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Sample records for millennium personality structure

  1. Structural violence: a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals for women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Joia S; Barry, Donna J; Satti, Hind; Raymonville, Maxi; Marsh, Sarah; Smith-Fawzi, Mary Kay

    2011-04-01

    In 2000, all 191 United Nations member states agreed to work toward the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015. The achievement of these eight goals, the Millennium Development goals (MDGs) is highly dependent on improving the status of women, who play a key role in health and education in families and communities around the world. Yet structural violence, defined as the systematic exclusion of a group from the resources needed to develop their full human potential, remains a significant barrier against women's development and threatens the achievement of the MDGs. Although sound evidence has long existed for improving women's survival, the will to address women's health concretely and holistically is only recently gaining the advocacy needed to change policy. Concrete examples of the integration of approaches to mitigate structural violence within the delivery of health services do exist and should be incorporated into global advocacy for women's health.

  2. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  3. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  4. Unexpected variability of millennium green: structural color of Japanese jewel beetle resulted from thermosensitive porous organic multilayer.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Eiki

    2007-09-01

    The Japanese jewel beetle (Chrysochroa fulgidissima) is one of the beautiful beetles showing metallic green color that is kept over a millennium. This is a typical structural color resulting from a multilayer, frequently seen in insects. It was found that the elytra unexpectedly change the color from original green to blue or red by heating at 200 degrees C or by immersing in bromoform for over 1 month. This variability implies that the multilayer consists of a thermosensitive porous material. The color change induced by heating was accompanied with elytron shrinkage; the sensitivity of the reflection peak was -0.6 nm/ degrees C in 30-65 degrees C. The porous structure was determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; the averaged pore radius was around 0.25-0.30 nm, which is close to the size of the bromoform molecule. These features prove the thermosensitivity and porous structure of the multilayer although in unusual environments.

  5. STING Millennium Suite: integrated software for extensive analyses of 3d structures of proteins and their complexes

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Roberto H; Togawa, Roberto C; Montagner, Arnaldo J; Palandrani, Juliana CF; Okimoto, Igor KS; Kuser, Paula R; Yamagishi, Michel EB; Mancini, Adauto L; Neshich, Goran

    2004-01-01

    Background The integration of many aspects of protein/DNA structure analysis is an important requirement for software products in general area of structural bioinformatics. In fact, there are too few software packages on the internet which can be described as successful in this respect. We might say that what is still missing is publicly available, web based software for interactive analysis of the sequence/structure/function of proteins and their complexes with DNA and ligands. Some of existing software packages do have certain level of integration and do offer analysis of several structure related parameters, however not to the extent generally demanded by a user. Results We are reporting here about new Sting Millennium Suite (SMS) version which is fully accessible (including for local files at client end), web based software for molecular structure and sequence/structure/function analysis. The new SMS client version is now operational also on Linux boxes and it works with non-public pdb formatted files (structures not deposited at the RCSB/PDB), eliminating earlier requirement for the registration if SMS components were to be used with user's local files. At the same time the new SMS offers some important additions and improvements such as link to ProTherm as well as significant re-engineering of SMS component ConSSeq. Also, we have added 3 new SMS mirror sites to existing network of global SMS servers: Argentina, Japan and Spain. Conclusion SMS is already established software package and many key data base and software servers worldwide, do offer either a link to, or host the SMS. SMS (Sting Millennium Suite) is web-based publicly available software developed to aid researches in their quest for translating information about the structures of macromolecules into knowledge. SMS allows to a user to interactively analyze molecular structures, cross-referencing visualized information with a correlated one, available across the internet. SMS is already used as a

  6. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    PubMed Central

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  7. Multidimensional Structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalet, Benjamin D.; Durbin, C. Emily; Revelle, William

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale was explored in a sample of young adults (N = 884); resulting structures were validated on subsamples with measures of personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Hierarchical cluster analysis and estimates of general factor saturation suggested the presence of a weak…

  8. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality.

  9. Structural equation modeling of personality disorders and pathological personality traits.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2017-04-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a family of related statistical techniques that lend themselves to understanding the complex relationships among variables that differ among individuals in the population. SEM techniques have become increasingly popular in the study of personality disorders (PDs) and maladaptive personality traits. The current article takes a critical look at the ways in which SEM techniques have been used in the study of PDs, PD symptoms, and pathological personality traits. By far the most common use of SEM in the study of PDs has been to examine the latent structure of these constructs, with an overwhelming bulk of the evidence in favor of a dimensional, as opposed to categorical, conceptualization. Other common uses of SEM in this area are factor models that examine the joint multivariate space of PDs, maladaptive personality traits, and psychopathology. Relatively underused, however, are observed or latent variable path models. We review the strengths and weaknesses of the work done to date, focusing on ways that these SEM studies have been either theoretically and/or statistically sound. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research examining PDs with SEM techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Multidimensional structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale.

    PubMed

    Schalet, Benjamin D; Durbin, C Emily; Revelle, William

    2011-06-01

    The structure of the Hypomanic Personality Scale was explored in a sample of young adults (N = 884); resulting structures were validated on subsamples with measures of personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Hierarchical cluster analysis and estimates of general factor saturation suggested the presence of a weak general factor, as well as 3 subordinate clusters. The 3-cluster subscales (Social Vitality, Mood Volatility, and Excitement) were moderately correlated but conceptually distinct and were correlated in opposing patterns with a range of personality and psychopathology measures. Results show that cluster subscales suppress total score associations with validity measures. Recommendations are made to analyze Hypomanic Personality Scale data by subscale, and theoretical implications are discussed.

  11. Eysenck Personality Inventory Item Factor Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comrey, Andrew L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three methods were used to test the factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory administered to 583 Australians. The preferred method was to extract factors by the minimum residual method, use the Tandem Criteria Method, and then rotate that number of factors by the Tandem Criteria I method. (SLD)

  12. Entrepreneurial Consulting: Some Structural and Personal Learnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Morgan; Harrington, Maura J.

    2006-01-01

    These authors, who have managed a small, entrepreneurial applied-research firm for more than twenty years, share their reflections about what elements of organizational structure have worked best for them, and offer some observations on a personal level as well about how to optimize and remain viable in a volatile professional field. The term…

  13. The structure of the Eysenck Personality Profiler.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C J; Furnham, A; Forde, L; Cotter, T

    2000-05-01

    The dominant issue in personality research over the last decade has been concerned with the fundamental structure of personality and the best measures of that structure. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate possible three- and five-factor solutions to the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; Eysenck, Barrett, Wilson, & Jackson, 1992) which consists of 21 primary scales categorized under three super-factors. Little evidence was found to support Costa and McCrae's (1995) unequivocal comment that a five-factor solution fitted the data well. Confirmatory factor analysis was also used, by means of structural equation modelling, to estimate the goodness of fit of three- and five-factor models and little evidence was found to favour one solution over the other. A shorter version of the EPP, which consists of just nine scales, seemed to favour a three-factor solution. Various criticisms of the EPP are also made: some scales have relatively low alpha, there seem to be too many neuroticism scales and the three category response scales seem less than ideal.

  14. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  15. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  16. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  17. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  18. The Hierarchical Personality Structure of Aspiring Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslej, Marta M.; Rain, Marina; Fong, Katrina; Oatley, Keith; Mar, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of personality traits in creative writers have demonstrated mixed findings, perhaps due to issues of sampling, measurement, and the reporting of statistical information. The goal of this study is to quantify the personality structure of aspiring creative writers according to a modern hierarchal model of trait personality. A…

  19. Supporting undergraduate nursing students through structured personal tutoring: Some reflections.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tessa E

    2011-02-01

    Support is imperative for nursing students worldwide as they face the many challenges associated with learning and working. Moreover enhancing student retention is an increasing concern for institutions across the globe. The personal tutor is a frequently hidden yet potentially significant figure in many students' experience of higher education. This paper offers some critical reflections on a structured approach to personal tutoring within an undergraduate nursing programme in a research focused Welsh university. Structured personal tutoring can provide an organised, coherent and proactive support system throughout students' educational programmes. However the approach changes the shape of personal tutoring and has the potential to increase academics' workloads and with it costs.

