Science.gov

Sample records for mill feed control

  1. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it is often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.

  2. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Application of a method for calculating coal quantity feed into boiler for double inlet and outlet ball mill in the coordinated control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houtao; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Zhijie; Peng, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Accuracy of the measurement of coal quantity feed into the boiler furnace has great influence on the combustion and coordinated control of power plant. According to the characteristics of double inlet and outlet mill pulverizing system, the method of calculating the amount of coal into furnace using the correlated variable was presented. On this basis, the coordinated control system was designed. Running results show that the method of calculating the fuel quantity accurately and effectively guarantee the stability of coordinated control system. It has a high adjustment quality.

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-20 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-14 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  7. 9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and discharge roll driving pinions and main shaft coupling. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  8. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  9. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  10. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  11. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  12. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville...

  13. CONTROL FOR ROLLING MILL

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.; Shaw, W.C.

    1961-06-20

    A plutonium-rolling apparatus is patented that has two sets of feed rolls, shaping rolls between the feed rolls, and grippers beyond the feed rolls, which ready a workpiece for a new pass through the shaping rolls by angularly shifting the workpiece about its axis or transversely moving it on a line parallel to the axes of the shaping rolls. Actuation of each gripper for gripping or releasing the workpiece is produced by the relative positions assumed by the feed rolls adjacent to the gripper as the workpiece enters or leaves the feed rolls.

  14. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated feed...

  15. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an...

  16. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued under...

  17. 21 CFR 515.24 - Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.24 Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license. When a license...

  18. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510... copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing...

  19. 7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. 305.26 Section 305.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. Feeds and milled products...

  20. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.25 Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a...

  1. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance of...

  2. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  3. 21 CFR 515.22 - Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license. 515.22 Section 515.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED... medicated feed mill license. (a) The Secretary of Health and Human Services may suspend a medicated feed...

  4. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  5. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  6. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  7. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  9. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 515.22 - Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license. 515.22 Section 515.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... mill license approved under section 512(m)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act)...

  11. 21 CFR 515.22 - Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension and/or revocation of approval of a medicated feed mill license. 515.22 Section 515.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... mill license approved under section 512(m)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act)...

  12. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Stability-Guaranteed Width Control for Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Jae; Hwang, I. Cheol

    We propose a stability-guaranteed width control (SGWC) for the hot strip finishing mill. It is shown that the proposed SGWC guarantees the stability of the width controller by the universal approximation of the neural network. It is shown through the field test in the hot strip mill of POSCO that the stability of the width controller is guaranteed by the proposed control scheme.

  14. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients.

  15. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  16. Statistical model and control of a ring-and-roller type grinding mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.

    1992-01-01

    This project explores the use of a ring-and-roller grinding mill for fine grinding or pulverizing. Since the efficiency of this system is low, small improvements in product throughput or energy consumption can result in substantial economic improvements. To better understand this system, experiments were conducted for limestone and cement clinker. From these experiments models were formulated for product throughput, energy consumption and product size distribution. A control loop was implemented to reduce the effect of non-uniform feeding. Steady-state interactions were analyzed using the Relative Gain Array (RGA) method. Next, a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) control system was designed using the Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method to remove variable interactions. The robustness of this controller was explored. Finally, a self-tuning PI controller was designed using the pole placement method to improve system performance. The results of this study provide models for implementation on ring-and-roller grinding mills.

  17. The analysis of soil characteristics near the animal feed and fertiliser mill using the Bartington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Adinda Syifa; Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-07-01

    Industrial activities have the potential to make pollution in agricultural land, the waste contains poisonous material and it is dangerous for the environment. In general, waste from factory is dumped directly into the river, but in the current study an object that is going to be conscientious is soil on around mill. There are three sampling sites are around fertilizer plants, feed mills and original uncontaminated soil. This research has been conducted to assess the impact of pollution resulting from the two mills for the environment. Physical parameter that used is magnetic susceptibility. Sampling was conducted using the method of magnetic susceptibility of rock to see the value of low frequency (lf) and shows Frequency Dependent (fd%) using the MS2B Bartington. The results from this study is at a location close to the fertilizer plant at a depth of 0-5 cm has a value susceptibility low frequency ( lf)=187.1 - 494.8, fd (%)=1.37 - 2:46, at a depth of 6-10 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=211 - 832.7,fd (%)=1.04 - 5.37. Results in the area of animal feed mill at a depth of 0-5 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=111.9 - 325.7, fd (%)=0.8 - 3.57, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=189.2 to 386.8,fd (%)=0.33 - 3.7. Results in the original soil at a depth of 0-5 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=1188.7 - 2237.8,fd (%)=2.75 - 4.65, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=977.7 - 2134.7,fd (%)=3.06 - 6.21. The highest value was in the arealf original, shows the area has a high mineral content andlf lows were in the area near the factory fodder it is caused by high pollution, resulting in lower mineral content in the soil.

  18. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  19. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  20. Quality control troubleshooting tools for the mill floor

    Treesearch

    John Dramm

    2000-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) provides effective tools for improving process quality in the forest products industry resulting in reduced costs and improved productivity. Implementing SPC helps identify and locate problems that occur in wood products manufacturing. SPC tools achieve their real value when applied on the mill floor for monitoring and troubleshooting...

  1. Computer used to program numerically controlled milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, T. C.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program automatically directs a numerically controlled milling machine through a series of cutting and trimming actions. It accepts engineering data points, passes smooth curve segments through the points, breaks the resulting curves into a series of closely spaced points, and transforms these points into the form required by the mechanism.

  2. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  3. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  4. Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C J H; Susswein, A J

    2002-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an

  5. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Approved or index listed labeling for each Type B and/or Type C feed being manufactured on the premises...

  6. Oral and respiratory control for preterm feeding.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Steven M

    2009-06-01

    Feeding competency is a frequent and serious challenge to the neonatal intensive care unit survivors and to the physician-provider-parent teams. The urgency of effective assessment and intervention techniques is obviated to promote safe swallow, as attainment of oral feeding for the preterm infant/newborn is one of the prerequisites for hospital discharge. If left unresolved, feeding problems may persist into early childhood and may require management by pediatric gastroenterologists and feeding therapists. This review highlights studies aimed at understanding the motor control and development of nonnutritive and nutritive suck, swallow, and coordination with respiration in preterm populations. Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation and can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Moreover, brainstem central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system interactions among individual CPGs. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents to activate the suck CPG is one example of a clinical intervention to prime cross-system interactions among ororhythmic pattern generating networks in the preterm and term infants. The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions that optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote robust ororhythmic patterning and safe swallows among preterm infants.

  7. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They are...

  8. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  9. Fast method for obtaining scale dimensions on tape-controlled milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calculator obtains the Rail and Z Scale dimensions on the tape-controlled Sundstrand milling machine. It provides computer with depth information required to process numerical control programs which, in turn, provide the tapes for operation of N/C milling machines.

  10. Triaxial Measurement Method for Analysis of Residual Stress after High Feed Milling by X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuma, Matúš; Török, Jozef; Telišková, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Surface integrity is a broad term which includes various quality factors affecting the functional properties of parts. Residual stress is one of these factors. Machining generates residual stresses in the surface and subsurface layers of the structural elements. X-ray diffractometry is a non-destructive method applicable for the measurement of residual stresses in surface and subsurface layers of components. The article is focused on the non-destructive progressive method of triaxial measurement of residual stress after machining the surface of sample by high feed milling technology. Significance of triaxial measuring is the capability of measuring in different angles so it is possible to acquire stress tensor containing normal and shear stress components acting in the spot of measuring, using a Cartesian coordinate system.

  11. VOC emissions controls for aluminum cold rolling mills

    SciTech Connect

    Genoble, A.L.; Lagoe, D.J.; Wasyluk, W.J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a case history of retrofitting VOC emissions controls to two (2) aluminum cold rolling mills at an aluminum sheet complex in central New York. The plant site was located in the northeast ozone transport region, and it was necessary to achieve compliance with VOC emissions limitations. Emissions control equipment included high efficiency filters for VOC mists and a wash oil process for scrubbing VOC vapors. All rolling oil was recovered for reuse on site. A vacuum distillation process was used to separate wash oil from rolling oil. The equipment began operating in mid-1995, and long term results have proven the validity of the recovery concept. Total project costs were $7.2 million for two (2) 60,000 ACFM systems. Project duration from the date of the initial request for equipment price quotations to the first round of stack testing was twenty (20) months. The modular construction of the vacuum distillation equipment simplified field erection and shortened the duration of field work. Stack testing indicated overall VOC collection efficiencies that exceeded regulatory requirements. Initially, problems were experienced with Method 25 stack testing methodology. Final results were confirmed by two (2) independent methods.

  12. Feed forward control: An implementation at CIRFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy, J.; Lehrman, I.S.; Hartley, R.

    1995-12-31

    An integral part of the Compact InfraRed Free Electron LASER (CIRFEL) is control of the phase and amplitude stability in the RF power system. We have implemented such a Feed Forward system using the LabView software package, by National Instruments. We will discuss implementation and performance data of the Feed Forward control of the RF power system at CIRFEL. We will also briefly discuss some conditions under which the problem is ill-conditioned, and what idealizations can be made to remedy these ill-conditioned systems. Using an arbitrary function generator, we generate a driving signal for a voltage-controlled attenuator at the input side of the RF system, and we monitor the RF voltage in cell I of the photocathode gun using a digital storage oscilliscope in averaging mode. The system is stable enough to use data from one shot to modify the inputs for future shots. After downloading the averaged data to a personal computer via a GPIB (IEEE 488) bus, we use a simple linear transformation on the difference waveform between the current shot and the target to produce a correction signal. This signal is added to the driving signal in the arbitrary function generator, and the process is repeated until we get the flatness we need in the output signals from cell 1. The system for phase control is similar, with a voltage-controlled phase shifter replacing the attenuator, and monitoring of the RF phase in cell I replacing the monitoring of RF voltage. By repeatedly alternating between correcting the RF voltage (equivalent to correcting the RF power) and RF phase in cell 1, we are able to achieve simultaneous phase variations of <{+-}1{degrees} and amplitude variations of <{+-}0.1% over a 3{mu}sec pulse.

  13. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Feed Mill Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the feed mill workers is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  14. Ultrafine grinding using a fluidized bed opposed jet mill: effects of feed load and rotational speed of classifier wheel on particle shape.

    PubMed

    Chan, L W; Lee, C C; Heng, P W S

    2002-09-01

    Circularity, aspect ratio, modelx, and pellips were employed to study the effects of process parameters, namely varying feed loads and rotational speeds of the classifier wheel, of the fluidized bed opposed jet mill on the shape of the micronized particles produced. The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test showed that 80.0% of the shape distributions of the four descriptors were not normal. Therefore, the Kruskal-Wallis test, which is a nonparametric statistical test, was employed to analyze the data. Micronized particles were more spherical and less elongated, as indicated respectively by higher median circularity and lower median modelx values when compared to unmilled lactose. These descriptors were able to indicate that the particles had been micronized. When feed loads of 250 and 350 g were used, increasing the rotational speed of the classifier wheel was found to bring about a decrease in span values of all the shape descriptors, indicating that the micronized particles were more uniform in shape. Micronized particles produced had lower median aspect ratio values than the unmilled lactose, whereas a higher feed load of 450 g resulted in the production of micronized particles that were less uniform in shape and more elliptical in nature, as reflected by the lower median pellips values. A higher feed load of 450 g caused a high level of impingement of particles on to the rotating classifier wheel, causing decreased classifier wheel efficiency, and this resulted in a less well-controlled micronization process. Thus, aspect ratio and pellips were sensitive to the changes in performance of the classifier wheel. The four shape descriptors were proposed to be used collectively as indicators for the monitoring of the micronization process.

  15. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  16. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  17. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  18. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  20. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  1. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  3. Chemical treatment of animal feed and water for the control of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Wales, Andrew D; Allen, Vivien M; Davies, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The control of Salmonella in animal feedstuffs is important, principally to protect the human food chain from contamination by Salmonella derived from infected animals. The transmission of Salmonella from animal feeds to animals, and onward to human food products, has been convincingly documented. This is especially important for chicken breeding and laying flocks and pigs, in view of the consequences of recent or imminent control legislation in the European Union. Animal feed ingredients, particularly animal and plant-derived protein meals, are frequently contaminated with Salmonella either from source or from processing plant, and recontamination in compounding mills is an additional problem. Several complementary strategies have been used to control this feed contamination, and these include a range of chemical treatments. The principal agents used are as follows: organic acids and their salts, formaldehyde, and bacterial membrane disruptors such as terpenes and essential oils. Experimental agents include chlorate compounds. Many products use blends of agents from the same or different chemical groups to achieve synergistic or combination effects. The present review draws upon published and company data to describe the various modes of action and efficacies of different chemical agents delivered in feed or in drinking water against Salmonella occurring in feed or in livestock environments. Reasons for the failure of protection are explored, along with problems in usage such as corrosion and reduced palatability. Given the wide array of products available with contrasting modes of action, the need for standardized tests of efficacy is also discussed.

  4. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal rumen function is pivotal to health, production, and profit in dairy systems. Achieving that function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. A key influence on optimal rumen function includes dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on ...

  5. Full Stand Modeling and Tension Control for the Hot Strip Finishing Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byoung Joon; Choi, Ju Yong; Chang, Yu Shin; Lee, Man Hyung

    We describe a looper controller design for a hot strip finishing mill in steel plants. The main function of the looper system is to balance the mass flow of the strip by accumulating material in the middle of the stands. Another function is to control the strip tension which influences the width of the strip. To ensure strip quality, it is very important to control the tension of the hot strip finishing mill. However, because there is a mutual interaction between the looper angle and the strip tension, it is difficult to control the looper system. Previous researches examined only the operation of a single stand. But it is not sufficient to examine the operation and effect of whole stands because the operation is wholly interdependent. In this paper, we present a full model of the hot strip finishing mill in order to more effectively control strip tension. We propose several control methods for the full-stand hot strip finishing mill, denoted as conventional PI, PI with cross gain, and coefficient diagram method (CDM) PID control. In the real plants, there are some problems by using higher order controllers such as LQ, LQG and H∞. By comparison, the PID controller is very simple and easy to apply to all real plants. To that end, we present our findings on PID controls and their potential use in the hot strip finishing mill.

  6. Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Olivia; Bohra, Ali Asgar; Liu, Xinyu; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Pielage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion. Using genetic targeting in combination with artificial activation and silencing assays we identify the individual motoneurons controlling the five major sequential steps of proboscis extension and retraction. Activity-manipulations during naturally evoked proboscis extension show that orchestration of serial motoneuron activation does not rely on feed-forward mechanisms. Our data support a model in which central command circuits recruit individual motoneurons to generate task-specific proboscis extension sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19892.001 PMID:28211791

  7. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  8. Maternal psychosocial predictors of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah; Brennan, Leah; Hayes, Louise; Miles, Cara L

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the relative contribution of parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy to the explanation of variance in controlling parental feeding styles and practices. The sample comprised 124 mothers (M=36.80 years, SD=4.62 years) who reported on both themselves and a selected child (59 male, 65 female; M=6.46 years, SD=0.95 years). Mothers completed several questionnaires examining demographic information, parental feeding styles, parental feeding practices, parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Parenting satisfaction contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice pressure to eat. Parenting satisfaction and parental anxiety contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice restriction. The results of this study provide important insight into maternal characteristics associated with the use of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

  9. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  10. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    SciTech Connect

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-12

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  11. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., inform the applicant in writing of his/her intention to issue a notice of opportunity for a hearing on a... used in and the facilities and controls used for the manufacturing, processing, and packaging of such... letter informing the applicant of the intention to issue a notice of opportunity for a hearing...

  12. Towards quality by design in pharmaceutical manufacturing: modelling and control of air jet mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhonsale, Satyajeet; Telen, Dries; Stokbroekx, Bard; Van Impe, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Milling is an important step in pharmaceutical manufacturing as it not only determines the final formulation of the drug product, but also influences the bioavailability and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In this respect, the air jet mill (AJM) is most commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as it is a non-contaminating and non-degrading self-classifying process capable of delivering narrow particle size distributions (PSD). Keeping the principles of Quality by Design in mind, the Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) of the AJM have been identified to be the pressures at the grinding nozzles, and the feed rate which affect the PSD, surface charge and the morphology of the product (i.e. the Critical Material Attributes (CMAs)). For the purpose of this research, the PSD is considered to be the only relevant CMA. A population balance based model is proposed to simulate the dynamics milling operation by utilizing the concept of breakage functions. This model agrees qualitatively with experimental observations of the air jet mill unit present at Janssen Pharmaceutica but further steps for model validation need to be carried out.

  13. Proline Control of the Feeding Reaction of Cordylophora

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler

    1963-01-01

    The colonial hydroid Cordylophora is a carnivore whose feeding is induced by substances released from captured prey. An active molecule, probably the only one, has been isolated from a fraction of the laboratory food of Cordylophora, brine shrimp larvae, and identified on paper chromatograms as the imino acid proline. Reagent proline induces the feeding reaction at 10-5 M. The reaction is specific in that only two α-imino acids very closely related to proline were found to possess significant activity: azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid. The response to proline is inhibited by magnesium ions and enhanced by phosphate. Since previous studies have shown that the feeding reactions of Hydra, Physalia, and Campanularia are controlled by reduced glutathione, the phylogenetic implications of the proline control of feeding in Cordylophora are discussed. The feeding reactions of both Cordylophora and Hydra are also induced by proteases, suggesting similar mechanisms of induction in the two hydroids. PMID:13960251

  14. Breast-feeding through the first year predicts maternal control in feeding and subsequent toddler energy intakes

    PubMed Central

    FISHER, JENNIFER ORLET; BIRCH, LEANN LIPPS; SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT, HELEN; PICCIANO, MARY FRANCES

    2008-01-01

    Objective Current recommendations for infant feeding encourage breast-feeding through the first year. This research was conducted to evaluate associations among breast-feeding, maternal control of child feeding, and the dietary intake of toddlers during the second year of life. In particular, we sought to determine whether breast-feeding through the first year and subsequent toddler intake was mediated via maternal control of child feeding. Design/subjects Fifty-five white infants and their mothers were monitored longitudinally from age 12 or 13 months to age 18 months. Main outcome measures Breast-feeding through the first year and maternal control in infant feeding were evaluated as predictors of energy intake at age 18 months. Statistical analyses performed Regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of toddler energy intake at age 18 months. A mediation model tested if the relationship between breast-feeding and infant intake was mediated by maternal control in feeding. Results Breast-feeding through the first year was associated with higher toddler energy intakes at age 18 months through its influence on maternal control in feeding. Mothers who breast-fed their infants for at least 12 months used lower levels of control in feeding. Lower levels of maternal control in feeding were associated with higher toddler energy intakes. The highest energy intakes among children aged 18 months were observed among taller and leaner toddlers. Applications/conclusions Our findings suggest that breast-feeding through the first year may have an effect on children’s energy intake by shaping mothers’ child-feeding practices. These findings may be used by clinicians to assist parents in making informed decisions about choice of infant-feeding method and to provide anticipatory guidance regarding infant-feeding style when initiating dietary diversity. PMID:10863566

  15. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  16. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  17. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  18. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  20. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  1. Parental feeding control in relation to feeding mode and growth pattern during early infancy.

    PubMed

    Timby, Niklas; Hernell, Olle; Lönnerdal, Bo; Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-10-01

    A high level of parental control of feeding and disturbed energy self-regulation has previously been suggested as a mechanism for the accelerated growth observed in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants. This study explored factors associated with parental control of feeding in a population of formula-fed infants with high levels of self-regulation. We included 141 formula-fed and 72 breast-fed infants from a randomised controlled trial, who were prospectively followed from under 2 months of age to 12 months of age. Anthropometry was recorded at baseline, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Parental feeding control was assessed using a Child Feeding Questionnaire at 4 and 12 months. The formula-fed groups fully compensated for different energy and protein densities by regulating their volume intakes. Parents of formula-fed infants had a lower pressure to eat score at 12 months than parents of breast-fed infants. A high parental restrictive score at 12 months was associated with weight at 12 months and high parental pressure to eat score at 12 months with body mass index at 12 months. Neither were associated with feeding mode. Formula-fed infants had a high level of energy self-regulation and were subjected to low parental control. Parental control of feeding was mainly influenced by infant growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Procedure for computer-controlled milling of accurate surfaces of revolution for millimeter and far-infrared mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, Louisa; De Zafra, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for milling accurate off-axis parabolic mirrors with a computer-controlled milling machine is discussed. For machines with a built-in circle-cutting routine, an exact paraboloid can be milled with few computer commands and without the use of the spherical or linear approximations. The proposed method can be adapted easily to cut off-axis sections of elliptical or spherical mirrors.

  3. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  4. Environmental control technology for mining and milling low-grade uranium resources

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Long, L.W.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    This study examined the type and level of wastes that would be generated in the mining and milling of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from four potential domestic sources of uranium. The estimated costs of the technology to control these wastes to different degrees of stringency are presented.

  5. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method.

    PubMed

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation Model Based Control System For Hot Steel Strip Rolling Mill Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, S. E.; Abbassi, H. A.; Moussaoui, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a research project on El-hadjar Hot Steel Rolling Mill Plant Annaba Algeria a new Model based control system is suggested to improve the performance of the hot strip rolling mill process. In this paper off-line model based controllers and a process simulator are described. The process models are based on the laws of physics. these models can predict the future behavior and the stability of the controlled process very reliably. The control scheme consists of a control algorithm. This Model based Control system is evaluated on a simulation model that represents accurately the dynamic of the process. Finally the usefulness to the Steel Industry of the suggested method is highlighted.

  7. H{sub {infinity}} control of chatter in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, C.M.; Xu, H.; Lin, C.; Haynes, L.; Dohner, J.; Regelbrugge, M.; Shankar, N.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, preliminary results on the use of active chatter control in a new type of milling machine is presented. It is expected that this machine will cut metal at twice the rate of conventional machines without an appreciable increase in cost. Performance enhancements are achieved by the integration of active feedback control into an existing machine structure. To reduce computational burden, decoupled control is proposed. Extensive simulations have shown that significant performance enhancements are achievable.

  8. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOEpatents

    Kazmer, David O.

    1996-09-17

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  9. Neuroendocrinology: Electromagnetogenetic Control over Feeding and Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Johan; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-06-06

    Cutting-edge experiments show a new means to control the activity of specifically genetically targeted neurons in the hypothalamus using electromagnetic force. At the flip of a switch, the system bidirectionally regulates feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis, demonstrating wireless control over deep brain regions and their strong influence over energy balance.

  10. Implication of milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size of feed in layers on mineral digestibility and retention of minerals in egg contents.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Yousaf, M S; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2015-02-01

    Feed production with different milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size may influence mineral digestibility and retention in eggs. The present study investigated the impact of roller (R) and hammer (H) mills, mash (M) and expandate (E) with fine (F) and coarse (C) particle sizes, on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) and retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron in yolk, albumen, and shell. A total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. The AIA of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron was higher in treatment R in comparison with treatment H (P<0.01, P≤0.03, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment M than treatment E (P<0.01). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment C in comparison with treatment F (P≤0.05) due to particle size. The ATD of copper and iron was higher in treatment R than treatment H (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). The ATD was higher for phosphorus and lower for iron in treatment F than treatment C (P≤0.05 and P≤0.02. respectively). The copper concentration in yolk and albumen was higher in treatment C than treatment F (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). Besides a few overall interactions, the AIA and ATD of copper and manganese were lower in H+M group than R+M group (P≤0.05). The ATD of iron was higher in the M+C group compared to the M+F group (P<0.01), whereas the albumen zinc concentration was higher in the E+C group than E+F group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the feed produced by hammer mill had negative effects on AIA and ATD for trace elements in particular, but mineral concentrations in egg contents were mostly comparable for all treatments. Therefore, milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle sizes

  11. Tandem strip mill's multi-parameter coupling dynamic modeling based on the thickness control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The rolling process is determined by the interaction of a number of different movements, during which the relative movement occurs between the vibrating roll system and the rolled piece, and the roll system's vibration interacts with the strip's deformation and rigid movement. So many parameters being involved leads to a complex mechanism of this coupling effect. Through testing and analyzing the vibration signals of the mill in the rolling process, the rolling mill's coupled model is established with comprehensive consideration of the coupling interaction between the mill's vertical vibration, its torsional vibration and the working roll's horizontal vibration, and vibration characteristics of different forms of rolling mill's vibration are analyzed under the coupling effect. With comprehensive attention to the relationship between the roll system, the moving strip and the rolling parameters' dynamic properties, and also from the strip thickness control point of view, further research is done on the coupling mechanism between the roll system's movement and the moving strip's characteristics in the rolling process. As a result, the law of inertial coupling and the stiffness coupling effect caused by different forms of the roll system's vibration is determined and the existence of nonlinear characteristics caused by the elastic deformation of moving strip is also found. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling-dynamic model is established which takes the tandem strip mill as its research object by making a detailed kinematics analysis of the roll system and using the principle of virtual work. The coupling-dynamic model proposes the instruction to describe the roll system's movement, and analyzes its dynamic response and working stability, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the strip thickness' dynamic control.

  12. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  13. The Speed of Increasing milk Feeds: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jane; Berrington, Janet; Bowler, Ursula; Boyle, Elaine; Dorling, Jon; Embleton, Nicholas; Juszczak, Edmund; Leaf, Alison; Linsell, Louise; Johnson, Samantha; McCormick, Kenny; McGuire, William; Roberts, Tracy; Stenson, Ben

    2017-01-28

    In the UK, 1-2% of infants are born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) or have very low birth weight (<1500 g). Very preterm infants are initially unable to be fed nutritional volumes of milk and therefore require intravenous nutrition. Milk feeding strategies influence several long and short term health outcomes including growth, survival, infection (associated with intravenous nutrition) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); with both infection and NEC being key predictive factors of long term disability. Currently there is no consistent strategy for feeding preterm infants across the UK. The SIFT trial will test two speeds of increasing milk feeds with the primary aim of determining effects on survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The trial will also examine many secondary outcomes including infection, NEC, time taken to reach full feeds and growth. Two thousand eight hundred very preterm or very low birth weight infants will be recruited from approximately 30 hospitals across the UK to a randomised controlled trial. Infants with severe congenital anomaly or no realistic chance of survival will be excluded. Infants will be randomly allocated to either a faster (30 ml/kg/day) or slower (18 ml/kg/day) rate of increase in milk feeds. Data will be collected during the neonatal hospital stay on weight, infection rates, episodes of NEC, length of stay and time to reach full milk feeds. Long term health outcomes comprising vision, hearing, motor and cognitive impairment will be assessed at 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity) using a parent report questionnaire. Extensive searches have found no active or proposed studies investigating the rate of increasing milk feeds. The results of this trial will have importance for optimising incremental milk feeding for very preterm and/or very low birth weight infants. No additional resources will be required to implement an optimal

  14. GnIH Control of Feeding and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation. Interestingly, recent studies have further indicated that GnIH controls feeding behavior in vertebrates, such as in birds and mammals. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its conservation in vertebrates and the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior and reproductive behavior by GnIH. PMID:28082949

  15. GnIH Control of Feeding and Reproductive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation. Interestingly, recent studies have further indicated that GnIH controls feeding behavior in vertebrates, such as in birds and mammals. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its conservation in vertebrates and the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior and reproductive behavior by GnIH.

  16. Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sarah A.; Kelly, Leah; Latcha, Kaamashri N.; Schmidt, Sarah F.; Yu, Xiaofei; Nectow, Alexander R.; Sauer, Jeremy; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP–TRPV1)1. Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase–Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons2. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types. PMID:27007848

  17. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the 'Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial'.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L; Collins, Clare E

    2016-11-10

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0-5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p < 0.001), except for monitoring (0.12, p = 0.44). All parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p < 0.001), except for overprotection (0.22, p = 0.16). A significant correlation (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) existed between child feeding score and parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  18. Surface hardening of Al alloys through controlled ball-milling and sintering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seek Hyeoun; Kim, Yong Jin; Ahn, Jung-Ho

    2012-07-01

    One of the drawbacks of aluminum and its alloys is the lack of proper heat-treatment for surface-hardening. In the present work, a new and simple method of hardening the surface of aluminum and its alloys was developed. Low-energy ball-milling using specific process control agents (PCAs) was employed, using subsequent sintering in a controlled atmosphere. The PCAs in the present work were very effective both for milling and the formation of hard nanocrystalline dispersoids during sintering. The residual oxygen in a sintering atmosphere also played an important role in the formation of AIN or Al-O-N dispersoids. Through the proper control of the processing atmosphere and PCAs, the hardness and thickness of the hardened layers could be adjusted. The results of the wear test showed that the present aluminum alloys can be effectively utilized as light-weight components with a good wear resistance. Furthermore, the present method involves a simple forming process of die-compaction and sintering.

  19. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants.

  20. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  1. Feed-forward control of a redundant motor system.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Simon R; Latash, Mark L

    2006-09-01

    We describe a model of feed-forward control of a redundant motor system and validate it using, as examples, tasks of multi-finger force production. The model assumes the existence of two input signals at an upper level of the control hierarchy, related and unrelated to a task variable. Knowledge of the Jacobian of the system is assumed at the level of generation of elemental variables (variables at the level of effectors). Variance at the level of elemental variables is considered as the sum of two components, related and unrelated to variability in the task variable. An index of stabilization of the task variable is similarly introduced as to how it was done in several studies using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Several phenomena have been simulated including data point distributions corresponding to presence and absence of force-stabilizing synergies in two-finger tasks, changes in synergies with practice, and changes in synergy indices in preparation to a fast action. The model is discussed in comparison to other models of control of multi-element systems based on feedback processes. It shows that patterns of structured variability in the space of elemental variables can result from feed-forward processes. Relations of the model to the equilibrium-point hypothesis are also discussed.

  2. The genetic control of milling yield, dough rheology and baking quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, H; Langridge, P; Mosionek, L; Williams, K; Jefferies, S P

    2006-05-01

    Improving the end-use quality of wheat is a key target for many breeding programmes. With the exception of the relationship between glutenin alleles and some dough rheological characters, knowledge concerning the genetic control of wheat quality traits is somewhat limited. A doubled haploid population produced from a cross between two Australian cultivars 'Trident' and 'Molineux' has been used to construct a linkage map based largely on microsatellite molecular makers. 'Molineux' is superior to 'Trident' for a number of milling, dough rheology and baking quality characteristics, although by international standards 'Trident' would still be regarded as possessing moderately good end-use quality. This population was therefore deemed useful for investigation of wheat end-use quality. A number of significant QTL identified for dough rheological traits mapped to HMW and LMW glutenin loci on chromosomes 1A and 1B. However, QTL associated with dough strength and loaf volume were also identified on chromosome 2A and a significant QTL associated with loaf volume and crumb quality was identified on chromosome 3A. A QTL for flour protein content and milling yield was identified on chromosome 6A and a QTL associated with flour colour reported previously on chromosome 7B was confirmed in this population. The detection of loci affecting dough strength, loaf volume and flour protein content may provide fresh opportunities for the application of marker-assisted selection to improve bread-making quality.

  3. Adaptive Feed-Forward Control of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, K. S.; Rathnasingham, R.

    1997-11-01

    Recent progress in the active control of a turbulent boundary is reported. A matrix of three shear sensors and three actuators are used to control the fluctuation statistics at three ``control points'' downstream of the actuators. Althouh any measureable quantity can be controlled, the present results are only for (i) streamwise velocity fluctuations at y^+ = 15 and (ii) wall-pressure fluctuations. The control algorithm used is an adaptive feed-forward scheme in which the signal at each control point is estimated using a linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) predictive filter with pre-conditioning to isolate the large-scale structures associated with turbulence production. The actuator inputs are then designed to linearly cancel the predicted signals. Results are presented showing excellent performance of the forward prediction and a broad reduction in the rms of the control variables which extends uniformly behind the control patch. Different optimization strategies, nonlinear corrections and sensor pre-conditioning methods are also discussed.

  4. The use of ion-milling to control clustering of nanostructured, columnar thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Jonathan K.; Sit, Jeremy C.

    2010-07-01

    We present the use of ion-milling to reduce the capillary-induced clustering of vertical post nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition. Nanostructures of several heights were grown and ion-milled for various times to investigate effects on post clustering. No clustering was observed given sufficient ion-mill exposure time, with the characteristic time being lower for shorter posts. The results demonstrate that these strengthened nanostructures are suitable for use in liquid environments.

  5. Feed Forward Neural Network and Optimal Control Problem with Control and State Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ova, Maria

    2009-09-09

    A feed forward neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The paper extends adaptive critic neural network architecture proposed by [5] to the optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. The proposed simulation method is illustrated by the optimal control problem of nitrogen transformation cycle model. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  6. Feed Forward Neural Network and Optimal Control Problem with Control and State Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ová, Mária

    2009-09-01

    A feed forward neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The paper extends adaptive critic neural network architecture proposed by [5] to the optimal control problems with control and state constraints. The optimal control problem is transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. The proposed simulation method is illustrated by the optimal control problem of nitrogen transformation cycle model. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  7. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act -- An environmental legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.D.; Nelson, R.A.; Mann, P.

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has guided the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project through its first 10 years of successful remediation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), passed in 1978, identified 24 uranium mill tailings sites in need of remediation to protect human health and the environment from the residual contamination resulting from the processing of uranium ore. The UMTRCA was promulgated in two titles: Title 1 and Title 2. This paper describes the regulatory structure, required documentation, and some of the technical approaches used to meet the Act`s requirements for managing and executing the $1.4 billion project under Title 1. Remedial actions undertaken by private industry under Title 2 of the Act are not addressed in this paper. Some of the lessons learned over the course of the project`s history are presented so that other countries conducting similar remedial action activities may benefit.

  9. Effects of flour and milling debris on efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (...

  10. Highly Accurate Dynamic Control of Strip Cooling Pattern on Run-out Table in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the temperature in the cooling process to regulate the quality of the steel. To realize high temperature accuracy, a new control system for run-out table cooling has been developed. The features of the new control system are as follows: (i) Newly developed feedback control using no vernier banks, which is constructed by using the dynamic control function. (ii) Newly developed dynamic control of cooling pattern, which achieves aimed cooling process during acceleration/deceleration of the strip on the run-out table. This system has been in operation successfully since July 2004 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature considerably.

