the longer-term effects of ‘catalytic’ doses of fructose, we undertook a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d featuring ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) in isoenergetic exchange for other carbohydrates. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I2. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score assessed study quality. A total of six feeding trials (n 118) met the eligibility criteria. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD − 0·40, 95 % CI − 0·72, − 0·08) and fasting glucose (MD − 0·25, 95 % CI − 0·44, − 0·07). This benefit was seen in the absence of adverse effects on fasting insulin, body weight, TAG or uric acid. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed evidence of effect modification under certain conditions. The small number of trials and their relatively short duration limit the strength of the conclusions. In conclusion, this small meta-analysis shows that ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) may improve glycaemic control without adverse effects on body weight, TAG, insulin and uric acid. There is a need for larger, longer ( ≥ 6 months) trials using ‘catalytic’ fructose to confirm these results. PMID:22354959

  19. Integration of an autonomous optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preißler, Marc; Schellhorn, Mathias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    The integration of quality control in manufacturing process contains this paper and discusses the possibilities for integrated quality control in CNC milling machines without clamping off a workpiece. For these concepts non-contact measurements with image processing sensors have significant benefits for data acquisition in rapidity and a high grade of flexibility. New effective measurement strategies can be developed in effect of the quality controlling in the machining area. These includes classical geometric measurement applications from optical 2D but also options for 3D measurement tasks like determining roughness or other typical image processing applications. This paper presents the challenges for the implementation of an optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers. Primarily a suitable location in the machining area must be found and an associated strategy has to be developed. The integrated optical image sensor system should be protect against impurity and does not derogate in his functionality. For the full integration as a quality control loop, the results must feed into the machine control. Thus a further interface between measurement program and a machine control is necessary. Another major field of research exists in the optical components. Especially the illumination, image sensor and lens are selected and adaptable for the measurement tasks after the considerations of the above-mentioned basic requirements. The presented research provides a suitable solution to make the CNC manufacture more efficient. Quality controls of the work piece can be executed within the CNC process and potential post processing can be performed simultaneously.

  20. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  1. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  2. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  3. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition score<2.5 out of 5) produced less milk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM

  4. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  5. Incoherent feed-forward regulatory loops control segregation of C-mechanoreceptors, nociceptors, and pruriceptors.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shan; Pan, Xiaoxin; Huang, Tianwen; Duan, Bo; Yang, Fu-Chia; Yang, Juan; Xiong, Mulin; Liu, Yang; Ma, Qiufu

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian skin is innervated by diverse, unmyelinated C fibers that are associated with senses of pain, itch, temperature, or touch. A key developmental question is how this neuronal cell diversity is generated during development. We reported previously that the runt domain transcription factor Runx1 is required to coordinate the development of these unmyelinated cutaneous sensory neurons, including VGLUT3(+) low-threshold c-mechanoreceptors (CLTMs), MrgprD(+) polymodal nociceptors, MrgprA3(+) pruriceptors, MrgprB4(+) c-mechanoreceptors, and others. However, how these Runx1-dependent cutaneous sensory neurons are further segregated is poorly illustrated. Here, we find that the Runx1-dependent transcription factor gene Zfp521 is expressed in, and required for establishing molecular features that define, VGLUT3(+) CLTMs. Furthermore, Runx1 and Zfp521 form a classic incoherent feedforward loop (I-FFL) in controlling molecular identities that normally belong to MrgprD(+) neurons, with Runx1 and Zfp51 playing activator and repressor roles, respectively (in genetic terms). A knock-out of Zfp521 allows prospective VGLUT3 lineage neurons to acquire MrgprD(+) neuron identities. Furthermore, Runx1 might form other I-FFLs to regulate the expression of MrgprA3 and MrgprB4, a mechanism preventing these genes from being expressed in Runx1-persistent VGLUT3(+) and MrgprD(+) neurons. The evolvement of these I-FFLs provides an explanation for how modality-selective sensory subtypes are formed during development and may also have intriguing implications for sensory neuron evolution and sensory coding.

  6. Bang-bang control of feeding: role of hypothalamic and satiety signals.

    PubMed

    Zanutto, B Silvano; Staddon, John E R

    2007-05-01

    Rats, people, and many other omnivores eat in meals rather than continuously. We show by experimental test that eating in meals is regulated by a simple bang-bang control system, an idea foreshadowed by Le Magnen and many others, shown by us to account for a wide range of behavioral data, but never explicitly tested or tied to neurophysiological facts. The hypothesis is simply that the tendency to eat rises with time at a rate determined by satiety signals. When these signals fall below a set point, eating begins, in on-off fashion. The delayed sequelae of eating increment the satiety signals, which eventually turn eating off. Thus, under free conditions, the organism eats in bouts separated by noneating activities. We report an experiment with rats to test novel predictions about meal patterns that are not explained by existing homeostatic approaches. Access to food was systematically but unpredictably interrupted just as the animal tried to start a new meal. A simple bang-bang model fits the resulting meal-pattern data well, and its elements can be identified with neurophysiological processes. Hypothalamic inputs can provide the set point for longer-term regulation carried out by a comparator in the hindbrain. Delayed gustatory and gastrointestinal aftereffects of eating act via the nucleus of the solitary tract and other hindbrain regions as neural feedback governing short-term regulation. In this way, the model forges real links between a functioning feedback mechanism, neuro-hormonal data, and both short-term (meals) and long-term (eating-rate regulation) behavioral data.

  7. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  9. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. Combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortiz de Montellano, C; Vargas-Magaña, J J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M; Miranda-Soberanis, R; Hoste, H; Cámara Sarmiento, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2007-05-15

    The aim was to assess the benefits obtained from combining supplementary feeding and copper needles (COWP), compared to the use of both approaches independently, for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in browsing kids. Forty-four nematode free Criollo kids were exposed to natural parasite infection. The kids were divided into six experimental groups: not treated, supplemented (NT-S), not treated, not supplemented (NT-NS), moxidectin treated, supplemented (M-S), moxidectin treated not supplemented (M-NS), copper treated, supplemented (COWP-S) and copper treated, non-supplemented (COWP-NS). Copper treated groups received Copinox (2 g capsules) on day 0 and on day 60 of the trial. Moxidectin treated groups received Cydectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight s.c.) every 28 days. Three of the groups received individual supplementation (100 g of feed/day fresh basis; 74% sorghum: 26% soybean meal; NT-S, M-S and COWP-S) and the other three groups were not supplemented (NT-NS, M-NS and COWP-NS). Animals browsed native vegetation (6.5 h/day) during the wet season (154 days). Kids were weighed every 14 days to determine live weight gain (LWG) and blood and faecal samples were obtained to determine packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC) and faecal egg counts (FEC). At the end of the trial, four kids of each group were euthanatized (six kids in each COWP treated group). Worm burdens, female worm lengths and prolificacy were determined. Liver samples were used to determine copper concentration and were stained with haematoxylin-eosin to determine microscopic lesions. Animals receiving the combination of supplementary feeding and COWP improved their LWG, PCV and Hb to similar levels of animals with suppressive AH treatment. This was not the case when COWP was used without supplementation. Liver copper concentration in COWP treated groups increased significantly especially in the COWP-NS kids but this was not associated with

  12. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  13. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  14. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  15. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  16. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  17. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  20. Experimental investigations on cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen in the end milling of hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

    2011-09-01

    Milling of hardened steel generates excessive heat during the chip formation process, which increases the temperature of cutting tool and accelerates tool wear. Application of conventional cutting fluid in milling process may not effectively control the heat generation also it has inherent health and environmental problems. To minimize health hazard and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid, a cryogenic cooling set up is developed to cool tool-chip interface using liquid nitrogen (LN 2). This paper presents results on the effect of LN 2 as a coolant on machinability of hardened AISI H13 tool steel for varying cutting speed in the range of 75-125 m/min during end milling with PVD TiAlN coated carbide inserts at a constant feed rate. The results show that machining with LN 2 lowers cutting temperature, tool flank wear, surface roughness and cutting forces as compared with dry and wet machining. With LN 2 cooling, it has been found that the cutting temperature was reduced by 57-60% and 37-42%; the tool flank wear was reduced by 29-34% and 10-12%; the surface roughness was decreased by 33-40% and 25-29% compared to dry and wet machining. The cutting forces also decreased moderately compared to dry and wet machining. This can be attributed to the fact that LN 2 machining provides better cooling and lubrication through substantial reduction in the cutting zone temperature.