  20. An Education and Training Toolkit for the New Millennium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race, Phil

    1998-01-01

    Presents a personal overview regarding education and training in general, and effective continuing professional development in particular, in the next millennium. Topics include change; learning processes; types of learning, including open, flexible, independent, group, collaborative, and cooperative; lifelong learning; continuing vocational…

  1. State Effect of Traumatic Experience on Personality Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-seock; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Heung-Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Personality is defined as the trait-like qualities of a person. However, it has been recently suggested that the state effect of a situation leads to changes in scores on personality assessments. We predicted that traumatic experiences would induce changes not only in personality scores but also in the factor structures of personality assessments. Methods MethodsaaWe conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study using two data sets: a traumatized adolescent sample (n=71) and a non-traumatized adolescent sample (n=296). Personality factor structures were compared between the two samples using exploratory factor analyses for 25 lower-ordered subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In the non-traumatized sample, evaluation of the scree plot suggested a five-factor solution supporting TCI's original seven-factor model. Results The traumatized sample showed a three-factor structure representing a biological factor, a social factor and an existential factor. This decrease in number of personality factors was caused by strengthened correlations among personality subscales related to coping with traumatic situations. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality (i.e., temperament-character) was adequate in capturing personality traits of non-traumatized adolescents, but the tripartite view of existential psychology (i.e., body-mind-spirit) clearly corresponded to the factor structure of the traumatized adolescents. Conclusion The three-factor solution of the present traumatized group is consistent with the tripartite model of personality (i.e., body-mind-spirit), while the five-factor solution of the non-traumatized group corresponds to Cloninger's seven-factor model. This is the first study to describe the state effects of traumatic experiences on personality structure. PMID:23251200

  2. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  3. Personality Structure, Instructional Outcomes, and Instructional Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Orefice, Dominick S.

    1973-01-01

    Four instructional treatments differing in structure and student responsibility were used with 60 abstract-thinking and 60 concrete-thinking students. A differentiated outcomes hypothesis is offered to account for the findings. (Authors)

  4. Personality disorder dysfunction versus traits: structural and conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Leen; De Fruyt, Filip; Rossi, Gina; Schotte, Christiaan; Hofmans, Joeri

    2013-10-01

    As it stands now, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, in press) will maintain the categorical model and criteria distinguishing the 10 personality disorders (PDs) described in the fourth edition of the manual (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). An alternative diagnostic proposal based on two criteria, being impaired personality functioning and the presence of maladaptive traits, will be referred to a special section for further research and clinical evaluation. Two issues pertaining to this alternative diagnostic approach need further clarification. First, more insight is required in the specific nature of personality dysfunction, its underlying structure, and optimal operationalization. Second, confusion still exists about how personality dysfunction and traits are interconnected and how they both contribute to the PD diagnosis. The current study addresses both issues empirically in a sample of 159 psychiatric patients by (a) investigating the structure of personality functioning as assessed by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), and (b) determining the incremental validity of the resulting dysfunction factors vis-à-vis trait domains (measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised [NEO-PI-R]) in explaining DSM-IV PD variance. Trait and dysfunction dimensions were strongly correlated but showed significant, though limited, incremental validity above each other. Implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed.

  5. Representing Personal Determinants in Causal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Responds to Staddon's critique of the author's earlier article and addresses issues raised by Staddon's (1984) alternative models of causality. The author argues that it is not the formalizability of causal processes that is the issue but whether cognitive determinants of behavior are reducible to past stimulus inputs in causal structures.…

  6. Interactive Multidimensional Scaling of Cognitive Structure Underlying Person Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Jerard; Reynolds, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-interactive multidimensional scaling program was used together with free response methods to represent and label dimensions of individual cognitive structure underlying persons' perceptions. The dimensional structures derived were predictive of semantic differential, paired comparison, and Repertory Grid Test triad judgments.…

  7. Factorial Structure of Pathological Personality as Evaluated by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cannon; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how individuals apply features of personality disorders (PDs) to peers. Members of groups nominated peers who exhibited symptoms for each of the 10 PDs in the DSM–IV. Data were gathered in 2 samples: 1st-year college students (n = 1,440) and Air Force recruits (n = 2,075). The peer method reliably identified group members exhibiting specific PD features. Factor analyses identified a clearly interpretable structure relevant to the pathological personality constructs being assessed. The structure replicated well across samples and showed expected relationships to broader models of normal personality. However, cross-method correlations of factor scores were only moderate, suggesting that peer reports are reliably different from self-reports regarding the presence of pathological personality traits. PMID:12653416

  8. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), will soon announce the final concept for the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. NASA issued the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2004 and it is expected that at least one of the five technology capability areas will

  10. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    NASA`s New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2005 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas

  12. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  13. Dispositional empathy and the hierarchical structure of personality.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, Todd A; Davis, Mark; Matzler, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Personality psychology has recognized a fundamental 5-factor structure that has integrated and organized theory and research. Nevertheless, personality-like differences beyond that structure have been identified. In heretofore unrelated research, dispositional empathy has been an essential construct in understanding human development, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Addressing a gap in the literature, we map multidimensional dispositional empathy into 2 versions of the 5-factor space. Empathic concern is closely related to agreeableness, and personal distress is closely related to neuroticism. Perspective taking has complex, interstitial relationships with the 5 factors. In contrast, fantasy is not well explained by the 5 factors. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding dispositional empathy and for understanding the 5-factor structure, its correlates in emotional processes and experiences, and its limits.

  14. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. DT-9 is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be subsequently selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment.

  15. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the ST-9 mission, a systems validation project of NMP. This is the latest of a series of deep space activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five candidate technologies which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technologies under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA in 2003 and that one these five technologies capability areas will be selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment. This work performed at JPL under contract with NASA

  16. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  17. The hierarchical structure of DSM-5 pathological personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Markon, Kristian E; Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-11-01

    A multidimensional trait system has been proposed for representing personality disorder (PD) features in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to address problematic classification issues such as comorbidity. In this model, which may also assist in providing scaffolding for the underlying structure of major forms of psychopathology more generally, 25 primary traits are organized by 5 higher order dimensions: Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. We examined (a) the generalizability of the structure proposed for DSM-5 PD traits, and (b) the potential for an integrative hierarchy based upon DSM-5 PD traits to represent the dimensions scaffolding psychopathology more generally. A large sample of student participants (N = 2,461) completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which operationalizes the DSM-5 traits. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the initially reported 5-factor structure, as indicated by high factor congruencies. The 2-, 3-, and 4-factor solutions estimated in the hierarchy of the DSM-5 traits bear close resemblance to existing models of common mental disorders, temperament, and personality pathology. Thus, beyond the description of individual differences in personality disorder, the trait dimensions might provide a framework for the metastructure of psychopathology in the DSM-5 and the integration of a number of ostensibly competing models of personality trait covariation.

  18. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  19. Personality Structure of Batterers and Nonbatterers: Qualitative and Quantitative Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamberger, L. Kevin; Hastings, James E.