  11. Precise ablation milling with ultrashort pulsed Nd:YAG lasers by optical and acoustical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Volker; Weber, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation milling with ultra short pulsed Nd:YAG lasers enables micro structuring in nearly all kinds of solid materials like metals, ceramics and polymers. A precise machining result with high surface quality requires a defined ablation process. Problems arise through the scatter in the resulting ablation depth of the laser beam machining process where material is removed in layers. Since the ablated volume may change due to varying absorption properties in single layers and inhomogeneities in the material, the focal plane might deviate from the surface of the work piece when the next layer is machined. Thus the focal plane has to be adjusted after each layer. A newly developed optical and acoustical process control enables an in-process adjustment of the focal plane that leads to defined process conditions and thus to better ablation results. The optical process control is realized by assistance of a confocal white light sensor. It enables an automated work piece orientation before machining and an inline ablation depth monitoring. The optical device can be integrated for an online or offline process control. Both variants will be presented and discussed. A further approach for adjustment of the focal plane is the acoustical process control. Acoustic emissions are detected while laser beam machining. A signal analysis of the airborne sound spectrum emitted by the process enables conclusions about the focal position of the laser beam. Based on this correlation an acoustic focus positioning is built up. The focal plane can then be adjusted automatically before ablation.

  12. Breastfeeding Is Associated with a Maternal Feeding Style Low in Control from Birth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of maternal child-feeding style upon child weight and eating style for children over the age of twelve months is well established. However there is little empirical evidence examining maternal child-feeding style during milk feeding despite evidence that mothers who breastfeed exert lower levels of control over later diet. The aim of this paper was to examine variation in maternal child-feeding style during the first six months postpartum and to explore associations with mode of milk feeding and infant weight. Methods The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) is frequently used to measure maternal child-feeding style in preschool children. 390 mothers with an infant aged 0–6 months completed an adapted version of the CFQ to measure maternal child-feeding style during milk feeding. Participants reported breastfeeding duration, infant weight and perceived size. Results Principle components analysis of questionnaire items produced six factors; encouraging feeding, feeding to a routine, limiting intake, concern for weight, monitoring and perceived responsibility. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of control compared to formula feeding. Infant birth weight was significantly inversely associated with concern for weight, monitoring and encouraging feeding. Discussion Formula feeding is associated with greater maternal control of child-feeding from birth whilst a lower birth weight is linked to concerns for infant weight and pressure to eat. As early maternal child-feeding relationships may impact negatively upon longer term child weight and eating style, identifying variations in maternal feeding style and understanding the factors that influence this is pertinent. PMID:23382881

  13. Preparation of Si nano-crystals with controlled oxidation state from SiO disproportionated by ZrO2 ball-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yuji; Harada, Yoshitomo; Ohta, Narumi; Takada, Kazunori; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that a SiO disproportionation reaction can be achieved simply by high energy mechanochemical milling. The planetary ball-milling of ZrO2 for a few minutes generated Si nano-crystals. Milling conditions including rotation speed, ball number, milling time, and type of ball material were able to control the oxidation states of Si. The ball-milled SiO powder was tested as an anode of a lithium battery. ZrO2 contamination from the vial and balls was eliminated by dipping the ball-milled SiO powder in (NH4)HSO4 molten salt and heating for 5 min. The disproportionated SiO powder showed characteristics comparable to those of a powder prepared by a conventional heating process taking several hours.

  14. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed. The

  15. Note: Efficient diode laser line narrowing using dual, feed-forward + feed-back laser frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, M.; Phung, D. H.; Coulon, J.-P.; Faure, B.; Lévèque, T.

    2017-02-01

    We have achieved distributed feedback laser diode line narrowing by simultaneously acting on the diode current via a feed-back loop and on an external electrooptic phase modulator in feed-forward actuator. This configuration turns out to be very efficient in reaching large bandwidth in the phase correction: up to 15 MHz with commercial laser control units. About 98% of the laser power undergoes narrowing. The full width at half maximum of the narrowed optical spectrum is of less than 4 kHz. This configuration appears to be very convenient as the delay in the feed-forward control electronics is easily compensated for by a 20 m optical fiber roll.

  16. Central apelin-13 administration modulates hypothalamic control of feeding.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, C; Orlando, G; Recinella, L; Leone, S; Chiavaroli, A; Di Nisio, C; Shohreh, R; Manippa, F; Ricciuti, A; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2016-01-01

    The 77 amino prepropeptide apelin has been isolated from bovine stomach tissue and several smaller fragments, including apelin-13, showed high affinity for the orphan APJ receptor. The distribution of apelinergic fibers and receptors in the hypothalamus may suggest a role of apelin-13 on energy balance regulation, albeit the studies reporting the acute effects of apelin on feeding control are inconsistent. Considering the possible involvement of apelinergic system on hypothalamic appetite controlling network, in the present study we evaluated in the rat the effects of intrahypothalamic apelin-13 injection on food intake and the involvement of orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitters. Eighteen rats (6 for each group of treatment) were injected into the ARC with either vehicle or apelin-13 (1-2 μg/rat). Food intake and hypothalamic peptide and neurotransmitter levels were evaluated 2 and 24 h after injection. Compared to vehicle, apelin-13 administration increased food intake both 2 and 24 h following treatment. This effect could be related to inhibited cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesis and release, and increased orexin A gene expression in the hypothalamus.

  17. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  18. Stable fly control in cattle winter feeding sites with Novaluron

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock winter feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...

  19. 21 CFR 225.58 - Laboratory controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Laboratory controls. (a) The periodic assay of medicated feeds for drug components provides a measure of... following assay requirements shall apply to medicated feeds: (1) For feeds requiring a medicated feed mill... specified in this chapter. At least one of these assays shall be performed on the first batch using the drug...

  20. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  1. Effect of suboptimal breast-feeding on occurrence of autism: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the association between suboptimal breast-feeding practices and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A case-control study was conducted in 102 ASD cases and 102 matched healthy controls. Based on adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression models, ASD was found to be associated with the late initiation of breast-feeding (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.1), a non-intake of colostrum (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.3), prelacteal feeding, and bottle-feeding. The risk of ASD was found to decrease in a dose-response fashion over increasing periods of exclusive breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.04) and continued breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001). The study indicates that increased ASD risk is generally associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of feeding in aplysia with ad libitum access to food: presence of food increases the intervals between feeding bouts.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Itay; Harel, Anat; Markowitz, Silvia; Noy, Ohad; Susswein, Abraham J

    2006-01-01

    The patterning of feeding and the quantity eaten in Aplysia californica with ad libitum food access cannot be explained by the effects of three variables previously shown to control the patterning of consummatory feeding responses and the quantity eaten in animals hand-fed individual meals. Feeding in ad libitum conditions is regulated primarily by varying the time between feeding bouts rather than by modulating bout lengths or the efficacy of consummatory movements within a bout. Aplysia with steady-state food access are in a newly characterized feeding state in which they are relatively unresponsive to food. They eat very little (1-4% of the time), and the quantity eaten is unrelated to the quantity of food in the anterior gut. The steady state can be maintained by the presence of food, even if animals do not contact food. The chemosensory rhinophores signal the presence of food that maintains the steady state. Up to 24 h without food is needed for animals to recover from the inhibition of feeding by steady-state presence of food. Recovery from the steady state is partially governed by postingestion stimuli as shown by a faster recovery in animals that have not been in contact with food. Inhibition of feeding during the steady-state is mediated in part via humoral factors because bathing the cerebral and buccal ganglia in hemolymph from animals in the steady state inhibits the ability to elicit buccal motor programs via a cholinomimetic thought to simulate stimulation of the lips with food. After food deprivation that is sufficiently long so that the steady-state decays, animals eat a large meal the size and dynamics of which are consistent with regulation via the three variables previously identified. This large meal is modulated by pheromones secreted by conspecifics even in sexually immature Aplysia.

  3. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2017-04-01

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions.

  4. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  5. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  6. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  7. Breast-feeding initiation in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support, and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Amal J; Moazzem, S Wakerul; Jarjoura, Chad M; Carothers, Cathy; Hinton, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    Despite the documented health and emotional benefits of breast-feeding to women and children, breast-feeding rates are low among subgroups of women. In this study, we examine factors associated with breast-feeding initiation in low-income women, including Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitude, support, and perceived control, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. A mail survey, with telephone follow-up, of 733 postpartum Medicaid beneficiaries in Mississippi was conducted in 2000. The breast-feeding initiation rate in this population was 38%. Women who were older, white, non-Hispanic, college-educated, married, not certified for the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and not working full-time were more likely to breast-feed than formula-feed at hospital discharge. Attitudes regarding benefits and barriers to breast-feeding, as well as health care system and social support, were associated with breast-feeding initiation at the multivariate level. Adding the health care system support variables to the regression model, and specifically support from lactation specialists and hospital nurses, explained the association between breast-feeding initiation and women's perceived control over the time and social constraints barriers to breast-feeding. The findings support the need for health care system interventions, family interventions, and public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding in low-income women.

  8. Control method for steel strip roughness in Two-stand temper mill rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    How to control surface roughness of steel strip in a narrow range for a long time has become an important question because surface roughness would significantly influence the appearance of the products. However, there are few effective solutions to solve the problem currently. In this paper, considering both asperities of work roll pressing in and squeezing the steel strip, two asperity contact models including squeezing model and pressing in model in a two-stand temper mill rolling are established by using finite element method (FEM). The simulation investigates the influences of multiple process parameters, such as work roll surface roughness, roll radius and roll force on the surface roughness of steel strip. The simulation results indicate that work rolls surface roughness and roll force play important roles in the products; furthermore, the effect of roll force in the first stand is opposite to the second. According to the analysis, a control method for steel strip surface roughness in a narrow range for a long time is proposed, which applies higher work roll roughness in the first stand and lower roll roughness in the second to make the steel strip roughness in a required narrow range. In the later stage of the production, decreasing the roll force in the first stand and increasing the roll force in the second stand guarantee the steel strip roughness relatively stable in a long time. The following experimental measurements on the surface topography and roughness of the steel strips during the whole process are also conducted. The results validate the simulation conclusions and prove the effect of the control method. The application of the proposed method in the steel strip production shows excellent performance including long service life of work roll and high finished product rate.

  9. Milling by product Utilization Research at USDA-ARS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...

  10. Field Testing LIDAR Based Feed-Forward Controls on the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, A. K.; Fleming, P. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Wright, A. D.; Schlipf, D.; Haizmann, F.; Belen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems driven by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic forces. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a chaotic three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. In order to reduce cost of energy, future large multimegawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and University of Stuttgart are designing, implementing, and testing advanced feed-back and feed-forward controls in order to reduce the cost of energy for wind turbines.

  11. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  12. Parallel, redundant circuit organization for homeostatic control of feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Betley, J. Nicholas; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Ritola, Kimberly D.; Sternson, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly defined population that is sufficient to rapidly coordinate voracious food seeking and consumption behaviors. Here, we use cell type-specific techniques for neural circuit manipulation and projection-specific anatomical analysis to examine the organization of this critical homeostatic circuit that regulates feeding. We show that AGRP neuronal circuits use a segregated, parallel, and redundant output configuration. AGRP neuron axon projections that target different brain regions originate from distinct subpopulations, several of which are sufficient to independently evoke feeding. The concerted anatomical and functional analysis of AGRP neuron projection-populations reveals a constellation of core forebrain nodes, which are part of an extended circuit that mediates feeding behavior. PMID:24315102

  13. Case-control study on feed risk factors for BSE cases born after the feed ban in France.

    PubMed

    Jarrige, Nathalie; Ducrot, Christian; Cazeau, Géraldine; Morignat, Eric; La Bonnardière, Claude; Calavas, Didier

    2007-01-01

    In France, after the ban on meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feeding in June 1990, cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) have continued to be detected in bovines born after that ban (called BAB cases). A case-control study was therefore carried out to determine the way these cases were contaminated. A multivariate conditional model was built adjusting for the production type of the animals and taking into account the herd size. The results confirmed that feeding cattle with proprietary concentrates was at risk for BSE, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.8 (2.5; 18.7) for the consumption of less or three different proprietary concentrates and 17.6 (5.7; 54.8) for more than three, when comparing with no consumption of proprietary concentrates, considering feeding of bovines before the age of two. The results suggest that cross-contaminations by MBM in bovine concentrates have occurred after 1990. To a lesser extent, on-farm cross-contaminations, i.e. consumption by cattle of feedstuffs initially dedicated to other animals and which could legally contain MBM, have probably also existed, since the presence on farms of poultry fed purchased feed involved an increased risk of BSE with an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.1; 3.0). The use of milk replacers, which often incorporates animal fats, was also at risk with an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.0; 3.1).

  14. Effects of Flour and Milling Debris on Efficacy of Beta-Cyfluthrin for Control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Starkus, Laura A; Mckay, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 wks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in residual efficacy in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2.

  15. Development of a theory-based questionnaire to assess structure and control in parent feeding (SCPF).

    PubMed

    Savage, Jennifer S; Rollins, Brandi Y; Kugler, Kari C; Birch, Leann L; Marini, Michele E

    2017-01-26

    Parents shape children's eating environments and act as powerful socialization agents, impacting young children's behavioral controls of food intake. Most feeding measures assess parents' use of control to manage children's intake of energy dense foods. The Structure and Control in Parent Feeding (SCPF) questionnaire was developed to assess more positive aspects of feeding practices with their young children -setting limits, providing routines-that promote self-regulation, as well as controlling feeding practices. A mixed method approach was used to develop the SCPF. In 2013, cognitive interviews informed the modification, deletion and/or replacement of items. In 2014, the survey was distributed statewide to mothers of toddlers aged 12 to 36 months participating in the Women, Infants, and Children program. In 2016, exploratory factor analyses was conducted to test our theoretical parenting model and content validity and criterion validity were assessed (n = 334). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and second-order EFA revealed a 2-factor, 22-item Structure model and a 2-factor, 12-item Control model. Internal consistencies for all factors exceeded 0.70. As predicted, the Structure superfactor was positivity associated with responsiveness, whereas the Control superfactor was positively associated with demandingness on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. The Structure subscales were also positively associated with mealtime behaviors and Control subscales were positively associated with control-oriented feeding measures from the Control in Parent Feeding Practices questionnaire. The SCPF questionnaire is a reliable tool that can be used to assess aspects of structure- and control-based feeding practices to better understand how parents feed their toddlers.

  16. Hydroformylation of Alkenes in a Planetary Ball Mill: From Additive-Controlled Reactivity to Supramolecular Control of Regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Kévin; Menuel, Stéphane; Monflier, Eric; Hapiot, Frédéric

    2017-08-21

    The Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of aromatic-substituted alkenes is performed in a planetary ball mill under CO/H2 pressure. The dispersion of the substrate molecules and the Rh-catalyst into the grinding jar is ensured by saccharides: methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside, acyclic dextrins, or cyclodextrins (CDs, cyclic oligosaccharides). The reaction affords the exclusive formation of aldehydes whatever the saccharide. Acyclic saccharides disperse the components within the solid mixture leading to high conversions of alkenes. However, they showed typical selectivity for α-aldehyde products. If CDs are the dispersing additive, the steric hindrance exerted by the CDs on the primary coordination sphere of the metal modifies the selectivity so that the β-aldehydes were also formed in non-negligible proportions. Such through-space control via hydrophobic effects over reactivity and regioselectivity reveals the potential of such solventless process for catalysis in solid state. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  18. The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i) in ideal conditions, (ii) under sensory deprivation, and (iii) under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i) We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii) To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii) When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control. PMID:22032545

  19. Central Amino Acid Sensing in the Control of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heeley, Nicholas; Blouet, Clemence

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein quantity and quality greatly impact metabolic health via evolutionary-conserved mechanisms that ensure avoidance of amino acid imbalanced food sources, promote hyperphagia when dietary protein density is low, and conversely produce satiety when dietary protein density is high. Growing evidence supports the emerging concept of protein homeostasis in mammals, where protein intake is maintained within a tight range independently of energy intake to reach a target protein intake. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these adaptations are unclear. While peripheral factors are able to signal amino acid deficiency and abundance to the brain, the brain itself is exposed to and can detect changes in amino acid concentrations, and subsequently engages acute and chronic responses modulating feeding behavior and food preferences. In this review, we will examine the literature describing the mechanisms by which the brain senses changes in amino acids concentrations, and how these changes modulate feeding behavior. PMID:27933033

  20. Parallel, redundant circuit organization for homeostatic control of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Betley, J Nicholas; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Ritola, Kimberly D; Sternson, Scott M

    2013-12-05

    Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly defined population that is sufficient to rapidly coordinate voracious food seeking and consumption behaviors. Here, we use cell-type-specific techniques for neural circuit manipulation and projection-specific anatomical analysis to examine the organization of this critical homeostatic circuit that regulates feeding. We show that AGRP neuronal circuits use a segregated, parallel, and redundant output configuration. AGRP neuron axon projections that target different brain regions originate from distinct subpopulations, several of which are sufficient to independently evoke feeding. The concerted anatomical and functional analysis of AGRP neuron projection populations reveals a constellation of core forebrain nodes, which are part of an extended circuit that mediates feeding behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  2. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.; Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T.

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  3. The Milling Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.C.

    1989-09-01

    A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of Numerically Controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer at a CAD/CAM graphics display and a set of manufacturing rules to select machining parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system determines the correct NC sequence and the machining parameters. Both milled and point-to-point features are programmed by the Milling Assistant. Examples are included to illustrate the problem domain. Extensions to the Milling Assistant are described. 11 refs.

  4. Design of A Novel Feed-Forward Control Strategy for A Non-Minimum Phase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kajal; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a new feed-forward control strategy for a plant with non-minimum phase dynamics. A Feed-Forward controller is very essential for controlling plants with time-varying reference signals. However, designing this type of controller is a non-trivial problem in case the plant dynamics is non-minimum-phase. This is because, this controller design involves the concept of inversion of the plant model and inverse of a non-minimum-phase plant model is unstable or non-causal. For this problem, usually an approximate inversion of a plant model is applied. An approach with corrected-approximate-inverse (CAI) method is available for feed forward controller design. After analyzing the results and discussion of this CAI technique, it is seen that although it seems to be working perfectly for small duration of time but its performance is unsatisfactory in case of large span of time. Therefore, in this paper, a new feed-forward control strategy has been designed to erase the above said problem. This method has adopted a simple version of an internal plant-model structure in its time domain. The fixed-structure feed forward controller that is constructed using this method is usually a linear amalgamation of a reference trajectory and its time-derivatives with suitable weighting factors. This control strategy has been verified with appropriate simulation results applied to a studied plant and results are compared with that of the CAI technique.

  5. Drosophila FIT is a protein-specific satiety hormone essential for feeding control

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinghan; Liu, Chang; Bai, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaoting; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yunpeng; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake. Interestingly, Fit is a sexually dimorphic gene, and consequently protein consumption-induced insulin release, as well as protein feeding behaviour, are also dimorphic between sexes. Thus, our findings reveal a protein-specific satiety hormone, providing important insights into the complex regulation of feeding decision, as well as the sexual dimorphism in feeding behaviour. PMID:28102207

  6. Randomized controlled trial: impact of glycerin suppositories on time to full feeds in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Khadr, Sophie N; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel E; Rennix, Connie; Fisher, Hazel E; Manjunatha, Chikkanayakanahalli M; Young, David; Abara, Rosemary C

    2011-01-01

    Feed intolerance delays achievement of enteral feeding in preterm infants. Parenteral nutrition is associated with cholestasis and increased risk of sepsis. Glycerin suppositories have been used to promote gastrointestinal motility and feed tolerance. To investigate whether daily glycerin suppositories (a) reduce the time to full enteral feeding in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation, and (b) influence feed tolerance, incidence of sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis, duration of oxygen requirement, growth or age at discharge. Design - prospective open randomized controlled trial; study population - preterm infants stratified into 2 subgroups, 24-27(+6) weeks (24-27 weeks + 6 days) and 28-31(+6) weeks; intervention - daily glycerin suppository for 10 days from 24 h of age, 250 mg (24-27(+6) weeks subgroup) or 500 mg (two 250-mg suppositories; 28-31(+6) weeks subgroup); controls - no intervention. The same feeding protocol and departmental guidelines for other aspects of neonatal intensive care were used in all subjects. Analysis was by intention to treat. 54 babies were recruited (31 males), 29 randomized to receive suppositories; 48 achieved full enteral feeds. The median (range) time to full feeds was 1.6 days shorter in intervention group babies than controls, but not statistically significant: 7.4 (4.6-30.9) days versus 9.0 (4.4-13.3) days (p = 0.780; 95% confidence interval: -1.917, 2.166). No significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes. Intervention group babies passed their first stool earlier than controls (median: day 2 vs. day 4; p = 0.016). Regular glycerin suppositories did not reduce the time to full enteral feeds in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation in our setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Improving Decision Making for Feeding Options in Advanced Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Carey, Timothy S.; Caprio, Anthony J.; Lee, Tae Joon; Ersek, Mary; Garrett, Joanne; Jackman, Anne; Gilliam, Robin; Wessell, Kathryn; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in dementia, and decision-makers have limited understanding of treatment options. Objectives To test whether a decision aid improves quality of decision-making about feeding options in advanced dementia. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting 24 nursing homes in North Carolina Participants Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems and their surrogates. Intervention Intervention surrogates received an audio or print decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia. Controls received usual care. Measurements Primary outcome was the Decisional Conflict Scale (range 1–5) measured at 3 months; other main outcomes were surrogate knowledge, frequency of communication with providers, and feeding treatment use. Results 256 residents and surrogate decision-makers were recruited. Residents’ average age was 85; 67% were Caucasian and 79% were women. Surrogates’ average age was 59; 67% were Caucasian, and 70% were residents’ children. The intervention improved knowledge scores (16.8 vs 15.1, p<0.001). After 3 months, intervention surrogates had lower Decisional Conflict Scale scores than controls (1.65 vs. 1.90, p<0.001) and more often discussed feeding options with a health care provider (46% vs. 33%, p=0.04). Residents in the intervention group were more likely to receive a dysphagia diet (89% vs.76%, p=0.04), and showed a trend toward increased staff eating assistance (20% vs.10%, p=0.08). Tube feeding was rare in both groups even after 9 months (1 intervention vs. 3 control, p=0.34). Limitations Cluster randomization was necessary to avoid contamination, but limits blinding and may introduce bias by site effect. Conclusion A decision aid about feeding options in advanced dementia reduced decisional conflict for surrogates and increased their knowledge and communication about feeding options with providers. PMID:22091750

  8. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Ca and Mg were found to be lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  9. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  10. Application of feedback control and in situ milling to improve particle size and shape in the crystallization of a slow growing needle-like active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Pal, Kanjakha; Koswara, Andy; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, Yuqi; Quon, Justin; McKeown, Rahn; Goss, Charles; Nagy, Zoltan K

    2017-09-19

    Control of crystal size and shape is crucially important for crystallization process development in the pharmaceutical industries. In general crystals of large size and low aspect ratio are desired for improved downstream manufacturability. It can be extremely challenging to design crystallization processes that achieve these targets for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that have very slow growth kinetics and needle-like morphology. In this work, a batch cooling crystallization process for a GlaxoSmithKline patented API, which is characterized by very slow growth rate and needle morphology, was studied and improved using process analytical technology (PAT) based feedback control techniques and in situ immersion milling. Four specific approaches were investigated: Supersaturation control (SSC), direct nucleation control (DNC), sequential milling-DNC, and simultaneous milling-DNC. This is the first time that immersion wet milling is combined with feedback control in a batch crystallization process. All four approaches were found to improve crystal size and/or shape compared to simple unseeded or seeded linear cooling crystallizations. DNC provided higher quality crystals than SSC, and sequential and simultanesou milling-DNC approaches could reduce particle 2D aspect ratio without generating too much fines. In addition, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system was used online as a novel PAT tool in the crystallization study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of paternal and maternal controlling feeding practices with 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and female children aged 2 to 5 years. Parents' child feeding practices, eating psychopathology, general mental health symptomology, and their children's eating behaviors and temperament. Preliminary correlations; stepwise regressions. Maternal controlling feeding was predicted by children's eating behaviors (emotional over- and undereating), child temperament (sociability), and maternal general mental health symptoms. Paternal reports of children's eating behaviors (slow eating and emotional undereating) were the only significant predictors of fathers' controlling feeding practices. Mothers' and fathers' feeding practices seem to be better linked to child characteristics than to the presence of eating psychopathology symptoms. Children's emotional eating predicted all 3 controlling feeding practices in mothers and warrants further study to elucidate the causal nature of this relationship. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    PubMed Central

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L.; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p < 0.001), except for monitoring (0.12, p = 0.44). All parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p < 0.001), except for overprotection (0.22, p = 0.16). A significant correlation (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) existed between child feeding score and parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children. PMID:27834906

  13. Real-time pressure monitoring for dynamic control during paper mill operation using fiber optic pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Boyd, Clark; Palmer, Matthew; Eriksen, Oddbjørn

    2006-03-01

    Fiber optic pressure sensors were integrated into the grinding plates of an operational paper pulp mill for real-time monitoring of the pulp grinding process. On-line system monitoring will allow smart, active control of the grinding plates thereby improving the quality and consistency of the pulp produced. Sensors were constructed and calibrated for use in the harsh environment of an operating paper pulp grinder. The sensors were 1.65mm in diameter including titanium housing, and were installed directly into the grooves of the grinding plates. The sensing elements were flush-mounted with the wall and exposed to the wood pulp slurry. Nine sensors were calibrated up to 1000psi. During operation, pressure was sampled at 1.0MHz, and pressure spikes up to 175psi were observed. Pressure pulses measured are due to the relative motion between the grooves and channels on two pulp grinding plates. The consistency, size distribution, and quality of paper pulp exiting from the grinder are directly related to the distance between the channels on the two rotating elements. The pressure pulses produced are also proportional to the distance between channels. Therefore, by monitoring pressure fluctuations, grinding elements can be dynamically controlled thereby producing a "smart mill."

  14. Effects of process control agent on the synthesis of AIN-carbon nanotube by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Rim; Kim, Young Jin; Ahn, Jung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum and its alloy are of importance due to high specific strength. In particular, aluminum matrix composites have good corrosion resistance and mechanical property at high temperatures. However, enhanced mechanical strength and wear resistance via proper heat treatments are strongly required for many structural applications. For this purpose, we synthesized carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced aluminum matrix composites by employing a new method. We employed controlled ball-milling and sintering: the use of some specific process control agents (PCAs) for ball-milling and sintering in a specific atmosphere. The use of our PCAs was beneficial both for homogeneous mixing and for the formation of hard dispersoids. Hardened layers was formed at the surface of the present aluminum-CNT composites as a result of reaction of aluminum with PCAs and nitrogen in the processing atmosphere. The resulting materials after sintering showed interesting mechanical properties, combined with surface hardening. The hardening mainly stems from the formation of Al-N-O phase at the surface of specimens.

  15. Effect of bottles, cups, and dummies on breast feeding in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carmel T; Ryan, Philip; Crowther, Caroline A; McPhee, Andrew J; Paterson, Susan; Hiller, Janet E

    2004-07-24

    To determine the effect of artificial teats (bottle and dummy) and cups on breast feeding in preterm infants. Randomised controlled trial. Two large tertiary hospitals, 54 peripheral hospitals. 319 preterm infants (born at 23-33 weeks' gestation) randomly assigned to one of four groups: cup/no dummy (n = 89), cup/dummy (n = 72), bottle/no dummy (n = 73), bottle/dummy (n = 85). Women with singleton or twin infants < 34 weeks' gestation who wanted to breastfeed were eligible to participate. Cup or bottle feeding occurred when the mother was unable to be present to breast feed. Infants randomised to the dummy groups received a dummy on entry into the trial. Full breast feeding (compared with partial and none) and any breast feeding (compared with none) on discharge home. prevalence of breast feeding at three and six months after discharge and length of hospital stay. 303 infants (and 278 mothers) were included in the intention to treat analysis. There were no significant differences for any of the study outcomes according to use of a dummy. Infants randomised to cup feeds were more likely to be fully breast fed on discharge home (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.88, P = 0.03), but had a longer length of stay (hazard ratio 0.71, 0.55 to 0.92, P = 0.01). Dummies do not affect breast feeding in preterm infants. Cup feeding significantly increases the likelihood that the baby will be fully breast fed at discharge home, but has no effect on any breast feeding and increases the length of hospital stay.

  16. Effect of bottles, cups, and dummies on breast feeding in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carmel T; Ryan, Philip; Crowther, Caroline A; McPhee, Andrew J; Paterson, Susan; Hiller, Janet E

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of artificial teats (bottle and dummy) and cups on breast feeding in preterm infants. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two large tertiary hospitals, 54 peripheral hospitals. Participants 319 preterm infants (born at 23-33 weeks' gestation) randomly assigned to one of four groups: cup/no dummy (n = 89), cup/dummy (n = 72), bottle/no dummy (n = 73), bottle/dummy (n = 85). Women with singleton or twin infants < 34 weeks' gestation who wanted to breastfeed were eligible to participate. Interventions Cup or bottle feeding occurred when the mother was unable to be present to breast feed. Infants randomised to the dummy groups received a dummy on entry into the trial. Main outcome measures Full breast feeding (compared with partial and none) and any breast feeding (compared with none) on discharge home. Secondary outcomes: prevalence of breast feeding at three and six months after discharge and length of hospital stay. Results 303 infants (and 278 mothers) were included in the intention to treat analysis. There were no significant differences for any of the study outcomes according to use of a dummy. Infants randomised to cup feeds were more likely to be fully breast fed on discharge home (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.88, P = 0.03), but had a longer length of stay (hazard ratio 0.71, 0.55 to 0.92, P = 0.01). Conclusions Dummies do not affect breast feeding in preterm infants. Cup feeding significantly increases the likelihood that the baby will be fully breast fed at discharge home, but has no effect on any breast feeding and increases the length of hospital stay. PMID:15208209

  17. The TFTR ICRF antenna-power feed and phase control of two mutually coupled antenna elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. R.; Colestock, P. L.; Greene, G. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Stevens, J. E.; Hoffman, D. J.; Gardner, W. L.

    1989-07-01

    A transmission line model for the TFTR ICRF antenna is presented. The antenna is considered as being composed of mutually coupled transmission lines. Expressions for the input impedance of such a structure are given. Details of the considerations in setting up the antenna feed structure are presented. The requirement of dual feed drive coupled with the desire for phase and amplitude control place restrictions on the operating circuit.

  18. Improving decision-making for feeding options in advanced dementia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Laura C; Carey, Timothy S; Caprio, Anthony J; Lee, Tae Joon; Ersek, Mary; Garrett, Joanne; Jackman, Anne; Gilliam, Robin; Wessell, Kathryn; Mitchell, Susan L

    2011-11-01

    To test whether a decision aid improves quality of decision-making about feeding options in advanced dementia. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four nursing homes in North Carolina. Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems and their surrogates. Intervention surrogates received an audio or print decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia. Controls received usual care. Primary outcome was the Decisional Conflict Scale (range: 1-5) measured at 3 months; other main outcomes were surrogate knowledge, frequency of communication with providers, and feeding treatment use. Two hundred fifty-six residents and surrogate decision-makers were recruited. Residents' average age was 85; 67% were Caucasian, and 79% were women. Surrogates' average age was 59; 67% were Caucasian, and 70% were residents' children. The intervention improved knowledge scores (16.8 vs 15.1, P < .001). After 3 months, intervention surrogates had lower Decisional Conflict Scale scores than controls (1.65 vs 1.90, P < .001) and more often discussed feeding options with a healthcare provider (46% vs 33%, P = .04). Residents in the intervention group were more likely to receive a dysphagia diet (89% vs 76%, P = .04) and showed a trend toward greater staff eating assistance (20% vs 10%, P = .08). Tube feeding was rare in both groups even after 9 months (1 intervention vs 3 control, P = .34). A decision aid about feeding options in advanced dementia reduced decisional conflict for surrogates and increased their knowledge and communication about feeding options with providers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Glycerin suppository for promoting feeding tolerance in preterm very low birthweight neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Suvarna; Kabra, Nandkishor S; Sharma, Shobha R; Avasthi, Bhupendra S; Ahmed, Javed

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of glycerin suppository versus no suppository in preterm very-low-birthweight neonates for improving feeding tolerance. Randomized controlled trial. Level III neonatal unit from Mumbai, India. 50 very-low-birthweight (birth weight between 1000 to 1500 grams)preterm (gestational age between 28 to 32 weeks) neonates randomized to glycerine suppository (n=25) or no intervention (n=26). Glycerin suppository (1g) once a day from day-2 to day-14 of life or no suppository, along with intermittent oral feeds and standardized care. Time required to achieve full enteral feeds (180 mL/kg/d). Baseline characteristics of neonates like gestational age, birthweight, gender and age at the time of introduction of feeds were comparable in both groups. The mean (SD) duration to reach full enteral feed was 11.90 (3.1) days in glycerin suppository group and was not significantly different (P=0.58) from control group, [11.33 (3.57) days]. Glycerin suppository group regained birth weight 2 days earlier than control group but this difference was not significant (P=0.16). There was no significant difference in duration of hospital stay or occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis amongst the two study groups. Once daily application of glycerin suppository does not accelerate the achievement of full feeds in preterm very-low-birthweight neonates.