  1. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  2. Targeted plasma metabolome response to variations in dietary glycemic load in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Sally; Navarro, Sandi L.; Buas, Matthew F.; Y, Schwarz; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Daniel; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Low versus high glycemic load (GL) diet patterns are inversely associated with obesity and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These associations persist beyond the protection afforded by increased fiber alone, representing an important gap in our understanding of the metabolic effects of GL. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial of two 28-day diet periods of high and low GL. Using LC-MS, targeted metabolomics analysis of 155 metabolites was performed on plasma samples from 19 healthy adults aged 18-45 years. Fourteen metabolites differed significantly between diets (P<0.05), with kynurenate remaining significant after Bonferroni correction (P<4×10-4). Metabolites with the largest difference in abundance were kynurenate and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), both significantly higher after consumption of the low GL diet. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed clear separation between the two diets; however no specific pathway was identified in pathway analyses. We found significant differences in 14 plasma metabolites suggesting a differing metabolic response to low and high GL diets. Kynurenate is associated with reduced inflammation, and may be one mechanism through which protective effects of a low GL diet are manifested and warrants further evaluation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661. PMID:26165375

  3. Production of farnesene and santalene by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fed-batch cultivations with RQ-controlled feed.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Stefan; Scalcinati, Gionata; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes have various applications as fragrances, cosmetics and fuels. One of the most prominent examples is the sesquiterpene farnesene, which can be used as diesel substitute in its hydrogenated form farnesane. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have enabled efficient production of several terpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Plant terpene synthases take on an essential function for sesquiterpene production as they catalyze the specific conversion of the universal precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to the sesquiterpene of interest and thereby impose limitations on the overall productivity. Using farnesene as a case study, we chose three terpene synthases with distinct plant origins and compared their applicability for farnesene production in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Differences regarding the efficiency of these enzymes were observed in shake flask cultivation with maximal final titers of 4 mg/L using α-farnesene synthase from Malus domestica. By employing two existing platform strains optimized for sesquiterpene production, final titers could be raised up 170 mg/L in fed-batch fermentations with RQ-controlled exponential feeding. Based on these experiments, the difference between the selected synthases was not significant. Lastly, the same fermentation setup was used to compare these results to production of the fragrance sesquiterpene santalene, and almost equivalent titers were obtained with 163 mg/L, using the highest producing strain expressing a santalene synthase from Clausena lansium. However, a reduction of the product yield on biomass by 50% could indicate a higher catalytic efficiency of the farnesene synthase. PMID:26108688

  4. A novel micro tensile tester with feed-back control for viscoelastic analysis of single isolated smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Yanagihara, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2007-06-01

    A novel micro tensile tester was developed to measure the viscoelastic properties of single isolated cells. A specimen cell was held with two glass micropipettes, the tips of which were coated with a urethane resin adhesive. One pipette was rigid and fixed in position, and the other was deflectable and could be moved by a laboratory-made piezoelectric actuator to stretch the specimen. The actuator was made of an originally designed lever mechanism which can magnify the deformation of conventional piezoceramic actuator and allowed for sufficient displacement up to 150 microm. The distance between the two pipette tips was obtained by real-time image processing and kept constant following stepwise stretching with an accuracy of +/-0.1 microm by changing the voltage applied to the piezoceramics under feed-back control. The force applied to the cell was measured by the deflection of a cantilever part of the deflectable pipette. The stress relaxation test was performed for cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The cells were stretched by 75% and their length was kept constant. Viscoelastic analysis with a standard linear solid showed that the relaxation time constant of the isolated smooth muscle cells was 250+/-42 s (n=8, mean+/-S.E.M.) which was over six times longer than that reported for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. PMID:17123857

  5. Reclamation and groundwater restoration in the uranium milling industry: An assessment of UMTRCA, title II

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1978, Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to regulate the disposal and reclamation of uranium mill tailings.This article examines the implementation of this legislation through eight cases of uranium mills in New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah now being reclaimed. The eight cases examined here make up an important part of the total reclamation picture in the uranium milling industry.

  6. Influence of bioreactor scale and complex medium on probing control of glucose feeding in cultivations of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velut, Stéphane; Castan, Andreas; Short, Kevin A; Axelsson, Jan Peter; Hagander, Per; Zditosky, Barry A; Rysenga, Christopher W; de Maré, Lena; Haglund, Jan

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a feedback glucose control strategy (the probing strategy) in production relevant bioreactors with complex and mineral media. Experimental results from fed-batch cultivations with two recombinant Escherichia coli constructs expressing two different human therapeutic proteins were used to assess the performance and limitations of the glucose probing technique. Even though the performance of the probing strategy was affected by scale and complex media, this methodology rapidly identified a glucose feed protocol similar to an experimentally derived feed regime. This methodology may serve as a powerful tool for industrial process development and in optimization of glucose feed regimes when transferring process technology from one bioreactor system to another.

  7. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  8. Kinetic model-based feed-forward controlled fed-batch fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the production of lactic acid from Arabic date juice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minsung; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-06-01

    Arabic date is overproduced in Arabic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq and is mostly composed of sugars (70-80 wt%). Here we developed a fed-batch fermentation process by using a kinetic model for the efficient production of lactic acid to a high concentration from Arabic date juice. First, a kinetic model of Lactobacillus rhamnosus grown on date juice in batch fermentation was constructed in EXCEL so that the estimation of parameters and simulation of the model can be easily performed. Then, several fed-batch fermentations were conducted by employing different feeding strategies including pulsed feeding, exponential feeding, and modified exponential feeding. Based on the results of fed-batch fermentations, the kinetic model for fed-batch fermentation was also developed. This new model was used to perform feed-forward controlled fed-batch fermentation, which resulted in the production of 171.79 g l(-1) of lactic acid with the productivity and yield of 1.58 and 0.87 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  9. Thermal effects on the performance, motor control and muscle dynamics of ballistic feeding in the salamander Eurycea guttolineata.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher V; Larghi, Nicholas P; Deban, Stephen M

    2014-09-01

    Temperature strongly affects muscle contractile rate properties and thus may influence whole-organism performance. Movements powered by elastic recoil, however, are known to be more thermally robust than muscle-powered movements. We examined the whole-organism performance, motor control and muscle contractile physiology underlying feeding in the salamander Eurycea guttolineata. We compared elastically powered tongue projection with the associated muscle-powered retraction to determine the thermal robustness of each of these functional levels. We found that tongue-projection distance in E. guttolineata was unaffected by temperature across the entire 4-26°C range, tongue-projection dynamics were significantly affected by temperature across only the 4-11°C interval, and tongue retraction was affected to a higher degree across the entire temperature range. The significant effect of temperature on projection dynamics across the 4-11°C interval corresponds to a significant decline in projector muscle burst intensity and peak contractile force of the projector muscle across the same interval. Across the remaining temperature range, however, projection dynamics were unaffected by temperature, with muscle contractile physiology showing typical thermal effects and motor patterns showing increased activity durations and latencies. These results reveal that elastically powered tongue-projection performance in E. guttolineata is maintained to a higher degree than muscle-powered tongue retraction performance across a wide temperature range. These results further indicate that thermal robustness of the elastically powered movement is dependent on motor control and muscle physiology that results in comparable energy being stored in elastic tissues across a range of temperatures.