    This study was conducted to compare sufficiently large samples of male batterers (N=99) and help-seeking nonbatterers (N=71) on factor structure of the eight personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and MCMI profiles within similar subgroup types. The groups were matched on age, education range, marital status, and…

  20. The Wellbeing of the Self's Personality: A Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Shlomit; Sabbagh, Clara

    2008-01-01

    Leaning on the formal faceted definition of wellbeing (Levy and Guttman (1975) "Social Indicators Research," 2, 361-388), a mapping sentence is provided for defining the universe of observations of the wellbeing of the self-expanding on personality aspects. The structure of the interrelationships among the variables of the expanded…

  1. Aging and Heterogeneity: Genetics, Social Structure, and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, John M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…

  2. Narcissistic Personality Inventory: structure of the adapted Dutch version.

    PubMed

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. Confirmatory factor analyses supported neither the four-factor structure reported by Emmons (1984), nor the seven-factor structure reported by Raskin and Terry (1988). Instead, exploratory factor analyses supported either a single-factor solution (general narcissism), or a two-factor solution (Authority/Power and Self-Admiration). The validity of the NPI was supported by its relations with sex, age, personality, self-esteem, shame, guilt and social desirability.

  3. Interrater reliability for Kernberg's structural interview for assessing personality organization.

    PubMed

    Ingenhoven, Theo J M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Brogtrop, Janneke; Lindenborn, Anne; van den Brink, Wim; Passchier, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Interrater reliability is considered a precondition for the validity of theoretical models and their corresponding diagnostic instruments. Studies have documented good interrater reliability for structured interviews measuring personality characteristics on a descriptive-phenomenological level but there is little research on reliability of assessment procedures on a structural level. The current study investigated the interrater reliability of the structural interview (SI) designed to assess neurotic, borderline, and psychotic personality organization according to Kernberg. Videotaped SIs of 69 psychiatric patients were randomly and independently rated by two out of three trained psychologists. Agreement between rater pairs was expressed as square weighted kappa (K(sw), 95% CI). Results indicate satisfactory interrater reliability with respect to Kernberg's tripartite classification (K(sw) = 0.42, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.77). Subdivision of the borderline category or introduction of intermediate subcategories to the tripartite system did not significantly affect reliability (K(sw) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.80; K(sw) = 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84, respectively). The conclusion is that trained clinicians can reliably assess structural personality organization using the SI. Refining the nosological system adding subcategories did not reduce reliability.

  4. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.

  5. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-09-12

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  6. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century.

  7. Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality: a comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck.

    PubMed

    Heath, A C; Cloninger, C R; Martin, N G

    1994-04-01

    Genetic analysis of data from 2,680 adult Australian twin pairs demonstrated significant genetic contributions to variation in scores on the Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, and Reward Dependence scales of Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), accounting for between 54% and 61% of the stable variation in these traits. Multivariate genetic triangular decomposition models were fitted to determine the extent to which the TPQ assesses the same dimensions of heritable variation as the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. These analyses demonstrated that the personality systems of Eysenck and Cloninger are not simply alternative descriptions of the same dimensions of personality, but rather each provide incomplete descriptions of the structure of heritable personality differences.

  8. Collaboration in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    2001-03-01

    The presidential addresses of the Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR) of the past decade convey a consistency of format and themes. They highlight significant weaknesses in some of the basic questions and methodologies of psychotherapy researchers. These include neglect of topics concerning the understanding of change and over-valuation of the randomized clinical trial (RCT). Although valid, the criticisms neglect the strengths of RCTs, which are illustrated by a series of psychotherapy clinical trials conducted by the author's research team, and run the risk of polarizing psychotherapy researchers. The new millennium is an appropriate time to acknowledge how different methodologies complement each other and advance knowledge in ways that could not occur in the absence of others. SPR is an international, multidisciplinary scientific organization that emphasizes inclusiveness. Nevertheless, it, as well as other organizations, can further enhance its contribution to the field by extending its range of collaboration to include underrepresented researchers, disciplines, and research-oriented clinicians.

  9. A Neural Network Model of the Structure and Dynamics of Human Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen J.; Monroe, Brian M.; Brownstein, Aaron L.; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two…

  10. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  11. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  12. Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. (the Company) is located in St. Louis, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  13. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions…

  14. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  15. A Fairbairnian structural analysis of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2014-06-01

    Fairbairn's structural theory is based on the developing child's need to dissociate actual events between himself or herself and his or her objects that are excessively rejecting in order to contine an uninterrupted, pristine attachment to them. This eventuates in three selves in relation to three objects: One pair is conscious (the central ego which relates to the ideal object), while the other two pairs (the antilibidinal ego, which relates to the rejecting object, and the libidinal ego, which relates to the exciting object) are mostly held in the unconscious. Fairbairn saw the fluid relationship between the two split-off pairs of unconscious part selves and the conscious central ego as the primary dynamic of the human personality. The author proposes a specific variation in Fairbairn's structural theory to account for the development of narcissism. Specifically, this disorder is viewed as the result of a developmental history in which the child finds himself or herself in an exceedingly hostile interpersonal environment that precludes the child from using an idealized version either of his or her parental objects as the "exciting object." The child therefore substitutes a grandiose view of himself or herself as the exciting object. This defense deflects external influences and replaces relationships with external objects with a closed internal world that is comprised of an admiring part-self basking in reflected love from its relationship with an exciting part-object.

  16. Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  17. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  18. A neural network model of the structure and dynamics of human personality.

    PubMed

    Read, Stephen J; Monroe, Brian M; Brownstein, Aaron L; Yang, Yu; Chopra, Gurveen; Miller, Lynn C

    2010-01-01

    We present a neural network model that aims to bridge the historical gap between dynamic and structural approaches to personality. The model integrates work on the structure of the trait lexicon, the neurobiology of personality, temperament, goal-based models of personality, and an evolutionary analysis of motives. It is organized in terms of two overarching motivational systems, an approach and an avoidance system, as well as a general disinhibition and constraint system. Each overarching motivational system influences more specific motives. Traits are modeled in terms of differences in the sensitivities of the motivational systems, the baseline activation of specific motives, and inhibitory strength. The result is a motive-based neural network model of personality based on research about the structure and neurobiology of human personality. The model provides an account of personality dynamics and person-situation interactions and suggests how dynamic processing approaches and dispositional, structural approaches can be integrated in a common framework.

  19. The Structure of Informal Social Networks of Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons with less severe disabilities are able to express their needs and show initiatives in social contacts, persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), however, depend on others for this. This study analysed the structure of informal networks of persons with PIMD. Materials and Methods: Data concerning the…

  20. Bifactor structure of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ).

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio; Siddi, Sara; Vellante, Marcello; Scanu, Rosanna; Muratore, Tamara; Gabrielli, Mersia; Tronci, Debora; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2015-12-30

    The schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) is used to characterize schizotypy, a complex construct helpful for the investigation of schizophrenia-related psychopathology and putative endophenotypes. The SPQ factor structure at item level has been rarely replicated and no study had tested a bifactor model of the SPQ so far. The unidimensional, the correlated, the second-order and the bifactor models of the SPQ were tested to evaluate whether the items converge into a major single factor defining the schizotypy-proneness of the participants, to be used for grouping purpose. Parallel principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to determine the optimal number of factors and components in a cross-sectional, survey design involving 649 college students (males: 47%). The first-order, nine-subscale model was confirmed by CFA in the whole sample. The best evidence from parallel PCA in the training set was in favor of a two-factor model; the bifactor implementation of this model showed good fit in the subsequent CFA. Two main dimensions of positive and negative symptoms underlie schizotypy in non-clinical samples, entailing specific risk of psychosis. On a measurement level, the study provided support for the use of the total scores of the SPQ to characterize schizotypy.