  20. Control of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by feed-forward cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Yin, Hang; Soleimani, Vahab D; Haque, Takrima; Luchman, H Artee; Chang, Natasha C; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Puram, Sidharth V; Scott, Andrew M; Lorimer, Ian A J; Perkins, Theodore J; Ligon, Keith L; Weiss, Samuel; Rudnicki, Michael A; Bonni, Azad

    2016-01-01

    EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling is important in glioblastoma pathogenesis. Here, we identified the cytokine receptor OSMR as a direct target gene of the transcription factor STAT3 in mouse astrocytes and human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). We found that OSMR functioned as an essential co-receptor for EGFRvIII. OSMR formed a physical complex with EGFRvIII, and depletion of OSMR impaired EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of EGFRvIII phosphorylation inhibited the EGFRvIII-OSMR interaction and activation of STAT3. EGFRvIII-OSMR signaling in tumors operated constitutively, whereas EGFR-OSMR signaling in nontumor cells was synergistically activated by the ligands EGF and OSM. Finally, knockdown of OSMR strongly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth of mouse glioblastoma cells and human BTSC xenografts in mice, and prolonged the lifespan of those mice. Our findings identify OSMR as a critical regulator of glioblastoma tumor growth that orchestrates a feed-forward signaling mechanism with EGFRvIII and STAT3 to drive tumorigenesis. PMID:27110918

  1. Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in sixth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung E; Appugliese, Danielle P; Prisco, Alicia; Kaciroti, Niko A; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2010-04-01

    Controlling maternal feeding practices have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior, however, is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. Controlling maternal feeding practices were assessed in third grade with the question, "Do you let your child eat what he/she feels like eating?" Answers ranged from 1 to 4; higher scores were reverse-coded to indicate greater control. Child dieting behavior was assessed in sixth grade and dichotomized into "any dieting behaviors" vs "none." Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between controlling maternal feeding practices and dieting behavior and included the covariates of sex, race, maternal education, maternal weight status, child weight status in third grade, and change in body mass index z score between third and sixth grade. In sixth grade (n=776), 41.5% of children engaged in dieting behavior. In the multivariate analysis, greater maternal control over child eating predicted lower odds of child dieting in sixth grade (odds ratio=0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.97). There was no interaction between controlling maternal feeding practices and child's sex or baseline obesity status. Exerting more control over what a child eats in third grade may protect against future dieting behavior in children, independent of child's weight status or rate of weight gain. Further work is needed to better define which controlling feeding practices are beneficial for the child.

  2. Control of vacuum induction brazing system for sealing of instrumentation feed-through

    SciTech Connect

    Sung Ho Ahn; Jintae Hong; Chang Young Joung; Ka Hae Kim; Sung Ho Heo

    2015-07-01

    The integrity of instrumentation cables is an important performance parameter in addition to the sealing performance in the brazing process. An accurate brazing control was developed for the brazing of the instrumentation feed-through in the vacuum induction brazing system in this paper. The experimental results show that the accurate brazing temperature control performance is achieved by the developed control scheme. Consequently, the sealing performances of the instrumentation feed-through and the integrities of the instrumentation cables were satisfied after brazing. (authors)

  3. Improving the feed-forward compensator in predictive control for setpoint tracking.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A; López-Estrada, F R

    2014-05-01

    Simple predictive control (MPC) algorithms produce a feed-forward compensator that may be a suboptimal choice. This paper gives some insights into this issue and simple means of modifying the feed-forward to produce a more systematic and optimal design. In particular, it is shown that the optimum procedure depends upon the underlying loop tuning and also that there are, as yet under utilised, potential benefits with regard to constraint handling procedures, which helps to improve the computational efficiency of the online controller implementation. A laboratory test in a programmable logic controller (PLC) was carried out to demonstrate the code on real hardware and the effectiveness of the solution.

  4. Effect of an infection control programme on bacterial contamination of enteral feed in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Ho, S S K; Tse, M M Y; Boost, M V

    2012-09-01

    Inadequate infection control knowledge about enteral feeding (EF) practices among nursing home staff may lead to contamination of EF systems. To investigate the effectiveness of an infection control programme (ICP) on knowledge and practice of EF of nursing home staff, and to explore the correlation between the ICP and bacterial contamination of the hands of staff and feeding equipment. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post-test control design, each intervention and control group consisted of 15 residents and 10 staff. EF knowledge and practice were assessed by questionnaire and observation. The intervention group received an ICP. Samples were collected from the hands of staff, enteral feed, flow regulators, feeding tube hubs, and the nasopharynx and gastric fluid of residents, and analysed for total bacterial counts and presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) before and after the ICP. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in knowledge and practice after the ICP (P < 0.05). Pretest samples from the hands of staff, tube hubs, and the nasopharynx and gastric fluid of residents were contaminated with >10(4) colony-forming units/mL. Contamination was significantly lower in the post-test samples of the intervention group (P < 0.05), and remained unchanged in the control group. The mean (± standard deviation) number of MRSA-positive samples decreased from 2.1 ± 1.6 to 0.4 ± 0.7 (P < 0.05) in the intervention group. MRSA hand contamination was highly correlated with contamination of regulators, gastric fluid, tube hubs and enteral feed (P < 0.05), illustrating the close relationship between contaminated feed and poor hand hygiene. An effective ICP can significantly reduce the contamination of enteral feed. The provision of ICPs is strongly recommended in nursing homes. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Field testing of fugitive dust control techniques at a uranium mill tailings pile - 1982 Field Test, Gas Hills, Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-12-01

    A field test was conducted on a uranium tailings pile to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 chemical stabilizers for control of fugitive dust from uranium mill tailings. A tailings pile at the Federal American Partners (FAP) Uranium Mill, Gas Hills, Wyoming, was used for the field test. Preliminary laboratory tests using a wing tunnel were conducted to select the more promising stabilizers for field testing. Fourteen of the chemical stabilizers were applied with a field spray system pulled behind a tractor; one--Hydro Mulch--was applied with a hydroseeder. A portable weather station and data logger were installed to record the weather conditions at the test site. After 1 year of monitoring (including three site visits), all of the stabilizers have degraded to some degree; but those applied at the manufacturers' recommended rate are still somewhat effective in reducing fugitive emissions. The following synthetic polymer emulsions appear to be the more effective stabilizers: Wallpol 40-133 from Reichold Chemicals, SP-400 from Johnson and March Corporation, and CPB-12 from Wen Don Corporation. Installed costs for the test plots ranged from $8400 to $11,300/ha; this range results from differences in stabilizer costs. Large-scale stabilization costs of the test materials are expected to range from $680 to $3600/ha based on FAP experience. Evaluation of the chemical stabilizers will continue for approximately 1 year. 2 references, 33 figures, 22 tables.

  7. Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Carla G; Noto, Amy D; Stringer, Danielle M; Froese, Sylvia; Malcolmson, Linda

    2010-02-01

    To determine the effects of dietary consumption of milled flaxseed or flaxseed oil on glycemic control, n-3 fatty acid status, anthropometrics, and adipokines in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-four participants were randomized into a parallel, controlled trial. The participants were adults with type 2 diabetes (age 52.4 +/- 1.5 years, body mass index 32.4 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2), n = 17 men and 17 women). Participants consumed a selection of bakery products containing no flax (control group [CTL], n = 9), milled flaxseed (FXS, n = 13; 32 g/d), or flaxseed oil (FXO, n = 12; 13 g/d) daily for 12 weeks. The FXS and FXO groups received equivalent amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 7.4 g/day). The primary outcome measures were fasting plasma hemoglobin A(1c), glucose, insulin, and phospholipid fatty acid composition. The secondary outcome measures were fasting circulating leptin and adiponectin, as well as body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. Dietary intake assessment and calculations for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and quantified insulin sensitivity check were also completed. The FXS and FXO groups had increases in plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], or decosapentaenoic acid [DPA], but not docosahexaenoic acid), and the FXO group had more EPA and DPA in plasma phospholipids compared to the FXS group. All groups had similar caloric intakes; however, the CTL group experienced a 4% weight gain compared to baseline (p < 0.05), while both flax groups had constant body weights during the study period. All other parameters, including glycemic control, were unchanged by dietary treatment. Milled FXS and FXO intake does not affect glycemic control in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Possible prevention of weight gain by flax consumption warrants further investigation.

  8. Hardwired Control Changes For NSTX DC Power Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, S.

    2013-06-28

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The original TFTR Hardwired Control System (HCS) with electromechanical relays was used for NSTX DC Power loop control and protection during NSTX operations. As part of the NSTX Upgrade, the HCS is being changed to a PLC-based system with the same control logic. This paper gives a description of the changeover to the new PLC-based system __________________________________________________

  9. Feed-forward Control Nursing Model in Expectant Treatment of Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanfei; Zhang, Shuxuan; Shan, Wenxian; Hu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    We studied the possible advantages of feed-forward control nursing model in the treatment of placenta previa. We enrolled 60 pregnant women who were receiving treatment for expectant placenta previa between January 2010 and January 2016 and randomly divided them into the control group and the observation group with 30 cases in each group. In the control group, we offered specialist nursing which included examination, body positioning, vaginal bleeding record, psychological consultation and medication observation. Feed-forward control nursing was applied in the observation group which included establishing feed-forward control nursing improvement team, conducting quality control of nursing defects and putting forward ideas for improvements and verifying improvement outcomes. The observation group got significantly higher success rate and lower complication rate compared with control group. Gestational age and fetal weights improved apparently in the observation group. When we compared the amount of postpartum bleeding and pregnancy bleeding in two groups we did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Patients' satisfaction rate toward our nursing services was much higher in the observation group and the rate of nursing errors was significantly lower in this group. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Application of feed-forward control nursing model in the expectant treatment of placenta previa can improve treatment success rate, decrease complications and upgrade nursing quality.

  10. Development of a feed-forward controller for a tracking telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Stufflebeam, Joseph L.; Feller, Dan

    2004-07-01

    This paper develops a State Space model of a feed-forward control system in the frequency domain, and time domain. The results of the mathematical model are implemented and the responses of the Elevation and Azimuth servo controller in a tracking telescope called a Cine-Sextant developed for the Utah Test and Training Range.

  11. Maternal and paternal controlling feeding practices with male and female children.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jacqueline; Meyer, Caroline; Haycraft, Emma

    2006-09-01

    This study aimed to compare maternal and paternal feeding practices with male and female children and examine the influence of the gender of both the parent and child on the relationship between parental unhealthy eating attitudes and controlling feeding practices. One hundred and eighty-eight participants (94 co-habiting mother-father dyads, mean age 36.4 years, SD=4.9), who were the parents of 46 male and 48 female children (mean age 37.7 months, SD=12.7) completed measures of unhealthy eating attitudes and feeding practices. Mothers and fathers differed significantly in their reports of unhealthy eating attitudes but not in their restrictive or pressurising feeding practices. Mothers reported greater perceived feeding responsibility and greater monitoring of their children's food intake than fathers. Bulimia scores were correlated with controlling feeding practices in mothers of girls but not boys. Fathers' body dissatisfaction was correlated with monitoring of sons' but not daughters' food intake. These findings suggest that parental extrapolation of weight concerns may be more likely to occur within mother-daughter and father-son relationships.

  12. Dimensional Accuracy of Micro-Electro Discharge Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Rahman, Mohamed Abd; Nur Zuhaida Zunairi, Siti; Banu, Asfana

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the dimensional accuracy and tool wear rate (TWR) in micro electro discharge (micro-ED) milling of stainless steel (S304) workpiece and tungsten as the tool electrode with control parameter; voltage and feed rate. Dimensional accuracy is represented by the difference of micro-channel width between the two ends of the channel. The TWR and the micro-channel width data are analyzed and empirical model are developed. The optimum values for minimum TWR and minimum micro-channel width are found to be 91 V voltage and 10 μm/s feed rate.

  13. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feed-forward control of a solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Maxime; Brandenburger, Ralf; Friede, Wolfgang; Lapicque, François; Limbeck, Uwe; da Silva, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    In this work a combined heat and power unit (CHP unit) based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is analysed. This unit has a special feature: the anode offgas is partially recycled to the anode inlet. Thus it is possible to increase the electrical efficiency and the system can be operated without external water feeding. A feed-forward control concept which allows secure operating conditions of the CHP unit as well as a maximization of its electrical efficiency is introduced and validated experimentally. The control algorithm requires a limited number of measurement values and few deterministic relations for its description.

  15. Influence of feeding practices on dental caries. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, R; Younis Khan, S; Jain, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of feeding practices with dental caries in a group of respondents of 1-18 years of age of Lucknow city, India. A case-control study was carried out in the outpatient department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dental Clinic, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow (UP), India. A total sample of 800 subjects in the 1- 18 years age group was equally divided among cases (DMFT/deft>0) and controls (DMFT/deft = 0). Cases matched with controls for age, sex and religion. Clinical examination (DMFT /deft index) was performed in accordance with the WHO criteria for epidemiological studies. Respondents were interviewed in depth and retrospectively by means of a self- administered questionnaire. Prolonged breast feeding beyond 6 months, bottle feeding, nocturnal bottle feeding containing sweet drink and milk and higher frequency of consumption of sweets emerged as significant risk factors for dental caries. Based on the differences between the caries and non-caries age groups, an educational and preventive programme should be initiated addressing the associated risk factors of specific age groups accordingly. In our present study nocturnal bottle feeding emerged as the most significant risk factor for dental caries in the 1-6 years age group. Hence health professionals should recognise the benefits of breastfeeding up to six months of life and should educate mothers about the importance of implementing beneficial dental habits to ensure that a child reaches oral health.

  16. Young girls' emerging dietary restraint and disinhibition are related to parental control in child feeding.

    PubMed

    Carper, J L; Orlet Fisher, J; Birch, L L

    2000-10-01

    This research investigated the origins of dietary restraint and disinhibition in young girls by considering how parents' control in child feeding and their daughters' perceptions of these practices relate to girls' dietary restraint and disinhibition. Participants were 197 5-year-old girls (4.6-6.4 years) and their parents. Parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Girls' perceptions of parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Kid's Child Feeding Questionnaire, and their restraint and emotional and external disinhibition were measured using an age-appropriate version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among parental control in feeding, daughters' perceptions of control, and daughters' dietary restraint and disinhibition. The results indicated that one-third of 5-year-olds reported moderate levels of dietary restraint, about 25% of the sample showed evidence of emotional disinhibition, and nearly 75% reported externally disinhibited eating in the presence of palatable foods. Daughters' dietary restraint and emotional disinhibition were related to their perceptions of parental pressure to eat more, while their external disinhibition was related to their perceptions of having restrictions placed on their eating. This research reveals that pressure in child feeding is associated with the emergence of dietary restraint and disinhibition among young girls, eating styles characterized by a lack of responsiveness to internal hunger and satiety cues.

  17. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Friesen, K; Zhu, J J; Sievert, K

    2012-04-01

    Hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and no effective measures are currently available to control fly development in them. A single application of granular cyromazine in May provided 97% reduction in the number of adult stable flies emerging from hay feeding sites. Stable fly control did not decline during the 12 wk season. A small decline in control was observed relative to anthomyiid, sarcophagid, and syrphid flies developing in the hay feeding sites. However, none of those flies are considered to be pests and > or = 50% control of those flies was maintained for 65 d after application. Cyromazine offers a safe and affordable option for the control of immature stable flies developing in winter hay feeding sites. Controlling those flies should reduce the estimated $2 billion per year of lost production in U.S. cattle industries attributable to stable flies.

  18. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process

  19. Optimal Control Problem of Feeding Adaptations of Daphnia and Neural Network Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmet', Tibor; Kmet'ov, Mria

    2010-09-01

    A neural network based optimal control synthesis is presented for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints and open final time. The optimal control problem is transcribed into nonlinear programming problem, which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network [9] and recurrent neural network for solving nonlinear proprojection equations [10]. The proposed simulation methods is illustrated by the optimal control problem of feeding adaptation of filter feeders of Daphnia. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach and neural network solving of nonlinear equations hold promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints and open final time.

  20. 2015 Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title ll Annual Report, L-Bar, New Mexico Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, William; Johnson, Dick

    2015-11-01

    The L-Bar, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title II Disposal Site was inspected on August 18, 2015. The tailings impoundment was in excellent condition. Erosion and vegetation measurements to monitor the condition of the impoundment cover indicated that no erosion is occurring, and perennial vegetation foliar cover at the measurement plots increased substantially compared to previous years due to above-average precipitation for the year. A short segment of the perimeter fence near the site entrance was realigned in spring 2015 because a gully was undermining the fence corner. Loose fence strands at another location were repaired during the inspection, and a section of fence needs to be realigned to avoid areas affected by deep gullies and sediment deposition. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up inspection. Groundwater monitoring is required every 3 years. The next monitoring event will be in 2016.

  1. Occupational noise in rice mills.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, G V; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh; Kumari, Amrita; Kar, Banani

    2008-01-01

    sheller, compartment separator, rice cleaner, sieve shaker and an electric motor without enclosure. The causes of high noise in the rice mills may be due to the use of a long flat belt drive, crank-and-pitman mechanism, absence of an electric motor enclosure, poor machine maintenance and inadequate acoustic design of the workroom in the rice mill. In general, a well-maintained rice mill with each machine being run individually using an electric motor produced less noise than that being run using a single electric motor along with flat belt drives. The normal working period in the rice mill was 48 h/week and it was 56 h/week during the peak season of rice milling. About 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise of more than 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 26% of the total workers felt noise interferes in their work and about 49% workers were of opinion that noise interferes with their conversation. The workers in the rice mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. Apart from undertaking appropriate noise control measures, preventive maintenance of machines needs to be given due importance in all the rice mills.

  2. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  3. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  4. Children's self-regulation in eating: associations with inhibitory control and parents' feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2011-04-01

    Children who self-regulate while eating and children who show high global self-regulation abilities, such as inhibitory control, are less likely to be overweight than children who do not show the same capacities for self-regulation. This study examined the association between child self-regulation in eating and inhibitory control, and investigated whether self-regulation is related to parents' restrictive feeding practices. Sixty-three parents reported on their 3- to 9-year-old children's self-regulation in eating, inhibitory control, and their own feeding practices. Self-regulation in eating and inhibitory control were positively correlated, r = .54. Self-regulation in eating predicted parents' use of restrictive feeding practices above and beyond children's inhibitory control and parents' concerns about their children's weight, p < .01. When parents believed their children could self-regulate, they used less restrictive feeding practices. Because restriction can compromise self-regulatory abilities, early interventions should teach parents about children's nascent abilities in this domain.

  5. Antenatal peer support workers and initiation of breast feeding: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Lucy; Freemantle, Nick; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Hamburger, Ros; Brown, Julia; Chambers, Jackie; Khan, Khalid

    2009-01-30

    To assess the effectiveness of an antenatal service using community based breastfeeding peer support workers on initiation of breast feeding. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Community antenatal clinics in one primary care trust in a multiethnic, deprived population. 66 antenatal clinics with 2511 pregnant women: 33 clinics including 1140 women were randomised to receive the peer support worker service and 33 clinics including 1371 women were randomised to receive standard care. An antenatal peer support worker service planned to comprise a minimum of two contacts with women to provide advice, information, and support from approximately 24 weeks' gestation within the antenatal clinic or at home. The trained peer support workers were of similar ethnic and sociodemographic backgrounds to their clinic population. Initiation of breast feeding obtained from computerised maternity records of the hospitals where women from the primary care trust delivered. The sample was multiethnic, with only 9.4% of women being white British, and 70% were in the lowest 10th for deprivation. Most of the contacts with peer support workers took place in the antenatal clinics. Data on initiation of breast feeding were obtained for 2398 of 2511 (95.5%) women (1083/1140 intervention and 1315/1371 controls). The groups did not differ for initiation of breast feeding: 69.0% (747/1083) in the intervention group and 68.1% (896/1315) in the control groups; cluster adjusted odds ratio 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.43). Ethnicity, parity, and mode of delivery independently predicted initiation of breast feeding, but randomisation to the peer support worker service did not. A universal service for initiation of breast feeding using peer support workers provided within antenatal clinics serving a multiethnic, deprived population was ineffective in increasing initiation rates. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16126175.

  6. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics.

  7. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parental control in child feeding has focused primarily on directive types of control, such as pressure to eat and food restriction. This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess other types of directive control and two additional aspects of parental child feeding, non-directive and food envir...

  9. The Petrocarb pneumatic feeding system: A proven method for feeding particulate solids at controlled rates. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reintjes, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the principal features of the Petrocarb Pneumatic Feeding System is given. Early development and various commercial applications are included. It is concluded that the Petrocarb Injection System is capable of feeding dry solids into most of the processes being developed for utilizing coal.

  10. Flank wear analysing of high speed end milling for hardened steel D2 using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges for any manufacturer is how to decrease the machining cost without affecting the final quality of the product. One of the new advanced machining processes in industry is the high speed hard end milling process that merges three advanced machining processes: high speed milling, hard milling and dry milling. However, one of the most important challenges in this process is to control the flank wear rate. Therefore a analyzing the flank wear rate during machining should be investigated in order to determine the best cutting levels that will not affect the final quality of the product. In this research Taguchi method has been used to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and determine the best level s to minimize the flank wear rate up to total length of 0.3mm based on the ISO standard to maintain the finishing requirements.

  11. DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL BELOW AND BEHIND IT. STRAIGHT HORIZONTAL PIPE IS SLIME FEED FROM ROD MILL. PIPE OUT TOP OF CYCLONE AND CURVING AT LOWER RIGHT CARRIED FINELY GROUND SLIME TO FLOTATION CONDITIONER TANK. PIPE NOT VISIBLE OUT BOTTOM OF CYCLONE CONVEYED COARSER SLIME TO BALL MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  12. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  13. Dietary Protein and Calcium Interact to Influence Calcium Retention: A Controlled Feeding Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To test the effect of dietary protein on Ca (Ca) retention at low and high Ca intakes. Methods: In a randomized, controlled feeding study with a 2x2 factorial crossover design, healthy post-menopausal women (n=27), consumed either ~675 or ~1510 mg Ca/d, with both low and high protein (pro...

  14. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  15. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  16. Roll mill for milling coal

    SciTech Connect

    Brundiek, H.; Werner, L.

    1984-02-21

    A roll mill, more specially for coal, has a turning pan and a number of rolls running thereon for producing a milling effect. Each roll is supported on a rocker arm, able to be turned about a horizontal axis which is roughly tangential to the pan. The rocker arm and the roll on it are forced down against the pan by a hydraulic cylinder joined with a fork which, in turn, is joined with the rocker arm for turning it about the turnpin. The fork may be unjoined from the rocker arm for upkeep work on the roll. Each rocker arm has a gas-tight cover structure which is part of the casing of the mill.

  17. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-30

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  18. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  19. The relationship between controlling feeding practices and boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-12-01

    Parental controlling feeding practices have been directly associated with maladaptive child eating behaviors, such as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). The aims of this study were to examine EAH in very young children (3-4years old) and to investigate the association between maternal controlling feeding practices and energy intake from a standardized selection of snacks consumed 'in the absence of hunger'. Thirty-seven mother-child dyads enrolled in the NOURISH RCT participated in a modified EAH protocol conducted in the child's home. All children displayed EAH, despite 80% reporting to be full or very full following completion of lunch 15min earlier. The relationships between maternal and child covariates and controlling feeding practices and EAH were examined using non-parametric tests, and were stratified by child gender. For boys only, pressure to eat was positively associated with EAH. Neither restriction nor monitoring practices were associated with EAH in either boys or girls. Overall, the present findings suggest that gender differences in the relationship between maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors emerge early and should be considered in future research and intervention design.

  20. Feed-forward control of gear mesh vibration using piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald T.; Kascak, Albert F.; Palazzolo, Alan; Manchala, Daniel; Thomas, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel means for suppressing gear mesh-related vibrations. The key components in this approach are piezoelectric actuators and a high-frequency, analog feed-forward controller. Test results are presented and show up to a 70-percent reduction in gear mesh acceleration and vibration control up to 4500 Hz. The principle of the approach is explained by an analysis of a harmonically excited, general linear vibratory system.

  1. Feed-forward control of the flow over a backward-facing step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet, Fabien; Schmid, Peter; McKeon, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the control of incoming perturbations in convection-dominated flows is analyzed numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, multiple sensors and actuators are used. First, a model is built from input and output data sequences using a least-squares system identification. Then, a feed-forward Model Predicitive Controller (MPC) is designed. It appears that feed-forward control is particularly relevant when applied to convection-dominated flows. A very general and flexible formulation of the technique is introduced and validated on the flow over a backward-facing step. Although the objective sensors are localized on the walls, the impact of the control is more global and perturbations are also reduced in the middle of the channel. The coupling of system identification together with feed-forward control was found to be a flexible, efficient and experimentally feasible strategy. In particular, the successful numerical control is further supported by experimental results. Support from Ecole Polytechnique and the Partner University Fund (PUF) is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Mio acts in the Drosophila brain to control nutrient storage and feeding.

    PubMed

    Docherty, James E B; Manno, Joseph E; McDermott, Jacqueline E; DiAngelo, Justin R

    2015-09-01

    Animals recognize the availability of nutrients and regulate the intake and storage of these nutrients accordingly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient sensing and subsequent changes in behavior and metabolism are not fully understood. Mlx interactor (Mio), the Drosophila homolog of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), functions as a transcription factor in the fat body of the fly to control triglyceride storage as well as feeding, suggesting that Mio may act in a nutrient-sensing pathway to coordinate food consumption and metabolism. Here, we show that Mio functions in neurons in Drosophila to regulate feeding and nutrient storage. Pan-neuronal disruption of Mio function leads to increased triglyceride and glycogen storage, and this phenotype is not due to increased food consumption. Interestingly, targeted disruption of Mio specifically in the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) has little effect on nutrient storage, but increases food consumption suggesting that Mio acts in these neurons to control feeding behavior. Since Mio is a transcription factor, one possible way Mio may act in the IPCs to control feeding is through regulating the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dilps) or drosulfakinin (dsk), neuropeptides produced in the IPCs. Consistent with this hypothesis, IPC-specific knockdown of Mio leads to an increase in dilp3 expression, while not affecting dilp2, 5 or dsk levels. Together, this study indicates a new function for Mio in the Drosophila brain and specifically in the IPCs, controlling neuropeptide gene expression, feeding and metabolism in accordance with nutrient availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mio acts in the Drosophila brain to control nutrient storage and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, James E. B.; Manno, Joseph E.; McDermott, Jacqueline E.; DiAngelo, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Animals recognize the availability of nutrients and regulate the intake and storage of these nutrients accordingly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient sensing and subsequent changes in behavior and metabolism are not fully understood. Mlx interactor (Mio), the Drosophila homolog of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), functions as a transcription factor in the fat body of the fly to control triglyceride storage as well as feeding, suggesting that Mio may act in a nutrient-sensing pathway to coordinate food consumption and metabolism. Here, we show that Mio functions in neurons in Drosophila to regulate feeding and nutrient storage. Pan-neuronal disruption of Mio function leads to increased triglyceride and glycogen storage, and this phenotype is not due to increased food consumption. Interestingly, targeted disruption of Mio specifically in the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) has little effect on nutrient storage, but increases food consumption suggesting that Mio acts in these neurons to control feeding behavior. Since Mio is a transcription factor, one possible way Mio may act in the IPCs to control feeding is through regulating the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dilps) or drosulfakinin (dsk), neuropeptides produced in the IPCs. Consistent with this hypothesis, IPC-specific knockdown of Mio leads to an increase in dilp3 expression, while not affecting dilp2, 5 or dsk levels. Together, this study indicates a new function for Mio in the Drosophila brain and specifically in the IPCs, controlling neuropeptide gene expression, feeding and metabolism in accordance with nutrient availability. PMID:26024590

  4. Coccidiosis control with toltrazuril in conjunction with anticoccidial medicated or nonmedicated feed.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Froyman, R; Irion, T; Kennedy, T

    2003-01-01

    A 42-day broiler floor pen study was conducted comparing the anticoccidial efficacy of toltrazuril (Baycox) as a stand alone treatment and as an additional treatment to in-feed anticoccidial programs. Toltrazuril was administered on days 18 and 19 in the drinking water at 7 mg/kg of body weight. The treatments were 125 ppm nicarbazin (days 0-14) to 66 ppm salinomycin (SAL) (days 15-35) with and without toltrazuril, SAL (days 0-35) with and without toltrazuril, nonmedicated (NM) to SAL with toltrazuril, and NM with and without toltrazuril. The controls were NM noninfected and infected. The treatments were replicated in five blocks of eight pens each in a randomized complete block design. All withdrawal feed was nonmedicated. On day 14, birds, except noninfected, were exposed to coccidial oocysts (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) seeded litter. On days 21, 28, 35, and 42, birds and feed were weighed, four birds per pen were coccidial lesion scored, and litter oocyst counts were performed. The coccidial infection in the NM infected treatment caused a significant (P < 0.05) coccidiosis infection. Coccidiosis was moderately controlled in the anticoccidial treatment birds without toltrazuril. Performance in the NM with toltrazuril was equal to or better (P < 0.05) than the anticoccidial programs without toltrazuril. Toltrazuril was equal to the noninfected birds in performance. Toltrazuril most completely eliminated all coccidial lesions and dramatically reduced oocyst shedding. The performance data, lesion scores, and oocyst counts showed that a 2-day treatment with toltrazuril successfully controlled the coccidiosis with no relapse of infection. Toltrazuril can thus be used for supplemental control with in-feed anticoccidials or as a primary anticoccidial with nonmedicated feed.

  5. Characterizing and quantilying controls on arsenic solubility over a pH range of 1-11 in a uranium mill-scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Brett I; Hendry, M Jim

    2005-07-01

    A mill-scale hydrometallurgical experiment (2700 m3 of effluent treated/day) was conducted for three months at the Rabbit Lake uranium mine site located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, to determine the controls on the solubility of dissolved arsenic over a pH range of 1-11 and to develop a thermodynamic database for the dominant mineralogical controls on arsenic in the mill and the resulting mill tailings. The arsenic concentrations in the mill ranged from 526 mg/L at pH 1.0 (initial) to 1.34 mg/L at pH 10.8 (final discharge). Geochemical modeling of the chemistry data shows that arsenic solubility is controlled by the formation of scorodite (FeAsO4-2H2O) from pH 2.4 to pH 3.1, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic precipitated as scorodite. Model results show that scorodite is unstable (releasing arsenic back in to solution) above pH 3.1 and arsenic adsorption to the surface of 2-line ferrihydrite is the dominant controlling factor in the solubility of arsenic from pH 3.2 to pH 11.0, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic removed from solution via this mechanism. Finally, model results show -0.2% of the total dissolved arsenic adsorbs to the surface of amorphous aluminum hydroxide from pH 5.0 to pH 8.0. Minor alterations to the thermodynamic properties of arsenite and arsenate adsorption to 2-line ferrihydrite allowed the fit between measured mill-scale and modeled concentrations for the pH range of 3.2-11.0 to be optimized.

  6. The Research on Optimization of Edge Drop Control for Cold Tandem Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The cold tandem rolling of metal strip presents a significant control challenge because of nonlinearities and process complexities. And reducing edge drop of cold rolling strips and meeting uniform thickness will be a new tough shape theories and technologies. In this paper, the existing edge drop control are analyzed and optimized. The simulation results and practical data show that the optimized control system can effectively control the edge drop.

  7. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for the hydraulic APC system of the rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruicheng; Chen, Zhikun

    2011-10-01

    Considering uncertain external disturbance, the model of automatic position control system is established. Then, according to the information of input and output, using extended states observer (ESO), a newer observer is proposed to observe and compensate this integrated disturbance, and a controller is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). This controller has very strong robustness not only to external disturbance, but also to unpredictable plant parameter variations.

  8. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosbi, Norlin; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5-15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  9. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  10. Design and evaluation of a Stochastic Optimal Feed-forward and Feedback Technology (SOFFT) flight control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a stochastic optimal feed-forward and feedback technology (SOFFT) control architecture with emphasis on the feed-forward controller design. The SOFFT approach allows the designer to independently design the feed-forward and feedback controllers to meet separate objectives and then integrate the two controllers. The feed-forward controller has been integrated with an existing high-angle-of-attack (high-alpha) feedback controller. The feed-forward controller includes a variable command model with parameters selected to satisfy level 1 flying qualities with a high-alpha adjustment to achieve desired agility guidelines, a nonlinear interpolation approach that scales entire matrices for approximation of the plant model, and equations for calculating feed-forward gains developed for perfect plant-model tracking. The SOFFT design was applied to a nonlinear batch simulation model of an F/A-18 aircraft modified for thrust vectoring. Simulation results show that agility guidelines are met and that the SOFFT controller filters undesired pilot-induced frequencies more effectively during a tracking task than a flight controller that has the same feedback control law but does not have the SOFFT feed-forward control.

  11. Chagas disease control: deltamethrin-treated collars reduce Triatoma infestans feeding success on dogs.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, Richard; Ceballos, Leonardo; Stariolo, Raúl; Davies, Clive R; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2005-07-01

    Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Using an experimental set-up mimicking rural mud-and-thatch houses, we evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars on the feeding success and survival of Triatoma infestans, the main T. cruzi vector in Latin America. Seven collared and three uncollared control dogs were exposed to colonized T. infestans at day 0 (i.e. before attachment of collars), at 15 days, and then monthly for 3 months post collar attachment. Following overnight exposure to uncollared dogs, 96% (1473/1538) of bugs fed, of which 51% (746/1473) fully engorged. Feeding rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs for up to 1 month post collar attachment with the lowest rates of 91% (551/604) observed at day 30 (P<0.05). Amongst those bugs that fed, engorgement rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs throughout the trial, during which average rates were 31% (543/1768) (P<0.001). No collar effect on individual bug survival was observed. Although observed effects on feeding and engorgement were limited, the strong association between blood-feeding, blood meal size and T. cruzi transmission suggests that deltamethrin-treated dog collars could help to control canine (and possibly human) T. cruzi infection.