  10. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  11. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  13. The vertical transmission of salmonellas and formic acid treatment of chicken feed. A possible strategy for control.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T. J.; Lanning, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of feed given to laying hens with 0.5% formic acid reduced significantly the isolation rate of salmonellas and was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection in newly hatched chicks. These improvements were not sustained until slaughter, however, as growing birds acquired salmonellas, probably from feed which was not acid treated. The data indicate that formic acid treatment of chicken food could have important benefits for the public health. PMID:3338506

  14. 7. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Engine and boiler house; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Engine and boiler house; ca. 1881. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Historical view, 1934, from T. T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. View shows interior of engine and boiler house intact. The steam-feed pipe is still attached to throttle valve, not the case in 1978 view. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Transmission-blocking activity is determined by transmission-reducing activity and number of control oocysts in Plasmodium falciparum standard membrane-feeding assay.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazutoyo; Swihart, Bruce J; Deng, Bingbing; Zhou, Luwen; Pham, Thao P; Diouf, Ababacar; Burton, Timothy; Fay, Michael P; Long, Carole A

    2016-07-29

    Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are potentially helpful tools for malaria eradication. The standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA) is considered one of the "gold standard" assays for TBV development. However, lack of consensus in reporting results from SMFA has made it very challenging to compare results from different studies. Two main readouts, % inhibition in mean oocyst count per mosquito (TRA) and % inhibition in prevalence of infected mosquitoes (TBA), have been used widely. In this study, we statistically modeled the oocyst data in SMFA using data from 105 independent feeding experiments including 9804 mosquitoes. The model was validated using an independent data set that included 10,790 mosquitoes from 110 feeding studies. The model delineates a relationship between TRA, the mean oocyst count in the control mosquitoes (mo-contl), and TBA. While TRA was independent from mo-contl, TBA values changed depending on mo-contl. Regardless of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies tested, there were strong concordances between observed TBA and predicted TBA based on the model using mo-contl and observed TRA. Simulations showed that SMFA with lower true control means had increased uncertainty in TRA estimates. The strong linkage between TBA, TRA and mo-contl inspired creation of a standardized TBA, a model-based TBA standardized to a target control mean, which allows comparison across multiple feeds regardless of mo-contl. This is the first study showing that the observed TBA can be reasonably predicted by mo-contl and the TRA of the test antibody using independent experimental data. This study indicates that TRA should be used to compare results from multiple feeds with different levels of mo-contl. If a measure of TBA is desired, it is better to report standardized TBA rather than observed TBA. These recommendations support rational comparisons of results from different studies, thus benefiting future TBV development. PMID:27372156

  16. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen; Hesketh, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups) and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups promotes healthy eating

  17. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  18. D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    D STAND DELIVERY END OF #44 TANDEM BREAKDOWN MILL WITH UPCOILER. BACKUP ROLLS, 40 TONS. WORK ROLLS, 20 TONS., C. 1900. OPERATING SPEED, 600'/MINUTE. AUTOMATIC GAUGE CONTROL. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  20. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement.

  1. Microbial cell preparation in enteral feeding in critically ill patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ausama A; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Tah, Pei Chien; Hakumat-Rai, Vineya-Rai; Chin, Kin-Fah

    2016-04-01

    Gut failure is a common condition in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Enteral feeding is usually the first line of choice for nutrition support in critically ill patients. However, enteral feeding has its own set of complications such as alterations in gut transit time and composition of gut eco-culture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microbial cell preparation on the return of gut function, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, number of days on mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in ICU. A consecutive cohort of 60 patients admitted to the ICU in University Malaya Medical Centre requiring enteral feeding were prospectively randomized to receive either treatment (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). Patients receiving enteral feeding supplemented with a course of treatment achieved a faster return of gut function and required shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and shorter length of stay in the ICU. However, inflammatory markers did not show any significant change in the pretreatment and posttreatment groups. Overall, it can be concluded that microbial cell preparation enhances gut function and the overall clinical outcome of critically ill patients receiving enteral feeding in the ICU.

  2. Experimental study of residence time distributions of ball-mill circuits grinding coal-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Ohtake, A.; Austin, L.G.

    2008-08-15

    Residence time distributions (RTDs) were estimated by water tracing in a number of wet overflow ball mills (diameters 0.38 to 4.65 m) producing dense, coal-water slurries. In open-circuit mills of 0.38 m diameter and various length-diameter (LID) ratios, the mean residence times of solid were also determined from measured mill holdups. Holdup increased with increased mill feed rate, but the mean residence times of coal and water were still equal to each other. The experimental residence time distributions were fitted to the Mori-Jimbo-Yamazaki semi-infinite, axial mixing model, and the dimensionless mixing coefficient was determined for each of 25 tests in single- and two-compartment mills. This coefficient was found to be independent to the feed rate but linearly proportional to the D/L ratio. The mixing coefficient was smaller for two-compartment mills than for single-compartment mills, showing that there was reduced mixing introduced by the diaphragm separating the compartments. Equations are given to scale residence time distributions for changes in mill diameter and length.

  3. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  4. Training in complementary feeding counselling of healthcare workers and its influence on maternal behaviours and child growth: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Shakila; Ashraf, Rifat N; Martines, José

    2008-06-01

    Malnutrition is common among children aged 6-24 months in developing countries. It increases the risk of mortality. Interventions to improve infant-feeding hold the promise of reducing malnutrition among these children. A study in Brazil has shown the success of training in communication and counselling skills among health workers in improving the nutritional status of young children. Questions were raised whether the method used in the study in Brazil would also be effective when applied in other countries. The aim of the present study was to reduce growth faltering in young children through proper nutrition-promotion techniques. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of training health workers in nutrition counselling in enhancing their communication skills and performance, improving feeding practices, and reducing growth faltering in children aged 6-24 months. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out. The method used in this study was a replica of the method in a similar study in Pelotas, Brazil. Forty health centres were paired, and one centre of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention group, and the other to the control group. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) module-'Counsel the mother'-was used for training health workers in the health centres in the intervention group. Data from 36 paired health centres and 375 mothers and their children aged 6-24 months recruited from these health centres following consultation with health workers were included in analysis. Independent observers, masked to the intervention status, examined the performance of health workers within the first month after training. Mother-child pairs were visited at home within two weeks, 45 days, and 180 days after recruitment. Information was recorded on the feeding practices, recall of the recommendations of health workers, and sociodemographic variables at these home-visits. Weight and length of the child were measured at each

  5. Training in Complementary Feeding Counselling of Healthcare Workers and Its Influence on Maternal Behaviours and Child Growth: A Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Shakila; Ashraf, Rifat N.; Martines, José

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among children aged 6–24 months in developing countries. It increases the risk of mortality. Interventions to improve infant-feeding hold the promise of reducing malnutrition among these children. A study in Brazil has shown the success of training in communication and counselling skills among health workers in improving the nutritional status of young children. Questions were raised whether the method used in the study in Brazil would also be effective when applied in other countries. The aim of the present study was to reduce growth faltering in young children through proper nutrition-promotion techniques. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of training health workers in nutrition counselling in enhancing their communication skills and performance, improving feeding practices, and reducing growth faltering in children aged 6–24 months. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out. The method used in this study was a replica of the method in a similar study in Pelotas, Brazil. Forty health centres were paired, and one centre of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention group, and the other to the control group. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) module—‘Counsel the mother'—was used for training health workers in the health centres in the intervention group. Data from 36 paired health centres and 375 mothers and their children aged 6–24 months recruited from these health centres following consultation with health workers were included in analysis. Independent observers, masked to the intervention status, examined the performance of health workers within the first month after training. Mother-child pairs were visited at home within two weeks, 45 days, and 180 days after recruitment. Information was recorded on the feeding practices, recall of the recommendations of health workers, and sociodemographic variables at these home-visits. Weight and length of the child were

  6. Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2 weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5 min occurred in the 14 days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST

  7. Separation of solute and particulate vectors of heavy metal uptake in controlled suspension-feeding experiments with Macoma balthica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Radioisotope labelling experiments with the estuarine clam, Macoma balthica, are described, in which a filter chamber device was used to separate solute metal uptake from uptake, of metals associated with suspended bacteria. Solute uptake contributed a majority of the 14-day total body burdens of 65Zn and 109Cd, whereas 57Co uptake largely resulted from ingestion of isotope-laden bacteria. In contrast to those for 109Cd and 65Zn, 57Co tissue distributions at 3 weeks differed significantly (p < 0.05) between feeding and non-feeding clams (housed within filter chambers). ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  8. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  9. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  10. Gossypol Content of Cotton Free Commercial Feed for Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Barbara; Canestrari, Giorgia; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Biancardi, Alberto; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Giacometti, Federica; Nocetti, Marco; Fustini, Mattia; Formigoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Gossypol is a yellow pigment occurring in all parts of cotton plants, with the highest levels found in seeds, and it exhibits a variety of toxic effects. Few data are available on the content of gossypol in the commercial complementary feed and in feed raw materials. The present study was focused on the investigation of the presence of free gossypol in commercial complementary feed not containing cotton. A total of 50 samples of commercial complementary feed for dairy cows were performed in 29 feed mills both using and not using cotton as feed material. The free gossypol contamination resulted under the detection limit of the technique (4 mg/kg) in 12 out of 50 samples analysed and ranged from 4 to 20 mg/kg in 28 samples. In 10 samples the level of free gossypol ranged from 20 to 29.5 mg/kg. Average contamination of samples was 12.2±9.2 SD mg/kg. No significant difference (P=0.571) was shown in free gossypol concentration between feed produced in cotton free plants and in plants where cotton is used as feed material. Free gossypol content detected in the present study allows considering complementary feed for dairy cows not at risk. On the other hand, the detection of free gossypol in cotton free complementary feed, probably attributable to cross contamination of feed materials upstream of the feed mill, should be further investigated. PMID:27800399