  1. Empathy in the Structure of Personality of Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klis, Maria; Kossewska, Joanna

    Empathy is a personality attribute involving the capacity to respond emotionally, cognitively, and communicatively to other persons without loss of objectivity and identity. Empathy is linked with helping behavior and with more effective professional functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between empathy and personality…

  2. Predator personality structures prey communities and trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Start, Denon; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and population ecology, yet its consequences for community ecology are poorly understood. Animal personality - consistent individual differences in suites of behaviours - may be particularly important for trophic dynamics, where predator personality can determine activity rates and patterns of attack. We used mesocosms with aquatic food webs in which the top predator (dragonfly nymphs) varied in activity and subsequent attack rates on zooplankton, and tested the effects of predator personality. We found support for four hypotheses: (1) active predators disproportionately reduce the abundance of prey, (2) active predators select for predator-resistant prey species, (3) active predators strengthen trophic cascades (increase phytoplankton abundance) and (4) active predators are more likely to cannibalise one another, weakening all other trends when at high densities. These results suggest that intraspecific variation in predator personality is an important determinant of prey abundance, community composition and trophic cascades.

  3. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  4. Screening the Personal Need for the Structure and solving word problems with fractions.

    PubMed

    Svecova, Valeria; Pavlovicova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study of the impact of Personal Need for Structure of the selected mathematical competence. We were interested whether there is a relationship between cognitive-personal variable (Personal Need for Structure) and the mathematical knowledge about fractions of freshmen. We realized the experiment with 113 students of the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia. We examined statistically significant dependencies between the cognitive-personality variable of the Personal Need for Structure and its subfactors F1 (the wish of the structure) and F2 (the reaction to the lack of the structure) and the success rate of solving tasks and word problems with fractions. We used statistical Cochrane Q test to detect dependencies between factors of the Personal Need for Structure scale and the Mathematical knowledge. We proved that the success rate of solving word problems with fractions is inversely proportional to the need for the structure. This means that the higher the overall score on the Personal Need for Structure scale and its subfactors is, the lower is the success rate of solving the word problems.

  5. The smart house for older persons and persons with physical disabilities: structure, technology arrangements, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Dimitar H; Bien, Zeungnam; Bang, Won-Chul

    2004-06-01

    Smart houses are considered a good alternative for the independent life of older persons and persons with disabilities. Numerous intelligent devices, embedded into the home environment, can provide the resident with both movement assistance and 24-h health monitoring. Modern home-installed systems tend to be not only physically versatile in functionality but also emotionally human-friendly, i.e., they may be able to perform their functions without disturbing the user and without causing him/her any pain, inconvenience, or movement restriction, instead possibly providing him/her with comfort and pleasure. Through an extensive survey, this paper analyzes the building blocks of smart houses, with particular attention paid to the health monitoring subsystem as an important component, by addressing the basic requirements of various sensors implemented from both research and clinical perspectives. The paper will then discuss some important issues of the future development of an intelligent residential space with a human-friendly health monitoring functional system.

  6. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The…

  7. GPO/2001: Vision for a New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended to serve as a strategic guide for the U.S. Government Printing Office in the development of its tactical plans for entry into the next millennium; to provide a glimpse of the future of Government information; and to delineate the changes that lie ahead in how information will be created, replicated, and disseminated.…

  8. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    PubMed Central

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

  9. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  10. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Brief Version: factor structure and reliability.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toru

    2005-11-01

    The short scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQR-S; H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1992) is a 48-item personality questionnaire primarily designed to measure an individual's level of extraversion (vs. introversion) and neuroticism. Although L. J. Francis, L. B. Brown, and R. Philipchalk (1992) created the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQR-A), an even briefer version of the EPQR-S, the reliability coefficients of some of the measures have been less than satisfactory (S. Forrest, C. A. Lewis, & M. Shevlin, 2000). Because brevity and reliability are both extremely important, the author of the present study created a briefer version of the EPQR-S, more reliable than the EPQR-A, by making slight alterations in the item content as well as the response format of the EPQR-S. Two hundred and sixty eight participants completed the original EPQR-S and the 24-item newly revised briefer version of the EPQR-S (EPQ-BV) twice. The findings revealed that the EPQ-BV has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. A principal component analysis revealed a solution with factor loadings that accurately reflected the primary measures of the EPQR-S. These findings are discussed in relation to the psychometric properties of the EPQR-A and the original version of the EPQR-S.

  11. The Relation Between Item Format and the Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.; Stevenson, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A Likert seven-choice response format for personality inventories allows finer distinctions by subjects than the traditional two-choice format. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was employed in the present study to test the hypothesis that use of the expanded format would result in a clearer and more accurate indication of test structure.…

  12. Suicide Attempts and Personal Need for Structure Among Ex-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Beasley, Christopher; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-02-01

    Suicide attempts were examined in relation to sociodemographic (age, gender, ethnicity), psychopathological (prior psychiatric hospitalizations, physical and sexual abuse histories), and cognitive (personal need for structure) variables among a sample of ex-offenders with substance use disorders ( N = 270). Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to determine whether personal need for structure would significantly predict whether participants reported past suicide attempts beyond sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors. Personal need for structure and prior psychiatric hospitalizations were the only significant predictors, with higher values of these predictors increasing the likelihood of suicide attempts. Findings are consistent with a cognitive model for understanding suicide behavior, suggesting that persons with a high need for cognitive structures operate with persistent and rigid thought processes that contribute to their risk of suicide.

  13. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  14. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Personality Structure Through the Lens of the HEXACO Model.

    PubMed

    Ion, Andrei; Iliescu, Dragos; Aldhafri, Said; Rana, Neeti; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Widyanti, Ari; Nedelcea, Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Across 5 different samples, totaling more than 1,600 participants from India, Indonesia, Oman, Romania, and Thailand, the authors address the question of cross-cultural replicability of a personality structure, while exploring the utility of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as a data analysis technique in cross-cultural personality research. Personality was measured with an alternative, non-Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality framework, provided by the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004 ). The results show that the HEXACO framework was replicated in some of the investigated cultures. The ESEM data analysis technique proved to be especially useful in investigating the between-group measurement equivalence of broad personality measures across different cultures.

  15. A Model for Structuring Training Activities--A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Presents a model for structuring teacher workshops and discusses its implications for teaching methods used, duration of sessions, participation of those in attendance, and role changes of everyone involved. Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, this rationale for workshop structure explains each workshop stage to participants. (MBR)

  16. Galaxy Zoo: multimergers and the Millennium Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darg, D. W.; Kaviraj, S.; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Silk, J.; Lynn, S.; Bamford, S.; Nichol, R. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present a catalogue of 39 multiple mergers, found using the mergers catalogue of the Galaxy Zoo project for z < 0.1, and compare them to corresponding semi-analytical galaxies from the Millennium Simulation. We estimate the (volume-limited) multimerger fraction of the local Universe using our sample and find it to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than binary mergers - in good agreement with the simulations (especially the Munich group). We then investigate the properties of galaxies in binary mergers and multimergers (morphologies, colours, stellar masses and environment) and compare these results with those predicted by the semi-analytical galaxies. We find that multimergers favour galaxies with properties typical of elliptical morphologies and that this is in qualitative agreement with the models. Studies of multimergers thus provide an independent (and largely corroborating) test of the Millennium semi-analytical models.

  17. Health sciences librarianship in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Wood, E H

    2000-01-01

    Is the millennium really a critical point in time or just part of a continuum, in which health sciences librarians have always been innovators? Librarians have always had special knowledge that enabled them to identify, collect, organize, and distribute information. They have always embraced new technology, from the printing press to the Internet. As a profession, we must continue to promote how our particular skills can reinforce our role in the health care field.