  12. Effect of a lactation nurse on the success of breast-feeding: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D A; West, R R

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of a lactation nurse by means of a randomised controlled trial is described. The lactation nurse was employed to assist, support, and encourage mothers during the early weeks after parturition in hospital and at home. All mothers who breast-fed at least once were entered into the trial. Altogether 649 mothers were interviewed 12 months later to establish the duration of breast-feeding and to enquire after practices of and attitudes towards infant feeding. The lactation nurse significantly extended the duration of breast-feeding, particularly during the first four weeks and among women of lower social class. Although she did not reduce problems or change practices significantly, all the trends were consistently in the right direction. Mothers in the experimental group were more satisfied with the help they received than were mothers in the control group. It seems likely that the lactation nurse by consistent advice, assistance, support, and encouragement enabled mothers to cope more successfully with difficulties and that this led to significantly fewer ending breast-feeding prematurely. PMID:3519825

  13. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL`s Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL`s low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  14. Somatosensory Modulation of Salivary Gene Expression and Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Jill Lamanna; Alterovitz, Gil; Song, Dongli; Wilson, Bernard Joseph; Jegatheesan, Priya; Govindaswami, Balaji; Lee, Jaehoon; Rosner, Austin Oder

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors. Separately, the study of the salivary transcriptome in neonates has helped identify biomarkers directly linked to successful neonatal oral feeding behavior. The combination of noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic analysis represents an integrative approach to oral feeding in which rapid technological advances and personalized transcriptomics can safely and noninvasively be brought to the bedside to inform medical care decisions and improve care and outcomes. Objective The study aimed to conduct a multicenter randomized control trial (RCT) to combine molecular and behavioral methods in an experimental conceptualization approach to map the effects of PULSED somatosensory stimulation on salivary gene expression in the context of the acquisition of oral feeding habits in high-risk human neonates. The aims of this study represent the first attempt to combine noninvasive treatment strategies and transcriptomic assessments of high-risk extremely preterm infants (EPI) to (1) improve oral feeding behavior and skills, (2) further our understanding of the gene ontology of biologically diverse pathways related to oral feeding, (3) use gene expression data to personalize neonatal care and individualize treatment strategies and timing interventions, and (4) improve long-term developmental outcomes. Methods A total of 180 extremely preterm infants from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) will be

  15. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  16. Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Veerapen, Soocramanien; Couderc, Sophie; Jugie, Myriam; Ville, Yves

    2003-01-04

    To investigate whether breast feeding is effective for pain relief during venepuncture in term neonates and compare any effect with that of oral glucose combined with a pacifier. Randomised controlled trial. 180 term newborn infants undergoing venepuncture; 45 in each group. During venepuncture infants were either breast fed (group 1), held in their mother's arms without breast feeding (group 2), given 1 ml of sterile water as placebo (group 3), or given 1 ml of 30% glucose followed by pacifier (group 4). Video recordings of the procedure were assessed by two observers blinded to the purpose of the study. Pain related behaviours evaluated with two acute pain rating scales: the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scale (range 0 to 10) and the premature infant pain profile scale (range 0 to 18). Median pain scores (interquartile range) for breast feeding, held in mother's arms, placebo, and 30% glucose plus pacifier groups were 1 (0-3), 10 (8.5-10), 10 (7.5-10), and 3 (0-5) with the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scale and 4.5 (2.25-8), 13 (10.5-15), 12 (9-13), and 4 (1-6) with the premature infant pain profile scale. Analysis of variance showed significantly different median pain scores (P<0.0001) among the groups. There were significant reductions in both scores for the breast feeding and glucose plus pacifier groups compared with the other two groups (P<0.0001, two tailed Mann-Whitney U tests between groups). The difference in Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scores between breast feeding and glucose plus pacifier groups was not significant (P=0.16). Breast feeding effectively reduces response to pain during minor invasive procedure in term neonates.

  17. Reported and observed controlling feeding practices predict child eating behavior after 12 months.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Haycraft, Emma; Haines, Jess; Hooley, Merrilyn

    2015-06-01

    Controlling feeding practices are linked to children's self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ∼ 12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between maternal and child factors [e.g., concern about child weight, child temperament, child body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores (BMIz)] at T1 and reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices (T1 and T2). The third aim was to assess prospective associations between maternal feeding practices (T1) and child eating behaviors (T2) and child BMIz (T2). A sample of 79 mother-child dyads in Victoria, Australia, participated in 2 lunchtime home observations (T1 and T2). BMI measures were collected during the visits. Child temperament, child eating behaviors, maternal parenting styles, and maternal feeding practices were evaluated at T1 and T2 via questionnaires. Associations were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and hierarchical regressions. Reported restriction (T1) was inversely associated with observed restriction at T1 (r = -0.24, P < 0.05). Reported pressure to eat (T2) was associated with observed pressure to eat (T2) (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) but only for mothers of girls. Maternal weight concern was associated with reported restriction at T1 (r = 0.29, P < 0.01) and T2 (r = 0.36, P < 0.01), whereas observed restriction (T1) was prospectively associated child BMI at T2 (β = -0.18, P < 0.05). Maternal reports may not always reflect feeding practices performed during mealtimes; it is possible some mothers may not be

  18. Decoupling control based on terminal sliding mode and wavelet network for the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yiming; Liu, Le; Li, Jianxiong; Xu, Yanze

    2015-08-01

    To weaken the nonlinear coupling influences among the variables in the speed and tension system of reversible cold strip rolling mill, a novel dynamic decoupling control strategy is proposed based on nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) and wavelet neural network (WNN). First, nonlinear disturbance observers are developed to counteract the mismatched uncertainties, and then input/output dynamic decoupling and linearisation for the speed and tension nonlinear coupling system are realised by utilising the inverse system theory. Second, nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode controller (NFTSMC) for each pseudo linear subsystem is presented based on backstepping and two-power reaching law, so as to improve the global convergence speed and robust stability of the system. Third, adaptive WNNs are used to approximate the uncertain items of the system, so as to improve the control precision of the speed and tension of reversible cold strip rolling mill. Theoretical analyses show that the NFTSMs satisfy reachability condition, the system error variables can converge to equilibrium point in finite time, and the resulting closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, simulation research is carried out on the speed and tension system of a 1422 mm reversible cold strip rolling mill by using the actual data, and results show the superiority of the proposed control strategy in comparison with the strategies of cascade PI, linear sliding mode control and internal model control.

  19. Formula-feeding and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: is there an association? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Carolyn; Hung, Jui-Hsia Cleo; Chan, Emily; Sedgwick, Isabella; Bass, Juan; Nasr, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    The etiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether formula-feeding is associated with increased incidence. This case-control study included HPS cases and controls admitted between 1992 and 2012. Demographic data including feeding method were collected from patient charts and analyzed. We identified 882 HPS cases and 955 controls. The highest incidence of HPS presentation was in summer (P=0.0028). Infants with HPS were more likely to have been exclusively formula-fed, have a family history of HPS, and be male compared to infants in the control group (P<0.001); they were also more likely to live in rural areas, although not significantly so. After adjusting for family history, sex, place of residence, and season of presentation, exclusively formula-fed infants were 1.36 times more likely to develop HPS compared with exclusively breastfed infants (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.57, P<0.005). Formula-feeding is associated with significantly increased risk of HPS. Further investigation may help to determine the components of formula that simulate hypertrophy of the pylorus muscle, or the components of breast milk that are protective, as well as other influencing factors. 3b. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in flowers than leaves and fruits as a possible basis for differential feeding preference of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Cv. Dhanashree).

    PubMed

    Damle, Mrunal S; Giri, Ashok P; Sainani, Mohini N; Gupta, Vidya S

    2005-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill; cultivar- Dhanashree) proteinase inhibitors (PIs) were tested for their trypsin inhibitory (TI) and Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases inhibitory (HGPI) activity in different organs of the tomato plants. Analysis of TI and HGPI distribution in various parts of the plant showed that flowers accumulated about 300 and 1000 times higher levels of TI while 700 and 400 times higher levels of HGPI as compared to those in leaves and fruits, respectively. Field observation that H. armigera larvae infest leaves and fruits but not the flowers could be at least partially attributed to the protective role-played by the higher levels of PIs in the flower tissue. Tomato PIs inhibited about 50-80% HGP activity of H. armigera larvae feeding on various host plants including tomato, of larvae exposed to non-host plant PIs and of various larval instars. Tomato PIs were found to be highly stable to insect proteinases wherein incubation of inhibitor with HGP even for 3h at optimum conditions did not affect inhibitory activity. Bioassay using H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet containing tomato PIs revealed adverse effect on larval growth, pupae development, adult formation and fecundity.

  1. Calculations and Experimental Investigations on the Feed-Power Requirement of Airplanes with Boundary-Layer Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, W.

    1947-01-01

    Calculations and test results are given about the feed-power requirement of airplanes with boundary-layer control. Curves and formulas for the rough estimate of pressure-loss and feed-power requirement are set up for the investigated arrangements which differ structurally and aerodynamically. According to these results the feed power for three different designs is calculated at the end of the report.

  2. Central Control of Feeding Behavior by the Secretin, PACAP, and Glucagon Family of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Revathi; Wang, Lei; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2017-01-01

    Constituting a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides, secretin (SCT), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and glucagon (GCG) family of peptide hormones exert their functions via interactions with the class B1 G protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, the roles of these peptides in neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior have been a specific area of research focus for development of potential therapeutic drug targets to combat obesity and metabolic disorders. As a result, some members in the family and their analogs have already been utilized as therapeutic agents in clinical application. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding on the important role of SCT, PACAP, and GCG family of peptides in central control of feeding behavior. PMID:28223965

  3. Enhanced sophorolipid production by feeding-rate-controlled fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Bum; Yun, Hyun Shik; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2009-12-01

    To develop the easier control method for fed-batch culture of sophorolipid production, we chose rapeseed oil as the most productive oil and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations of glucose. The optimal concentration of glucose was 30 g/L for sophorolipid production. A fed-batch method was conducted using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 with rapeseed oil as a secondary substrate. The feeding rate of rapeseed oil was dependent on pH and was calculated by the consumption rate of NaOH and rapeseed oil. The glucose concentration was constantly maintained between 30 and 40 g/L. As a result, we have produced a crude sophorolipid up to 365 g/L for 8 days through a feeding-rate-controlled fed-batch process.

  4. A Novel Hybrid Error Criterion-Based Active Control Method for on-Line Milling Vibration Suppression with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Gao, Robert X; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-01-06

    Milling vibration is one of the most serious factors affecting machining quality and precision. In this paper a novel hybrid error criterion-based frequency-domain LMS active control method is constructed and used for vibration suppression of milling processes by piezoelectric actuators and sensors, in which only one Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used and no Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is involved. The correction formulas are derived by a steepest descent procedure and the control parameters are analyzed and optimized. Then, a novel hybrid error criterion is constructed to improve the adaptability, reliability and anti-interference ability of the constructed control algorithm. Finally, based on piezoelectric actuators and acceleration sensors, a simulation of a spindle and a milling process experiment are presented to verify the proposed method. Besides, a protection program is added in the control flow to enhance the reliability of the control method in applications. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is an effective and reliable way for on-line vibration suppression, and the machining quality can be obviously improved.

  5. A Novel Hybrid Error Criterion-Based Active Control Method for on-Line Milling Vibration Suppression with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Gao, Robert X.; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Milling vibration is one of the most serious factors affecting machining quality and precision. In this paper a novel hybrid error criterion-based frequency-domain LMS active control method is constructed and used for vibration suppression of milling processes by piezoelectric actuators and sensors, in which only one Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used and no Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is involved. The correction formulas are derived by a steepest descent procedure and the control parameters are analyzed and optimized. Then, a novel hybrid error criterion is constructed to improve the adaptability, reliability and anti-interference ability of the constructed control algorithm. Finally, based on piezoelectric actuators and acceleration sensors, a simulation of a spindle and a milling process experiment are presented to verify the proposed method. Besides, a protection program is added in the control flow to enhance the reliability of the control method in applications. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is an effective and reliable way for on-line vibration suppression, and the machining quality can be obviously improved. PMID:26751448

  6. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    PubMed Central

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  7. High-accuracy drilling with an image guided light weight robot: autonomous versus intuitive feed control.

    PubMed

    Tauscher, Sebastian; Fuchs, Alexander; Baier, Fabian; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2017-07-13

    Assistance of robotic systems in the operating room promises higher accuracy and, hence, demanding surgical interventions become realisable (e.g. the direct cochlear access). Additionally, an intuitive user interface is crucial for the use of robots in surgery. Torque sensors in the joints can be employed for intuitive interaction concepts. Regarding the accuracy, they lead to a lower structural stiffness and, thus, to an additional error source. The aim of this contribution is to examine, if an accuracy needed for demanding interventions can be achieved by such a system or not. Feasible accuracy results of the robot-assisted process depend on each work-flow step. This work focuses on the determination of the tool coordinate frame. A method for drill axis definition is implemented and analysed. Furthermore, a concept of admittance feed control is developed. This allows the user to control feeding along the planned path by applying a force to the robots structure. The accuracy is researched by drilling experiments with a PMMA phantom and artificial bone blocks. The described drill axis estimation process results in a high angular repeatability ([Formula: see text]). In the first set of drilling results, an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at entrance and [Formula: see text] at target point excluding imaging was achieved. With admittance feed control an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at target point was realised. In a third set twelve holes were drilled in artificial temporal bone phantoms including imaging. In this set-up an error of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was achieved. The results of conducted experiments show that accuracy requirements for demanding procedures such as the direct cochlear access can be fulfilled with compliant systems. Furthermore, it was shown that with the presented admittance feed control an accuracy of less then [Formula: see text] is achievable.

  8. An automatic pellet dispenser for precise control of feeding topography in granivorous birds

    PubMed Central

    Berkhoudt, H.; Van Der Reijden, D.; Heijmans, M.

    1987-01-01

    Design and construction of an automatic pellet dispenser for granivorous birds are described. The dispenser permits rapid pneumatic delivery of pellets (five pellets per second maximum) to one controlled position and does not interfere with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. In addition, the device continuously indicates presence or absence of a pellet in the delivery position. This automatic dispenser proved very effective in our studies of stereotyped topographies of feeding in granivorous birds, such as pigeons and chickens. PMID:16812503

  9. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Yang, Yuechuan T; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-11-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin-Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R(2)>0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced 'strongly fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 12.7-25.4 mm screens and 'fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  10. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-06-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R2 > 0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced strongly fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 25.4 mm screens and fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  11. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  12. Higher order feed-forward control of reticle writing error fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Sundermann, Frank; Gatefait, Maxime

    2015-10-01

    The understanding and control of the intra-field overlay budget becomes crucial particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications. The intra-field overlay budget is built-up out of many contributors, each with its own characteristic. Some of them are (semi-)static like the reticle writing error (RWE) fingerprint, the scanner lens fingerprint, or the intra-field processing signature. Others are more dynamic. Examples are reticle heating and lens heating due to the absorption of a small portion of the exposure light. Ideally, all overlay contributors that are understood and known could be taken out of the feed-back control loop and send as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. As a consequence, only non-correctable overlay residuals are measured on the wafer. In the current work, we have studied the possibility to characterize the reticle writing error fingerprint by an off-line position measurement tool and use this information to send feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool. The current work is an extension of the work we published earlier. To this end, we have selected a reticle pair out of 50 production reticles that are used to manufacture a 28-nm technology device. These two reticles are special in the sense that the delta fingerprint contains a significant higher order RWE signature. While previously only the linear parameters were sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool, this time we additionally demonstrate the capability to correct for the non-linear terms as well. Since the concept heavily relies on the quality of the off-line mask registration measurements, a state-of-the-art reticle registration tool was chosen. Special care was taken to eliminate any effects of the tool induced shifts that may affect the quality of the measurements. The on-wafer overlay verification measurements were performed on an ASML YieldStar metrology tool as well as on a different vendor tool. In conclusion

  13. 77 FR 75635 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medicated Feed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Medicated Feed Mill License Application; Extension AGENCY: Food and Drug... feed mill licensing system. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Medicated Feed Mill Licensing Application--21 CFR Part...

  14. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    PubMed

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  15. Effects of forage vs grain feeding on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and beef quality in Limousin-cross steers when time on feed is controlled.

    PubMed

    Mandell, I B; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Campbell, C P

    1998-10-01

    Limousin-cross steers (n=135; 258+/-26 kg) were used to compare forage vs grain feeding on carcass composition and palatability attributes of beef when time on feed was controlled. Diets included a 95% alfalfa silage ration (AS) or a 68% high-moisture corn, 25% alfalfa silage ration (HMC). These were incorporated into six treatments to allow comparisons of end points based on similar days on feed or backfat finish. Dietary treatments included 1) HMC (4 mm), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of HMC until slaughter at 4 mm ultrasound backfat; 2) AS (HMC-4), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS until slaughter, regardless of finish, when HMC (4 mm) cattle were slaughtered; 3) AS (4 mm), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS until slaughter at 4 mm backfat; 4) HMC (AS-4), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of HMC until slaughter, regardless of finish, when AS (4 mm) cattle achieved 4 mm backfat; 5) HMC (RES), or cattle fed HMC at restricted intakes until slaughter at 4 mm backfat with feed offered at 75% of intake achieved by HMC (4 mm) and HMC (AS-4) cattle; and 6) AS (8 mm) or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS ration until slaughter at 8 mm backfat. Grain feeding generally increased (P < .01) ADG, carcass weight, grade fat, and intramuscular fat content when compared with forage feeding at similar times on feed. Palatability attributes of ribeye roasts and ground beef were generally unaffected (P > .10) by diet with the exception of slightly less beef flavor and more off-flavor in forage-fed vs grain-fed beef. Higher (P < .01) concentrations of linolenic acid and lower (P < .10) concentrations of oleic acid in forage-fed beef may be partially responsible for diet differences in flavor.

  16. Detection of QTL controlling feed efficiency and excretion in chickens fed a wheat-based diet.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Rideau, Nicole; Gabriel, Irène; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2015-09-25

    Improving feed efficiency is a major goal in poultry production in order to reduce production costs, increase the possibility of using alternative feedstuffs and decrease the volume of manure. However, in spite of their economic and environmental impact, very few quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been reported on these traits. Thus, we undertook the detection of QTL on 820 meat-type chickens from a F2 cross between D- and D+ lines that were divergently selected on low or high digestive efficiency at 3 weeks of age. Birds were measured for growth between 0 and 23 days, feed intake and feed conversion ratio between 9 and 23 days, breast and abdominal fat yields at 23 days, and the anatomy of their digestive tract (density, relative weight and length of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ratio of proventriculus to gizzard weight) was examined. To evaluate excretion traits, fresh and dry weight, water content, pH, nitrogen to phosphorus ratio from 0 to 23 days, and pH of gizzard and jejunum contents at 23 days were measured. A set of 3379 single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed on 28 Gallus gallus (GGA) autosomes, the Z chromosome and one unassigned linkage group was used for QTL detection. Using the QTLMap software developed for linkage analyses by interval mapping, we detected 16 QTL for feed intake, 13 for feed efficiency, 49 for anatomy-related traits, seven for growth, six for body composition and ten for excretion. Nine of these QTL were genome-wide significant (four for feed intake on GGA1, one for feed efficiency on GGA2, and four for anatomy on GGA1, 2, 3 and 4). GGA16, 19, and 26 carried many QTL for different types of traits that co-localize at the same position. This study identified several QTL regions that are involved in the control of digestive efficiency in chicken. Further studies are needed to identify the genes that underlie these effects, and to validate these in other commercial populations and for different breeding environments.

  17. Determination of florfenicol dose rate in feed for control of mortality in nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotica infected with streptococcus iniae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A dose titration study was conducted to determine the dosage of florfenicol (FFC) in feed to control Streptococcus iniae-associated mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six tanks were assigned to each of five treatments: (1) not challenged with S. iniae and fed unmedicated feed; (2) chal...

  18. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  19. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor childhood nutrition is a more pervasive and insidious risk factor for lifestyle-related chronic disease than childhood obesity. Parents find it difficult to address the reported barriers to optimal child feeding, and to improve child dietary patterns. To impact at the population level, nutrition interventions need to be easy to disseminate, have a broad reach and appeal to parents while overcoming the barriers parents face when trying to improve child feeding behaviours. The Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomised Control Trial (RCT) examines the impact of providing low cost, self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to rural parents, on child dietary intake and parent–child feeding practices. Methods/Design Up to 150 parents of two-to-five year old children will be recruited in five rural Australian towns. Eligible, consenting parents will be randomly allocated to intervention or 12-month wait-list control groups. Intervention group parents will receive an interactive nutrition CD and parenting DVD, and be provided with instructions for optimal resource utilisation. Intervention and control group participants will also receive a generic nutrition and physical activity brochure and a physical activity resource to blind participants to group allocation. Primary outcome measures are dietary intake of vegetables (serves/day), fruit and energy dense nutrient poor foods (serves/day and %Energy). Secondary outcome measures are total energy (kCal), other food groups (serves/day and %Energy), key nutrients (mg/day), child feeding domains and parenting style domains. Analysis of dietary outcome measures, child feeding and parenting domains will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis and compared at baseline, three and 12 months using the random effects model, using STATA software. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomisation and statistical analysis are described. Discussion This paper will add

  20. Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breast-feeding outcomes: a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Turok, David K; Leeman, Lawrence; Sanders, Jessica N; Thaxton, Lauren; Eggebroten, Jennifer L; Yonke, Nicole; Bullock, Holly; Singh, Rameet; Gawron, Lori M; Espey, Eve

    2017-08-23

    Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion is increasing in frequency in the United States, but few studies have investigated the effect of early placement on breast-feeding outcomes. This study examined the effect of immediate vs delayed postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion on breast-feeding outcomes. We conducted this noninferiority randomized controlled trial at the University of Utah and the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Centers from February 2014 through March 2016. Eligible women were pregnant and planned to breast-feed, spoke English or Spanish, were aged 18-40 years, and desired a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Enrolled women were randomized 1:1 to immediate postpartum insertion or delayed insertion at 4-12 weeks' postpartum. Prespecified exclusion criteria included delivery <37.0 weeks' gestational age, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, contraindications to levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion, and medical complications of pregnancy that could affect breast-feeding. We conducted per-protocol analysis as the primary approach, as it is considered the standard for noninferiority studies; we also report the alternative intent-to-treat analysis. We powered the study for the primary outcome, breast-feeding continuation at 8 weeks, to detect a 15% noninferiority margin between groups, requiring 132 participants in each arm. The secondary study outcome, time to lactogenesis, used a validated measure, and was analyzed by survival analysis and log rank test. We followed up participants for ongoing data collection for 6 months. Only the data analysis team was blinded to the intervention. We met the enrollment target with 319 participants, but lost 34 prior to randomization and excluded an additional 26 for medical complications prior to delivery. The final analytic sample included 132 in the immediate group and 127 in the delayed group. Report of any breast-feeding at 8 weeks in the immediate

  1. Peptides and serotonin control feeding-related events in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus periodically gorges on a blood meal that could compromise salt and water balance. This, however, is prevented by rapid production of urine within minutes of feeding. The Malpighian tubules increase their rate of secretion 1,000 fold leading to the production of a hypo-osmotic urine that is high in NaCl content. Feeding and post-prandial diuresis in R. prolixus are tightly coordinated events, involving a variety of neurons within the central nervous system. The present review considers how neurohormones provide flexibility in signaling for the maintenance of hemolymph homeostasis in response to challenges associated with blood-gorging. As will be demonstrated, the overall control of events associated with gorging is complex, and utilizes a range of neuropeptide families and serotonin acting upon a variety of tissues to bias them towards a new functional state.

  2. Redox Control For Hanford HLW Feeds VSL-12R2530-1, REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Matlack, Keith S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Kot, Wing K.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-13

    The principal objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of processing simulated Hanford HLW at the estimated maximum concentrations of nitrates and oxalates and to identify strategies to mitigate any processing issues resulting from high concentrations of nitrates and oxalates. This report provides results for a series of tests that were performed on the DM10 melter system with simulated C-106/AY-102 HLW. The tests employed simulated HLW feeds containing variable amounts of nitrates and waste organic compounds corresponding to maximum concentrations proj ected for Hanford HLW streams in order to determine their effects on glass production rate, processing characteristics, glass redox conditions, melt pool foaming, and the tendency to form secondary phases. Such melter tests provide information on key process factors such as feed processing behavior, dynamic effects during processing, processing rates, off-gas amounts and compositions, foaming control, etc., that cannot be reliably obtained from crucible melts.

  3. Variables Controlling Entry into and Exit from the Steady-State, One of Two Modes of Feeding in Aplysia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nimrod; Marcovich, Silvia; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aplysia feeding is a model system for examining the neural mechanisms by which changes in motivational state control behavior. When food is intermittently present, Aplysia eat large meals controlled by a balance between food stimuli exciting feeding and gut stimuli inhibiting feeding. However, when food is continuously present animals are in a state in which feeding is relatively inhibited and animals eat little. We examined which stimuli provided by food and feeding initiate steady-state inhibition of feeding, and which stimuli maintain the inhibition. Results Multiple stimuli were found to control entry into the steady-state inhibition, and its maintenance. The major variable governing entry into the steady-state is fill of the gut with bulk provided by food, but this stimulus cannot alone cause entry into the steady-state. Food odor and nutritional stimuli such as increased hemolymph glucose and L-arginine concentrations also contribute to inhibition of feeding leading to entry into the steady-state. Although food odor can alone cause some inhibition of feeding, it does not amplify the effect of gut fill. By contrast, neither increased hemolymph glucose nor L-arginine alone inhibits feeding in hungry animals, but both amplify the inhibitory effects of food odor, and increased glucose also amplifies the effect of gut fill. The major variable maintaining the steady-state is the continued presence of food odor, which can alone maintain the steady-state for 48–72 hrs. Neither increased glucose nor L-arginine can alone preserve the steady-state, although they partially preserve it. Glucose and arginine partially extend the effect of food odor after 72 hrs. Conclusions These findings show that control of Aplysia feeding is more complex than was previously thought, in that multiple inhibitory factors interact in its control. PMID:23028872

  4. Variables controlling entry into and exit from the steady-state, one of two modes of feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nimrod; Marcovich, Silvia; Susswein, Abraham J

    2012-01-01

    Aplysia feeding is a model system for examining the neural mechanisms by which changes in motivational state control behavior. When food is intermittently present, Aplysia eat large meals controlled by a balance between food stimuli exciting feeding and gut stimuli inhibiting feeding. However, when food is continuously present animals are in a state in which feeding is relatively inhibited and animals eat little. We examined which stimuli provided by food and feeding initiate steady-state inhibition of feeding, and which stimuli maintain the inhibition. Multiple stimuli were found to control entry into the steady-state inhibition, and its maintenance. The major variable governing entry into the steady-state is fill of the gut with bulk provided by food, but this stimulus cannot alone cause entry into the steady-state. Food odor and nutritional stimuli such as increased hemolymph glucose and L-arginine concentrations also contribute to inhibition of feeding leading to entry into the steady-state. Although food odor can alone cause some inhibition of feeding, it does not amplify the effect of gut fill. By contrast, neither increased hemolymph glucose nor L-arginine alone inhibits feeding in hungry animals, but both amplify the inhibitory effects of food odor, and increased glucose also amplifies the effect of gut fill. The major variable maintaining the steady-state is the continued presence of food odor, which can alone maintain the steady-state for 48-72 hrs. Neither increased glucose nor L-arginine can alone preserve the steady-state, although they partially preserve it. Glucose and arginine partially extend the effect of food odor after 72 hrs. These findings show that control of Aplysia feeding is more complex than was previously thought, in that multiple inhibitory factors interact in its control.

  5. Neuroendocrine control of appetite in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): changes during metamorphosis and effects of feeding.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana S; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Olsen, Kjetil; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2015-05-01

    Hormones and neuropeptides play a crucial role in the appetite control system of vertebrates, yet few studies have focused on their importance during early teleost development. In this study, we analysed the expression patterns of the appetite-controlling factors ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC-C), and cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART) by quantitative PCR. Transcript expression was investigated in response to feeding in developing Atlantic halibut larvae: before (premetamorphic stage 5) and during metamorphosis (stages 8 and 9B), and also in response to a fast-refeed challenge. We show that ghrelin transcript expression increased in synchrony with stomach development, while CART was significantly reduced during larval development. PYY was up-regulated 1 and 3 h after feeding in stage 5. Transcript abundance of other appetite-controlling factors did not change in response to feeding. Fasting-refeeding trials (majority of larvae in metamorphosing stage 7) revealed a down-regulation of POMC-C 30 min after refeeding, while ghrelin, PYY and NPY transcript expression increased 2, 4 and 5 h after refeeding, respectively. In summary, transcripts for key appetite-controlling factors were detected early during development in Atlantic halibut and their emergence was not correlated with metamorphosis, with the exception of ghrelin. Our results suggest that PYY may mediate satiety early in larval development. The differing response times of POMC-C, ghrelin, PYY and NPY to a meal are intriguing and require further exploration to understand the role of each player in appetite control.

  6. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms. PMID:28208697

  7. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control †.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-02-08

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant's intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  8. Control of feeding movements in the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus. III. Organization of the feeding rhythm generator.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky YuI; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N; Panchin YuV

    1988-01-01

    (1) Neurons of different groups (for group classification, see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) have been polarized through an intracellular recording microelectrode in Planorbis corneus buccal ganglia during feeding rhythm generation. Group 1 neurons, active in the quiescence (Q) and in the protractor (P) phases of the cycle, and also group 2 and 4 neurons, active in the retractor (R) phase, have proved to be "influential", i.e., altering the rhythm generator operation. (2) Injection of a depolarizing current into group 1 neurons caused an increase of the rate of depolarization that neurons of this group exhibit in the Q- and P-phases of the feeding cycle. As a result, Q-phase shortened, the P-phase became longer, and the feeding rhythm accelerated. Opposite effects occurred when a hyperpolarizing current was injected into group 1 neurons. In some of the experiments, the hyperpolarization of group 1 neurons resulted in cessation of both their activity and the activity of all other protractor neurons. As a result, the P-phase of the cycle disappeared, i.e., the rhythm generator transited from A mode of operation to B mode. (3) With hyperpolarization of individual group 2 or 4 neurons, excitation of the R-phase neurons was delayed and the feeding rhythm phase shifted. This delay was accompanied by the enhanced activity of protractor neurons. (4) A generator model is considered in which two groups (1 and 2) of endogeneously active neurons are coordinated by the excitatory effect of group 1 on group 2 and the inhibitory action of group 2 on group 1. (5) Evidence is given that the different modes of rhythm generator operation (A, B and C, see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) are determined by different tonic inflow to group 1 neurons.

  9. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Engeman, Richard M; Hyatt, Doreene R; Gilliland, Rickey L; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Clark, Larry; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Linz, George M

    2011-02-16

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe

  10. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  11. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  12. Dietary biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in women from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Johanna W; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Song, Xiaoling; Schoeller, Dale A; Kim, Soyoung; Raftery, Daniel; Di, Chongzhi; Zheng, Cheng; Schwarz, Yvonne; Van Horn, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia A; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    Controlled human feeding studies are necessary for robust nutritional biomarker development and validation. Previous feeding studies have typically evaluated single nutrients and tested relatively few diets. The objectives were 1) to simultaneously associate dietary intake with a range of potential nutritional biomarkers in postmenopausal women by using a controlled feeding study whereby each participant was provided a diet similar to her usual diet and 2) to evaluate serum concentrations of select nutrients as potential biomarkers with the use of established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein as benchmarks for evaluation. Postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 153) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet in which each individual's menu approximated her habitual food intake as estimated from her 4-d food record and adjusted for estimated energy requirements. Serum biomarkers, including carotenoids, tocopherols, folate, vitamin B-12, and phospholipid fatty acids, were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding period. Doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen biomarkers were used to derive estimates of energy and protein consumption, respectively. Linear regression of (ln-transformed) consumed nutrients on (ln-transformed) potential biomarkers and participant characteristics led to the following regression (R(2)) values for serum concentration biomarkers: folate, 0.49; vitamin B-12, 0.51; α-carotene, 0.53; β-carotene, 0.39; lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.46; lycopene, 0.32; and α-tocopherol, 0.47. R(2) values for percentage of energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids and urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intakes were 0.27, 0.53, and 0.43, respectively. Phospholipid saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids and serum γ-tocopherol were weakly associated with intake (R(2) < 0.25). Serum concentration biomarkers of several vitamins and carotenoids performed similarly to established energy and protein

  13. Control of Y₂O₃ phase and its nanostructure formation through a very high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.K.; Park, E.K.; Park, J.J.; Rhee, C.K.

    2013-05-01

    The formation behavior of Y₂O₃ ceramic particles was studied by employing a very high energy ball milling (milling energy: ~165 kJ/g·hit, milling speed: 1000 rpm). Both the XRD and HRTEM studies revealed that the high impact strain energy generated during the milling caused a drastic phase transition from the original C-type cubic (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) to the metastable B-type monoclinic (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å), finally followed by a partial solid-state amorphization. The cubic phase was difficult to be reduced down to smaller than 10 nm, while the monoclinic phase was stabilized at sizes smaller than 10 nm with a mean crystallite size of 7.57 nm. Consequently, the existence of Y₂O₃ at a nanoscale smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming metastable monoclinic crystals, which are strain-induced. - Graphical abstract: The fig shows the solid-state phase formation of Y₂O₃ by very high energy input into the particles during milling: ordered body-centered cubic phase (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) nanocrystalline monoclinic phase (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å) disordered monoclinic phase partial amorphous phase. The formation of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm was strongly dependent on whether the phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred. Highlights: • This paper analyses very high energy milling behavior of coarse Y₂O₃ particles. • A drastic phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred with a partial amorphization. • An existence of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming strain-induced monoclinic crystals.

  14. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: a review.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-04-01

    feed cost per unit of pork produced provided that their price per unit NE or digestible lysine is less than that of the traditional feedstuffs and that negative effects of their ANF are controlled.

  15. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  16. Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for the control of grey mould of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Kanetis, Loukas; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Charalambous, Zinovia; Goulas, Vlasios

    2017-01-01

    Consumer concerns regarding high-quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimise or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan-based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the grey mould of table grapes. HPLC-SPE-NMR and q-NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol and the 12-methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L(-1) with CHIT against grey mould was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4% to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post-inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of fruit weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan-based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physico-chemical properties of grapes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Efforts to explain and control the prolonged thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Kalogeraki, Maria; Mari, Eirini; Stratakis, Emmanouil; Terzakis, Stelios; Boytzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Zampetakis, Leonidas

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of different bulking agents in different ratios as a means to control, optimise and eventually reduce the duration of the thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS) composting. The bulking agents used were: (i) olive tree leaves (OTL), (ii) olive tree shredded branches (OTB) and (iii) woodchips (WDC). The selection of these materials was based on their abundance and availability on the island of Crete, the southernmost point of Greece. The ratios studied were: Pile 1, OOMS:OTL in 1:1 v/v; Pile 2, OOMS:WDC in 1:1.5 v/v; Pile 3, OOMS:OTL in 1:2 v/v; Pile 4, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:1 v/v; and Pile 5, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:2 v/v. The composting system used was that of windrows with the volume of each pile approximately 20-25 m3. The experiments took place over two consecutive years. A composting turner was used and turnings were performed at one and two week intervals. In each pile a variety of physiochemical parameters were monitored. Temperature remained high in all five trials. Piles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 temperatures recorded values of above 50 degrees C for 106, 158, 160, 175 and 183 days, respectively. Volumes were reduced by approximately 67%, 62%, 63%, 80% and 84%, respectively. Temperature remained high, mainly due to the presence in large amounts of oily substances which during their complete oxidation release important amounts of energy and aid the cometabolism of more stable molecules such as lignin. This process is better described as the slow "burning" of a "fuel" mixture in an "engine" than composting. This approach is based on the extensive similarities of this process to that of crude oil sludge or similar waste composting.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Slow Versus Rapid Enteral Feeding Advancements on the Clinical Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F; Mannan, M A; Dey, A C; Nahar, N; Hasan, Z; Jahan, I; Dey, S K; Shahidullah, M

    2017-04-01

    Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants. A total 95 infants were enrolled into two strata according to their birth weight. Infants of each stratum were randomly allocated to either slow or rapid advancement group during initiation of feeding. After gut priming over five days, feeding was advanced daily 10ml/kg in slow and 15ml/kg in rapid advancement group for 1000 - <1250gm weighing infants. For 1250 - <1500gm weighing infants, feeding was advanced daily 15ml/kg in slow and 20ml/kg in rapid advancement group. The primary outcome variable was time taken to achieve full enteral feed. Total 82 infants completed the trial. Demographically both groups were same. Infants in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full enteral feedings before the slow advancement group, had significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition and regained birth weight earlier. There were no statistical differences in episodes of feed interruption, number of infants with apnea, feed intolerance or diagnosis of sepsis. Rapid enteral feeding advancements were well tolerated by very low birth weight infants.