  11. 8. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. It received steam from the locomotive type, fire-tube portable boiler in the background. The engine's water pump which pumped water from the feed-water clarifying cistern, in between the boiler and engine, through a pre-heat system and on to the boiler, is seen in front of the fluted cylinder. The fly-ball governor, missing its balls, the steam port, and manual throttle valve are above and behind the cylinder. The flywheel, drive shaft, and pulley are on the left side of the engine bed. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 9. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Locomotivetype, firetube, portable boiler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Locomotive-type, fire-tube, portable boiler, No. 1 model. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. 120 lbs/sq. inch working pressure, 66 sq. ft. heating surface in tubes. View: from side. The boiler provided steam for steam engine which in turn powered the mill's centrifugals. The section on the left side included the firebox with its surrounding water-legs. The fluted chimney-type structure is the steam port, safety valve, and whistle. Column projecting from side was part of steam pressure and water gauge. Pipe running above boiler carried steam to the engine. Pipe running below boiler provided the boiler feed-water. Cylindrical section included 22 fire-tube surrounded by water. The far right ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  14. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  15. Gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid adults feeding from Florida citrus: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic basis of D. citri biology, identifying in particular genes associated with feeding, reproduction, pathology, and insecticide resistance. The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector ...

  16. Modeling the milling tool wear by using an evolutionary SVM-based model from milling runs experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; Robleda, Abraham Segade

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research work is to build a new practical hybrid regression model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut as well as entry cut and exit cut of a milling tool. The model was based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). This optimization mechanism involved kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Bearing this in mind, a PSO-SVM-based model, which is based on the statistical learning theory, was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset represents experiments from runs on a milling machine under various operating conditions. In this way, data sampled by three different types of sensors (acoustic emission sensor, vibration sensor and current sensor) were acquired at several positions. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Firstly, this hybrid PSO-SVM-based regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the flank wear (output variable) and input variables (time, depth of cut, feed, etc.). Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. Secondly, the main advantages of this PSO-SVM-based model are its capacity to produce a simple, easy-to-interpret model, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed.

  17. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  18. FAST Real Time PCR for control of intra-species recycling in aquaculture feed, focused to the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe.

    PubMed

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; Vieites, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs.

  19. FAST Real Time PCR for control of intra-species recycling in aquaculture feed, focused to the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe.

    PubMed

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; Vieites, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs. PMID:26988512

  20. Analysis of single-chain antibody production in Pichia pastoris using on-line methanol control in fed-batch and mixed-feed fermentations.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, S; Emde, F; Raven, N P; Henke, M; van Der Logt, P; Fischer, R

    2001-08-20

    In the last few years the Pichia pastoris expression system has been gaining more and more interest for the expression of recombinant proteins. Many groups have employed fermentation technology in their investigations because the system is fairly easy to scale up and suitable for the production in the milligram to gram range. A large number of heterologous proteins from different sources has been expressed, but the fermentation process technology has been investigated to a lesser extent. A large number of fermentations are carried out in standard bioreactors that may be insufficiently equipped to meet the demands of high-cell-density fermentations of methylotrophic yeasts. In particular, the lack of on-line methanol analysis leads to fermentation protocols that may impair the optimal expression of the desired products. We have used a commercially available methanol sensor to investigate in detail the effects of supplementary glycerol feeding while maintaining a constant methanol concentration during the induction of a Mut(+) strain of Pichia pastoris. Specific glycerol feed rates in the range of 38-4.2 mg. g(-1). h(-1) (mg glycerol per gram fresh weight per hour) were investigated. Expression of the recombinant scFv antibody fragment was only observed at specific feed rates below 6 mg. g(-1). h(-1). At low specific feed rates, growth was even lower than with methanol as the sole carbon source and the harvest expression level of the scFv was only half of that found in the control fermentation. These results show that glycerol inhibits expression driven by the AOX1 promoter even at extremely limited availability and demonstrate the benefits of on-line methanol control in Pichia fermentation research.

  1. 83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. 252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS dredged reflecting pond which illustrates how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet discusses "diploma mills" and "accreditation mills," dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus. Because it is not always easy to identify these operations, questions are provided to help the potential student determine whether a provider is a diploma mill…

  4. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Growth and feeding response of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to host plants grown in controlled carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.; Sionit, N.; Strain, B.R.

    1984-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter plant/herbivore interactions. The projected rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide is expected to increase plant productivity, but little evidence is available regarding effects on insect feeding or growth. Leaves of soybean plants grown under three carbon dioxide regimes (350, 500, and 650 ..mu..l/liter) were fed to soybean looper larvae. Larvae fed at increasingly higher rates on plants from elevated carbon dioxide atmospheres: 80% greater rates on leaves from the 650 ..mu..l/liter treatment than on leaves from the 350 ..mu..l/litter treatment. Variation in larval feeding was related to the leaf content of nitrogen and water and to the leaf-specific weight, each of which was altered by the carbon dioxide growth regime of the soybean plants. This study suggests that the impact of herbivores may increase as the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide rises.

  6. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  7. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  8. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S.; De La Torre, Carola M.; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction. PMID:26417108

  9. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  10. Influence of intrinsic signals and environmental cues on the endocrine control of feeding in fish: potential application in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Hoskins, Leah J; Tuziak, Sarah M

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of food consumption and ultimately growth are major concerns for aquaculture. In fish, food intake is regulated by several hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Changes in feeding behavior and appetite usually occur through the modulation of the gene expression and/or action of these appetite-regulating hormones and can be due not only to variations in intrinsic factors such as nutritional/metabolic or reproductive status, but also to changes in environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. In addition, the gene expression and/or plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones might also display daily as well as circannual (seasonal) rhythms. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited. We give here a brief overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish and describe how a better understanding of appetite-related hormones in fish might lead to the development of sustainable aquaculture.

  11. Simulation and experiment of cutting force in ultrasonic torsional vibration assisted micro-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haijun; Sun, Yazhou; Lu, Zesheng

    2010-10-01

    A coupled thermo-mechanical model of Ultrasonic Torsional Vibration Assisted Micro-milling (UTVAM) was established with ABAQUS, the primary cause which leads to a decrease in cutting force after adding Ultrasonic Torsional Vibration (UTV) to micro-milling was analyzed. Micro-milling with and without UTV were both carried out on the self-designed UTVAM experimental system, using forged aluminum alloy. Single-factor method was used to analyze the influence rules of cutting parameters such as spindle speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut on cutting force. It was found that feed per tooth plays a more important role than other parameters, a smaller feed per tooth can have a better effects on reducing of cutting force in UTVAM.

  12. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary

  13. Mill recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Musto, R.L.

    1984-10-23

    A mill recirculation system that is operative for purposes of effecting the pulverization and firing of solid fuels, while yet possessing all of the desirable features of a direct fired system. The subject system includes pulverizer means classifier means and burner means as well as a preestablished fluid flow path by which the pulverizer means and the classifier means are interconnected in fluid flow relation with the burner means. In accord with the mode of operation of the subject mill recirculation system a stream of solid fuel is made to flow along the fluid flow path such that the solid fuel is pulverized in the pulverizer means, classified according to particle size in the classifier means and fired in the burner means. Further, a stream of a suitable gaseous medium is made to flow along the flow path such that the gaseous medium is operative to cause the solid fuel to be conveyed therewith through the pulverizer means while being dried thereby and to be conveyed therewith from the pulverizer means to the classifier means. At the classifier means a separation is had of the stream of the gaseous medium such that a portion of the gaseous medium is recirculated along with the oversize solid fuel particles bach to the pulverizer means, while the remainder of the gaseous medium is operative to convey the solid fuel particles that are of the desired size from the classifier means to the burner means for burning, i.e., firing, in the latter.