  18. Feminist Economics at the Millennium: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses feminism and economics, redefining the field of economics from its contemporary emphasis on rationality and market forces to an emphasis on provisioning, suggesting more balanced and adequate theoretical and methodological approaches and noting that neoclassical economics is a parody of what feminist scholars of science argue against.…

  19. Assessment of personality organization in couple relationships: factorial structure of the inventory of personality organization and incremental validity over neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Melissa; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Normandin, Lina; Clarkin, John F

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 372 French-Canadian couples, this study examined the factorial structure of a 20-item abbreviated version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) across a sample of couples and tested if identity diffusion, primitive defenses, and reality testing explain additional variance in couple distress when controlling for neuroticism. The IPO is based on Kernberg's conceptualization of personality organization (Kernberg, 1976 ). Gender differences were also studied through an examination of the value of both self-reported and partner-reported personality in the prediction of each partner's couple satisfaction. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the tripartite model of the short version of the IPO provided an acceptable fit and proved invariant when tested on couples. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006 ) showed that elevated neuroticism predicted higher endorsement of primitive defenses, which in turn predict couple dissatisfaction. There was also a direct, negative path from neuroticism to dyadic adjustment. Finally, self-reported neuroticism scores predicted high utilization of primitive defenses by the partner, and low partner-reported couple satisfaction. Furthermore, high self-reported utilization of primitive defenses predicted low couple satisfaction.

  20. STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY PERSONALITY INVENTORY FOR CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieting; Lanza, Stephanie; Zhang, Minqiang; Su, Binyuan

    2015-06-01

    The University Personality Inventory, a mental health instrument for college students, is frequently used for screening in China. However, its unidimensionality has been questioned. This study examined its dimensions to provide more information about the specific mental problems for students at risk. Four subsamples were randomly created from a sample (N = 6,110; M age = 19.1 yr.) of students at a university in China. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied on the first two subsamples to explore dimension of the inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the third subsample to verify the exploratory dimensions. Finally, the identified factors were compared to the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to support validity, and sex differences were examined, based on the fourth subsample. Five factors were identified: Physical Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Emotional Vulnerability, Social Avoidance, and Interpersonal Sensitivity, accounting for 60.3% of the variance. All the five factors were significantly correlated with the SCL-90. Women scored significantly higher than men on Cognitive Symptoms and Interpersonal Sensitivity.

  1. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective.

  2. Evaluating the Internal Structure of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Objective Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, Edward

    1989-01-01

    Objective criteria for evaluating the Eysenck Personality Inventory's internal structure are discussed. An approach based on targeted rotations and the test's scoring key is proposed as a means of providing common criteria. Data from earlier structure and test results for 195 undergraduates support the utility of 3 criteria developed. (SLD)

  3. The study of virus structure and function: a personal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    2014-09-01

    I describe my gradually evolving role as a scientist from my birth in Frankfurt (Germany) to my education in the UK, my post-doc years and my experiences as an independent investigator at Purdue University1. I discuss the significance of my post-doctoral work in Minnesota where I had my first encounter with an electronic computer and subsequently in Cambridge where I participated in the first structure determination of proteins. After six years back in England my family moved to Indiana (USA) where my home remains to this day. At Purdue University I first studied the structure of enzymes and in the process I discovered the organization and slow evolution of protein domains, each with a specific function. With this success I started what had been on my mind already for a long time, namely the structural analysis of viruses. Initially we studied plant viruses but then switched to small RNA animal viruses, discovering that some plant and animal RNA viruses have closely similar structures and therefore presumably had a common evolutionary origin. Next I became interested in somewhat larger viruses that had lipid membrane envelopes. In turn that has led to the study of very large dsDNA viruses as big as small bacteria as well as studies of bacterial viruses that require complex molecular motors for different parts of their life cycle. While developing crystallographic techniques for the study of viruses it has become progressively more apparent that electron microscopy is an important new tool that is likely to eclipse x-ray crystallography in the next decade.

  4. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  5. Buckling of structures with uncertain imperfections - Personal perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac

    1998-01-01

    The previous review on stochastic buckling of structures was written by Amazigo in 1976. This review summarizes some of the developments which took place in recent two decades. A brief overview is given of the effect on uncertainty in the initial geometric imperfections, elastic moduli, applied forces, and thickness variation. For the benefit of the thinking reader, the review has a critical nature. It should be noted that this manuscript has yet to be completed.

  6. Characterizing the best cosmic telescopes with the millennium simulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2014-04-10

    Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ∼ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue σ{sub μ}, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold μ. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high σ{sub μ} beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, for a z ∼ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and σ{sub μ>3} are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between σ{sub μ>3} and the number of cluster-scale halos (>10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) in the beam. Beams with σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, which should be best at lensing z ∼ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M {sub 200} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

  7. Neural Correlates of Emotional Personality: A Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called Eκ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and Eκ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher Eκ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher Eκ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher Eκ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (Eκ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional

  8. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  9. Millennium modem/channelizer special test equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-11-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  10. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  11. Evicase: an evidence-based case structuring approach for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Boaz; Casali, Paolo; Goldbraich, Anna; Goldsteen, Abigail; Kent, Carmel; Licitra, Lisa; Locatelli, Paolo; Restifo, Nicola; Rinott, Ruty; Sini, Elena; Torresani, Michele; Waks, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    The personalized medicine era stresses a growing need to combine evidence-based medicine with case based reasoning in order to improve the care process. To address this need we suggest a framework to generate multi-tiered statistical structures we call Evicases. Evicase integrates established medical evidence together with patient cases from the bedside. It then uses machine learning algorithms to produce statistical results and aggregators, weighted predictions, and appropriate recommendations. Designed as a stand-alone structure, Evicase can be used for a range of decision support applications including guideline adherence monitoring and personalized prognostic predictions.

  12. Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2005-01-01

    At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

  13. The hierarchic structure in schizotypy and the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Bando, Naoko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-30

    Schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) might be seen as on a continuum with schizophrenia. However, controversy remains with regard to whether this continuum is quasi-dimensional, applying only to people with schizophrenia and schizotypy, or fully dimensional, applying to all people. If the fully dimensional model is accurate, schizotypy could be described by the same personality theories as are applied to people in general. We examined the relationship between schizotypy and the five-factor model of personality (FFM), which is arguably the most established contemporary personality theory. When we assumed a hierarchic structure of schizotypy factors, we found that the FFM scales could explain schizotypy fairly well regardless of the questionnaires used, suggesting that schizotypy might represent a variation better understood by reference to typical dimensions of personality, though it might still indicate a predisposition to schizophrenia. This article discusses this conclusion in relation to each of the five personality factors. A perspective that situates schizophrenia on a continuum with general personality variations implies that this disorder constitutes a potential risk for everyone and, thus, helps to promote understanding and correct misunderstandings that contribute to prejudice.

  14. Longitudinal Validation of General and Specific Structural Features of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2016-01-01

    Theorists have long argued that personality disorder (PD) is best understood in terms of general impairments shared across the disorders as well as more specific instantiations of pathology. A model based on this theoretical structure was proposed as part of the DSM-5 revision process. However, only recently has this structure been subjected to formal quantitative evaluation, with little in the way of validation efforts via external correlates or prospective longitudinal prediction. We used the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset to: (1) estimate structural models that parse general from specific variance in personality disorder features, (2) examine patterns of growth in general and specific features over the course of 10 years, and (3) establish concurrent and dynamic longitudinal associations in PD features and a host of external validators including basic personality traits and psychosocial functioning scales. We found that general PD exhibited much lower absolute stability and was most strongly related to broad markers of psychosocial functioning, concurrently and longitudinally, whereas specific features had much higher mean stability and exhibited more circumscribed associations with functioning. However, both general and specific factors showed recognizable associations with normative and pathological traits. These results can inform efforts to refine the conceptualization and diagnosis of personality pathology. PMID:27819472

  15. Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.

    PubMed

    Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

    2001-01-01

    Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies.