  19. [Nasogastric tube feeding in bulimia. Controlled study with follow-up at 3 months].

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Daniel; Brayer, Véronique; Biton-Jélic, Violaine; Païs, Vanessa; Pennacchio, Hélène; Brun, Jean-Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Few effective treatments are available for severe forms of bulimia nervosa, which are accompanied by malnutrition, anxiety, and depressive mood. We previously showed in an open study that nasogastric tube feeding (TF) reduced binges and purging in patients with anorexia nervosa. This prospective randomized trial compared bulimia patients in two treatment groups: one group received TF at home, together with psychotherapy, nutritional counseling and a support group while the control group received only psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and a support group. Patients in the first group underwent TF for 8 weeks (exclusively for 10 days and associated with meals thereafter). Assessment was based on clinical examination, laboratory results, and a variety of questionnaires (our in-house instrument for measuring binge and vomiting episodes, eating disorder inventory, Beck's depression inventory and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety), all performed at the onset of treatment and at 8 days, 8 weeks (i.e., the end of TF), and 3 months after treatment began. Binges and vomiting disappeared faster and more frequently in TF patients than in the control group: 65% versus 29% (p<0.01). Three months later, these remained less frequent in the TF group than among controls (52% versus 33%, p=0.064). Nutritional status, depression, and anxiety improved more among the TF than control subjects (p<0.05). Tube feeding was effective in these patients with bulimia nervosa, reducing the number of binge and vomiting episodes and improving nutritional status and mood.

  20. Regulation of Feed-forward and Feedback Strategies at the Human Ankle during Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    Finley, James M.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of sway during quiet stance have often been approximated by the movement of an unstable inverted pendulum. Controlling this unstable load requires the nervous system to balance the reliance on feed-forward volitional activation and feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. It has been demonstrated that reflex excitability is heightened when postural stability is threatened by destabilizing forces in the environment. However, the relationship between postural stability, volitional activation, and stretch reflex excitability remains unclear. We addressed this question by characterizing feed-forward and feedback activation strategies during balance of a simulated inverted pendulum. We hypothesized that feed-forward co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would scale together as the external support provided by the environment was reduced. Electromyographic (EMG) responses in 5 muscles of the lower limb were used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the simulated loads. Our results revealed that co-contraction magnitude did indeed scale with increasingly destabilizing torques; however reflex amplitude was attenuated as stability was reduced. These findings suggest that the contribution of feedback mechanisms to postural stability depends on both the level of stability provided by the environment and how the environment influences the pattern of volitional activation. PMID:19965100

  1. Central pattern generation involved in oral and respiratory control for feeding in the term infant.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Steven M

    2009-06-01

    Drinking and eating are essential skills for survival and benefit from the coordination of several pattern generating networks and their musculoskeletal effectors to achieve safe swallows. Oralpharyngoesophageal motility develops during infancy and early childhood, and is influenced by various factors, including neuromuscular maturation, dietary and postural habits, arousal state, ongoing illnesses, congenital anomalies, and the effects of medical or surgical interventions. Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent in neonates and infants, and its role in neonatal morbidity including dysphagia, chronic lung disease, or apparent life-threatening events is not well understood. This review highlights recent studies aimed at understanding the development of oral feeding skills, and cross-system interactions among the brainstem, spinal, and cerebral networks involved in feeding. Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation through the first year of life, which can be delayed or modified by sensory experience or disease processes, or both. Relevant central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system CPG interactions. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents accelerates pattern genesis for the suck CPG and transition-to-oral feed in the RDS preterm infant. The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions, which optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote safe swallows among newborn and pediatric patients.

  2. Discrete neurochemical coding of distinguishable motivational processes: insights from nucleus accumbens control of feeding.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2007-04-01

    The idea that nucleus accumbens (Acb) dopamine transmission contributes to the neural mediation of reward, at least in a general sense, has achieved wide acceptance. Nevertheless, debate remains over the precise nature of dopamine's role in reward and even over the nature of reward itself. In the present article, evidence is reviewed from studies of food intake, feeding microstructure, instrumental responding for food reinforcement, and dopamine efflux associated with feeding, which suggests that reward processing in the Acb is best understood as an interaction among distinct processes coded by discrete neurotransmitter systems. In agreement with several theories of Acb dopamine function, it is proposed here that allocation of motor effort in seeking food or food-associated conditioned stimuli can be dissociated from computations relevant to the hedonic evaluation of food during the consummatory act. The former appears to depend upon Acb dopamine transmission and the latter upon striatal opioid peptide release. Moreover, dopamine transmission may play a role in 'stamping in' associations between motor acts and goal attainment and perhaps also neural representations corresponding to rewarding outcomes. Finally, evidence is reviewed that amino acid transmission specifically in the Acb shell acts as a central 'circuit breaker' to flexibly enable or terminate the consummatory act, via descending connections to hypothalamic feeding control systems. The heuristic framework outlined above may help explain why dopamine-compromising manipulations that strongly diminish instrumental goal-seeking behaviors leave consummatory activity relatively unaffected.

  3. Effects of plant water stress on vector feeding behaviors that control acquisition and inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding behavior by vectors of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, directly controls Xf transmission (especially acquisition and inoculation). The present study tested whether plant water stress affects vector performance of acquisition an...

  4. Fuzzy SPC filter for a feed-forward control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Ross, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a signal filter for a feed-forward controller based on the application of fuzzy logic combined with statistical process control (SPC), The feed-forward controller is for a three-phase oil field centrifuge. The centrifuge system is used to separate meta-stable three-phase emulsions consisting of oil and water stabilized by solids. These emulsions are considered to be unusable wastes and must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The centrifuge is capable of turning these wastes into clean saleable oil, water that can be reused in an operating process or re-injected into oil wells and, solids that can be disposed of in landfills. The feed-forward controller is used for feed disturbance rejection. It works in conjunction with and, is capable of over-riding the actions of, a feedback controller. The measured feed variables for the feed-forward controller each exhibit reasonably large random fluctuations. It is therefore quite important to use a signal filter that truly recognizes the difference between random noise and a 'caused' event, in order to prevent overriding a perfectly good correction from the feedback controller.

  5. Handheld NIRS sensors for routine compound feed quality control: Real time analysis and field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Modroño, Sagrario; Soldado, Ana; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances achieved in different sensor technologies and computer processing data have made possible to respond the needs of livestock sector, providing precise and rapid information on feed composition, being an alternative to real time quality control on compound feed the use of handheld NIRS sensors. This work aimed to evaluate two hand-held portable NIR spectrophotometers for on-site and real time analysis of nutritive parameters in raw compound feed: Phazir 1624 Polychromix Inc (PhIR) and MicroNIR(TM) 1700 by JDSU (MICRO). For computing data, different combinations of pre-treatments and multivariate statistical methods have been assayed to extract the valuable information of spectra data and to develop appropriate calibrations. The calibration models displayed greatest predictive capacity for Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF) and Starch (STCH) and the determination coefficients of cross validation were 0.90-0.88 for CP, 0.85-0.91 for CF, 0.89-0.88 and 0.89-0.91 for STCH using PhIR and MICRO instruments respectively. Dry Matter showed the lowest determination coefficients of cross validation 0.67-0.73. Accuracy achieved 99-101% for both NIRS instruments and no differences were found when applying tstudent-test comparing reference and predicted data. Results obtained with both instruments were compared by using standard deviation and not significant differences were observed at the 5% level. Results so far have demonstrated the potential of these handheld NIRS instruments proposed here to estimate the individual compound feeds composition changes at farms level instantly, time avoiding the disadvantage of moving the samples to the lab.

  6. Control of antenna-feed attitude and reflector vibrations in large spaceborne antennas by mechanical decoupling and movable dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Hong, E. C.; Sarina, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Simple, practical methods for damping reflector vibrations and designing antenna-feed attitude control systems in large deployable spaceborne antennas are proposed. The former involves a movable damper which is positioned so that the rate-of-change of total vibrational energy is minimized. The latter introduces a mechanical decoupler between the flexible boom and the antenna-feed, whereby the feed-attitude control system can be designed independent of boom dynamics. The validity of these approaches are substantiated by analytical studies, computer simulation, and experimental studies.

  7. Control of antenna-feed attitude and reflector vibrations in large spaceborne antennas by mechanical decoupling and movable dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Hong, E. C.; Sarina, J. S.

    1983-07-01

    Simple, practical methods for damping reflector vibrations and designing antenna-feed attitude control systems in large deployable spaceborne antennas are proposed. The former involves a movable damper which is positioned so that the rate-of-change of total vibrational energy is minimized. The latter introduces a mechanical decoupler between the flexible boom and the antenna-feed, whereby the feed-attitude control system can be designed independent of boom dynamics. The validity of these approaches are substantiated by analytical studies, computer simulation, and experimental studies.

  8. Prevention of unintentional weight loss in nursing home residents: a controlled trial of feeding assistance.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Sandra F; Keeler, Emmett; Zhuo, Xiaohui; Hickey, Kelly A; Sato, Hui-Wen; Schnelle, John F

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of a feeding assistance intervention on food and fluid intake and body weight. Crossover controlled trial. Four skilled nursing homes (NHs). Seventy-six long-stay NH residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. Research staff provided feeding assistance twice per day during or between meals, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. Research staff independently weighed residents at baseline and monthly during a 24-week intervention and 24-week control period. Residents' food and fluid intake and the amount of staff time spent providing assistance to eat was assessed for 2 days at baseline and 3 and 6 months during each 24-week period. The intervention group showed a significant increase in estimated total daily caloric intake and maintained or gained weight, whereas the control group showed no change in estimated total daily caloric intake and lost weight over 24 weeks. The average amount of staff time required to provide the interventions was 42 minutes per person per meal and 13 minutes per person per between-meal snack, versus usual care, during which residents received, on average, 5 minutes of assistance per person per meal and less than 1 minute per person per snack. Two feeding assistance interventions are efficacious in promoting food and fluid intake and weight gain in residents at risk for weight loss. Both interventions require more staff time than usual NH care. The delivery of snacks between meals requires less time than mealtime assistance and thus may be more practical to implement in daily NH care practice.

  9. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed × breed approach.

    PubMed

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-06

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (p<0.001) as well as in study II (p=0.012). Breed, animal age, live weight, sex and the interaction of breed and treatment did not affect FEC in either study. The main nematode genera found in the sacrificed lambs of study II were Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55

  10. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called "feeding regulatory neuropeptides." There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides. For example, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, and motilin, which are regarded as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, have no effect on feeding behavior in birds. Furthermore, ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone, which are also known as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, suppress feeding behavior in birds. Thus, it is likely that the feeding regulatory mechanism has changed during the evolution of vertebrates. This review summarizes the recent knowledge of peptidergic feeding regulatory factors in birds and discusses the difference in their action between birds and other vertebrates.

  11. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  12. Association of breastfeeding with maternal control of infant feeding at age 1 year.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Scanlon, Kelley S; Birch, Leann; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, compared with bottle-feeding, may promote maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine whether preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration are associated with less maternal restrictive behavior and less pressure to eat. We studied 1160 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main outcome measures were mothers' reports of restricting their children's food intake and of pressuring their children to eat more food, as measured by a modified Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) at 1 year postpartum. Restriction was defined by strongly agreeing or agreeing with the following question from the modified CFQ: "I have to be careful not to feed my child too much." We derived a continuous pressure to eat score from 5 questions of the modified CFQ. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, breastfeeding duration, and mothers' restriction of children's access to food. We used multiple linear regression, both before and after adjusting for several groups of confounders, to predict the effects of breastfeeding on the mothers' scores for pressuring their children to eat. The mean (SD) age of the women was 32.4 (4.8) years; 24% of the women were nonwhite, and 32% were primigravidas. At 6 months postpartum, 24% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding, 25% were mixed feeding, 41% had weaned, and 10% had fed their infants formula only. The mean (SD) duration of breastfeeding was 6.3 (4.5) months. Thirteen percent of the mothers strongly agreed or agreed with the

  13. Parental control over feeding and children's fruit and vegetable intake: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan; Cooke, Lucy

    2005-02-01

    To replicate the finding of a negative association between parental control and fruit and vegetable consumption in girls. To extend the investigation to boys and examine sex differences. To test the hypothesis that children's food neophobia explains this association. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included items assessing parents' and children's fruit and vegetable intake, the Parental Control Index, and the Child Food Neophobia Scale. Parents of 564 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from 22 London nursery schools. Relationships between continuous variables were examined with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Sex differences were tested using independent sample t tests, and sex differences in correlations were assessed from their 95% confidence intervals. Parental control and children's food neophobia were entered into a hierarchical multiple regression to test the hypothesis that neophobia explains the association between parental control and children's fruit and vegetable intake. We replicated the finding that parental control was correlated with children's fruit and vegetable consumption and found no significant sex differences. Parental fruit and vegetable consumption and children's food neophobia were also strong predictors of children's fruit and vegetable consumption, and both were associated with parental control, suggesting that they might explain the association between control and intake. Controlling for children's food neophobia and parental intake reduced the association of parental control with children's fruit and vegetable intake to nonsignificance. These findings emphasize the importance of systematic research about associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary habits so that dietetics professionals can give parents sound advice.

  14. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  15. 6. Level 7, launder feeding vibrating screens, view to southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Level 7, launder feeding vibrating screens, view to southeast. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. Teaching Parents About Responsive Feeding Through a Vicarious Learning Video: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Tracey; Robinson, Jessica; Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2017-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using community-based participatory research methods. Fifty parents of preschoolers were randomly assigned to watch Happier Meals or a control video about education. Knowledge and beliefs about RF practices were measured 1 week before and immediately after intervention. Experimental group participants also completed measures of narrative engagement and video acceptability. Seventy-four percent of the sample was White, 90% had at least a college degree, 96% were married, and 88% made >$50,000/year. RF knowledge increased ( p = .03) and positive beliefs about some unresponsive feeding practices decreased ( ps < .05) more among experimental than control parents. Knowledge and belief changes were associated with video engagement ( ps < .05). Parents perceived Happier Meals as highly relevant, applicable, and informative. Community-based participatory research methods were instrumental in developing this vicarious learning video, with preliminary evidence of effectiveness in teaching parents about RF. Happier Meals is freely available for parents or community health workers to use when working with families to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood.

  17. Postteneral protein feeding may improve biological control efficiency of Aphytis lingnanensis and Aphytis melinus.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha, Pilar; Papacek, Dan; Verdú, Maria Jesús; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The augmentative releases of mass-reared Aphytis spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoids are widely used against armored scales. The nutritional status and the initial egg load of Aphytis spp. females are key to their success as biological control agents. For these reasons, this work focuses on the study of providing a protein feed to Aphytis lingnanensis (Compere) and A. melinus DeBach to improve the egg load before their release. The addition of protein to a honey diet during the first 2 d after the adult parasitoid emergence increased the initial egg load in both species of parasitoids by more than five eggs. Furthermore, the addition of protein increased the total number of eggs laid by A. lingnanensis on oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii Bouché (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). In contrast, this effect was not observed on A. melinus probably because A. nerii is considered a suboptimal host for this parasitoid. The host-feeding activities of the two Aphytis species were differentially affected by the addition of protein to their diets. These results may have direct implications for augmentative biological control programs, especially during transportation from insectaries to the field, a period of time when parasitoids are deprived of hosts.

  18. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  19. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions.

  2. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  3. A randomised-controlled trial in England of a postnatal midwifery intervention on breast-feeding duration.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Louise M; Dunn, Orla M; Alder, Elizabeth M; Inch, Sally; Hills, Robert K; Law, Susan M

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether postnatal 'hands off' care by midwives on positioning and attachment of the newborn baby improves breast-feeding duration. Mothers were randomised at the first postnatal feed to receive either care by a midwife trained in the experimental protocol or by a control midwife undertaking routine care. Eight wards in four English Midlands hospitals. 370 primiparous mothers with term babies who intended to breast feed, and could sit out of bed to do so. Experimental protocol of verbal-only advice on positioning and attachment, delivered at the first postnatal ward feed compared with routine care by a qualified midwife. Duration of breast feeding up to 17 weeks as assessed by diaries and interviews with mothers and protocol adherence from self-completed checklist by the midwife. The mothers' self-reported experience of care and support before, during and after delivery were assessed at 6 weeks, and feeding outcomes and employment status at 17 weeks. Experimental group mothers more often held the baby across their lap and received 'hands off advice', but fewer babies in the experimental than control groups attached and fed: 59% (106/180) vs. 67% (118/175), p=0.1. No significant differences were found in the numbers of mothers breast feeding at 6 or 17 weeks in the experimental and control groups (stopped exclusive breast feeding: 76% (130/172) vs. 77% (126/163) at 6 weeks; 96% (167/174) vs. 96% (161/168) at 17 weeks; odds ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.22; p=0.8; stopped any breast feeding: 35% (61/172) vs. 32% (53/167) at 6 weeks; 63% (109/173) vs. 60% (101/167) at 17 weeks; odds ratio 1.10, 0.84 to 1.45; p=0.5). There were no significant differences in the incidence of problems with breast feeding and care experienced by mothers before or during hospitalisation (other than at the first postnatal ward feed), nor after discharge home. No significant beneficial effect was found on breast-feeding duration of the verbal- only advice on positioning and

  4. Control of Absence Seizures by the Thalamic Feed-Forward Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingming; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    As a subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies, absence epilepsy is believed to be caused by pathological interactions within the corticothalamic (CT) system. Using a biophysical mean-field model of the CT system, we demonstrate here that the feed-forward inhibition (FFI) in thalamus, i.e., the pathway from the cerebral cortex (Ctx) to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and then to the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus that are also directly driven by the Ctx, may participate in controlling absence seizures. In particular, we show that increasing the excitatory Ctx-TRN coupling strength can significantly suppress typical electrical activities during absence seizures. Further, investigation demonstrates that the GABAA- and GABAB-mediated inhibitions in the TRN-SRN pathway perform combination roles in the regulation of absence seizures. Overall, these results may provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how the thalamic FFI serves as an intrinsic regulator contributing to the control of absence seizures. PMID:28491031

  5. Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Kaushik, Priya

    2005-06-01

    Investigations were made to explore the potential of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings in to value added product, i.e., vermicompost. The growth and reproduction of E. foetida was monitored in a range of different feed mixtures for 77 days in the laboratory under controlled experimental conditions. The maximum growth was recorded in 100% cow dung (CD). Replacement of poultry droppings by cow dung in feed mixtures and vice versa had little or no effect on worm growth rate and reproduction potential. Worms grew and reproduced favourably in 70% poultry droppings (PD)+30% solid textile mill sludge (STMS) and 60% PD+40% STMS feed mixtures. Greater percentage of STMS in the feed mixture significantly affected the biomass gain and cocoon production. Net weight gain by earthworms in 100% CD was 2.9-18.2 fold higher than different STMS containing feed mixtures. The mean number of cocoon production was between 23.4+/-4.65 (in 100% CD) and 3.6+/-1.04 (in 50% PD+50% STMS) cocoons earthworm(-1) for different feed mixtures tested. Vermicomposting resulted in significant reduction in C:N ratio and increase in nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Total potassium, total calcium and heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) contents were lower in the final product than initial feed mixtures. Our trials demonstrated vermicomposting as an alternate technology for the recycling and environmentally safe disposal/management of textile mill sludge using an epigeic earthworm E. foetida if mixed with poultry droppings.

  6. Errors in emergency feeds in inherited metabolic disorders: a randomised controlled trial of three preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Gokmen-Ozel, H; Daly, A; Davies, P; Chahal, S; MacDonald, A

    2010-10-01

    Glucose polymer-based emergency feeds (EF), used during illness to prevent metabolic decompensation and encephalopathy in inherited metabolic disorders, should be produced accurately and safely. In a randomised, prospective, controlled study, the aim was to investigate if when preparing age-appropriate EF, a pre-measured sachet of glucose polymer, compared with scoops and weighing (using digital scales), decreased carer errors. 47 carers (3 men, 44 women) of 52 inherited metabolic disorders patients were recruited. The carers made EF using all three techniques (weighing, scoops and pre-measured sachets) under supervision in controlled and home conditions. A 100-ml aliquot of each EF was analysed for carbohydrate concentration. Under controlled preparation conditions, with 1 litre EFs, the % median glucose polymer concentration closest to target amounts was (1) pre-measured sachets (105%), (2) weighing (107%) and (3) scoops (118%; p<0.001). Similarly, under home conditions, the closest method was (1) pre-measured sachets (111%), (2) weighing (112%) and (3) scoops (118%; p<0.05). Under home preparation conditions, with 200 ml EFs, the pre-measured sachets were more likely to be within 20% of target weight than weighing (p<0.05), but there was no difference with scoops. Common errors observed were inaccurate water measurements (40% controlled and home conditions), incorrect scoop measurements and difficulty using digital scales. CONCLUSIONS; Overall, using pre-measured sachets was more accurate in EF production. Pre-measured sachets are likely to decrease preparation error and, therefore, reduce the risk of feed intolerance, particularly osmotic diarrhoea and consequential metabolic decompensation and encephalopathy.

  7. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  8. Central pattern generation involved in oral and respiratory control for feeding in the term infant

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Drinking and eating are essential skills for survival and benefit from the coordination of several pattern generating networks and their musculoskeletal effectors to achieve safe swallows. Oral-pharyngo-esophageal motility develops during infancy and early childhood, and is influenced by various factors, including neuromuscular maturation, dietary and postural habits, arousal state, ongoing illnesses, congenital anomalies, and the effects of medical or surgical interventions. Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent in neonates and infants, and its role in neonatal morbidity including dysphagia, chronic lung disease, or apparent life-threatening events is not well understood. This review highlights recent studies aimed at understanding the development of oral feeding skills, and cross-system interactions among the brainstem, spinal, and cerebral networks involved in feeding. Recent Findings Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation through the first year of life which can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Relevant central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system CPG interactions. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents accelerates pattern genesis for the suck CPG and transition-to-oral feed in the RDS preterm infant. Summary The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions which optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote safe swallows among newborn and pediatric patients. PMID:19417662

  9. Fabricating and controlling PCL electrospun microfibers using filament feeding melt electrospinning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Junghyuk; Ahsani, Vahid; Xiangxiao Yao, Selina; Mohtaram, Nima K.; Lee, Patrick C.; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    The process of melt electrospinning has received noteworthy attention due to its ability to fabricate micro scaled polymer fibers. Recently, a melt electrospinning process has been attracting attention for biomedical applications, in particular with scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering. In order to enhance cell attachment and proliferation on scaffolds, it is important to control fiber diameters to create an environment to which cells can attach, grow, and proliferate with ease. However, because electrospinning is a process with many parameters, it is particularly difficult to precisely control the diameter of the resulting fibers. Also, polymer powders or pellets melted in nozzles are typically used for melt electrospinning. However, a filament feeding melt electrospinning process has not been yet been implemented. In this study, we developed a melt electrospinning device which can feed PCL (Polycaprolactone, Mw: 80 000 g mol-1) filaments for advanced electrospun fiber diameter control. The PCL filaments were first fabricated by a small scale micro-compounder and then fed into the melting chamber of the electrospinning device. The system was then heated to a desired temperature, and the melt was extruded through a nozzle. The potential difference between the nozzle and counter electrode then drew down the PCL extrudate, creating fine microfibers. Temperature was controlled and monitored via a customized temperature control system. In order to control the dispensing of the PCL filaments, a customized control algorithm using NI (National Instruments) LabVIEW was used. In order to actively cool PCL filaments, a miniature computer fan was attached on the side of the melting chamber so that the filaments would not buckle. This paper reveals the investigation of significant process parameters that influence fiber diameters and their optimization. For instance, applied voltages, distances between the nozzle and a counter electrode, processing temperatures, and

  10. New inducible genetic method reveals critical roles of GABA in the control of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fantao; Han, Yong; Srisai, Dollada; Belakhov, Valery; Farias, Monica; Xu, Yong; Palmiter, Richard D; Baasov, Timor; Wu, Qi

    2016-03-29

    Currently available inducible Cre/loxP systems, despite their considerable utility in gene manipulation, have pitfalls in certain scenarios, such as unsatisfactory recombination rates and deleterious effects on physiology and behavior. To overcome these limitations, we designed a new, inducible gene-targeting system by introducing an in-frame nonsense mutation into the coding sequence of Cre recombinase (nsCre). Mutant mRNAs transcribed from nsCre transgene can be efficiently translated into full-length, functional Cre recombinase in the presence of nonsense suppressors such as aminoglycosides. In a proof-of-concept model, GABA signaling from hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) was genetically inactivated within 4 d after treatment with a synthetic aminoglycoside. Disruption of GABA synthesis in AgRP neurons in young adult mice led to a dramatic loss of body weight due to reduced food intake and elevated energy expenditure; they also manifested glucose intolerance. In contrast, older mice with genetic inactivation of GABA signaling by AgRP neurons had only transient reduction of feeding and body weight; their energy expenditure and glucose tolerance were unaffected. These results indicate that GABAergic signaling from AgRP neurons plays a key role in the control of feeding and metabolism through an age-dependent mechanism. This new genetic technique will augment current tools used to elucidate mechanisms underlying many physiological and neurological processes.

  11. New inducible genetic method reveals critical roles of GABA in the control of feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fantao; Han, Yong; Srisai, Dollada; Belakhov, Valery; Farias, Monica; Xu, Yong; Palmiter, Richard D.; Baasov, Timor; Wu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Currently available inducible Cre/loxP systems, despite their considerable utility in gene manipulation, have pitfalls in certain scenarios, such as unsatisfactory recombination rates and deleterious effects on physiology and behavior. To overcome these limitations, we designed a new, inducible gene-targeting system by introducing an in-frame nonsense mutation into the coding sequence of Cre recombinase (nsCre). Mutant mRNAs transcribed from nsCre transgene can be efficiently translated into full-length, functional Cre recombinase in the presence of nonsense suppressors such as aminoglycosides. In a proof-of-concept model, GABA signaling from hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) was genetically inactivated within 4 d after treatment with a synthetic aminoglycoside. Disruption of GABA synthesis in AgRP neurons in young adult mice led to a dramatic loss of body weight due to reduced food intake and elevated energy expenditure; they also manifested glucose intolerance. In contrast, older mice with genetic inactivation of GABA signaling by AgRP neurons had only transient reduction of feeding and body weight; their energy expenditure and glucose tolerance were unaffected. These results indicate that GABAergic signaling from AgRP neurons plays a key role in the control of feeding and metabolism through an age-dependent mechanism. This new genetic technique will augment current tools used to elucidate mechanisms underlying many physiological and neurological processes. PMID:26976589

  12. Establishing a Novel Model for 5-Axis Milling with a Filleted End Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Tsutomu; Obikawa, Toshiyuki; Hoshino, Michihiko

    This paper focuses on the mathematical modeling for 5-axis milling with a filleted end mill. Several coordinate systems are introduced to describe the relationship between a cutter orientation and a machined surface. Then, a cutting point on a cutting edge is geometrically formulated as an integrated form of some expressions. The fundamental simulations based on the modeling were implemented to investigate the characteristics of path-interval and feed-interval scallops on a machined surface; moreover, path interval determination is proposed for suitable estimation in filleted end milling. As a result, it was found that the proposed approach could provide the characteristics of microscopic topography in detail.

  13. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  14. Feed-Forward Control of Preshaping in the Rat Is Mediated by the Corticospinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Kim, Sangsoo; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Martin, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Rats are used to model human corticospinal tract (CST) injury and repair. We asked whether rats possess the ability to orient their paw to the reaching target and whether the CST mediates this skill, as it does in primates. To test this ability, called preshaping, we trained rats to reach for pieces of pasta oriented either vertically or horizontally. We measured paw angle relative to the target and asked whether rats used target information attained before contact to preshape the paw, indicating feed-forward control. We also determined if preshaping improved with practice. We then selectively lesioned the CST in the medullary pyramid contralateral to the reaching forepaw to test whether preshaping relies on the CST. Rats significantly oriented their paw to the pasta orientation before contact, demonstrating feed-forward control. Both preshaping and reaching efficiency improved with practice, while selective CST lesion abrogated both. The loss of preshaping was greatest for pasta oriented vertically, suggesting loss of supination, as seen with human CST injury. The degree of preshaping loss strongly correlated with the amount of skill acquired at baseline, suggesting that the CST mediates the learned component of preshaping. Finally, the amount of preshaping lost after injury strongly correlated with reduced retrieval success, showing an important functional consequence for preshaping. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, preshaping in the rat, and dependence of this skill on the CST. Understanding the basis for this skill and measuring its recovery after injury will be important for studying higher-level motor control in rats. PMID:21044175

  15. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of peer support on breast-feeding duration among primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Hodnett, Ellen; Gallop, Ruth; Chalmers, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    Background Most mothers stop breast-feeding before the recommended 6 months post partum. A systematic review showed that breast-feeding support programs by health care professionals did not substantially improve breast-feeding outcomes beyond 2 months post partum. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of peer (mother-to-mother) support on breast-feeding duration among first-time breast-feeding mothers. Methods We recruited 256 breast-feeding mothers from 2 semi-urban community hospitals near Toronto and randomly assigned them to a control group (conventional care) or a peer support group (conventional care plus telephone-based support, initiated within 48 hours after hospital discharge, from a woman experienced with breast-feeding who attended a 2.5-hour orientation session). Follow-up of breast-feeding duration, maternal satisfaction with infant feeding method and perceptions of peer support received was conducted at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post partum. Results Significantly more mothers in the peer support group than in the control group continued to breast-feed at 3 months post partum (81.1% v. 66.9%, p = 0.01) and did so exclusively (56.8% v. 40.3%, p = 0.01). Breast-feeding rates at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post partum were 92.4%, 84.8% and 81.1% respectively among the mothers in the peer support group, as compared with 83.9%, 75.0% and 66.9% among those in the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all time periods). The corresponding relative risks were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–2.72) at 4 weeks, 1.13 (95% CI 1.00–1.28) at 8 weeks and 1.21 (95% CI 1.04–1.41) at 12 weeks post partum. In addition, when asked for an overall rating of their feeding experience, significantly fewer mothers in the peer support group than in the control group were dissatisfied (1.5% v. 10.5%) (p = 0.02). Of the 130 mothers who evaluated the peer support intervention, 81.6% were satisfied with their peer volunteer experience and 100% felt that all new breast-feeding

  17. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  18. Administration of copper oxide wire particles in a capsule or feed for gastrointestinal nematode control in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Widespread anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants has necessitated alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) administered as a gelatin capsule or in a feed supplement to control GIN in goa...

  19. Case study of active array feed compensation with sidelobe control for reflector surface distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.; Zaman, A. J. M.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lee, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of electromagnetically compensating for reflector surface distortions has been investigated. The performance characteristics (gain, sidelobe levels, etc.) of large communication antenna systems degrade as the reflector surface distorts mainly due to thermal effects from a varying solar flux. The techniques described in this report can be used to maintain the design performance characteristics independently of thermal effects on the reflector surface. With the advent of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), a greater flexibility in array-fed reflector system design can be achieved. MMIC arrays provide independent control of amplitude and phase for each of many radiating elements of the feed array. It is assumed that the surface characteristics (x,y,z, its first and second derivatives) under distorted conditions are known.

  20. Hypothalamic tanycytes: potential roles in the control of feeding and energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Bolborea, Matei; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Tanycytes, glial-like cells that line the third ventricle, are emerging as components of the hypothalamic networks that control body weight and energy balance. They contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and send processes that come into close contact with neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. Tanycytes are glucosensitive and are able to respond to transmitters associated with arousal and the drive to feed. At least some tanycytes are stem cells and, in the median eminence, may be stimulated by diet to generate new neurons. The quest is on to understand how tanycytes detect and respond to changes in energy balance and how they communicate with the rest of the nervous system to effect their functions. PMID:23332797

  1. Tetrachlorvinphos as an ineffective feed additive in control of gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Noblet, G P

    1978-06-01

    Tetrachlorvinphos was evaluated for anthelmintic efficacy as a feed additive against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Tetrachlorvinphos was added to the mineral mixture of medicated cattle (n = 13) at the rate of 1.6 mg/day/kg of body weight for a 29-week period beginning May 2, 1975. Data suggest that the level of parasitism, as estimated by the number of nematode eggs per gram of feces, was not reduced by the addition of tetrachlorvinphos to the mineral mixture of medicated cattle. Results obtained from identification and quantification of nematodes recovered at necropsy from 6 medicated and 6 nonmedicated control heifers indicated that tetrachlorvinphos was ineffective as an anthelmintic against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

  2. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Kinetics and control of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria after chronic ethanol feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkeviciute, A; Mildaziene, V; Crumm, S; Demin, O; Hoek, J B; Kholodenko, B

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the kinetics and regulation of oxidative phosphorylation were characterized in isolated rat liver mitochondria after 2 months of ethanol consumption. Mitochondrial energy metabolism was conceptually divided into three groups of reactions, either producing protonmotive force (Deltap) (the respiratory subsystem) or consuming it (the phosphorylation subsystem and the proton leak). Manifestation of ethanol-induced mitochondrial malfunctioning of the respiratory subsystem was observed with various substrates; the respiration rate in State 3 was inhibited by 27+/-4% with succinate plus amytal, by 20+/-4% with glutamate plus malate, and by 17+/-2% with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine/ascorbate. The inhibition of the respiratory activity correlated with the lower activities of cytochrome c oxidase, the bc(1) complex, and the ATP synthase in mitochondria of ethanol-fed rats. The block of reactions consuming the Deltap to produce ATP (the phosphorylating subsystem) was suppressed after 2 months of ethanol feeding, whereas the mitochondrial proton leak was not affected. The contributions of Deltap supply (the respiratory subsystem) and Deltap demand (the phosphorylation and the proton leak) to the control of the respiratory flux were quantified as the control coefficients of these subsystems. In State 3, the distribution of control exerted by different reaction blocks over respiratory flux was not significantly affected by ethanol diet, despite the marked changes in the kinetics of individual functional units of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This suggests the operation of compensatory mechanisms, when control redistributes among the different components within the same subsystem. PMID:10880351

  4. Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2017-01-01

    The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications. Several bacterial components and metabolites have been shown to stimulate intestinal satiety pathways; at the same time, their production depends on bacterial growth cycles. This short-term bacterial growth-linked modulation of intestinal satiety can be coupled with long-term regulation of appetite, controlled by the neuropeptidergic circuitry in the hypothalamus. Indeed, several bacterial products are detected in the systemic circulation, which might act directly on hypothalamic neurons. This Review analyses the data relevant to possible involvement of the gut bacteria in the regulation of host appetite and proposes an integrative homeostatic model of appetite control that includes energy needs of both the host and its gut bacteria.