  14. Generation of hydrogen from polyvinyl chloride by milling and heating with CaO and Ni(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Tongamp, William; Zhang, Qiwu; Shoko, Miyagi; Saito, Fumio

    2009-08-15

    This work discusses an alternative process option for the treatment of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by producing hydrogen (H(2)) gas, at the same time fixing chlorine for proper environmental control. In the first-stage, a milling operation is performed in a planetary ball mill to obtain a mixture of PVC sample with CaO and Ni(OH)(2) to be used as feed in the second-step, involving heating of the milled product. Analyses by thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) showed H(2), CH(4), CO and CO(2) as main constituents. The results clearly show that addition of Ni(OH)(2) to provide nickel as catalyst and CaO as adsorbent to fix CO(2) and HCl gases generated during heating, assisted in clean H(2) generation with concentration near 90% at temperatures between 450 and 550 degrees C. Analyses of solids after heating by X-ray diffraction and TG-DTA techniques showed both CaOHCl and CaCO(3) as main phases in the product. This process could be developed to treat PVC wastes together with other polymers and/or plastic wastes for production of H(2) gas.

  15. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  16. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  17. High-Speed Tracking Method Using Zero Phase Error Tracking-Feed-Forward (ZPET-FF) Control for High-Data-Transfer-Rate Optical Disk Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Daiichi; Yanagisawa, Hitoshi; Tokumaru, Haruki; Nakamura, Shoichi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Inomata, Koichi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa

    2004-07-01

    We describe the effectiveness of feed-forward control using the zero phase error tracking method (ZPET-FF control) of the tracking servo for high-data-transfer-rate optical disk drives, as we are developing an optical disk system to replace the conventional professional videotape recorder for recording high-definition television signals for news gathering or producing broadcast contents. The optical disk system requires a high-data-transfer-rate of more than 200 Mbps and large recording capacity. Therefore, fast and precise track-following control is indispensable. Here, we compare the characteristics of ZPET-FF control with those of conventional feedback control or repetitive control. Experimental results show that ZPET-FF control is more precise than feedback control, and the residual tracking error level is achieved with a tolerance of 10 nm at a linear velocity of 26 m/s in the experimental setup using a blue-violet laser optical head and high-density media. The feasibility of achieving precise ZPET-FF control at 15000 rpm is also presented.

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  1. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  2. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  3. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Haptic simulation of the milling process in temporal bone operations.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Magnus; Flemmer, Henrik; Wikander, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A VR-simulation system for educating surgeons of the temporal bone milling processes is presented in this paper. E.g. the milling process that occurs during the removal of certain cancer tumors in the brain. The research project is recently started up and this paper is an introduction to the bone milling simulation topic. We present how the graphical rendering of the temporal bone is done. Acquired data are managed using the Marching cubes algorithm to perform a visual representation. A re-production of iso-surfaces will represent the material removal occurred during the milling process. Force models are discussed and will be implemented in the H3D API, which is used to control the virtual simulation and collision detection. Equipment, implementation and future work are also presented in the paper.

  5. Underwater milling machine system for core barrel repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, A.W.; Smith, E.H.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses an underwater machining system for the repair and maintenance of nuclear vessels. It comprises a platform with means for supporting the platform in a substantially horizontal plane; a machining device detachably connectable to the platform comprising a milling or boring machine and a spacial positioning means for locating the milling or boring machines in a precise working position. The spacial positioning means including adjustment means for movement of the milling or boring machine along its X Y and Z axes; a guide means for automatically aligning the machining device on the platform, so that when the detachable machining device is lowered from a detached position above the platform. The guide means automatically aligns the machining device to the platform; and a remote control means for operating the spacial positioning means and the milling or boring machine.

  6. Fluid mechanics of slurry flow through the grinding media in ball mills

    SciTech Connect

    Songfack, P.K.; Rajamani, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The slurry transport within the ball mill greatly influences the mill holdup, residence time, breakage rate, and hence the power draw and the particle size distribution of the mill product. However, residence-time distribution and holdup in industrial mills could not be predicted a priori. Indeed, it is impossible to determine the slurry loading in continuously operating mills by direct measurement, especially in industrial mills. In this paper, the slurry transport problem is solved using the principles of fluid mechanics. First, the motion of the ball charge and its expansion are predicted by a technique called discrete element method. Then the slurry flow through the porous ball charge is tackled with a fluid-flow technique called the marker and cell method. This may be the only numerical technique capable of tracking the slurry free surface as it fluctuates with the motion of the ball charge. The result is a prediction of the slurry profile in both the radial and axial directions. Hence, it leads to the detailed description of slurry mass and ball charge within the mill. The model predictions are verified with pilot-scale experimental work. This novel approach based on the physics of fluid flow is devoid of any empiricism. It is shown that the holdup of industrial mills at a given feed percent solids can be predicted successfully.

  7. Feeding-induced changes in temporal patterning of muscle activity in the lobster stomatogastric system.

    PubMed

    Clemens, S; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1998-09-25

    In the lobster Homarus gammarus, rhythmic masticatory movements of the foregut gastric mill are generated by a small neural network in the stomatogastric ganglion. We have used EMG recordings from intact animals to analyse gastric network output in relation to cycle period before and after feeding. In pre-prandial conditions, muscles controlling lateral teeth closure and medial tooth protraction (driven by MG and GM motor neurons, respectively) express relatively constant, return stroke-like burst durations, but change to a variable-duration power stroke-like phenotype after feeding. In contrast, the LPG neuron-innervated lateral teeth opener muscle switches from power stroke to return stroke-like behavior. Thus alternate phases within a single motor program may invert their temporal properties according to the behavioral situation. PMID:9779921

  8. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity.

  9. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity. PMID:20000087

  10. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: Improved Liquid Steel Feeding for Slab Casters

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the development, construction and testing of the Electromagnetic Valve System (EVS), conducted as a project entitled ''Improved Liquid Steel Feeding System for Slab Casters''. This program ran from November 1992 to January 1995. Many of the technical issues in bringing the EVS to the steel industry were identified and resolved during the course of the program. During this time, significant hardware improvements in Westinghouse's electromagnetic valve were made to easily integrate it with existing continuous casting processes,. An improved refractory nozzle was developed and tested which had superior thermal shock and anti-cracking performance. In addition, several trials were conducted with molten steel to verify the proof-of-principle of the electromagnetic valve and its auxiliary equipment. However, improvements in other conventional pouring technologies have greatly diminished the potential value of this project to the steel industry. A such, the program w as canceled by the American Iron and Steel Institute after the conclusion of Phase I

  11. Aircraft automatic-flight-control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path using a Newton-Raphson technique for the inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.; Nordstrom, M.

    1986-01-01

    A new automatic flight control system concept suitable for aircraft with highly nonlinear aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics and which must operate over a wide flight envelope was investigated. This exact model follower inverts a complete nonlinear model of the aircraft as part of the feed-forward path. The inversion is accomplished by a Newton-Raphson trim of the model at each digital computer cycle time of 0.05 seconds. The combination of the inverse model and the actual aircraft in the feed-forward path alloys the translational and rotational regulators in the feedback path to be easily designed by linear methods. An explanation of the model inversion procedure is presented. An extensive set of simulation data for essentially the full flight envelope for a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft (VATOL) is presented. These data demonstrate the successful, smooth, and precise control that can be achieved with this concept. The trajectory includes conventional flight from 200 to 900 ft/sec with path accelerations and decelerations, altitude changes of over 6000 ft and 2g and 3g turns. Vertical attitude maneuvering as a tail sitter along all axes is demonstrated. A transition trajectory from 200 ft/sec in conventional flight to stationary hover in the vertical attitude includes satisfactory operation through lift-cure slope reversal as attitude goes from horizontal to vertical at constant altitude. A vertical attitude takeoff from stationary hover to conventional flight is also demonstrated.

  12. [Case of severely disabled child with refractive respiratory infection due to gastroesophageal reflux successfully controlled by using a button-shaped double lumen transgastric jejunal feeding tube].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kanako; Tomikashi, Koichi; Takashima, Hidetaka; Kanemitsu, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Kengo; Iwase, Akiko; Abe, Yoshiaki; Nozuchi, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old severely disabled woman child had been suffering from the refractive respiratory infection due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in years. However two transnasal catheters inserted to control GER, one was for feeding to the jejunum and the other was for decompression of the stomach, they were not effective against respiratory infection. Then, to resolve the problems, a button-shaped double lumen transgastric jejunal catheter was inserted into her jejunum via PEG in two-stage. After the procedure, the refractive respiratory infection due to GER could be successfully controlled. Additionally, by using the button-shaped catheter, any position came to be acceptable in daily life, for example in rehabilitation, sleeping and so on. Her ADL (activity of daily life) was well preserved.