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  17. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  19. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  20. Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

  1. Structure of Interests in Japan: Application of the Personal Globe Inventory Occupational Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lirong; Watanabe, Naotaka; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Japanese college students (N = 2,492) completed the translated Personal Globe Inventory (PGI: T. J. G. Tracey, 2002b) Occupational Title scales, and the structural validity of vocational interests was examined. Support was provided for the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional), octant, and spherical…

  2. A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Bonnie Bost

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

  3. Understanding Social Structure through Personal Experience: The Creative Use of Status and Role as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Derek

    2006-01-01

    "It's all up to the individual!" Most sociology instructors have encountered this response from students who have internalized the dominant ideological perspective of "personal responsibility" and therefore resist their efforts to encourage a rigorous examination of structural forces. A number of articles in recent issues of "Teaching Sociology"…

  4. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Exploring the personality structure in the 11 languages of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, Jan Alewyn; Valchev, Velichko H; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Meiring, Deon; de Bruin, Gideon P

    2012-08-01

    The present study, part of the development of the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), explores the implicit personality structure in the 11 official language groups of South Africa by employing a mixed-method approach. In the first, qualitative part of the study, semistructured interviews were conducted with 1,216 participants from the 11 official language groups. The derived personality-descriptive terms were categorized and clustered based on their semantic relations in iterative steps involving group discussions and contacts with language and cultural experts. This analysis identified 37 subclusters, which could be merged in 9 broad clusters: Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony, and Soft-Heartedness. In the second, quantitative part, the perceived relations between the 37 subclusters were rated by 204 students from different language groups in South Africa and 95 students in the Netherlands. The outcomes generally supported the adequacy of the conceptual model, although several clusters in the domain of relational and social functioning did not replicate in detail. The outcomes of these studies revealed a personality structure with a strong emphasis on social-relational aspects of personality.

  6. The effects of Web site structure: the role of personal difference.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hwiman; Ahn, Euijin

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Web site structures in terms of advertising effectiveness- memory, attitude, and behavioral intentions. The primary research question for this study is, What type of Web site (Web ad) structure is most effective? In the pilot study, we tested the difference between two Web site structures, linear and interactive, in terms of traditional advertising effectiveness. Results from the pilot study did not support our research expectations. However, differences in terms of memory were noted between the two structures. After re-creating the Web site based on subjects' comments, in the final experiment, we examined the differences between the two structures and the moderating role of personality difference on the effects of Web site structure. The results confirm that participants' attitude, memory, and behavioral intentions were affected differently by the different Web site structures. However, some research hypotheses were not supported by the current data.

  7. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  8. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  9. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  10. Veterinary parasitology: looking to the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C

    1999-08-01

    'Veterinary parasitology' has traditionally been concerned with the control of parasites of livestock and companion animals, with emphasis on chemotherapy and immunoprophylaxis. This will continue, but there must be less reliance on chemical control; the development of alternative strategies will be a major goal over the next ten years. Here, Andrew Thompson takes an optimistic look at the challenges, strengths and opportunities for veterinary parasitology as we enter the next millennium. In the space available here, he can only 'scratch the surface' about what the future holds for veterinary parasitology, and will attempt to identify the major trends that are emerging, some of which will be the subject of future in-depth articles in Parasitology Today.

  11. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  13. Traits in transition: the structure of parent-reported personality traits from early childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted to map the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits, to identify the foundational level of this structure, and to test whether the meanings of some youth personality dimensions shift with age. We addressed these issues by analyzing personality parent reports describing a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3 to 20). These parent reports were made using a broadband measure of youths' personal characteristics, the common-language California Child Q-Set. Analyses of the full sample and comparisons of 16 age groups supported three main conclusions. First, the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits both resembles and differs from the adult personality hierarchy in important ways. Second, a set of six dimensions--Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity--may constitute the foundational level of the youth personality hierarchy from middle childhood through adolescence. This "Little Six" structure represents a union of the most prominent personality and temperament dimensions. Third, the meanings of some youth personality dimensions (e.g., Activity, Conscientiousness) shift systematically with age. These findings advance our understanding of when and how personality structure develops during the first two decades of life.

  14. Drug use and personality in adolescence and young adulthood: structural models with nonnormal variables.

    PubMed

    Bentler, P M

    1987-02-01

    An introduction to structural modeling with nonnormal continuous variables is provided using the equations language of the micro-mainframe program EQS in the context of a longitudinal study of adolescent development that followed about 700 adolescents across an 8-year span into young adulthood. 2 models relating drug use and personality are developed to assess the influence of drug use on personality, and personality on drug use. A high level of self-acceptance is shown to have a small but significant inoculating effect against subsequent cannabis use in both early and late adolescence, while a small positive effect of cannabis use on subsequent self-acceptance occurs only during early adolescence. Substantial stability of self-derogation, cannabis use, and law abidance are demonstrated, with self-derogation during adolescence leading to increased law abidance during young adulthood.

  15. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  16. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

  17. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  18. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  19. Premature Delivery and the Millennium Development Goal

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

  20. Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4.

  1. Adolescent violence: concepts for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E

    2000-02-01

    Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium.

  2. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  3. Maintenance for the Millennium: Another Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sculthorpe, Barruy R.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear units nationwide are struggling to increase plant reliability and availability while at the same time reduce their operating and maintenance costs. Some very costly investments have been made in programs such as Reliability Centered Maintenance [RCM]. Florida Power and Light's approach at the St. Lucie Nuclear Plant has taken a slightly different approach. Building on our knowledge of the RCM process and an already existing 'World Class' Predictive Maintenance Program, a 'Condition-Based' Maintenance Program that takes advantage of the RCM philosophy and our toolbox full of advanced and highly successful predictive maintenance technologies. These tools currently consist of vibration analysis, lubricant analysis (both physical property and wear metals analysis, thermographic analysis, motor current signature analysis, tribology and process parameter trending. All employed with the intent to evaluate a machines health. This machine health check allows the forecasting of future preventative maintenance [PM's] tasks and the revision of existing PM's to maximize machine performance and eliminate 'no-value-added' maintenance activities/costs. Within the last year, the Condition-Based Maintenance Program has produced a cost saving of approximately $1.5 million dollars. As the program matures, these cost savings will accumulate well into the millennium. (authors)

  4. Exploring the Interconnected Trauma of Personal, Social, and Structural Stressors: Making "Sense" of Senseless Violence.

    PubMed

    Abo-Zena, Mona M

    2017-01-02

    Although violence is a timeless characteristic of human behavior and history, its prevalence and many forms are proliferated repeatedly through the media. In particular, "senseless" violence against both random and targeted victims puzzles and petrifies onlookers and survivors. Integrating developmental psychology with critical theory, this manuscript begins with a conceptual definition of senseless violence that is coupled with a mapping of the personal, social, and structural etiologies of such violence. This inquiry explores the origins, contexts, and varied manifestations of violence, helps redirect sense-making around such violence, and informs how to cope with and possibly reduce or mitigate it. Utilizing a person-centered perspective from multiple points of view, the analysis focuses primarily on the everyday or chronic experiences of stressors and their relation to internalized and externalized types of violence (i.e., mass shootings, interpersonal violence, self-injury). The manuscript concludes with ways to reduce violence and promote justice on personal, social, and structural levels.

  5. Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

    2010-06-01

    The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass

  6. Differences in within- and between-person factor structure of positive and negative affect: analysis of two intensive measurement studies using multilevel structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Rush, Jonathan; Hofer, Scott M

    2014-06-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.

  7. Evaluating the Internal Structure of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Objective Criteria.

    PubMed

    Helmes, E

    1989-07-01

    Controversy over the internal structure of personality inventories has centered on appropriate methodology and has often been based on differing criteria among researchers. Much of this controversy has revolved in particular around the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) or other Eysenck tests. An approach based on targeted rotations and the test's scoring key is proposed as a means of providing common criteria. These are based on the number of items having their highest loading on their keyed scale, the mean loading of keyed items and the number of items having their highest loading on non-keyed scales. Several data sets from earlier studies are analyzed, together with a new set based on the responses to the EPQ of 195 undergraduates, using the proposed criteria. Results were very similar across samples and suggested specific weaknesses with two EPQ scales. This provided support for the utility of the three criteria.