  5. Investigations into Salmonella contamination in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shenglin; Wu, Zongfen; Lin, Wei; Xu, Longxin; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0.66 % in 2011, while 4.3 % in 2010, 2.8 % in 2012, respectively. Twelve types of feed including concentrate, complete, self-made, and feed ingredients were inspected. Salmonella contamination mainly concentrated on animal protein material such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal. No Salmonella contamination was detected in feed yeast, microbial protein, rapeseed, and soybean meal. Salmonella contamination existed in each sector of feed production chain. This investigation provided a basic reference for feed production management and quality control in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

  6. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June, 2001 to September, 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient ‘control’ diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, American Heart Association (AHA) diet, Atkins® lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets’ total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins®, AHA, vegan, and the high-phytosterol DASH diet (163, 340, 445 and 500 mg/2000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9 ± 5.9% (mean±SD) of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies. PMID:19942022

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Primary Care-Based Child Obesity Prevention Intervention on Infant Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Gross, Michelle B; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effects of a child obesity prevention intervention, beginning in pregnancy, on infant feeding practices in low-income Hispanic families. The Starting Early randomized controlled trial enrolled pregnant women at a third trimester visit. Women (n = 533) were randomly allocated to a standard care control group or an intervention group participating in prenatal and postpartum individual nutrition/breastfeeding counseling and subsequent nutrition and parenting support groups coordinated with well-child visits. Outcome measures included infant feeding practices and maternal infant feeding knowledge at infant age 3 months, using questions adapted from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and an infant 24-hour diet recall. A total of 456 families completed 3-month assessments. The intervention group had higher prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding on the 24-hour diet recall (42.7% vs 33.0%, P = .04) compared with controls. The intervention group reported a higher percentage of breastfeeding vs formula feeding per day (mean [SD] 67.7 [39.3] vs 59.7 [39.7], P = .03) and was less likely to introduce complementary foods and liquids compared with controls (6.3% vs 16.7%, P = .001). The intervention group had higher maternal infant feeding knowledge scores (Cohen d, 0.29, 95% CI .10-.48). The effect of Starting Early on breastfeeding was mediated by maternal infant feeding knowledge (Sobel test 2.86, P = .004). Starting Early led to increased exclusive breastfeeding and reduced complementary foods and liquids in 3-month-old infants. Findings document a feasible and effective infrastructure for promoting breastfeeding in families at high risk for obesity in the context of a comprehensive obesity prevention intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01541761. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called “feeding regulatory neuropeptides.” There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides. For example, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, and motilin, which are regarded as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, have no effect on feeding behavior in birds. Furthermore, ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone, which are also known as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, suppress feeding behavior in birds. Thus, it is likely that the feeding regulatory mechanism has changed during the evolution of vertebrates. This review summarizes the recent knowledge of peptidergic feeding regulatory factors in birds and discusses the difference in their action between birds and other vertebrates. PMID:27853416

  12. Mechanical intervention for reducing dust concentration in traditional rice mills

    PubMed Central

    PRANAV, Prabhanjan K.; BISWAS, Mrinmoy

    2016-01-01

    A huge number of workers are employed in traditional rice mills where they are potentially exposed to dust. In this study a dust collection system was developed to capture the airborne dust in the rice mill. The feeding and sieving section of the mill was identified as major dust creating zone. The dust was captured by creating suitable air stream at feeding and sieving sections of the mill and collected in cyclone dust collector. The air stream was created by blower which was selected on the basis to get minimum air speed of 0.5 m/s in the working zones of workers. It was observed that the developed system is successfully collects the significant amount of dust and able to reduce the dust concentration up to 58%. Further, the respirable dust concentration reduced to below 5 mg/m3 throughout the mill which is within the recommended limit of dust exposure. PMID:26829976

  13. A systematic review on animal models of maternal high fat feeding and offspring glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Ainge, H; Thompson, C; Ozanne, S E; Rooney, K B

    2011-03-01

    The mechanistic link between obese parents and obese offspring and the relative role of genes, and a shared environment is not completely understood. Animal models help us to differentiate between genetic and environmental factors, and the interaction between the two. However, the willingness of researchers to blend results from multiple models makes it difficult for clear mechanisms to be identified for specific hypothesis-driven research. As such we conducted a systematic review of animal models of maternal high fat feeding in an effort to identify the affect on the offspring glycaemic control. Maternal and offspring outcomes are reported in an effort to identify possible relationships to facilitate and focus on future research. We present here data from 11 studies investigating glycaemic control in offspring exposed to a high fat diet (HFD) during maternal gestation only or gestation and lactation. Studies in this review identify a real risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in male offspring exposed to a maternal HFD. Poor glycaemic control in the offspring appears to be independent of maternal obesity, birth weight or post-weaning macronutrient intake. Inconsistencies between studies however, limit our capacity to identify mechanisms for the developmental origin of these diseases in animal models of overnutrition.

  14. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    PubMed

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  15. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  16. Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: what's so spatial about our methods?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial chemical injection (ICI) methods have been used to identify the locations in the brain where feeding behavior can be controlled acutely. Scientists conducting ICI studies often document their injection site locations, thereby leaving kernels of valuable location data for others to use to further characterize feeding control circuits. Unfortunately, this rich dataset has not yet been formally contextualized with other published neuroanatomical data. In particular, axonal tracing studies have delineated several neural circuits originating in the same areas where ICI injection feeding-control sites have been documented, but it remains unclear whether these circuits participate in feeding control. Comparing injection sites with other types of location data would require careful anatomical registration between the datasets. Here, a conceptual framework is presented for how such anatomical registration efforts can be performed. For example, by using a simple atlas alignment tool, a hypothalamic locus sensitive to the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can be aligned accurately with the locations of neurons labeled by anterograde tracers or those known to express NPY receptors or feeding-related peptides. This approach can also be applied to those intracranial “gene-directed” injection (IGI) methods (e.g., site-specific recombinase methods, RNA expression or interference, optogenetics, and pharmacosynthetics) that involve viral injections to targeted neuronal populations. Spatial alignment efforts can be accelerated if location data from ICI/IGI methods are mapped to stereotaxic brain atlases to allow powerful neuroinformatics tools to overlay different types of data in the same reference space. Atlas-based mapping will be critical for community-based sharing of location data for feeding control circuits, and will accelerate our understanding of structure-function relationships in the brain for mammalian models of obesity and metabolic disorders

  17. Development and implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point plans by several U.S. feed manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Herrman, Timothy J; Langemeier, Michael R; Frederking, Matt

    2007-12-01

    The commitment to consumer food safety, global trade, and proposed new regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has led to increased adoption of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) by the U.S. feed industry. A project supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Integrated Food Safety Initiate titled "Development and Implementation of a Voluntary HACCP Program for the US Feed Industry" enabled faculty from three land grant universities to assist individuals from 14 feed companies that collectively manufacture 15 million metric tons of feed in 100 facilities to develop HACCP plans. The process flow in these plans averaged 20 steps, and the most detailed plan included 60 process steps. Chemical hazards were more commonly identified in HACCP plans (average of four hazards per plan) than were biological hazards (average of one per plan). The most prevalent chemical hazards were cross-contamination of type A medicated articles and type B medicated feeds, aflatoxin, and wrong ingredient inclusion in feed. The most common biological hazard was mammalian protein contamination of feed ingredients and finished feed for cattle. An assessment of time and costs associated with developing HACCP plans revealed that approximately 29% of the companies needed additional personnel or additional equipment to implement a HACCP plan, and on average 268 additional person hours were needed to develop and implement a HACCP plan. Plan design, compliance monitoring, and record keeping were the three most time-consuming activities needed for developing and implementing a HACCP plan. The average cost of additional equipment needed to implement a HACCP plan was $250.

  18. Optimal control problems of mosquito-borne disease subject to changes in feeding behavior of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Masud, M A; Kim, Byul Nim; Kim, Yongkuk

    Dengue viruses (DENV) are transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. It is known that dengue virus infection in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes makes a change in the feeding behavior of the infected mosquitoes. In this study, using the forces of infection, we incorporated the effect of changes in the feeding behavior of mosquitoes into the standard vector-borne SIR-SI model. It has been proved that both a single-strain model and a two-strain model exhibit forward bifurcations. Moreover, optimal implementations of control with specific prevention measures for dengue transmission are analyzed. As a result we found that more implementation of controls on the secondary infection of humans should be considered for the behavioral changes in feeding of the infected mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Sung, C. C.; Liou, D. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Cha, H. C.

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars.

  20. Veterinary pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates in poultry litter from commercial farms and controlled feeding trials.

    PubMed

    Furtula, V; Farrell, E G; Diarrassouba, F; Rempel, H; Pritchard, J; Diarra, M S

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly used in poultry farming to prevent and treat microbial infections as well as to increase feed efficiency, but their use has created public and environmental health concerns. Poultry litter contains antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria; when applied as fertilizer, the level and effects of these pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate poultry litter for veterinary pharmaceuticals and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli. Litter samples were collected from controlled feeding trials and from commercial farms. Feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, penicillin, salinomycin, and virginiamycin, which were present in the feed on commercial farms and added to the feed in the controlled trials, were extracted in methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Sixty-nine E. coli were isolated and identified by API 20E. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was determined using Avian plates and the Sensititer automated system. This study confirmed the presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler litter from controlled environments as well as commercial farms, ranging from 0.07 to 66 mg/L depending on the compound. Concentrations of individual residues were higher in litter from controlled feeding trials than those from commercial farms. All E. coli isolates from commercial farms were multiresistant to at least 7 antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), tetracyclines, and sulfonamides was the most prevalent. This study concluded that broiler litter is a source of antimicrobial residues and represents a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli.

  1. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  2. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  3. Controlling the Ecotourist in a Wild Dolphin Feeding Program: Is Education the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orams, Mark B.; Hill, Greg J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an education program for tourists who hand-feed wild dolphins at Tangalooma, Moreton Island in eastern Australia was evaluated. Data were gathered on tourist behavior during feeding sessions before and after the education policy was implemented. After implementation of the education program, inappropriate behaviors such as…

  4. Controlling the Ecotourist in a Wild Dolphin Feeding Program: Is Education the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orams, Mark B.; Hill, Greg J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an education program for tourists who hand-feed wild dolphins at Tangalooma, Moreton Island in eastern Australia was evaluated. Data were gathered on tourist behavior during feeding sessions before and after the education policy was implemented. After implementation of the education program, inappropriate behaviors such as…

  5. Duration of breast feeding and bovine serum albumin antibody levels in type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Oyarzún, Amaya; Carrasco, Elena; Albala, Cecilia; Dorman, Janice S; Santos, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    To compare the levels of bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies and their relationship with duration of breast feeding, age of exposure to cow's milk, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQ) genotype in children with and without type 1 diabetes. Serum samples from 143 (0.3-14.7 yr) newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes and 107 unrelated control children (0.8-13.5 yr) were evaluated for BSA antibodies. Duration of breast feeding and exposure to cow's milk were recorded on questionnaires. HLA-DQ typing was determined by polymerase chain reaction. One hundred percent of the diabetic children were positive for BSA antibodies compared to 1.9% for healthy controls (p < 0.001). Diabetic children also had higher levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies than unrelated controls (55.1 vs. 17.8 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Duration of breast feeding (5.4 vs. 7.6 months, p < 0.02), but not age of exposure to cow's milk (8.3 vs. 9.2 months, p = 0.11), differed between cases and controls. There was no difference in antibody titer by duration of breast feeding or age of exposure to cow's milk in the cases or controls. Higher levels of antibodies to BSA were found in children recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes compared to the controls, particularly those with high or moderate HLA-DQ genotypes. The BSA profile, however, does not seem to depend on duration of breast feeding or age of exposure to cow's milk in this population.

  6. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  7. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the opening of a...

  8. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  9. A feed-forward controlled AC-DC boost converter for biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Lan, Di; Lin, Dahsien; Zhang, Junmin; Liou, Shyshenq; Shahnasser, Hamid; Shen, Ming; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2012-01-01

    Miniaturization is important to make implants clinic friendly. Wireless power transfer is an essential technology to miniaturize implants by reducing their battery size or completely eliminating their batteries. Traditionally, a pair of inductively-coupled coils operating at radio-frequency (RF) is employed to deliver electrical power wirelessly. In this approach, a rectifier is needed to convert the received RF power to a stable DC one. To achieve high efficiency, the induced voltage of the receiving coil must be much higher than the turn-on voltage of the rectifying diode (which could be an active circuit for low turn-on voltage) [1]. In order to have a high induced voltage, the size of the receiving coil often is significantly larger than rest of the implant. A rotating magnets based wireless power transfer has been demonstrated to deliver the same amount of power at much lower frequency (around 100 Hz) because of the superior magnetic strength produced by rare-earth magnets [2]. Taking the advantage of the low operating frequency, an innovative feed-forward controlled AC to DC boost converter has been demonstrated for the first time to accomplish the following two tasks simultaneously: (1) rectifying the AC power whose amplitude (500 mV) is less than the rectifier's turn-on voltage (1.44 V) and (2) boosting the DC output voltage to a much higher level (5 V). Within a range, the output DC voltage can be selected by the control circuit. The standard deviation of the output DC voltage is less than 2.1% of its mean. The measured load regulation is 0.4 V/kΩ. The estimated conversion efficiency excluding the power consumption of the control circuits reaches 75%. The converter in this paper has the potential to reduce the size of the receiving coil and yet achieve desirable DC output voltage for powering biomedical implants.

  10. Eggs in Early Complementary Feeding and Child Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Stewart, Christine P; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Waters, William F

    2017-07-01

    Eggs are a good source of nutrients for growth and development. We hypothesized that introducing eggs early during complementary feeding would improve child nutrition. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, from March to December 2015. Children ages 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg per day for 6 months [n = 83]) and control (no intervention [n = 80]) groups. Both arms received social marketing messages to encourage participation in the Lulun Project (lulun meaning "egg" in Kichwa). All households were visited once per week to monitor morbidity symptoms, distribute eggs, and monitor egg intakes (for egg group only). Baseline and end point outcome measures included anthropometry, dietary intake frequencies, and morbidity symptoms. Mothers or other caregivers reported no allergic reactions to the eggs. Generalized linear regression modeling showed the egg intervention increased length-for-age z score by 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47% (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77) and underweight by 74% (PR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.70). Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28-1.92) and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods (PR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) compared with control. The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved growth in young children. Generally accessible to vulnerable groups, eggs have the potential to contribute to global targets to reduce stunting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Novel method for producing amorphous cellulose only by milling.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Ryoichiro; Nishioka, Akihiro; Kano, Ichiro; Koda, Tomonori; Nishio, Taichi

    2014-02-15

    The present study investigated a novel method for producing amorphous cellulose by milling without adding water. A new type of milling machine was developed (called a shear and cooling milling machine (SCMM)), which was capable of applying mechanical shear and cooling during the milling process. The SCMM consisted of a pair of mortars attached to a servomotor and a ring cooler. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis was used to determine the cellulose crystallinity in samples produced using the SCMM at different milling temperatures. The results of WAXD for cellulose powder milled at lower temperatures exhibited no diffraction peaks. This experimental result demonstrates that the SCMM produces amorphous cellulose easily by cooled milling without the addition of water. The milling conditions, such as the applied shear and cooling, can be used to control the crystallinity of cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  13. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  14. Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, Dragan R.; Škrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health. PMID:22069600

  15. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  16. Solute transport with multisegment, equilibrium-controlled reactions: A feed forward simulation method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    The feed forward method (FF method) is one of the ways of formulating operational equations which simulate transport of solutes influenced by equilibrium-controlled reaction networks. The FF method provides increased solution efficiency by adapting its formulations to some of the network's fundamental features. In this study the FF method is further developed by adapting and testing it for a variety of network conditions. Classes of homogeneous, classical heterogeneous, and ion exchange network segments are studied. Networks may contain only a single class of segments or they may involve two or three segment classes. The FF method is found applicable to all the cases tested. In only one of these cases, for the more complex configurations of network segments, the FF method does not attain all of its objectives. A systematic, stepwise approach to method development is employed. It reveals, for certain subnetworks, an a priori inadmissibility, irrespective of the method used, and, for some other networks, an a priori irrelevance to transport dynamics. It also demonstrates that when certain subnetworks, belonging to different segment classes, form a single network, synergism (or antagonism) may occasionally arise and decrease (or increase) the difficulty of solving the transport problem.

  17. PEDF and IL-6 CONTROL PROSTATE NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION VIA FEED-FORWARD MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Norm D.; Schulze-Hoepfner, Frank Thilo; Veliceasa, Dorina; Filleur, Stephanie; Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xue-Mei; Volpert, Olga V.

    2010-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes differentiation and survival of neuronal cells and expands the adult neuronal stem cell niche. In the prostate, PEDF is suppressed by androgen, with unclear physiological consequences. Ectopic and endogenous PEDF cause neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, manifested by neurite-like outgrowths and expression of chromogranin A. The trans-differentiated cells expressed both axonal and dendritic markers, as was ascertained by immunoblotting specific markers. Neuroendocrine cells formed multiple synaptophysin-positive protrusions resembling dendritic spines, and vesicles containing serotonin, pointing to a possibility of synapse formation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a known trans-differentiating agent, induced PEDF secretion. Moreover, PEDF neutralizing antibodies abolished trans-differentiation of IL-6 treated cells, suggesting an autocrine loop. Neurogenic events were independent of cyclic AMP. Instead, PEDF activated, in this order, RhoA, NFκB and Stat3. Inhibitors of Rho, NFκB or STAT pathways abolished differentiation and synapse formation. Additionally, NFκB activation caused IL-6 expression. Thus we discovered that NFκB controls formation of neuronal communications in the prostate due to PEDF and defined a feed-forward loop where NFκB induction elicits Stat3 activation and pro-differentiating IL-6 expression causing further expansion of the neuroendocrine communications. Our findings point to the role of NFκB and PEDF in coordinated prostate development. PMID:18433784

  18. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  19. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Volke-Sepúlveda, Tania; González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470+/-7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145+/-10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  20. Vermiconversion of wastewater sludge from textile mill mixed with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry employing Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Kaushik, Priya; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2006-11-01

    Vermicomposting is commonly used for the management of organic wastes. We have investigated the potential of an epigeic earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to transform solid textile mill sludge (STMS) spiked with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry (BPS) into vermicompost to evaluate the feasibility of vermicomposting in industries for waste management. The growth and reproduction of E. foetida was monitored in a range of different feed mixtures for 15 weeks in laboratory under controlled experimental conditions. E. foetida did not survive in fresh STMS. But worms grew and reproduced in STMS spiked with BPS feed mixtures. A greater percentage of STMS in feed mixture affected biomass gain and cocoon production by earthworms. The maximum growth was recorded in 100% BPS. The net weight gain by E. foetida in 100% BPS was two-four-fold higher than STMS-containing feed mixtures. After 15 weeks, maximum cocoons (78) were counted in 100% BPS and minimum (26) in 60% BPS+40% STMS feed. Vermicomposting resulted in pH shift toward acidic, significant reduction in C:N ratio, and increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Microbial activity measured as dehydrogenase activity increased with time up to day 75 but decreased on day 90, indicating the exhaustion of feed and decrease in microbial activity. These experiments demonstrate that vermicomposting can be an alternate technology for the recycling and environmentally safe disposal/management of textile mill sludge using an epigeic earthworm, E. foetida, if mixed with anaerobically digested BPS in appropriate ratios.

  1. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A portion of each filtrate sample was freeze-dried and the resulting solids were analyzed for ash content. Adsorption experiments with calcium and barium were carried at 70{degrees}C in a temperature controlled incubator under continuous mixing in order to simulate the environment experienced by brownstock as it moves through the Q stage. In the calcium experiments, it was difficult to accurately determine the calcium adsorbed on the pulp by measuring the depletion of calcium in the aqueous phase. Consequently, the technique was modified. In the modified technique, the calcium-adsorbed pulp is acid washed again to release the calcium. The calcium concentration in the washings is measured, and the calcium adsorbed on the pulp is estimated by material balance. Measurement of calcium adsorption on the brownstock pulp fibers from the L-P/Samoa mill have been obtained.

  2. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  3. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

    Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

  5. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Nicotinic acid timed to feeding reverses tissue lipid accumulation and improves glucose control in obese Zucker rats[S].

    PubMed

    Kroon, Tobias; Baccega, Tania; Olsén, Arne; Gabrielsson, Johan; Oakes, Nicholas D

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of lipolysis, acutely reducing plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. However, a major FFA rebound is seen during rapid NiAc washout, and sustained exposure is associated with tolerance development, with FFAs returning to pretreatment levels. Our aim was to find a rational NiAc dosing regimen that preserves FFA lowering, sufficient to reverse nonadipose tissue lipid accumulation and improve metabolic control, in obese Zucker rats. We compared feeding-period versus fasting-period NiAc dosing for 5 days: 12 h subcutaneous infusion (programmable, implantable mini-pumps) terminated by gradual withdrawal. It was found that NiAc timed to feeding decreased triglycerides in liver (-47%; P < 0.01) and heart (-38%; P < 0.05) and reduced plasma fructosamine versus vehicle. During oral glucose tolerance test, plasma FFA levels were reduced with amelioration of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, timing NiAc to feeding resulted in a general downregulation of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes in liver. By contrast, NiAc timed to fasting did not reduce tissue lipids, ameliorate glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia, or alter hepatic DNL genes. In conclusion, NiAc dosing regimen has a major impact on metabolic control in obese Zucker rats. Specifically, a well-defined NiAc exposure, timed to feeding periods, profoundly improves the metabolic phenotype of this animal model. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

  8. Effect of Nasogastric Tube Feeding vs Nil per Os on Dysmotility in Acute Pancreatitis: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiemin; Pendharkar, Sayali A; O'Grady, Gregory; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that gastrointestinal motility is impaired in acute pancreatitis. Enteral nutrition, and more specifically nasogastric tube feeding, has emerged as a key treatment modality in patients with acute pancreatitis, but its effect on motility has not been investigated in this setting. The aim was to validate the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) in patients with acute pancreatitis and determine the effect of nasogastric tube feeding on GCSI. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. Patients were allocated to nasogastric tube feeding or nil per os within 24 hours of hospital admission. GCSI data from before randomization to 72 hours after randomization were analyzed. The test-retest reliability analysis was used to calculate Cronbach's α. Seventeen patients were randomized to nasogastric tube feeding and 18 to nil per os. Overall, the total GCSI score significantly decreased over the study (F = 8.537; P = .001) but was not significantly different between the 2 study groups during hospitalization (F = 1.159; P = .322). However, patients on nasogastric tube feeding did show improved appetite compared with nil per os (F = 3.526; P = .036). The GCSI was found to be a reliable tool in the setting of acute pancreatitis (Cronbach's α = 0.852). Nasogastric tube feeding does not appear to affect dysmotility symptoms in acute pancreatitis as measured by the GCSI, although appetite improved. Use of the simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive GCSI tool to evaluate motility is recommended in future clinical trials in pancreatology. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Effect of a peer support service on breast-feeding continuation in the UK: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Lucy; Freemantle, Nick; Khan, Khalid; Chambers, Jacky; Hamburger, Ros; Brown, Julia; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Macarthur, Christine

    2012-12-01

    to assess the effectiveness of a peer support worker (PSW) service on breast-feeding continuation. cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN16126175). Primary Care Trust, UK serving a multi-ethnic, socio-economically disadvantaged population. 2,724 women giving birth following antenatal care from 66 clinics: 33 clinics (1,267 women) randomised to the PSW service and 33 clinics (1,457 women) to usual care. 848 women consented to additional follow-up by questionnaire at 6 months. PSW service provided in the antenatal and postnatal period. any and exclusive breast feeding at 10-14 days obtained from routine computerised records and at 6 weeks and 6 months from a questionnaire. follow-up: 94% at 10-14 days, 67.5% at 6 months. There was no difference in any breast feeding at 10-14 days between intervention and usual care, odds ratio (OR) 1.07 (95% CI 0.87-1.31, p=0.54). Proportion of women reporting any breast feeding in the intervention group at 6 weeks was 62.7% and 64.5% in the usual care group OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.64-1.35); and at 6 months was 34.3% and 38.9%, respectively, OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.71-1.58). universal antenatal peer support and postnatal peer support for women who initiated breast feeding did not improve breast-feeding rates up to 6 months in this UK population. with high levels of professional support part of usual maternity care it may not be possible for low intensity peer support to produce additional benefit. More intensive or targeted programmes might be effective, but should have concurrent high quality evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal controlling feeding practices and girls’ inhibitory control interact to predict changes in BMI and eating in the absence of hunger from 5 to 7 y1234

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mothers use a range of feeding practices to limit children's intake of palatable snacks (eg, keeping snacks out of reach, not bringing snacks into the home), but less is known about the effects of these practices on children's eating and weight outcomes. Objective: The objective was to identify distinct feeding practice profiles and evaluate the interactive effects of these profiles and girls’ temperament (inhibitory control and approach) on girls’ eating behaviors and weight outcomes at 5 and 7 y. Design: Participants included 180 mother-daughter dyads; measures were mothers’ reports of controlling feeding practices and girls’ height and weight, eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at 5 y, and inhibitory control (a measure of behavioral inhibition) and approach (a measure of appetitive motivation) at 7 y. Results: Latent profile analysis of maternal feeding practices showed 4 feeding profiles based on maternal use of limit-setting practices and keeping snacks out of girls’ physical reach, a restrictive practice: Unlimited Access to Snacks, Sets Limits+Does Not Restrict Snacks, Sets Limits+Restricts High Fat/Sugar Snacks, and Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks. Girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks had a higher approach and EAH at 5 y. Low inhibitory control girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks or Unlimited Access to Snacks had greater increases in EAH and body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y. Conclusions: Effects of maternal control on girls’ EAH and BMI may differ by the type of practice used (eg, limit-setting or restrictive practices). Girls with low inhibitory control were more susceptible to the negative effects of low and high control. PMID:24284443

  11. Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olaussen, Morten; Holmedal, Øystein; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Brage, Søren; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-05-20

    Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow is a frequent condition with long-lasting symptoms. Corticosteroid injection is increasingly discouraged and there is little knowledge on the combined effect of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for acute conditions. We wanted to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy alone and combined with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, controlled study with one-year follow-up was conducted in a general practice setting in Sarpsborg, Norway. We included 177 men and women aged 18 to 70 with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis of recent onset (2 weeks to 3 months). They were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: physiotherapy with two corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy with two placebo injections or wait-and-see (control). Physiotherapy consisted of deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching, and eccentric exercises. We used double blind injection of corticosteroid and single blind assessments. The main outcome measure was treatment success defined as patients rating themselves completely recovered or much better on a six-point scale. One hundred fifty-seven patients (89 %) completed the trial. Placebo injection with physiotherapy showed no significant difference compared to control or to corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy at any follow-up. Corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy had a 10.6 times larger odds for success at six weeks (odds ratio 10.60, p < 0.01) compared to control (NNT = 3, 99 % CI 1.5 to 4.2). At 12 weeks there was no significant difference between these groups, but at 26 weeks the odds for success were 91 % lower (OR 0.09, p < 0.01) compared to control, showing a large negative effect (NNT = 5, 99 % CI 2.1 to 67.4). At 52 weeks there was no significant difference. Both control and placebo injection with physiotherapy showed a gradual increase in success. Acute lateral epicondylitis is a self-limiting condition where 3

  12. Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Peterson, Sabrina; Chen, Chu; Makar, Karen W.; Schwarz, Yvonne; King, Irena B; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; Kestin, Mark; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase-II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared to the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione-S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance, such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, cross-over feeding trial in humans (n=70), 3 test diets, (single- and double-“dose” cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared to a fruit-and-vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11 and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity, and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared to the basal diet (p<0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in: *1/*1 in both single and double-dose cruciferous diets compared to basal (p<0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to single-dose cruciferous (p<0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared to basal (p<0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals. PMID:19336732

  13. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  14. Time-restricted feeding in young men performing resistance training: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Forsse, Jeffrey S; Butler, Natalie K; Paoli, Antonio; Bane, Annie A; La Bounty, Paul M; Morgan, Grant B; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-03-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine eight weeks of resistance training (RT) with and without time-restricted feeding (TRF) in order to assess nutrient intake and changes in body composition and muscular strength in young recreationally active males. The TRF programme consisted of consuming all calories within a four-hour period of time for four days per week, but included no limitations on quantities or types of foods consumed. The RT programme was performed three days per week and consisted of alternating upper and lower body workouts. For each exercise, four sets leading to muscular failure between 8 and 12 repetitions were employed. Research visits were conducted at baseline, four, and eight weeks after study commencement. Measurements of total body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasound were obtained. Upper and lower body strength and endurance were assessed, and four-day dietary records were collected. TRF reduced energy intake by ∼650 kcal per day of TRF, but did not affect total body composition within the duration of the study. Cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii and rectus femoris increased in both groups. Effect size data indicate a gain in lean soft tissue in the group that performed RT without TRF (+2.3 kg, d = 0.25). Upper and lower body strength and lower body muscular endurance increased in both groups, but effect sizes demonstrate greater improvements in the TRF group. Overall, TRF reduced energy intake and did not adversely affect lean mass retention or muscular improvements with short-term RT in young males.

  15. Flatness-based model inverse for feed-forward braking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Edwin; Fehn, Achim; Rixen, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    For modern cars an increasing number of driver assistance systems have been developed. Some of these systems interfere/assist with the braking of a car. Here, a brake actuation algorithm for each individual wheel that can respond to both driver inputs and artificial vehicle deceleration set points is developed. The algorithm consists of a feed-forward control that ensures, within the modelled system plant, the optimal behaviour of the vehicle. For the quarter-car model with LuGre-tyre behavioural model, an inverse model can be derived using v x as the 'flat output', that is, the input for the inverse model. A number of time derivatives of the flat output are required to calculate the model input, brake torque. Polynomial trajectory planning provides the needed time derivatives of the deceleration request. The transition time of the planning can be adjusted to meet actuator constraints. It is shown that the output of the trajectory planning would ripple and introduce a time delay when a gradual continuous increase of deceleration is requested by the driver. Derivative filters are then considered: the Bessel filter provides the best symmetry in its step response. A filter of same order and with negative real-poles is also used, exhibiting no overshoot nor ringing. For these reasons, the 'real-poles' filter would be preferred over the Bessel filter. The half-car model can be used to predict the change in normal load on the front and rear axle due to the pitching of the vehicle. The anticipated dynamic variation of the wheel load can be included in the inverse model, even though it is based on a quarter-car. Brake force distribution proportional to normal load is established. It provides more natural and simpler equations than a fixed force ratio strategy.

  16. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  17. Comparisons of toxic baits for controlling the cockroach, Blattella germanica: attractiveness and feeding stimulation.

    PubMed

    Durier, V; Rivault, C

    2000-12-01

    Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.

  18. The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Itou, Takuya; Kitamura, Nobuo; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-06-28

    The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), which receives input from oral proprioceptors and projects to higher brain regions, is involved in mastication-induced modulation of satiation. To investigate how the Me5 is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior, we examined the effect of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the Me5 on feeding and exploratory behavior in mice. Mouse feeding and exploratory behaviors were analyzed using a food-search-compulsion-apparatus (FSCA), which was designed to distinguish between the two behaviors under standard living conditions. To assess anxiety in mice in an unfamiliar environment, exploratory activity was analyzed in an automated hole-board apparatus. Mice with bilateral Me5 lesions had unique feeding and exploratory behavior profiles in the FSCA compared with sham-operated mice. Me5-lesioned mice spent more time in the food chamber during each trial in the FSCA, but the number of entries into the food chamber was decreased by 40% compared to sham-operated mice. Moreover, Me5 lesions markedly inhibited exploratory behavior, manifested as low-frequency exploration. In spite of the low-frequency exploration in the FSCA, Me5 lesions had no effect on various exploratory activities analyzed in the hole-board apparatus, i.e., total locomotor activity, frequency and duration of rearing and head-dipping, and latency to the first head-dipping. These results suggest that the Me5 is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior through its ascending neuronal pathways in mice without modulating the emotional state.