  13. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  14. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-09-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a "green" agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation.

  15. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  16. Finite Element Method Based Modeling for Prediction of Cutting Forces in Micro-end Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, Tej; Patra, Karali

    2016-04-01

    Micro-end milling is one of the widely used processes for producing micro features/components in micro-fluidic systems, biomedical applications, aerospace applications, electronics and many more fields. However in these applications, the forces generated in the micro-end milling process can cause tool vibration, process instability and even cause tool breakage if not minimized. Therefore, an accurate prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling is essential. In this work, a finite element method based model is developed using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.12 software for prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling with due consideration of tool edge radius effect, thermo-mechanical properties and failure parameters of the workpiece material including friction behaviour at tool-chip interface. Experiments have been performed for manufacturing of microchannels on copper plate using 500 µm diameter tungsten carbide micro-end mill and cutting forces are acquired through a dynamometer. Predicted cutting forces in feed and cross feed directions are compared with experimental results and are found to be in good agreements. Results also show that FEM based simulations can be applied to analyze size effects of specific cutting forces in micro-end milling process.

  17. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Stolker, A A M; Manti, V; Zuidema, T; van Egmond, H; Deckers, E R; Herbes, R; Hooglugt, J; Olde Heuvel, E; de Jong, J

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary drugs like antibiotics added to the previous batch of medicated feed. To monitor the carry-over of antibiotics in the Netherlands, 21 feed mills were visited and 140 samples of flushing feeds were collected and analysed for containing residues of antibiotics. Results show that 87% of all samples contain concentrations of antibiotics in the range of 0.1-154 mg/kg. It is expected that these levels - which are in the same range as previously found for the nowadays banned antimicrobial growth promoters (AMGPs) - have an effect on the occurrence of microbial resistance. Analysis of a second set of samples collected at four different feed mills directly after the production of oxytetracycline-medicated feed demonstrated that the first part of a flushing feed has much higher contamination than the last part of the batch. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the carry-over percentage shows no correlation with the carry-over determined by one of the standard GMP+ procedures. These observations, unavoidable carry-over, inhomogeneous batches of feed with antibiotics and difficulties to predict the carry-over levels, together with the awareness of the increasing problem of microbial resistance, motivated the NEVEDI, association of Dutch Feed Producers, to announce that they will voluntarily stop the production of medicated feed in 2011. The alternatives for medicated feed are for example water or milk medication or the use of top-dressings at the farm. The consequences and possible new risks of carry-over at the farm are not completely clear yet. PMID:23742236

  18. Alternative control techniques document: PM-10 emissions from selected processes at coke ovens and integrated iron and steel mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsosudiro, P.J.; Snow, W.S.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to state and local air quality management agencies for determining reasonably available control technologies (RACT) and best available control technologies (BACT) that apply to PM-10 sources in the iron and steel industry. Emission sources addressed are coke pushing, coke quenching, coke sizing and screening, casthouse operations, hot metal transfer, and desulfurization. These sources were selected for analysis because they are not presently regulated under New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Emission control system descriptions, environmental and energy impact assessments, and control cost analyses are presented. The principal emission collection devices used are the fabric filter and wet venturi scrubber.

  19. RA Acts in a Coherent Feed-Forward Mechanism with Tbx5 to Control Limb Bud Induction and Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoko; Wilde, Susan M.; Wood, Sophie; Logan, Malcolm P.O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The retinoic acid (RA)- and β-catenin-signaling pathways regulate limb bud induction and initiation; however, their mechanisms of action are not understood and have been disputed. We demonstrate that both pathways are essential and that RA and β-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling act cooperatively with Hox gene inputs to directly regulate Tbx5 expression. Furthermore, in contrast to previous models, we show that Tbx5 and Tbx4 expression in forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, are not sufficient for limb outgrowth and that input from RA is required. Collectively, our data indicate that RA signaling and Tbx genes act in a coherent feed-forward loop to regulate Fgf10 expression and, as a result, establish a positive feedback loop of FGF signaling between the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm. Our results incorporate RA-, β-catenin/TCF/LEF-, and FGF-signaling pathways into a regulatory network acting to recruit cells of the embryo flank to become limb precursors. PMID:26212321

  20. Feed-forward and reciprocal inhibition for gain and phase timing control in a computational model of repetitive cough.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Teresa; Morris, Kendall F; Segers, Lauren S; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J; Lindsey, Bruce G; Davenport, Paul W; Howland, Dena R; Bolser, Donald C

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the hypothesis, motivated in part by a coordinated computational cough network model, that second-order neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) act as a filter and shape afferent input to the respiratory network during the production of cough. In vivo experiments were conducted on anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airways. Electromyograms of the parasternal (inspiratory) and rectus abdominis (expiratory) muscles and esophageal pressure were recorded. In vivo data revealed that expiratory motor drive during bouts of repetitive coughs is variable: peak expulsive amplitude increases from the first cough, peaks about the eighth or ninth cough, and then decreases through the remainder of the bout. Model simulations indicated that feed-forward inhibition of a single second-order neuron population is not sufficient to account for this dynamic feature of a repetitive cough bout. When a single second-order population was split into two subpopulations (inspiratory and expiratory), the resultant model produced simulated expiratory motor bursts that were comparable to in vivo data. However, expiratory phase durations during these simulations of repetitive coughing had less variance than those in vivo. Simulations in which reciprocal inhibitory processes between inspiratory-decrementing and expiratory-augmenting-late neurons were introduced exhibited increased variance in the expiratory phase durations. These results support the prediction that serial and parallel processing of airway afferent signals in the NTS play a role in generation of the motor pattern for cough. PMID:27283917

  1. Occupational hearing loss of market mill workers in the city of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Abaidoo, Benjamin; Atule, Alidu

    2014-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76%) and 8 (7.7%) mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5%) and fifty-four (52.37%) mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0%) mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001). The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P < 0.5). The prevalence of hearing loss, which may be characteristic of NIHL in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection. PMID:24953884

  2. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  3. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  5. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  8. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus. PMID:24511684

  9. Shaper and Milling Machine Operation, Machine Shop Work 2: 9555.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared to assist the student in learning the basic skills and safety for shaper and milling operations. The course presents the various types of machines, work holding devices, cutting tools and feeds and speeds, and instruction designed to enable the student to obtain the manipulative skills and related knowledge…

  10. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Stonehouse Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Hanekom, Susanna M; White, Zelda

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

  11. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory §...

  12. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory §...

  13. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of...

  14. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of...

  16. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; Berger, Greg; Wilson, Jhanel; Brooks, Wynse S; McMaster, Nicole; Griffey, Carl A; Hicks, Kevin B; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Schmale, David G

    2014-05-01

    Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production, may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States and may become concentrated during the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a coproduct of fuel ethanol production and is increasingly being used as feed for domestic animals. Therefore, new strategies to reduce the threat of DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented for grain destined for fuel ethanol production. It is known that large concentrations of DON accumulate in the hulls of wheat and barley. Consequently, improved methods are needed to carefully remove the hull from the grain and preserve the starchy endosperm. Whole kernels from five Virginia winter barley genotypes were used to evaluate the abilities of two different milling strategies (roller milling and precision milling (FitzMill)) for their ability to remove the hull-enriched tissue from the kernel while maintaining starch levels and reducing DON levels in the endosperm-enriched tissue. After whole kernels were milled, DON and starch levels were quantified in the hull-enriched fractions and endosperm-enriched fractions. Initial milling experiments demonstrated that the precision mill system (6 min run time) is able to reduce more DON than the roller mill but with higher starch losses. The average percent DON removed from the kernel with the roller mill was 36.7% ± 5.5 and the average percent DON removed from the dehulled kernel with the precision mill was 85.1% ± 9.0. Endosperm-enriched fractions collected from the roller mill and precision mill contained starch levels ranging from 49.0% ± 12.1 to 59.1% ± 0.5 and 58.5% ± 1.6 to 65.3% ± 3.9, respectively. On average, the precision mill removed a mass of 23.1% ± 6.8 and resulted in starch losses of 9.6% ± 6.3, but produced an endosperm-enriched fraction with relatively very little

  17. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  18. Efficiency of feeding Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores to control nematode parasites of first-season grazing goats in France.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Pors, I; Chartier, C

    2007-04-01

    A field trial, conducted over two consecutive years, was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the administration of spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to young goats for the control of nematode parasite infections on a French commercial dairy goat flock. For both years, the first-year grazing kids were divided into two similarly managed groups (fungus and control groups): in 2003 a daily dose rate of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight was given to the fungus-group animals, while in 2004 a daily dose rate of 10(6) spores/kg body weight was used; the other half of the kids, acting as control, did not receive the spores. Parameters measured every 3 weeks included nematode egg excretion, larval development in faecal cultures and pasture larval counts. Additionally, at the beginning, the middle and the end of each grazing season, the goats were weighed and blood samples for pepsinogen determination were collected. In 2003, similar results were recorded for all the measured parameters in the control and fungus groups. In contrast, in 2004, the kids receiving the spores showed lower faecal egg counts and pepsinogen levels at the end of the season and higher growth rate compared to kids of the control group.