  8. Factorial Structure and Age-Related Psychometrics of the MIDUS Personality Adjective Items across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Zimprich, Daniel; Allemand, Mathias; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses issues of measurement invariance and comparability of factor parameters of Big Five personality adjective items across age. Data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey were used to investigate age-related developmental psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items in two large cross-sectional samples (exploratory sample: N = 862; analysis sample: N = 3,000). After having established and replicated a comprehensive five-factor structure of the measure, increasing levels of measurement invariance were tested across ten age groups. Results indicate that the measure demonstrates strict measurement invariance in terms of number of factors and factor loadings. Also, we found that factor variances and covariances were equal across age groups. By contrast, a number of age-related factor mean differences emerged. The practical implications of these results are discussed and future research is suggested. PMID:21910548

  9. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

  10. The relationship between personality, social functioning, and depression: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai S; Rochelle, Tina L; Cheung, Jacky C K

    2011-06-01

    The relationship between personality, social functioning, and depression remains unclear. The present study employs structural equation modeling to examine the mediating role of social functioning between harm avoidance (HA), self-directedness (SD), and depression. A sample of 902 individuals completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following scales: HA and SD subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). Structural equation modeling via analysis of moment structure was used to estimate the fit of nine related models. Results indicated that social functioning is a mediator between harm avoidance or self-directness and depression. Self-directedness was also shown to have direct effects on depression. The results support the social reinforcement theory of depression and provide a theoretical account of how the variables are related based on correlation methods. Suggestions are offered for future experimental and longitudinal research.

  11. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  12. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  13. Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Colin G; Hirsh, Jacob B; Shane, Matthew S; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Gray, Jeremy R

    2010-06-01

    We used a new theory of the biological basis of the Big Five personality traits to generate hypotheses about the association of each trait with the volume of different brain regions. Controlling for age, sex, and whole-brain volume, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging of 116 healthy adults supported our hypotheses for four of the five traits: Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried with volume of medial orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region involved in processing reward information. Neuroticism covaried with volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative affect. Agreeableness covaried with volume in regions that process information about the intentions and mental states of other individuals. Conscientiousness covaried with volume in lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior. These findings support our biologically based, explanatory model of the Big Five and demonstrate the potential of personality neuroscience (i.e., the systematic study of individual differences in personality using neuroscience methods) as a discipline.

  14. Building Structured Personal Health Records from Photographs of Printed Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Gang; Teng, Xiaofei; Xie, Guotong

    2015-01-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) provide patient-centric healthcare by making health records accessible to patients. In China, it is very difficult for individuals to access electronic health records. Instead, individuals can easily obtain the printed copies of their own medical records, such as prescriptions and lab test reports, from hospitals. In this paper, we propose a practical approach to extract structured data from printed medical records photographed by mobile phones. An optical character recognition (OCR) pipeline is performed to recognize text in a document photo, which addresses the problems of low image quality and content complexity by image pre-processing and multiple OCR engine synthesis. A series of annotation algorithms that support flexible layouts are then used to identify the document type, entities of interest, and entity correlations, from which a structured PHR document is built. The proposed approach was applied to real world medical records to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Structure of DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenström, Tom; Ystrom, Eivind; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Czajkowski, Nikolai Olavi; Gillespie, Nathan A; Aggen, Steven H; Krueger, Robert F; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2017-01-21

    Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level. Multivariate biometric models, including both independent and common pathways, were compared. A single phenotypic factor was found, and the best-fitting biometric model was a single-factor common pathway model, with common-factor heritability of 51% (95% CI 40-67%). In other words, both genetic and environmental correlations between the ASPD criteria could be accounted for by a single common latent variable. The findings support the validity of ASPD as a unidimensional diagnostic construct.

  16. Toward a Unified Framework for the Study of Between-Person and Within-Person Structures: Building a Bridge Between Two Research Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of empirical research in the behavioral sciences is based on the analysis of between-person variation. In contrast, much of applied psychology is concerned with the analysis of variation within individuals. Furthermore, the mechanisms specified by psychological theories generally operate within, rather than across, individuals. This disconnect between research practice, applied demands, and psychological theories constitutes a major threat to the conceptual integrity of the field. Following groundbreaking earlier work, we propose a conceptual framework that distinguishes within-person (WP) and between-person (BP) sources of variation in psychological constructs. By simultaneously considering both sources of variation, it is shown how to identify possible reasons for nonequivalence of BP and WP structures as well as establishing areas of convergence. For this purpose, we first introduce the concept of conditional equivalence as a way to study partial structural equivalence of BP and WP structures in the presence of unconditional nonequivalence. Second, we demonstrate the construction of likelihood planes to explore the causes of structural nonequivalence. Third, we examine 4 common causes for unconditional nonequivalence-autoregression, subgroup differences, linear trends, and cyclic trends-and demonstrate how to account for them. Fourth, we provide an empirical example on BP and WP differences in attentiveness.

  17. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    PubMed

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  18. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high

  19. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  20. SCARLET: Design of the Fresnel concentrator array for New Millennium Deep Space 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Eskenazi, M.I.

    1997-12-31

    The primary power for the JPL New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft is a 2.6 kW concentrator solar array. This paper surveys the design and analysis employed to combine line-focus Fresnel lenses and multijunction (GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge) solar cells in the second-generation SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) system. The array structure and mechanisms are reviewed. Discussion is focused on the lens and receiver, from the optimizations of optical efficiency and thermal management, to the design issues of environmental extremes, reliability, producibility, and control of pointing error.

  1. Teaching bioethics in the new millennium: holding theories accountable to actual practices and real people.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    2002-08-01

    Teaching bioethics in the new millennium requires its practitioners to confront a wide area of methodological alternatives. This essay chronicles the author's journey from the principlism of Beauchamp and Childress, through narrative and postmodern bioethics, to a complex feminist critique of postmodern bioethics that emphasizes functional human capabilities and the creation of structures that can facilitate free discussion of those capabilities and how best to realize them. Teaching bioethics concerns not only the acknowledgement of differences but also reminding ourselves of our samenesses. Sustained Habermasian democratic conversations might help us to escape the narrow confines of a postmodern bioethics of moral strangers for a richer world of moral friends.

  2. Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations With Combat Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Morbidities and Behavioral Characteristics.—The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire, embedded in the Millennium...Naval Health Research Center Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations With Combat Deployment Christopher J...Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 Research Submission Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort

  3. The composite first person narrative: Texture, structure, and meaning in writing phenomenological descriptions.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2011-04-12

    This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or "contextual" human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The "what is it like" or the "unsaid" aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to "account for" a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the "we" among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.

  4. At the Threshold of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This volume of essays was written as a tribute to the ideals of Phi Delta Kappa and to the fraternity's retiring executive director, Lowell C. Rose, who led the international professional fraternity in education from 1971 to 1995. Each contributor was invited to reflect on his or her personal experiences in education and life and to speculate on…

  5. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  6. Racial Disparities in New Millennium Schools: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeauf, Ireon

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…

  7. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  8. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  9. Notes from Girl X: Anne Frank at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Holli

    2002-01-01

    Considers if Anne Frank's diary is still viable or if it has been too far removed from its original author or its original context. Concludes that the book "Anne Frank and Me" offers historical accuracies about the Holocaust while placing its readers squarely at the millennium. (SG)

  10. A Guide for Education in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Tom; Wirth, Rex; Pool, Harbison

    This paper examines the philosophical approaches to knowledge that have governed education and concludes that a new paradigm is needed for the new millennium. Education is subdivided into a three-level hierarchy, including: (1) the accumulation of factoids as knowledge; (2) the development of knowledge into theories and models for the purpose of…

  11. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  12. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losco, Joseph, Ed.; Fife, Brian L., Ed.