  19. Feeding horses with industrially manufactured pellets with fungal spores to promote nematode integrated control.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José Ángel; Arroyo, Fabián Leonardo; Suárez, José; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana Filipa; Romasanta, Ángel; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Pedreira, José; de Carvalho, Luis Manuel Madeira; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María Sol; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Paz-Silva, Adolfo

    2016-10-15

    The usefulness of pellets industrially manufactured with spores of parasiticide fungi as a contribution to integrated nematode control was assessed in grazing horses throughout sixteen months. Two groups of 7 Pura Raza Galega autochthonous horses (G-T and G-P) were dewormed pour-on (1mg Ivermectin/kg bw) at the beginning of the trial, and other group (G-C) remained untreated. The G-P was provided daily with commercial pellets to which was added a mixture of fungal spores during the industrial manufacturing (2×10(6) spores of Mucor circinelloides and same dose of Duddingtonia flagrans/kg), and G-T and G-C received pellets without spores. The efficacy of the parasiticidal strategy was assessed by estimating the reduction in the faecal egg counts (FECR) and in the number of horses shedding eggs in the faeces (PHR), and also the egg reappearance periods (ERP). Blood analyses were performed to identify the changes in the red and white cell patterns. To ascertain if horses developed an IgG humoral response against the fungi, antigenic products collected from M. circinelloides and D. flagrans were exposed to the horse sera by using an ELISA. The faecal elimination of eggs of Parascaris equorum and strongyles ceased 2 weeks after treatment in G-T and G-P, thus the values of FECR and PHR were 100%. No P. equorum-eggs were detected later, and the strongyle egg reappearance period was 28 weeks in G-P, and 8 weeks in G-T. Strongyle egg-output values remained lower than 300 eggs per gram of faeces in the G-P, whereas numbers between 330 and 772 in G-C and G-T were recorded. Normal values for the erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit in horses consuming pellets with spores were recorded, and lower than normal in the other groups. Sensitization of horses to the fungal species was disproven. It is concluded that feeding horses with pellets industrially manufactured with fungal spores represents a very useful tool to implement an integrated control of helminths affecting

  20. Evaluation of Juvenile Hormone Analogues as Rodent Feed-Through Insecticides for Control of Immature Phlebotomine Sandflies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    association in many parts of the Middle East, control of the transmission of the agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis may also be possible. Key ...transform from fourth-instar larvae into pupa -form larvae before dying (Fig. 1). These larvae developed normally as second-, third- and fourth-instar larvae...but became an intermediate form between larva and pupa after they ceased feeding and cleared their guts. Pupa -form larvae survived for several days

  1. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited.Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol.Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period.Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P < 0.05) in total cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There

  2. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  3. Effect of evidence-based feeding guidelines on mortality of critically ill adults: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Finfer, Simon; Delaney, Anthony; Davies, Andrew R; Mitchell, Imogen; Dobb, Geoff

    2008-12-17

    Evidence demonstrates that providing nutritional support to intensive care unit (ICU) patients within 24 hours of ICU admission reduces mortality. However, early feeding is not universally practiced. Changing practice in complex multidisciplinary environments is difficult. Evidence supporting whether guidelines can improve ICU feeding practices and patient outcomes is contradictory. To determine whether evidence-based feeding guidelines, implemented using a multifaceted practice change strategy, improve feeding practices and reduce mortality in ICU patients. Cluster randomized trial in ICUs of 27 community and tertiary hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Between November 2003 and May 2004, 1118 critically ill adult patients expected to remain in the ICU longer than 2 days were enrolled. All participants completed the study. Intensive care units were randomly assigned to guideline or control groups. Guideline ICUs developed an evidence-based guideline using Browman's Clinical Practice Guideline Development Cycle. A practice-change strategy composed of 18 specific interventions, leveraged by educational outreach visits, was implemented in guideline ICUs. Hospital discharge mortality. Secondary outcomes included ICU and hospital length of stay, organ dysfunction, and feeding process measures. Guideline and control ICUs enrolled 561 and 557 patients, respectively. Guideline ICUs fed patients earlier (0.75 vs 1.37 mean days to enteral nutrition start; difference, -0.62 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.82 to -0.36]; P < .001 and 1.04 vs 1.40 mean days to parenteral nutrition start; difference, -0.35 [95% CI, -0.61 to -0.01]; P = .04) and achieved caloric goals more often (6.10 vs 5.02 mean days per 10 fed patient-days; difference, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.12 to 2.22]; P = .03). Guideline and control ICUs did not differ with regard to hospital discharge mortality (28.9% vs 27.4%; difference, 1.4% [95% CI, -6.3% to 12.0%]; P = .75) or to hospital length of stay (24.2 vs 24

  4. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central U...

  5. Evolution of vertebrate hemostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms in blood-feeding arthropods.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J

    2011-01-01

    Arthropods evolved blood-feeding lifestyles on more than 20 independent occasions. A comparison of sialomes (secretory salivary gland protein family repertoires) corroborates this and indicates that unique protein families are found for different blood-feeding lineages. Closely related lineages considered to have evolved blood-feeding behavior independently might share similar sets of protein families in their sialomes. No orthologous relationships or conserved functional mechanisms have, however, been found for these apparently related protein family members. This implies that sialomes were already defined before the divergence of these related lineages, but that the functions involved in blood feeding evolved at a later stage. Protein families prone to lineage-specific expansion (gene duplication) tend to be abundant with specialized functions associated with various gene duplicates. A central theme that seems to emerge from comparative sialomic analysis is that of the convergent evolution of modulatory strategies that targets host defenses even if the molecular mechanisms differ. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Teaching parents about responsive feeding through a vicarious learning video: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using com...

  7. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  8. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Yang, Y.T.; Smith, D.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  12. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  13. Maternal control of child feeding during the weaning period: differences between mothers following a baby-led or standard weaning approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2011-11-01

    A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.

  14. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Opapeju, F O; Pluske, J R; Kim, J C; Hampson, D J; Nyachoti, C M

    2013-04-01

    For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used to promote piglet growth at weaning through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. There are, however, increasing concerns in relation to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the potential of these and associated resistance genes to impact on human health. As a consequence, European Union (EU) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine and livestock production on 1 January 2006. Furthermore, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are not feasible alternatives/replacements to antibiotics because their excretion is a possible threat to the environment. Consequently, there is a need to develop feeding programs to serve as a means for controlling problems associated with the weaning transition without using antimicrobial compounds. This review, therefore, is focused on some of nutritional strategies that are known to improve structure and function of gastrointestinal tract and (or) promote post-weaning growth with special emphasis on probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, trace minerals and dietary protein source and level.

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  16. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  17. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yu, So Hyun; Seol, Geun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  18. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased. PMID:25959098

  19. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-05-11

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased.

  20. Feed-back of quality control data evaluation to production experience of mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelckmans, E.

    1988-04-01

    Quality Control is often defined as "The good implemented branch in the organization of the product flow, starting at the receipt of the feed materials of the products to be fabricated up to the delivery of the end products". This is a typical technical definition which is probably used for more than 50 years. A second more economically oriented definition is "Quality Control is the branch in the organization of the product flow with the aim to make this flow as cheep as possible". The latest is also the tool that is a quality support to the in real time fabrication process monitoring. Regulations of quality are widely applied to the nuclear fuel products and there has been some standardization and improvements in developing products, processes, measuring instruments and in fabrication technology. Quality Control is also adressed to the subject of quality costs and to make use of statistical methods. Quality Control data evaluation can be used as an immediate and fruitful feed-back to production. Therefore not only the quality characteristics have to be evaluated but also the fabrication process parameters have to be examined and have to be fitted to obtained results. In this paper three examples are taken at different steps of the mixed oxide fuel production: 1. The incoming acceptance controls of the plutonium dioxide powder and its feed-back to the master-blending fabrication step (Light Water Reactor and Fast Neutron Reactor fuels). 2. The atomic oxygen to metal ratio drift during intermediate storage related to the allowable time delay between fuel pellet sintering and fuel pellet loading into the cladding tubes (Fast Neutron Reactor fuels). 3. Geometrical density and thermal stability related to addition of additives, sintered scraps and sintering fabrication parameter conditions (Light Water Reactor fuels).

  1. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

    2017-04-01

    A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

  2. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

  5. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  7. Fasting and Feeding Signals Control the Oscillatory Expression of Angptl8 to Modulate Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Fabin; Wu, Rong; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Yuting; Azam, Md. Shofiul; Xu, Qian; Chen, Yaqiong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence implies a key role of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl8) in the metabolic transition between fasting and feeding, whereas much less is known about the mechanism of its own expression. Here we show that hepatic Angptl8 is rhythmically expressed, which involving the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation during feeding and fasting periods, respectively. In addition, Angptl8 mRNA is very unstable, which contributes to the nature of its daily rhythmicity by rapidly responding to fasting/feeding transition. To explore its pathological function in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced fatty liver, we reversed its suppression by glucocorticoids through adenoviral delivery of Angptl8 gene in mouse liver. Surprisingly, hepatic overexpression of Angptl8 dramatically elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels in DEX-treated mice, suggesting a metabolic interaction between Angptl8 and glucocorticoid signaling. Moreover, intracellular hepatic Angptl8 is implicated in the regulation of lipid homeostasis by the experiments with ectopic expression of a nonsecreted Angptl8 mutant (Δ25-Angptl8). Altogether, our data demonstrate the molecular mechanism of the diurnal rhythm of Angptl8 expression regulated by glucocorticoid signaling and LXRα pathway, and provide new evidence to understand the role of Angptl8 in maintaining plasma TG homeostasis. PMID:27845381

  8. An in vitro feeding assay to test acaricides for control of hard ticks.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Thomas; Guerin, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    Animal husbandry could not be practised over large areas of the planet without acaricides. The prevention of tick bite and the transmission of diseases requires the use of pesticides, but this contributes to the development of tick resistance against acaricides. This drives the quest for new molecules that target physiological processes crucial to tick survival. In vivo trials involve multiple repetitions because of inherent variations between host animals, requiring large amounts of test products and ticks. An in vitro alternative should permit the testing of the ability of a product to restrict attachment and feeding by ticks at precise doses. In this paper an in vitro feeding system is described where the European tick Ixodes ricinus L. feeds on blood through a cellulose rayon-reinforced silicone membrane. The membrane Shore hardness is modified to imitate the elastic retraction forces of skin that ensure the closing of tick penetration sites on the membrane to prevent bleeding. Tick attachment (75-100%) is achieved by adding chemical and mechanical stimuli to the membrane. Survival curves for different doses of fipronil and ivermectin tested with the method showed highly reproducible acaricide effects within 5-7 days. Significant effects are recorded down to ppb levels in blood. Standardised tests can be made with blood from the same donor animal or culture medium under the membrane. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part II: preliminary limits for radioactive waste melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B; Iverson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Melter redox control is necessary for safe and continued melter operation. A combination of feed composition control, melter operational controls and monitors, and periodic determination of product glass redox state is sufficient to meet operating and safety requirements. Mossbauer spectroscopy, or other methods which determine the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of the glass product, can be used to determine the oxidation state of the glass and thereby assess operating conditions. Slightly reducing conditions can eliminate radio-Ru volatility by suppressing the formation of RuO4. Reducing conditions also limit foaming resulting from the release of oxygen as transition metal oxides are dissolved in the melt. The calcination and partial combustion of organic compounds in the melter feed generates combustible mixtures of CO, H2 and benzene. The organics must be essentially completely incinerated to avoid the accumulation of combustible offgas mixtures, and prevent fouling of the equipment by soot and tars. Operation of the melter plenum above the autoignition temperature, metering in of purge air in excess of that required for complete combustion, and dilution by water vapor from reacted feed all preclude this occurrence in the melter. Prevention of dangerous offgas compositions after water vapor removal is assured by combustion in the melter, the addition of dilution air, and by continuous monitoring by % Lower Explosive Limit meters. Melter reducing power must be restricted to prevent formation of molten sulfides or selenides in the melter, and to prevent carburization and sulfidation attack of Inconel-690 melter components. Control of average oxygen partial pressure in the melter plenum is insufficient to assure prevention of localized attack of Inconel-690. An additional requirement is therefore necessary, that no soot or tarry substances be deposited on the Inconel-690.

  13. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-28

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC-MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC-MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  14. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed. PMID:28787882

  15. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  17. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2...

  18. Predictors of head start and child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices with children aged 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Donovan, Sharon M; Cho, Hyun Keun

    2014-09-01

    Few child-care providers meet the national recommendations for healthful feeding practices. Effective strategies are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on child-care providers' feeding practices is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices for children aged 2 to 5 years. In this cross-sectional study, child-care providers (n=118) from 24 center-based programs (six Head Start [HS], 11 Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and seven non-CACFP) completed self-administered surveys during 2011-2012. Multilevel multivariate linear regression models were used to predict seven feeding practices. Working in an HS center predicted teaching children about nutrition and modeling healthy eating; that may be attributed to the HS performance standards that require HS providers to practice healthful feeding. Providers who reported being concerned about children's weight, being responsible for feeding children, and had an authoritarian feeding style were more likely to pressure children to eat, restrict intake, and control food intake to decrease or maintain children's weight. Providers with nonwhite race, who were trying to lose weight, who perceived nutrition as important in their own diet, and who had a greater number of nutrition training opportunities were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices. These findings suggest that individual- and child-care-level factors, particularly provider race, education, training, feeding attitudes and styles, and the child-care context may influence providers' feeding practices with young children. Considering these factors when developing interventions for providers to meet feeding practice recommendations may add to the efficacy of childhood obesity prevention programs.

  19. Development and validation of a multi-analyte method for the regulatory control of carotenoids used as feed additives in fish and poultry feed.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Ursula; Serano, Federica; von Holst, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are used in animal nutrition mainly as sensory additives that favourably affect the colour of fish, birds and food of animal origin. Various analytical methods exist for their quantification in compound feed, reflecting the different physico-chemical characteristics of the carotenoid and the corresponding feed additives. They may be natural products or specific formulations containing the target carotenoids produced by chemical synthesis. In this study a multi-analyte method was developed that can be applied to the determination of all 10 carotenoids currently authorised within the European Union for compound feedingstuffs. The method functions regardless of whether the carotenoids have been added to the compound feed via natural products or specific formulations. It is comprised of three steps: (1) digestion of the feed sample with an enzyme; (2) pressurised liquid extraction; and (3) quantification of the analytes by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to a photodiode array detector in the visible range. The method was single-laboratory validated for poultry and fish feed covering a mass fraction range of the target analyte from 2.5 to 300 mg kg(-)(1). The following method performance characteristics were obtained: the recovery rate varied from 82% to 129% and precision expressed as the relative standard deviation of intermediate precision varied from 1.6% to 15%. Based on the acceptable performance obtained in the validation study, the multi-analyte method is considered fit for the intended purpose.

  20. Mobilization of state program resources for a steel mill accident.

    PubMed

    Eakins, Jerry; Keaton, Harlan; Passetti, William; Cofer, Walter

    2002-05-01

    Radioactive materials in scrap metal are a serious problem for dealers and processors as well as for state radiation protection programs. Most large dealers and processors have monitoring devices that detect radiation sources at their scale house or feed to the furnaces. For example, in Florida since July 1995, a fiscal year average of 41 such alarms has been reported to the Department of Health's Bureau of Radiation Control. The majority of these alarms involve small amounts of radioactive material, usually naturally occurring radioactive material such as 226Ra, contained in luminous dials or scale associated with mining activities in the state. Occasionally, industrial devices that contain radioactive source material are found. The Bureau classifies these alarms as incidents, and inspectors are dispatched to help identify the source and determine the disposition of the material. On 13 July 2001, a steel mill in north Florida reported that a 137Cs source had been melted in their furnace. This paper describes the actions undertaken by the Bureau in assessing the extent of contamination and subsequent cleanup activities undertaken by the mill.

  1. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. Heralded Single Photons Based on Spectral Multiplexing and Feed-Forward Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimau Puigibert, M.; Aguilar, G. H.; Zhou, Q.; Marsili, F.; Shaw, M. D.; Verma, V. B.; Nam, S. W.; Oblak, D.; Tittel, W.

    2017-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel approach to a heralded single-photon source based on spectral multiplexing (SMUX) and feed-forward-based spectral manipulation of photons created by means of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal. As a proof of principle, we show that our three-mode SMUX increases the heralded single-photon rate compared to that of the individual modes without compromising the quality of the emitted single photons. We project that by adding further modes, our approach can lead to a deterministic single-photon source.

  3. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  4. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  5. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  6. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented.

  7. A Multifaceted Sampling Approach to Better Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrogeological Controls on Uranium Mobility at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, W. L.; Johnson, R. H.; Campbell, S.; Bone, S. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding uranium mobility in subsurface environments is not trivial. Obtaining sufficient data to accurately represent soil and aquifer characteristics can require unique approaches that evolve with added site knowledge. At Riverton, the primary source of uranium mill tailings remaining from ore processing was removed but contaminant plumes have persisted longer than predicted by groundwater modeling. What are the primary mechanisms controlling plume persistence? DOE is conducting new characterization studies to assist our understanding of underlying biogeochemical and hydrogeological mechanisms affecting secondary sources. A variety of field sampling techniques are being sequentially employed including augering, trenching, pore water sampling, and installing multi-level wells. In August 2012, vadose zone soil samples from 34 locations and groundwater from 103 boreholes were collected with Geoprobe ® direct push rods. Lower than expected uranium concentrations in composited shallow soils indicated the need for more focused and deeper samples. In May 2014, soil samples containing evaporites were collected along the bank of the Little Wind River; elevated uranium concentrations in evaporite minerals correlated with plume configurations and reflect contaminated groundwater discharge at the river. In September 2014, hand anger samples collected by the river and oxbow lake also indicated the presence of organic rich zones containing elevated uranium (>50 mg/kg). Subsequent samples collected from five backhoe trenches in May 2015 revealed a highly heterogeneous vadose zone composed of clay, silt, sand and cobbles containing evaporites and organic rich zones which may interact with groundwater plumes.Plans for August 2015 include sonic drilling to obtain continuous cores from the surface down to the base of the surficial aquifer with multi-level monitoring wells constructed in each borehole to assess vertical variation in groundwater chemistry. Temporary well

  8. Influence of Motion Errors of Feed Drive Systems on Machined Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Kentaro; Sato, Ryuta; Shirase, Keiichi

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the dynamic motion errors of feed drive systems and the machined surfaces. To achieve this purpose, a simulation method for a machined surface by peripheral milling is proposed. In the proposed method, the motion errors of a feed drive system and the machined surface are simulated based on tool diameter, number of flutes, spindle speed, and feed speed. In addition, to clarify the correctness of the proposed method, actual cutting tests are carried out. In the cutting tests, the control parameters of the machine tool are intentionally changed to obtain the motion errors. As the results of the cutting tests, it is confirmed that the influence of the motion errors of feed drive systems on machined surface can be predicted by the proposed simulation method. The relationship between the motion errors and machined surfaces is also examined based on the simulations.

  9. Early nasogastric tube feeding versus nil per os in mild to moderate acute pancreatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Maxim S; McIlroy, Kerry; Grayson, Lorraine; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A

    2013-10-01

    Nasojejunal tube feeding is a standard of care in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (AP) and several recent trials suggested that nasogastric tube feeding (NGT) is as safe and efficient as nasojejunal tube feeding in these patients. The aim was to investigate whether NGT presents any benefit to patients with mild to moderate AP. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The patients in the intervention group received NGT within 24 h of hospital admission. The patients in the control group were on nil per os (NPO). The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined according to the new international multidisciplinary classification. There were 17 patients randomly allocated to the NGT group and 18 to the NPO group. The visual analogue pain score decreased to a significantly greater extent in the NGT group (from median 9 (range 7-9) at baseline to 1 (0-3) at 72 h after randomization) compared with the NPO group (from 7 (5-9) to 3 (1-4) (p = 0.036). The number of patients not requiring opiates at 48 h after randomization was significantly different (p = 0.024) between NGT (9/17) and NPO (3/18). Oral food intolerance was observed in 1/17 patient in the NGT group and 9/18 patients in the NPO group (p = 0.004). The overall hospital stay in the NGT group was 9 (5-12) days as compared with 8.5 (6-13) days in the NPO group (p = 0.91). NGT commenced within 24 h of hospital admission is well tolerated in patients with mild to moderate acute pancreatitis. Further, when compared with NPO, it significantly reduces the intensity and duration of abdominal pain, need for opiates, and risk of oral food intolerance, but not overall hospital stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, AUTOMATIC FEED MECHANISM, DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, AUTOMATIC FEED MECHANISM, DRIVE SHAFT, AND BALL MILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE ARRASTRA. SEE CA-292-19 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, AUTOMATIC FEED MECHANISM, DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, AUTOMATIC FEED MECHANISM, DRIVE SHAFT, AND BALL MILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE ARRASTRA. SEE CA-292-10 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Reproduction effects on Monoporeia affinis of HPLC-fractionated sediment extracts from a pulp mill recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, A.K.; Sundelin, B.; Broman, Naef, C.

    1995-12-31

    Fractionated organic extracts of bottom sediments collected outside a pulp and paper mill on the coast of the Bothnian Sea were tested in soft bottom microcosms using the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. The pulp mill recipient was investigated in terms of changes in the biological effects of extracts from bottom sediments. Sediment samples (0--2 cm depth, corresponding to the period after changing the bleaching process at the mill to elemental chlorine free (ECF)-bleaching) from the mill recipient, as well as reference sediments from an uncontaminated area in the Baltic proper were Soxhlet-extracted with toluene. The extracts from the pulp mill recipient were fractionated on HPLC into fractions containing; aliphatic/monoaromatic, diaromatic and polyaromatic compounds respectively. Unextracted reference sediments were then dosed with the fractionated and the nonfractionated extracts and placed in soft bottom microcosm test systems, after which the amphipods were added. After an exposure period of 5 months, the following variables were studied: reproduction success, fecundity, embryonic development and different types of embryonic malformations. Results of experiments from two consecutive years showed that all fractionated extracts except the polyaromatic fraction were toxic. The effects of the separate fractions were of the same order as for the non-fractionated sediment extract as well as for a recombination of fractionated extracts, indicated that the main-toxicity is associated with the aliphatic/monoaromatic and diaromatic fractions. The sediment extract from the reference area exerted no toxicity in comparison with control microcosms without any addition of sediment extract.

  13. The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ≤14 days or control: reactive telephone calls ≤ day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8 weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8 weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8 weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows

  14. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  15. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  16. Early versus delayed oral feeding after cesarean delivery under different anesthetic methods--a randomized controlled trial anesthesia, feeding in cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yunus; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Oge, Tufan; Sahin, Fezan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of early feeding after cesarean delivery under different anesthetic methods. Two hundred women with elective cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to early oral feeding (EOF) or routine oral feeding (ROF) groups. EOF patients were informed that they could begin taking fluids orally (regime I) as soon as 2 hours after the delivery and then gradually progress to solid foods (regime III), if tolerated. ROF patients were informed that they could start regime I right after bowel sounds were heard on examination and then gradually move on to regime III. Hospitalization time and total time to ambulation (primary outcomes), gasstool discharge time and onset of bowel sounds (secondary outcomes) were compared in groups A [EOF patients after regional anesthesia (n=49)}, B [EOF patients after general anesthesia (n=48)}, C [ROF patients after regional anesthesia (n=47)} and 0 [ROF patients after general anesthesia (n=48)]. There were significant differences in primary and secondary outcomes between group A and the remaining groups, especially group D. The status of patients from group B was not better than group C. In fact, the latter were discharged home sooner and passage of gas, as well as initiation of regime I occurred earlier as compared to the former Cesarean section under regional anesthesia and encouragement of oral feeding 2 hours after the operation should be recommended in order to acnieve postoperative recovery and early hospital discharge. Routine oral feeding (right after bowel sounds are heard on examination) after cesarean section under general anesthesia should be the last choice.

  17. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pristerà, Alessandro; Lin, Wei; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Brimblecombe, Katherine R.; Threlfell, Sarah; Dodson, Paul D.; Magill, Peter J.; Fernandes, Cathy; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion of Foxa1/2 results in down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, specifically in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In addition, DA synthesis and striatal DA transmission were reduced after Foxa1/2 deletion. Furthermore, the burst-firing activity characteristic of SNc mDA neurons was drastically reduced in the absence of FOXA1/2. These molecular and functional alterations lead to a severe feeding deficit in adult Foxa1/2 mutant mice, independently of motor control, which could be rescued by l-DOPA treatment. FOXA1/2 therefore control the maintenance of molecular and physiological properties of SNc mDA neurons and impact on feeding behavior in adult mice. PMID:26283356

  19. Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of a social support intervention on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Scheiwe, Anja; Hardy, Rebecca; Watt, Richard G

    2010-10-01

    In a 4-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial, this study aimed to evaluate the longer-term effects of a peer-led infant feeding intervention that was delivered during the first year of life. The original intervention used monthly home visits from trained volunteers to improve infant feeding practices among a sample of low-income mothers in two disadvantaged London boroughs. Outcome measures at follow-up included children's eating and drinking habits, general and dental health, and BMI. Data were collected via structured face-to-face interviews and postal questionnaires. Of 212 women who completed the original trial, 101 took part in the follow-up (55 intervention, 46 control). Children's mean age at follow-up was 4 years 7 months. There is little evidence that the intervention had an important effect on children's current BMI, caries levels or consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, mothers from the intervention group had better nutritional knowledge and confidence. Intervention group children also consumed more pure fruit juice [relative risk (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 2.49] and were more likely to never drink squash (RR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.20, 2.58). The data suggest that the original peer support intervention had a small number of positive long-term effects. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. 10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. To the left of the horizontal (fluted) cylinder is the water pump which moved the boiler feed water through the engine's pre-heat system (the exhaust steam heated the boiler feedwater before it was pumped on to the boiler). The steam-feed port, manual throttle valve, and fly-ball governor and pulley and to the right of the cylinder. The drive shaft with flywheel to the left and pulley to the right are seen behind the piston rod, cross-head, wrist pen, connecting rod and the slide valve and eccentric. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. 21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model no. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. Steam-feed pipe at top left of engine. Steam exhaust pipe leaves base of engine on right end and projects upwards. The boiler feed and supply pipe running water through the engine's pre-heat system are seen running to the lower left end of the engine. Pulley in the foreground was not used. The centrifugals were powered by a belt running from the flywheel in the background. Ball-type governor and pulley are on left end of the engine. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  3. Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M; Beecher, Brian; Morris, Craig F; Curtis Hannah, L; Giroux, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    The texture of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds is important to seed processing properties, and soft dent maize is preferred for both wet-milling and livestock feed applications. The puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) are the functional components of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hardness locus and together function to create soft grain texture in wheat. The PINs (PINA and PINB) are believed to act by binding to lipids on the surface of starch granules, preventing tight adhesion between starch granules and the surrounding protein matrix during seed maturation. Here, maize kernel structure and wet milling properties were successfully modified by the endosperm-specific expression of wheat Pins (Pina and Pinb). Pins were introduced into maize under the control of a maize gamma-Zein promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic lines were evaluated over two growing seasons. Textural analysis of the maize seeds indicated that the expression of PINs decreased adhesion between starch and protein matrix and reduced maize grain hardness significantly. Reduction in pressure required to fracture kernels ranged from 15.65% to 36.86% compared with control seeds. Further, the PINs transgenic maize seeds had increased levels of extractable starch as characterized by a small scale wet milling method. Starch yield was increased by 4.86% on average without negatively impacting starch purity. The development of softer maize hybrids with higher starch extractability would be of value to maize processors.

  4. Furniture rough mill costs evaluated by computer simulation

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1983-01-01

    A crosscut-first furniture rough mill was simulated to evaluate processing and raw material costs on an individual part basis. Distributions representing the real-world characteristics of lumber, equipment feed speeds, and processing requirements are programed into the simulation. Costs of parts from a specific cutting bill are given, and effects of lumber input costs...

  5. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of

  6. Essential Oils as Biocides for the Control of Fungal Infections and Devastating Pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Bouayad Alam, Samira; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Tabti, Boufeldja; Gaouar Benyelles, Nassira; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and Al. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of Al. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55% to 80% with essential oil of Th. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while Te. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against Al. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0.4 μl/l air. The insecticidal activity of Th. capitatus and Te. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μl/ml air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of Th. capitatus, Te. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  8. Efficacy of topical Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) oil for migraine headache: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Maria; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Heydari, Mojtaba; Shariat, Abdolhamid

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of topical formulation of Rosa damascena Mill. (R. damascena) oil on migraine headache, applying syndrome diffrentiation model. Forty patients with migraine headache were randomly assigned to 2 groups of this double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The patients were treated for the first 2 consecutive migraine headache attacks by topical R. damascena oil or placebo. Then, after one week of washout period, cross-over was done. Pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache was recorded at the beginnig and ten-sequence time schadule of attacks up to 24h. In addition, photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea and/or vomitting (N/V) of the patients were recorded as secondary outcomes. Finally, gathered data were analysed in a syndrome differentiation manner to assess the effect of R. damascena oil on Hot- and Cold-type migraine headache. Mean pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache in the different time-points after R. damascena oil or placebo use, was not significantly different. Additionally, regarding mean scores of N/V, photophobia, and phonophobia severity of the patients, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. Finally, applying syndrome differentiation model, the mean score of migraine headache pain intensity turned out to be significantly lower in patients with "hot" type migraine syndrome at in 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min after R. damascena oil application compared to "cold" types (P values: 0.001, 0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.02; respectively). It seems that syndrome differentiation can help in selection of patients who may benefit from the topical R. damascena oil in short-term relief of pain intensity in migraine headache. Further studies of longer follow-up and larger study population, however, are necessitated for more scientifically rigorous judgment on efficacy of R. damascena oil for patients with migraine headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromagnetic guided bedside or endoscopic placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes in surgical patients (CORE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Arja; de Rooij, Thijs; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Busch, Olivier R; Bergman, Jacques J; Ubbink, Dirk T; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Erkelens, G Willemien; Molenaar, I Quintus; Monkelbaan, Jan F; Rosman, Camiel; Tan, Adriaan C; Kruyt, Philip M; Bac, Dirk Jan; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M; Besselink, Marc G

    2015-03-26

    Gastroparesis is common in surgical patients and frequently leads to the need for enteral tube feeding. Nasoenteral feeding tubes are usually placed endoscopically by gastroenterologists, but this procedure is relatively cumbersome for patients and labor-intensive for hospital staff. Electromagnetic (EM) guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses may reduce patient discomfort, workload and costs, but randomized studies are lacking, especially in surgical patients. We hypothesize that EM guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes is at least as effective as endoscopic placement in surgical patients, at lower costs. The CORE trial is an investigator-initiated, parallel-group, pragmatic, multicenter randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. A total of 154 patients admitted to gastrointestinal surgical wards in five hospitals, requiring nasoenteral feeding, will be randomly allocated to undergo EM guided or endoscopic nasoenteral feeding tube placement. Primary outcome is reinsertion of the feeding tube, defined as the insertion of an endoscope or tube in the nose/mouth and esophagus for (re)placement of the feeding tube (e.g. after failed initial placement or dislodgement or blockage of the tube). Secondary outcomes include patient-reported outcomes, costs and tube (placement) related complications. The CORE trial is designed to generate evidence on the effectiveness of EM guided placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes in surgical patients and the impact on costs as compared to endoscopic placement. The trial potentially offers a strong argument for wider implementation of this technique as method of choice for placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes. Dutch Trial Register: NTR4420 , date registered 5-feb-2014.

  10. Control of feeding movements in the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus. II. Activity of isolated neurons of buccal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky YuI; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N; Panchin YuV

    1988-01-01

    Isolated buccal ganglia of Planorbis corneus are capable of generating a feeding rhythm. In the present work, "rhythmic" neurons of different groups (see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) have been extracted, by means of an intracellular microelectrode, from the buccal ganglia. (1) After extraction, efferent neurons of groups 3, 5, 7, 9 and most group 4 neurons generated repeated spikes at a frequency controlled by a polarizing current. Any periodic oscillations, similar to those during feeding rhythm generation, were absent in these isolated neurons. It is concluded, therefore, that these neurons are "followers", that is, their rhythmic activity before extraction is determined by synaptic inputs from other neurons of the ganglia. (2) Isolated interneurons of groups 1 and 2 generated slow periodic oscillations similar to those observed in these neurons before their extraction. Subgroup 1e neurons generated smoothly growing depolarization accompanied by increasing spike activity; this depolarization was periodically interrupted by abrupt hyperpolarization, after which a new cycle started. Subgroup 1d neurons periodically generated short series of spikes. Group 2 neurons periodically generated a rectangular wave of depolarization with spike-like oscillations on its top. These results suggest that feeding rhythm generation in Planorbis is based on the endogenous rhythmic activity of group 1 and 2 neurons. (3) A pulse of hyperpolarizing current injected into an isolated neuron of subgroup 1e stopped the growth of depolarization in the neuron and reinitiated the process. This property as well as the character of the synaptic interactions of the interneurons (group 1 neurons excite those of group 2, while those of group 2 inhibit group 1 neurons; Arshavsky et al. 1988b) determine the alternating activity of groups 1 and 2.

  11. Preliminary survey report. Karastan Rug Mill, Fieldcrest Mills, Inc. , Eden, North Carolina, July 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1982-01-19

    A visit was made to the Karastan Rug Mill, Eden, North Carolina to evaluate control methods taken to protect workers from hazards associated with the use of adhesives. Adhesives were mixed in a small room just beyond the rollup area of the backsizing operation. In the backsizing operation, the carpet feed and roller/coating operations were followed by a drying oven, a cool-down unit, and the roll-up or doffing area. Two workers per shift were required on the backsizing line. The coating of the underside of the carpet with a latex adhesive binds the carpet fibers to the backing and stiffens the carpet. A styrene/butadiene (SBR) latex containing ammonia as an emulsion stabilizer was used as the base. Exhaust ventilation was used for the oven. Ammonia was the only contaminant noticeable in the workplace environment. At the edge of the coated carpet as it was entering the oven a level of 25 parts per million (ppm) ammonia was detected. A level of 30 ppm was detected alongside the coating rollers. A canopy hood was operated in the compounding room to draw away dust released when adding powdered chemicals to the reactor. An exhaust fan was mounted on the wall opposite the doorway of the latex storage building. If the carpet industry is included in the in-depth study phase, this site would be a prime candidate for a detailed survey.

  12. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  14. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  15. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  16. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  17. Parental concerns and control in feeding of 9 to 12-year-old children in a primary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Noor, Azimah M; Leelavathi, M; Shamsul, Azhar S; Hizlinda, T; Khairani, O; Fatimah, A

    2012-04-01

    Body weight of children is affected by many factors including food habits which are influenced by their parents. Studies in the West have shown that parents tend to control child feeding in response to their child's weight status. The aim of this study was to assess Malaysian parental concerns about child weight and the control they exert on child feeding. This cross-sectional study was conducted on parents and their children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary school in Kuala Lumpur. The weight status of the children was classified according to the body mass index-for-age growth chart. Parental concerns about child weight and control in child feeding was assessed using the adapted Malay version of Child Feeding Questionnaire. A total of 204 parents participated in this study. The study found that being a female served as a protective factor against becoming overweight (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.13-0.62). Parents with overweight children were significantly older (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.01-1.15), concerned about their child's weight (OR: 2.77, CI: 1.49-5.12) and controlled their child's feeding by restricting food intake (OR: 2.70, CI: 1.30-5.60). They were less likely to pressure their children to eat (OR: 0.32, CI: 0.19-0.56). Parents from the low income group were more likely to have underweight children (OR: 4.15, CI: 1.28-13.47). There was significant difference in level of parental concern across differing child weight status. Parents with overweight children were likely to be more concerned about their child's weight, tending to control their feeding. In contrast, parents with underweight children did not exert control on their feeding.