  19. Real-time pair-feeding of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic pair-feeding system was developed which immediately dispenses same amount of food to control animal as has been consumed by experimental animal that has free access to food. System consists of: master feeding system; slave feeding station; and control mechanism. Technique performs real time pair-feeding without attendant time lag.

  20. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOEpatents

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  1. Efficient production of ε-poly-L-lysine by Streptomyces ahygroscopicus using one-stage pH control fed-batch fermentation coupled with nutrient feeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Rong; Wu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ju-Mei; Mo, Shu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a homopolymer of L-lysine molecules connected between the ε amino and alpha carboxyl groups. This polymer is currently used as a natural preservative in food. Insufficient biomass is a major problem in ε-PL fermentation. Here, to improve cell growth and ε-PL productivity, various nitrogen-rich nutrients were supplemented into flask cultures after 16 h cultivation, marking the onset of ε-PL biosynthesis. Yeast extract, soybean powder, corn powder, and beef extract significantly improved cell growth. In terms of ε-PL productivity, yeast extract at 0.5% (w/v) gave the maximum yield (2.24 g/l), 115.4% higher than the control (1.04 g/l), followed by soybean powder (1.86 g/l) at 1% (w/v) and corn powder (1.72 g/l) at 1% (w/v). However, supplementation with beef extract inhibited ε-PL production. The optimal time for supplementation for all nutrients examined was at 16 h cultivation. The kinetics of yeast-extract-supplemented cultures showed enhanced cell growth and production duration. Thus, the most commonly used two-stage pH control fed-batch fermentation method was modified by omitting the pH 5.0-controlled period, and coupling the procedure with nutrient feeding in the pH 3.9-controlled phase. Using this process, by continuously feeding 0.5 g/h of yeast extract, soybean powder, or corn powder into cultures in a 30 L fermenter, the final ε-PL titer reached 28.2 g/l, 23.7 g/l, and 21.4 g/l, respectively, 91.8%, 61.2%, and 45.6% higher than that of the control (14.7 g/l). This describes a promising option for the mass production of ε-PL. PMID:25269813

  2. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... reopening the comment period for the notice, published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29767), FDA published a notice with... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and...

  3. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  4. Growth inhibition by ammonia and use of a pH-controlled feeding strategy for the effective cultivation of Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, C; Zeng, A P; Deckwer, W D

    1995-12-01

    The inhibitory effect of ammonia on the growth of the polychlorinated xenobiotic-degrading bacterium Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum was examined. The strain is inhibited by both the ionized and nonionized forms of ammonia, At pH 6.9, 50% reduction of the growth rate was observed at 6.8 g/l total ammonium. For 23 experiments performed in shake-flask culture at different pH values, and ammonium concentrations a growth model based on the extended Monod kinetic fits the data with a deviation of 5.3%. To overcome growth inhibition in bioreactors, a pH- controlled feeding strategy was developed for effective cultivation of M. chlorophenolicum at an ammonium level below 0.3 g/l. The ammonium addition was controlled online by the stoichiometric interdependence of ammonium consumption and pH decline. With this online control strategy, a biomass concentration as high as 26.2 g/l can be achieved within less than a week of cultivation. The yield is also increased from 0.32 g to 0.43 g biomass (per gram glucose). The strategy developed provides an effective method for the production of biomass o M. chlorophenolicum serving as the inoculum in remediation technologies.

  5. Efficacy of an in-feed formulation containing ivermectin for the control of intestinal strongyles in captive zebras (Equus burchelli (Gray, 1824)).

    PubMed

    Lia, Riccardo P; Traversa, Donato; Laricchiuta, Piero; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Paradies, Romina; Alvinerie, Michel; Krecek, Rosina C; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-19

    The efficacy of medicated food pellets (containing 10mg of ivermectin per kg, UNIFEED, Veronesi, Verona, Italy) was evaluated for the control of intestinal strongyles in a group of captive zebras (Equus burchelli) at the Safari Park, Fasano (Apulia region, Brindisi Province, southern Italy). The egg reappearance period and the faecal egg counts in terms of eggs per gram of faeces were investigated. From day 0 until day +9, 30 zebras were fed with medicated pellets and pooled faecal samples were collected from the floor of paddocks. The drug showed an efficacy of 100% for up to 78 days post-treatment, with one exception. Strongyle eggs collected prior to the treatment were used to perform coprocultures and larvae harvested were molecularly identified as Cylicostephanus minutus and Cylicocyclus leptostomum with a reverse line blot hybridization assay. The administration of ivermectin with medicated food pellets was effective in controlling intestinal strongylosis in captive zebras. The opportunity to treat captive ungulates with an in-feed anthelmintic is discussed in relation to the fractious nature of these animals, which often impairs helminth control programs in zoo-parks.

  6. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  7. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  8. Aflatoxin control--how a regulatory agency managed risk from an unavoidable natural toxicant in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Park, D L; Stoloff, L

    1989-04-01

    The control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of aflatoxin, a relatively recently discovered, unavoidable natural contaminant produced by specific molds that invade a number of basic food and feedstuffs, provides an example of the varying forces that affect risk assessment and management by a regulatory Agency. This is the story of how the FDA responded to the initial discovery of a potential carcinogenic hazard to humans in a domestic commodity, to the developing information concerning the nature of the hazard, to the economic and political pressures that are created by the impact of natural forces on regulatory controls, and to the restraints of laws within which the Agency must work. This story covers four periods: the years of discovery and action decisions on the basis of meager knowledge and the fear of cancer; the years of tinkering on paper with the regulatory process, the years of digestion of the accumulating knowledge, and the application of that knowledge to actions forced by natural events; and an audit of the current status of knowledge about the hazard from aflatoxin, and proposals for regulatory control based on that knowledge.

  9. 4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL OF THE MITCHELLS MILL BRIDGE; VIEW TO NORTH. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  10. 4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) IS SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  11. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  12. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel. PMID:26396286

  13. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.

  14. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, A REINFORCED CONCRETE MILL BUILT BY NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONTAINED 35,000 SPINDLES FOR MAKING TIRE FABRICS. PART OF THE WEAVING WOULD TAKE PLACE AT HOGANSVILLE MILL (BUILT c. 1900), ANOTHER NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILL NEARBY, UNTIL THE DEMOLITION OF THAT MILL IN THE 1970s. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  15. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated

  16. Factors contributing to milling quality differences in MY3, a 'RiceCAP' project milling population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique California long grain milling population is being phenotyped for milling and fissuring characteristics within the RiceCAP project. Low milling parent of this population has difference in grain shape, degree of chalkiness, and amylose content, as compared to the high milling parent. Contri...

  17. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  18. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent. PMID:27441210

  19. Nano-sized crystalline drug production by milling technology.

    PubMed

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Ueda, Keisuke; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Nano-formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed to enhance drug dissolution. In this review, we introduce nano-milling technology described in recently published papers. Factors affecting the size of drug crystals are compared based on the preparation methods and drug and excipient types. A top-down approach using the comminution process is a method conventionally used to prepare crystalline drug nanoparticles. Wet milling using media is well studied and several wet-milled drug formulations are now on the market. Several trials on drug nanosuspension preparation using different apparatuses, materials, and conditions have been reported. Wet milling using a high-pressure homogenizer is another alternative to preparing production-scale drug nanosuspensions. Dry milling is a simple method of preparing a solid-state drug nano-formulation. The effect of size on the dissolution of a drug from nanoparticles is an area of fundamental research, but it is sometimes incorrectly evaluated. Here, we discuss evaluation procedures and the associated problems. Lastly, the importance of quality control, process optimization, and physicochemical characterization are briefly discussed.