  18. Control of renal hemodynamics after protein feeding: role of calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Woods, L L; Smith, B E; De Young, D R

    1992-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the changes in renal hemodynamics that occur after a high-protein meal involve voltage-dependent calcium channels. In chronically instrumented female dogs, a 10-g/kg meal of raw beef caused plasma alpha-amino nitrogen levels to increase from 3.9 +/- 0.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.5 mg/dl after 90 min, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) rose from 59 +/- 6 to 85 +/- 7 ml/min, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) rose from 130 +/- 22 to 213 +/- 36 ml/min, and sodium excretion rose from 21 +/- 4 to 84 +/- 20 mu eq/min. On another day the dogs were pretreated with verapamil (0.075 mg/kg + 0.005 mg.kg-1.min-1 iv), which did not change arterial pressure significantly but increased GFR by 25 +/- 7% and ERPF by 23 +/- 5%. After a subsequent meat meal, plasma alpha-amino nitrogen increased from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 6.6 +/- 0.1 mg/dl but GFR, ERPF, and sodium excretion did not change significantly. On the other hand, pretreatment with dopamine, which caused a similar degree of vasodilation to that caused by verapamil, did not prevent the response to a subsequent meat meal. Thus verapamil specifically prevented the normal increases in renal hemodynamics after protein feeding, suggesting that protein-stimulated renal vasodilation requires intact voltage-dependent calcium channels.

  19. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  20. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-01-01

    Background Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. Methods A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master–slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master–slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Results Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. Conclusions The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271710

  1. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-06-01

    Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master-slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master-slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus-like (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) wing asymmetry under controlled conditions of population density and feeding frequency.

    PubMed

    Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2013-09-01

    Habitat change in Rhodnius spp may represent an environmental challenge for the development of the species, particularly when feeding frequency and population density vary in nature. To estimate the effect of these variables in stability on development, the degree of directional asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the wing size and shape of R. prolixus and R. robustus-like were measured under laboratory controlled conditions. DA and FA in wing size and shape were significant in both species, but their variation patterns showed both inter-specific and sexual dimorphic differences in FA of wing size and shape induced by nutrition stress. These results suggest different abilities of the genotypes and sexes of two sylvatic and domestic genotypes of Rhodnius to buffer these stress conditions. However, both species showed non-significant differences in the levels of FA between treatments that simulated sylvan vs domestic conditions, indicating that the developmental noise did not explain the variation in wing size and shape found in previous studies. Thus, this result confirm that the variation in wing size and shape in response to treatments constitute a plastic response of these genotypes to population density and feeding frequency.

  3. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  6. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  7. Sublethal Effects of Chlorine-Free Kraft Mill Effluents on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Soledad; López, Daniela; Brito, Pablina; Jarpa, Mayra; Piña, Benjamin; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-12-01

    The implementation of elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching methods has drastically reduced the aquatic toxicity of Kraft mill effluents during the last decade. However, the residual toxicity of Kraft mill effluents is still a potential concern for the environment, even when subjected to secondary wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is characterize potential sublethal effects of ECF Kraft mill effluents using Daphnia magna as model species. D. magna exposed towards increasing concentration of ECF Kraft mill effluent showed a significant, dose-dependent reduction in feeding. Conversely, post-feeding assay, life history, and allometric growth analyses showed stimulatory, rather than inhibitory effects in exposed animals at low concentrations, while high concentrations of ECF Kraft mill effluents reduced their reproductive output. These results suggest a hormetic effect in which moderate concentrations of the effluent had a stimulatory effect with higher concentrations causing inhibition in some variables.

  8. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization.

  9. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  10. Impact of counselling on exclusive breast-feeding practices in a poor urban setting in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ochola, Sophie A; Labadarios, Demetre; Nduati, Ruth W

    2013-10-01

    To determine the impact of facility-based semi-intensive and home-based intensive counselling in improving exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in a low-resource urban setting in Kenya. A cluster randomized controlled trial in which nine villages were assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio, by computer, to two intervention groups and a control group. The home-based intensive counselling group (HBICG) received seven counselling sessions at home by trained peers, one prenatally and six postnatally. The facility-based semi-intensive counselling group (FBSICG) received only one counselling session prenatally. The control group (CG) received no counselling from the research team. Information on infant feeding practices was collected monthly for 6 months after delivery. The data-gathering team was blinded to the intervention allocation. The outcome was EBF prevalence at 6 months. Kibera slum, Nairobi. A total of 360 HIV-negative women, 34-36 weeks pregnant, were selected from an antenatal clinic in Kibera; 120 per study group. Of the 360 women enrolled, 265 completed the study and were included in the analysis (CG n 89; FBSICG n 87; HBICG n 89). Analysis was by intention to treat. The prevalence of EBF at 6 months was 23.6% in HBICG, 9.2% in FBSICG and 5.6% in CG. HBICG mothers had four times increased likelihood to practise EBF compared with those in the CG (adjusted relative risk = 4.01; 95% CI 2.30, 7.01; P=0.001). There was no significant difference between EBF rates in FBSICG and CG. EBF can be promoted in low socio-economic conditions using home-based intensive counselling. One session of facility-based counselling is not sufficient to sustain EBF.

  11. "Great Job Cleaning Your Plate Today!" Determinants of Child-Care Providers' Use of Controlling Feeding Practices: An Exploratory Examination.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Blitch, Kimberly A; Williams, Natalie A

    2016-11-01

    National early childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers avoid controlling feeding practices (CFP) (eg, pressure-to-eat, food as reward, and praising children for cleaning their plates) with children to prevent unhealthy child eating behaviors and childhood obesity. However, evidence suggests that providers frequently use CFP during mealtimes. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2011) benchmarks for nutrition in child care as a framework, researchers assessed child-care providers' perspectives regarding their use of mealtime CFP with young children (aged 2 to 5 years). Using a qualitative design, individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers until saturation was reached. Providers were selected using maximum variation purposive sampling from varying child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP]-funded centers, non-CACFP programs). All providers were employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based child-care programs, cared for children (aged 2 to 5 years), and were directly responsible for serving meals and snacks. Child-care providers' perspectives regarding CFP. Thematic analysis using NVivo (version 9, 2010, QSR International Pty Ltd) to derive themes. Providers' perspectives showed barriers, motivators, and facilitators regarding their use of mealtime CFP. Providers reported barriers to avoiding CFP such as CFP were effective for encouraging desired behaviors, misconceptions that providers were encouraging but not controlling children's eating, and fear of parents' negative reaction if their child did not eat. Providers who did not practice CFP were motivated to avoid CFP because they were unnecessary for encouraging children to eat, and they resulted in negative child outcomes and obesity. Facilitators as an alternative to CFP included practicing healthful feeding practices such as role modeling, peer modeling, and sensory exploration of

  12. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  13. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  14. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  15. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  16. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  17. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  19. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  20. Integration of an autonomous optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preißler, Marc; Schellhorn, Mathias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    The integration of quality control in manufacturing process contains this paper and discusses the possibilities for integrated quality control in CNC milling machines without clamping off a workpiece. For these concepts non-contact measurements with image processing sensors have significant benefits for data acquisition in rapidity and a high grade of flexibility. New effective measurement strategies can be developed in effect of the quality controlling in the machining area. These includes classical geometric measurement applications from optical 2D but also options for 3D measurement tasks like determining roughness or other typical image processing applications. This paper presents the challenges for the implementation of an optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers. Primarily a suitable location in the machining area must be found and an associated strategy has to be developed. The integrated optical image sensor system should be protect against impurity and does not derogate in his functionality. For the full integration as a quality control loop, the results must feed into the machine control. Thus a further interface between measurement program and a machine control is necessary. Another major field of research exists in the optical components. Especially the illumination, image sensor and lens are selected and adaptable for the measurement tasks after the considerations of the above-mentioned basic requirements. The presented research provides a suitable solution to make the CNC manufacture more efficient. Quality controls of the work piece can be executed within the CNC process and potential post processing can be performed simultaneously.

  1. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K A; Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Stein, R B; Etienne-Cummings, R; Mushahwar, V K

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm; ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  2. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  3. Serum β-Glucuronidase Activity in Response to Fruit and Vegetable Supplementation: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Bigler, Jeannette; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake may lower the risk of some cancers. One hypothesized, but understudied, chemopreventive mechanism is that plant food constituents inhibit β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides. Methods We conducted a cross-over feeding trial in 63 healthy women and men aged 20−40 years, to examine the effect of diet on serum β-glucuronidase activity. Participants were randomized to 2 two-week experimental diets with an intervening washout period: a diet high in selected citrus fruit, crucifers, and soy (F&V) and a diet devoid of fruits, vegetables, and soy (basal). Serum β-glucuronidase activity was measured during the pre-intervention, F&V, and basal periods. Linear mixed models were used to obtain effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We observed statistically significantly higher β-glucuronidase activity during the F&V than the basal diet (ratio, F&V versus basal diet, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05−1.13; P <0.01). These results were probably due to decreased β-glucuronidase activity during the basal diet (ratio, basal period versus pre-intervention, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87−0.98; P=0.01), rather than increased enzyme activity during the F&V diet (ratio, F&V period versus pre-intervention, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96−1.06; P=0.64). The diet-enzyme activity relation did not differ by sex (P interaction=0.30), but there was a suggestion of a short-term diet effect at 8 days versus 15 days (P interaction=0.06). Conclusion This intervention of selected fruits and vegetables did not lower β-glucuronidase activity. Further investigation is needed regarding what other foods and phytochemicals may influence β-glucuronidase activity and effect modifiers of this relation PMID:18628435

  4. Open-loop (feed-forward) and feedback control of coronary blood flow during exercise, cardiac pacing, and pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ranjan K; Feigl, Eric O; Gorman, Mark W; Brengelmann, George L; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    A control system model was developed to analyze data on in vivo coronary blood flow regulation and to probe how different mechanisms work together to control coronary flow from rest to exercise, and under a variety of experimental conditions, including cardiac pacing and with changes in coronary arterial pressure (autoregulation). In the model coronary flow is determined by the combined action of a feedback pathway signal that is determined by the level of plasma ATP in coronary venous blood, an adrenergic open-loop (feed-forward) signal that increases with exercise, and a contribution of pressure-mediated myogenic control. The model was identified based on data from exercise experiments where myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary flow, cardiac interstitial norepinephrine concentration, and arterial and coronary venous plasma ATP concentrations were measured during control and during adrenergic and purinergic receptor blockade conditions. The identified model was used to quantify the relative contributions of open-loop and feedback pathways and to illustrate the degree of redundancy in the control of coronary flow. The results indicate that the adrenergic open-loop control component is responsible for most of the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during high levels of exercise. However, the adenine nucleotide-mediated metabolic feedback control component is essential. The model was evaluated by predicting coronary flow in cardiac pacing and autoregulation experiments with reasonable fits to the data. The analysis shows that a model in which coronary venous plasma adenine nucleotides are a signal in local metabolic feedback control of coronary flow is consistent with the available data.

  5. Open-loop (feed-forward) and feedback control of coronary blood flow during exercise, cardiac pacing, and pressure changes

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Feigl, Eric O.; Gorman, Mark W.; Brengelmann, George L.

    2016-01-01

    A control system model was developed to analyze data on in vivo coronary blood flow regulation and to probe how different mechanisms work together to control coronary flow from rest to exercise, and under a variety of experimental conditions, including cardiac pacing and with changes in coronary arterial pressure (autoregulation). In the model coronary flow is determined by the combined action of a feedback pathway signal that is determined by the level of plasma ATP in coronary venous blood, an adrenergic open-loop (feed-forward) signal that increases with exercise, and a contribution of pressure-mediated myogenic control. The model was identified based on data from exercise experiments where myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary flow, cardiac interstitial norepinephrine concentration, and arterial and coronary venous plasma ATP concentrations were measured during control and during adrenergic and purinergic receptor blockade conditions. The identified model was used to quantify the relative contributions of open-loop and feedback pathways and to illustrate the degree of redundancy in the control of coronary flow. The results indicate that the adrenergic open-loop control component is responsible for most of the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during high levels of exercise. However, the adenine nucleotide-mediated metabolic feedback control component is essential. The model was evaluated by predicting coronary flow in cardiac pacing and autoregulation experiments with reasonable fits to the data. The analysis shows that a model in which coronary venous plasma adenine nucleotides are a signal in local metabolic feedback control of coronary flow is consistent with the available data. PMID:27037372

  6. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  7. Flat acoustic sources with frequency response correction based on feedback and feed-forward distributed control.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur P

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an acoustic source with a small thickness and high bending stiffness. The high bending stiffness is obtained with a sandwich structure in which the face of the sandwich structure internal to the source is perforated to increase the acoustic compliance, thereby leading to increased electroacoustic conversion efficiency. Multiple actuators are used to drive the moving component of the acoustic source. Control of the acoustic resonances and structural resonances is required to obtain an even frequency response. The use of collocated decentralized feedback control based on velocity sensing was found to be ineffective for controlling these resonances due to the destabilizing asymmetric modes caused by the coupling of the internal acoustic cavity and the rigid body vibration of the moving component. Resonances can be controlled by a set of independent combinations of symmetric driving patterns with corresponding velocity feedback controllers such that the fundamental mass-air resonance is effectively controlled, as is the lowest bending mode of the moving component. Finally, a compensation scheme for low frequencies is used which enables a flat frequency response in the range of 30 Hz to 1 kHz with deviations smaller than 3 dB.

  8. Controlled feeding trials with ungulates: a new application of in vivo dental molding to assess the abrasive factors of microwear.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jonathan M; Fraser, Danielle; Clementz, Mark T

    2015-05-15

    Microwear, the quantification of microscopic scratches and pits on the occlusal surfaces of tooth enamel, is commonly used as a paleodietary proxy. For ungulates (hoofed mammals), scratch-dominant microwear distinguishes modern grazers from browsers, presumably as a result of abrasion from grass phytoliths (biogenic silica). However, it is also likely that exogenous grit (i.e. soil, dust) is a contributing factor to these scratch-dominant patterns, which may reflect soil ingestion that varies with feeding height and/or environmental conditions (e.g. dust production in open and/or arid habitats). This study assessed the contribution of exogenous grit to tooth wear by measuring the effects of fine- and medium-grained silica sand on tooth enamel using a novel live-animal tooth-molding technique. It therefore constitutes the first controlled feeding experiment using ungulates and the first in vivo experiment using abrasives of different sizes. Four sheep were fed three diet treatments: (1) a mixture of Garrison and Brome hay (control), (2) hay treated with fine-grained silica sand (180-250 µm) and (3) hay treated with medium-grained silica sand (250-425 µm). We found a significant increase in pit features that was correlated with an increase in grain size of grit, corroborating earlier chewing simulation experiments that produced pits through grit-induced abrasion (i.e. the 'grit effect'). Our results support an interpretation of large silica grains fracturing to create smaller, more abundant angular particles capable of abrasion, with jaw movement defining feature shape (i.e. scratch or pit).

  9. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  10. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Carfoot, Sue; Williamson, Paula R; Dickson, Rumona

    2003-06-01

    to examine the effects of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby on the initiation and duration of breast feeding. electronic databases--the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE,CINAHL and EMBASE. References of studies were examined to identify additional trials and contact was made with researchers in the field. Study selection criteria: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in any language in which skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term newborn babies was compared to routine contact. Primary outcomes were success of first breast feed and duration of breast feeding. Secondary outcomes included, baby temperature and behaviour. STUDY-QUALITY ASSESSMENT: validity of included studies was assessed using criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. Application of inclusion criteria, validity assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers with a third reviewer to resolve differences. seven randomised controlled trials were identified. Five studies assessed duration of breast feeding with mixed results. None of the studies assessed the success of the first breast-feeding experience. Study quality was variable with methods of randomisation and blinding of assessment unclear in four of the five studies providing relevant results. the findings of this systematic review fail to support the current initiatives to implement changes in clinical practice to include skin-to-skin contact. Methodological flaws within the included studies prohibit firm conclusions being reached with regard to the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the duration of breast feeding, timing of first breast feed or baby physiological factors. The review highlights the need for further primary research to assess the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the breast-feeding experience.

  11. Adaptive filtering and feed-forward control for suppression of vibration and jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Blankinship, Ross L.; Fowler, Leslie P.; Glaese, Roger M.; Janzen, Paul C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the use of adaptive filtering to control vibration and optical jitter. Adaptive filtering is a class of signal processing techniques developed over the last several decades and applied since to applications ranging from communications to image processing. Basic concepts in adaptive filtering and feedforward control are reviewed. A series of examples in vibration, motion and jitter control, including cryocoolers, ground-based active optics systems, flight motion simulators, wind turbines and airborne optical beam control systems, illustrates the effectiveness of the adaptive methods. These applications make use of information and signals that originate from system disturbances and minimize the correlations between disturbance information and error and performance measures. The examples incorporate a variety of disturbance types including periodic, multi-tonal, broadband stationary and non-stationary. Control effectiveness with slowly-varying narrowband disturbances originating from cryocoolers can be extraordinary, reaching 60 dB of reduction or rejection. In other cases, performance improvements are only 30-50%, but such reductions effectively complement feedback servo performance in many applications.

  12. Reclamation and groundwater restoration in the uranium milling industry: An assessment of UMTRCA, title II

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1978, Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to regulate the disposal and reclamation of uranium mill tailings.This article examines the implementation of this legislation through eight cases of uranium mills in New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah now being reclaimed. The eight cases examined here make up an important part of the total reclamation picture in the uranium milling industry.

  13. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  14. The milled surface as a precision attachment.

    PubMed

    Brudvik, James S; Shor, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    The creation of paralleled, milled surfaces in natural or restored abutment teeth, coupled with removable partial denture castings that have optimal contact with these preparations, results in a path of insertion and removal that is controlled in a manner similar to one using conventional precision attachments. Because the milled surfaces are primarily extracoronal, little if any, additional tooth reduction is required for adequate mouth preparation. Avoiding additional tooth reduction minimizes later abutment fracture. The great increase in stability and resistance to rotational movements, when combined with conventional posterior clasping, provides a reasonable alternative to the precision attachment in providing maximal esthetics for the partially edentulous patients.

  15. Larix P. Mill.: larch

    Treesearch

    Raymond C. Shearer

    2008-01-01

    The larches - Larix P. Mill. - of the world are usually grouped into 10 species that are widely distributed over much of the mountainous, cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Hora 1981; Krussmann 1985; Ostenfeld and Larsen 1930; Rehder 1940; Schmidt 1995). Some species dominate at the northern limits of boreal forests and others occur above subalpine forests (...

  16. Effect of Fructose on Established Lipid Targets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Wang, David D; Yu, Matthew; Carleton, Amanda J; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effects models and expressed as mean difference with 95% CI. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Eligibility criteria were met by 51 isocaloric trials (n=943), in which fructose was provided in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials (n=125), in which fructose supplemented control diets with excess calories compared to the control diets alone without the excess calories. Fructose had no effect on LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL-C in isocaloric trials. However, in hypercaloric trials, fructose increased apolipoprotein B (n=2 trials; mean difference = 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.30; P=0.005) and triglycerides (n=8 trials; mean difference = 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.41; P<0.001). The study is limited by small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and low quality scores of the included trials. Conclusions Pooled analyses showed that fructose only had an adverse effect on established lipid targets when added to existing diets so as to provide excess calories (+21% to 35% energy

  17. Effect of Fructose on Established Lipid Targets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials.

    PubMed

    Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Wang, David D; Yu, Matthew; Carleton, Amanda J; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-09-10

    Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effects models and expressed as mean difference with 95% CI. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I(2) statistic). Eligibility criteria were met by 51 isocaloric trials (n=943), in which fructose was provided in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials (n=125), in which fructose supplemented control diets with excess calories compared to the control diets alone without the excess calories. Fructose had no effect on LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL-C in isocaloric trials. However, in hypercaloric trials, fructose increased apolipoprotein B (n=2 trials; mean difference = 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.30; P=0.005) and triglycerides (n=8 trials; mean difference = 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.41; P<0.001). The study is limited by small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and low quality scores of the included trials. Pooled analyses showed that fructose only had an adverse effect on established lipid targets when added to existing diets so as to provide excess calories (+21% to 35% energy). When isocalorically exchanged for other

  18. Lightning prevention systems for paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    Paper mills are increasingly relying on sensitive electronic equipment to control their operations. However, the sensitivity of these devices has made mills vulnerable to the effects of lightning strokes. An interruption in the power supply or the destruction of delicate microcircuits can have devastating effects on mill productivity. The authors discuss how lightning strokes can be prevented by a Dissipation Array system (DAS). During the past 17 years, the concept has been applied to a host of applications in regions with a high incidence of lightning activity. With nearly 700 systems now installed, more than 4000 system-years of history have been accumulated. Areas as large as 1 km{sup 2} and towers as high as 2000 ft have been protected and completely isolated from lightning strokes. There have been very few failures, and in every case, the cause of the failure was determined and corrected.

  19. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Comminution-amorphisation relationships during ball milling of lactose at different milling conditions.

    PubMed

    Pazesh, Samaneh; Gråsjö, Johan; Berggren, Jonas; Alderborn, Göran

    2017-08-07

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between comminution and amorphisation of α-lactose monohydrate particles during ball milling under different milling conditions, including ball-to-powder mass ratio, milling time and ball diameter. The results revealed that at a constant ball filling ratio, ball-to-powder mass ratio of 25:1 resulted in the lowest minimum particle diameter of ∼5μm and the highest degree of apparent amorphous content of 82%. The rate of comminution was high during early stage of milling whereas the degree of apparent amorphous content increased gradually at a slow rate. An increased ball-to-powder mass ratio during milling increased both the rate of comminution and the rate of amorphisation. Using a given ball-to-powder mass ratio, the ball diameter affected the degree of apparent amorphous content of the particles while the particle diameter remained unchanged. The relationship between comminution and amorphisation could be described as consisting of two stages, i.e. comminution dominated and amorphisation dominated stage. It was proposed that the rate constant of comminution and amorphisation are controlled by stress energy distribution in the milling jar and the stress energy distribution is regulated by the ball motion pattern that can be affected by the process parameter used. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  2. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  3. Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs.

  4. Ivermectin as a Rodent Feed-Through Insecticide for Control of Immature Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    humidity and is protected from extreme temperatures . Adult sand flies live in close proximity to sources of blood (from the rodents living within the... temperature for 7 days and then were stored at 270uC until used. In each experiment, the body weight and daily food intake of hamsters in the 4 diet groups were...LN, Mamigonova RI, Sabatov EA. 1983. Use of D-20 aerosol insecticide smoke pots in controlling burrow sandflies . Med Parazitol Parazit Bolezni 4:78

  5. 7. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Engine and boiler house; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Engine and boiler house; ca. 1881. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Historical view, 1934, from T. T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. View shows interior of engine and boiler house intact. The steam-feed pipe is still attached to throttle valve, not the case in 1978 view. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Contributions of feed-forward and feedback strategies at the human ankle during control of unstable loads

    PubMed Central

    Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system can regulate the mechanical properties of the human ankle through feed-forward mechanisms such as co-contraction and rapid feedback mechanisms such as stretch reflexes. Though each of these strategies may contribute to joint stability, it is unclear how their relative contribution varies when ankle stability is threatened. We addressed this question by characterizing co-contraction and stretch reflexes during balance of an inverted pendulum simulated by a rotary motor configured as an admittance servo. The stability of this haptic environment was manipulated by varying the stiffness of a virtual spring supporting the pendulum. We hypothesized that co-contraction and stretch reflex amplitude would increase as the stability of the haptic load attached to the ankle was reduced. Electromyographic activity in soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was used to characterize co-contraction patterns and stretch reflex amplitude as subjects stabilized the haptic load. Our results revealed that co-contraction was heightened as stability was reduced, but that the resulting joint stiffness was not sufficient to fully counteract the imposed instability. Reflex amplitude, in comparison, was attenuated as load stability was reduced, contrary to results from upper limb studies using similar paradigms. Together these findings suggest that the nervous system utilizes feed-forward co-contraction rather than rapid involuntary feedback to increase ankle stability during simple balance tasks. Furthermore, since the stiffness generated through co-contraction was not sufficient to fully balance the haptic load, our results suggest an important role for slower, volitional feedback in the control of ankle stability during balancing tasks. PMID:22169978

  7. Colloid Microthruster Feed System Development for Fine Pointing and Drag-Free Control of Multi-Year Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemer, John; Mueller, J.; Spence, D.; Hruby, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new Colloid Microthruster feed system, including a propellant tank and redundant Microvalves, is being developed for fine pointing and drag-free operations of multi-year astronomical observatories under the PCOS SAT program. Almost all Gravitational Wave Observatory (GWO) concepts require microthrusters to maintain a drag-free environment for the inertial sensor instrument to meet the mission science objectives. The current state-of-the-art microthruster in the US is the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) originally developed under the New Millennium Program for the Space Technology 7 (ST7) and ESA's LISA Pathfinder (LPF) technology demonstration mission. The ST7 CMNT design includes a bellows propellant storage tank that is sized to provide up to 90 days of maximum thrust (30 µN). The new propellant tank is based on a blow-down, metal-diaphragm spherical tank design with enough capacity for a 5-year GWO mission. The new feed system will also include the third generation of Busek’s Microvalve, currently being developed under a NASA Phase II SBIR. The Microvalve is responsible for the picoliter per second control of the propellant from the tank to the thruster head, demanding parts with micron-level tolerances, critical alignments, and challenging acceptance test protocols. This microthruster system could also be considered for replacement of reaction wheels for slewing and fine pointing of other astronomical observatories, including Exo-Planet Observatory concepts. The goal of the PCOS SAT effort is to raise the new system to TRL 5 with performance and environmental testing within the next two years.

  8. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  9. Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding.

    PubMed

    Straňák, Zbyněk; Feyereislova, Simona; Černá, Marcela; Kollárová, Jana; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age. We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing). Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants' age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002). The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall. ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183.

  10. A feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial of oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy tube versus oral feeding plus as-needed nasogastric tube feeding in patients undergoing chemoradiation for head and neck cancer (TUBE trial): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Paleri, Vinidh; Wood, Joshua; Patterson, Joanne; Stocken, Deborah D; Cole, Mike; Vale, Luke; Franks, Jeremy; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Donnelly, Rachael; Barclay, Stewart; Rapley, Tim; Rousseau, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    There are 7000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) treated by the NHS each year. Stage III and IV HNSCC can be treated non-surgically by radio therapy (RT) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT). CRT can affect eating and drinking through a range of side effects with 90 % of patients undergoing this treatment requiring nutritional support via gastrostomy (G) or nasogastric (NG) tube feeding. Long-term dysphagia following CRT is a primary concern for patients. The effect of enteral feeding routes on swallowing function is not well understood, and the two feeding methods have, to date, not been compared to assess which leads to a better patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing these two options with particular emphasis on patient willingness to be randomised and clinician willingness to approach eligible patients. This is a mixed methods multicentre study to establish the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy versus oral feeding plus as required nasogastric tube feeding in patients with HNSCC. A total of 60 participants will be randomised to the two arms of the study (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome of feasibility is a composite of recruitment (willingness to randomise and be randomised) and retention. A qualitative process evaluation investigating patient, family and friends and staff experiences of trial participation will also be conducted alongside an economic modelling exercise to synthesise available evidence and provide estimates of cost-effectiveness and value of information. Participants will be assessed at baseline (pre-randomisation), during CRT weekly, 3 months and 6 months. Clinicians are in equipoise over the enteral feeding options for patients being treated with CRT. Swallowing outcomes have been identified as a top priority for patients following treatment and this trial would inform

  11. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  13. The relationship between adult attachment orientation and child self-regulation in eating: The mediating role of persuasive-controlling feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Hazen, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that adult attachment orientation, specifically anxious attachment, is related to children's diminished ability to self-regulate their food intake, and that this relationship is mediated by parents' persuasive-controlling feeding practices. Two hundred and sixty five mothers and fathers of preschool children completed online questionnaires that included measures of Adult Attachment Orientation, Parental Persuasive-Controlling Feeding Practices, and Child Self-Regulation of Eating. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between parental anxious attachment and child self-regulatory abilities, which was fully mediated by parental persuasive-controlling feeding. Also as predicted, parents' avoidant attachment was found to be unrelated to persuasive-controlling feeding and child self-regulated eating. Findings suggest that parents with an anxious attachment orientation may be more likely than other parents to try to use persuasive techniques to control their children's food intake, which may impair children's ability to regulate their food intake, increasing their obesity risk. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition score<2.5 out of 5) produced less milk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM

  15. Aircraft automatic digital flight control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1984-01-01

    A full-flight-envelope automatic trajectory control system concept is being investigated at Ames Research Center. This concept was developed for advanced aircraft configurations with severe nonlinear characteristics. A feature of the system is an inverse of the complete nonlinear aircraft model as part of the feed-forward control path. Simulation and flight tests have been reported at previous Digital Avionics Systems conferences. A new method for the continuous real-time inversion of the aircraft model using a Newton-Raphson trim algorithm instead of the original inverse table look-up procedure has been developed. The results of a simulation study of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft using the new inversion technique are presented. Maneuvers were successfully carried out in all directions in the vertical-attitude hover mode. Transition runs from conventional flight through the region of lift-curve-slope reversal at an angle of attack of about 32 deg and to hover at zero speed in the vertical attitude showed satisfactory transient response. Simulations were also conducted in conventional flight at high subsonic speed in steep climb and with turns up to 4 g. Successful flight tests of the system with the new model-inversion technique in a UH-1H helicopter have recently been carried out.

  16. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  17. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stober, J.; Bock, A.; Höhnle, H.; Reich, M.; Sommer, F.; Treutterer, W.; Wagner, D.; Gianone, L.; Herrmann, A.; Leuterer, F.; Monaco, F.; Marascheck, M.; Mlynek, A.; Müller, S.; Münich, M.; Poli, E.; Schubert, M.; Schütz, H.; Zohm, H.; Kasparek, W.; Stroth, U.; Meier, A.; Scherer, Th.; Strauβ, D.; Vaccaro, A.; Flamm, J.; Thumm, M.; Litvak, A.; Denisov, G. G.; Chirkov, A. V.; Tai, E. M.; Popov, L. G.; Nichiporenko, V. O.; Myasnikov, V. E.; Soluyanova, E. A.; Malygin, S. A.

    2012-09-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation) and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing). These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  18. Maternal education is associated with feeding style.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Jennifer; Carnell, Susan; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Wardle, Jane

    2009-05-01

    Maternal feeding styles may be influenced by maternal education, with implications for children's dietary quality and adiposity. One-hundred and eighty mothers completed the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, which includes scales assessing four aspects of feeding style, ie, control over feeding, emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, and encouragement/prompting to eat. Mothers with higher education had significantly higher scores on control over feeding [F(1,177)=8.79; P=0.003] and significantly lower emotional feeding scores [F(1,177)=7.26; P=0.008] than those with lower education. There were no differences for instrumental feeding or encouragement/prompting to eat (P>0.05). These findings suggest modest but potentially important differences in maternal control and emotional feeding styles by maternal education. Should these feeding characteristics prove salient to childhood diet and weight, this could inform appropriately targeted parental feeding advice.

  19. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose may benefit glycaemic control without harming cardiometabolic risk factors: a small meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials

    PubMed Central

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J.; Mirrahimi, Arash; Cozma, Adrian I.; Ha, Vanessa; Wang, D. David; Yu, Matthew E.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Beyene, Joseph; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wolever, Thomas M. S.; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; Jenkins, David J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, there is evidence that small, ‘catalytic’ doses ( ≤ 10 g/meal) of fructose decrease the glycaemic response to high-glycaemic index meals in human subjects. To assess the longer-term effects of ‘catalytic’ doses of fructose, we undertook a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d featuring ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) in isoenergetic exchange for other carbohydrates. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I2. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score assessed study quality. A total of six feeding trials (n 118) met the eligibility criteria. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD − 0·40, 95 % CI − 0·72, − 0·08) and fasting glucose (MD − 0·25, 95 % CI − 0·44, − 0·07). This benefit was seen in the absence of adverse effects on fasting insulin, body weight, TAG or uric acid. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed evidence of effect modification under certain conditions. The small number of trials and their relatively short duration limit the strength of the conclusions. In conclusion, this small meta-analysis shows that ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) may improve glycaemic control without adverse effects on body weight, TAG, insulin and uric acid. There is a need for larger, longer ( ≥ 6 months) trials using ‘catalytic’ fructose to confirm these results. PMID:22354959

  20. A method for detecting MFO induction by Japanese pulp mill effluents with chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kamaya, Yasushi

    1995-12-31

    As a biomarker of physiological responses in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents, mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction has been investigated by many researchers. The induction and/or inhibition of MFOs is generally affected by various factors of fish such as species, maturity, sex, size and spawning status, and by other environmental variables. Therefore, the method demands technical skills to get a constant result. In addition, the test is costly and also time consuming. In this paper, the authors propose a MFOs induction method using chick embryo, instead of fish, for the assessment of pulp mill effluent. The merits of this method are as follows; inexpensive and commercially available test organisms, easy maintenance of the organisms, no feeding, high uniformity of the developing stage, sensitive responses to xenobiotics, low sample volume requirements, easy testing of various samples at one time and minimal training. P450 1A1 has been found in the microsome of chick embryo. Metabolic function of the P450 1A1 can be regarded basically the same as that of fish. Small amount of xenobiotics, about 100 {micro}l, were injected into the air chamber of 16-day-old chick embryos. Liver microsomes were isolated 48 h after administration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined by the direct fluorimetric method. Using the chick embryo method, the authors analyzed various chloro-organics, model bleached kraft pulp mill effluents, model black liquor and several total effluents of Japanese pulp mills. Methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were used as positive controls. In this paper, the authors will report the details of the chick embryo method and also some results of the assessment using the method.