  20. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  1. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  2. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  3. Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

  4. 27. DETAIL OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1 POWER ENTRY FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1 POWER ENTRY FILLED IN AREA WHERE WATER-POWERED SHAFTING ENTERS BUILDING. NOTE CONTROL WHEEL ON FLOOR AND BELT HOLES IN CEILING TO FIRST FLOOR. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  5. Wet gringing of zeolite in stirred media mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucsi, G.; Bohács, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study the results of systematic experimental series are presented with the specific goal of optimizing the zeolite nanoparticles' production using a wet stirred media mill. The diameter of the grinding media as well as the rotor velocity were varied in the experiments. Particle size distribution and "outer" specific surface area of the ground samples were measured by a laser particle size analyser. Additionally, BET, XRD and FT-IR analyses were performed for the characterization of the "total" specific surface area as well as the crystalline and material structure, respectively. Based on the results of the laboratory experiments it was found that wet stirred media milling provided significant reductions in the particle size of zeolite. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the samples also decreased, so not only the physical but the mineralogical characteristics of zeolite can be controlled by stirred media milling.

  6. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  7. J. S. Mill on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  8. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  9. Probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines, and their role as feed supplements in the control of bacterial fish diseases.

    PubMed

    Newaj-Fyzul, A; Austin, B

    2015-11-01

    There is a rapidly increasing literature pointing to the success of probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines in immunomodulation, namely stimulation of the innate, cellular and/or humoral immune response, and the control of bacterial fish diseases. Probiotics are regarded as live micro-organisms administered orally and leading to health benefits. However, in contrast with the use in terrestrial animals, a diverse range of micro-organisms have been evaluated in aquaculture with the mode of action often reflecting immunomodulation. Moreover, the need for living cells has been questioned. Also, key subcellular components, including lipopolysaccharides, have been attributed to the beneficial effect in fish. Here, there is a link with immunostimulants, which may also be administered orally. Furthermore, numerous plant products have been reported to have health benefits, namely protection against disease for which stimulation of some immune parameters has been reported. Oral vaccines confer protection against some diseases, although the mode of action is usually linked to humoral rather than the innate and cellular immune responses. This review explores the relationship between probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines.

  10. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  11. A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created through community-based participatory research, to standard care received through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) office visits in preventing the development of overweight (weight/length ≥85th percentile) and obesity (weight/length ≥95th percentile) in infants during their first 3 years of life. One hundred forty pregnant women in their third trimester (30–36 weeks) will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life. Trial registration Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072 PMID:24063435

  12. 30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF PIPE FEED SYSTEM TO CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EAST. THIS PIPE WAS MOUNTED ALONG THE JOISTS AT TOP, ALIGNING WITH THE TWO SMALLER PIPES PROTRUDING DOWNWARD FROM THE JOISTS. THESE PIPES CONVEYED PULP MATERIAL FROM THE STAMP APRONS ON THE UPPER FLOOR TO THE CLASSIFIER, SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS AT CENTER LEFT WREE ADDED AS PART OF THE MILL STABILIZATION BY THE PARK SERVICE IN 1993-4. THIS WOUND AND RIVITED PIPE IS IDENTICAL TO THE 23-MILE PIPELINE THAT CONVEYED WATER TO THE MILL FROM TELESCOPE PEAK. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  14. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  15. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  16. [Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources.

  17. Production of lactic acid from the mixture of softwood pre-hydrolysate and paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Suan; Kang, Li; Lee, Y Y

    2015-03-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material composed of pulp residues and ash generated from pulping and paper making process. The carbohydrate portion of the sludges from Kraft/Recycle paper mill has chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of commercial wood pulp. Because of its high carbohydrate content and well-dispersed structure, the sludge can be biologically converted to value-added products without pretreatment. In bioconversion of solid feedstock such as paper mill sludge, a certain amount of water must be present to attain fluidity. In this study, hemicellulose pre-hydrolysate, in place of water, was added to the sludge to increase the concentration of the final product. Pre-hydrolysate was obtained by hot-water treatment of pine wood in which the total sugar concentration reached 4 wt.%. The mixture was processed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC-10863). Pectinase was added to hydrolyze mannose oligomers in the pre-hydrolysate to monomers. During the SSF of the mixture, calcium carbonate in the paper sludge acted as a buffer, yielding calcium lactate as the final product. External pH control was unnecessary due to the buffer action of calcium carbonate that maintained the pH near optimum for the SSF. The lactic acid yield in the range of 80-90 % of the theoretical maximum was obtained. Use of the mixed feed of pre-hydrolysate and pulp mill sludges in the SSF raised the product concentration to 60 g of lactate/L.

  18. Production of lactic acid from the mixture of softwood pre-hydrolysate and paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Suan; Kang, Li; Lee, Y Y

    2015-03-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material composed of pulp residues and ash generated from pulping and paper making process. The carbohydrate portion of the sludges from Kraft/Recycle paper mill has chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of commercial wood pulp. Because of its high carbohydrate content and well-dispersed structure, the sludge can be biologically converted to value-added products without pretreatment. In bioconversion of solid feedstock such as paper mill sludge, a certain amount of water must be present to attain fluidity. In this study, hemicellulose pre-hydrolysate, in place of water, was added to the sludge to increase the concentration of the final product. Pre-hydrolysate was obtained by hot-water treatment of pine wood in which the total sugar concentration reached 4 wt.%. The mixture was processed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using enzymes (cellulase and pectinase) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC-10863). Pectinase was added to hydrolyze mannose oligomers in the pre-hydrolysate to monomers. During the SSF of the mixture, calcium carbonate in the paper sludge acted as a buffer, yielding calcium lactate as the final product. External pH control was unnecessary due to the buffer action of calcium carbonate that maintained the pH near optimum for the SSF. The lactic acid yield in the range of 80-90 % of the theoretical maximum was obtained. Use of the mixed feed of pre-hydrolysate and pulp mill sludges in the SSF raised the product concentration to 60 g of lactate/L. PMID:25561054

  19. Pancreatitis, very early compared with normal start of enteral feeding (PYTHON trial): design and rationale of a randomised controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In predicted severe acute pancreatitis, infections have a negative effect on clinical outcome. A start of enteral nutrition (EN) within 24 hours of onset may reduce the number of infections as compared to the current practice of starting an oral diet and EN if necessary at 3-4 days after admission. Methods/Design The PYTHON trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. Patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (Imrie-score ≥ 3 or APACHE-II score ≥ 8 or CRP > 150 mg/L) will be randomised to EN within 24 hours or an oral diet and EN if necessary, after 72 hours after hospital admission. During a 3-year period, 208 patients will be enrolled from 20 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite of mortality or infections (bacteraemia, infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis, pneumonia) during hospital stay or within 6 months following randomisation. Secondary endpoints include other major morbidity (e.g. new onset organ failure, need for intervention), intolerance of enteral feeding and total costs from a societal perspective. Discussion The PYTHON trial is designed to show that a very early (< 24 h) start of EN reduces the combined endpoint of mortality or infections as compared to the current practice of an oral diet and EN if necessary at around 72 hours after admission for predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN18170985 PMID:21392395

  20. A novel use of friability testing for characterising ribbon milling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Schiano, Serena; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Mirtic, Andreja; Reynolds, Gavin

    2016-07-01

    Dry granulation using roll compaction (DGRC) has been increasingly adopted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its unique advantage of not requiring liquid binder and a subsequent drying process. However the DGRC process presents also some challenges, in particular, a high fine fraction generated during the milling stage significantly limits its application. Although the fines produced can be recycled in practice, it may lead to poor content uniformity of the final product. At present there is a lack of mechanistic understanding of milling of roll compacted ribbons. For instance, it is not clear how fines are generated, what are the dominant mechanisms and controlling attributes and whether any measurement technique can be used to characterise ribbon milling behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to assess whether ribbon milling behaviour can be assessed using some characterisation methods. For this purpose, friability was evaluated for ribbons made of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powders using a friability tester that was originally developed for characterising the tendency of pharmaceutical tablets to generate small pieces while being abraded. Granules were also produced by milling of the ribbons and their size distributions were measured. The correlation between the fine fraction of the granules with ribbon friability was then explored. It was found that there was a strong correlation between ribbon friability and the fine fraction of granules generated during milling. This implies that friability tests can be performed to characterise ribbon milling behaviour, and ribbon friability provides a good indication of the fraction of fines generated during ribbon milling. PMID:27045469