    This collection of papers records the current state of higher education and outlines the challenges higher education will face in the new millennium. The nine chapters are as follows: (1) "The American College Student: Three Decades of Change" (Alexander W. Astin); (2) "The Changing Role of Faculty" (Gary Rhoades); (3)…

  13. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  14. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  15. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  16. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  17. Personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): exploring the hierarchical structure and associations with the vasopressin V1A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Young, Larry J

    2014-01-01

    One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences, suggest a sexually dimorphic role of AVPR1A polymorphisms on hierarchical personality profiles at a higher-order level.

  18. Hierarchical Structure and Cross-Cultural Measurement Invariance of the Norwegian Version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was created to aid a trait-based diagnostic system for personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a ). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the Norwegian version of the PID-5 by examining its score reliability, hierarchical structure, congruency with international findings, and cross-cultural measurement invariance with a matched U.S.

  19. The Structure of Psychopathology in Adolescence and Its Common Personality and Cognitive Correlates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. PMID:27819466

  20. A review of structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Erin A; Goldstein, Kim E; Kolaitis, Jeanine C

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) share genetic, phenomenologic, and cognitive abnormalities with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. To date, 15 structural MRI studies of the brain have examined size, and 3 diffusion tensor imaging studies have examined white matter connectivity in SPD. Overall, both types of structural neuroimaging modalities have shown temporal lobe abnormalities similar to those observed in schizophrenia, while frontal lobe regions appear to show more sparing. This intriguing pattern suggests that frontal lobe sparing may suppress psychosis, which is consistent with the idea of a possible neuroprotective factor. In this paper, we review these 18 studies and discuss whether individuals with SPD who both resemble and differ from schizophrenia patients in their phenomenology, share some or all of the structural brain imaging characteristics of schizophrenia. We attempt to group the MRI abnormalities in SPD into three patterns: 1) a spectrum of severity-abnormalities are similar to those observed in schizophrenia but not so severe; 2) a spectrum of region-abnormalities affecting some, but not all, brain regions affected in schizophrenia; and 3) a spectrum of compensation-abnormalities reflecting greater-than-normal white matter volume, possibly serving as a buffer or compensatory mechanism protecting the individual with SPD from the frank psychosis observed in schizophrenia.

  1. Using Functional or Structural Magnetic Resonance Images and Personal Characteristic Data to Identify ADHD and Autism.

    PubMed

    Ghiassian, Sina; Greiner, Russell; Jin, Ping; Brown, Matthew R G

    2016-01-01

    A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets. The algorithm is able to distinguish ADHD from control with hold-out accuracy of 69.6% (over baseline 55.0%) using personal characteristics and structural brain scan features when trained on the ADHD-200 dataset (769 participants in training set, 171 in test set). It is able to distinguish autism from control with hold-out accuracy of 65.0% (over baseline 51.6%) using functional images with personal characteristic data when trained on the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) dataset (889 participants in training set, 222 in test set). These results outperform all previously presented methods on both datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a single automated learning process that can produce classifiers for distinguishing patients vs. controls from brain imaging data with above-chance accuracy on large datasets for two different psychiatric illnesses (ADHD and autism). Working toward clinical applications requires robustness against real-world conditions, including the substantial variability that often exists among data collected at different institutions. It is therefore important that our algorithm was successful with the large ADHD-200 and ABIDE datasets, which include data from hundreds of participants collected at multiple institutions. While the resulting classifiers are not yet clinically relevant, this work shows that there is a signal in the (f

  2. Using Functional or Structural Magnetic Resonance Images and Personal Characteristic Data to Identify ADHD and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiassian, Sina; Greiner, Russell; Jin, Ping; Brown, Matthew R. G.

    2016-01-01

    A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets. The algorithm is able to distinguish ADHD from control with hold-out accuracy of 69.6% (over baseline 55.0%) using personal characteristics and structural brain scan features when trained on the ADHD-200 dataset (769 participants in training set, 171 in test set). It is able to distinguish autism from control with hold-out accuracy of 65.0% (over baseline 51.6%) using functional images with personal characteristic data when trained on the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) dataset (889 participants in training set, 222 in test set). These results outperform all previously presented methods on both datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a single automated learning process that can produce classifiers for distinguishing patients vs. controls from brain imaging data with above-chance accuracy on large datasets for two different psychiatric illnesses (ADHD and autism). Working toward clinical applications requires robustness against real-world conditions, including the substantial variability that often exists among data collected at different institutions. It is therefore important that our algorithm was successful with the large ADHD-200 and ABIDE datasets, which include data from hundreds of participants collected at multiple institutions. While the resulting classifiers are not yet clinically relevant, this work shows that there is a signal in the (f

  3. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

  4. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

  5. Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait ‘fantasy’

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character’s experiences were one’s own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called ‘presence’. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

  6. Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait 'fantasy'.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Marcus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character's experiences were one's own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called 'presence'. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification.

  7. The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  8. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-06-03

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  9. The heterogeneous structure of schizotypal personality disorder: item-level factors of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and their associations with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, dissociative tendencies, and normal personality.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

    2008-05-01

    A. Raine et al.'s (1994) 3-factor scheme is currently the most widely accepted model of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; A. Raine, 1991) subscales, which represent the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for SPD, have provided the model's primary support. The use of only 9 modeled variables, however, limits the number of factors that can be extracted. To explicate this structure more fully, the authors conducted item-level factor analyses of the SPQ in a large student sample that completed the instrument twice within a 2-week interval. The authors' analyses failed to support either the 3-factor model of SPD or the 9 existing DSM-based subscales of the SPQ. Instead, 5 replicable dimensions emerged that capture recurrent symptom pairings found in the broader SPD literature: Social Anhedonia, Unusual Beliefs and Experiences, Social Anxiety, Mistrust, and Eccentricity/Oddity. These factors are only weakly correlated with each other and show differential correlational patterns with the Big Five personality traits, dissociative tendencies, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Moreover, they are congruent with dimensional models of personality psychopathology. Implications for SPD in DSM-V are discussed.

  10. ATTITUDE GENERALIZATION IN SOCIAL TRIADS AS A FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY STRUCTURE AND AVAILABILITY OF SOCIAL SUPPORT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , INTERACTIONS), (*ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , GROUP DYNAMICS, REACTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERCEPTION... PSYCHOLOGY ), SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, VERBAL BEHAVIOR

  11. Interpersonal Perceptions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: An Examination Using the Structural Summary Method for Circumplex Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…

  12. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  13. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  14. The Structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory With Binary and Rating Scale Items.

    PubMed

    Boldero, Jennifer M; Bell, Richard C; Davies, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) items typically have a forced-choice format, comprising a narcissistic and a nonnarcissistic statement. Recently, some have presented the narcissistic statements and asked individuals to either indicate whether they agree or disagree that the statements are self-descriptive (i.e., a binary response format) or to rate the extent to which they agree or disagree that these statements are self-descriptive on a Likert scale (i.e., a rating response format). The current research demonstrates that when NPI items have a binary or a rating response format, the scale has a bifactor structure (i.e., the items load on a general factor and on 6 specific group factors). Indexes of factor strength suggest that the data are unidimensional enough for the NPI's general factor to be considered a measure of a narcissism latent trait. However, the rating item general factor assessed more narcissism components than the binary item one. The positive correlations of the NPI's general factor, assessed when items have a rating response format, were moderate with self-esteem, strong with a measure of narcissistic grandiosity, and weak with 2 measures of narcissistic vulnerability. Together, the results suggest that using a rating format for items enhances the information provided by the NPI.

  15. Factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): findings from a large incarcerated sample.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Craig S; Malterer, Melanie B; Newman, Joseph P

    2008-06-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However, substantive and structural evidence raises concerns about the viability of this 2-factor model, particularly in offender populations. The authors attempted to replicate the S. D. Benning et al. 2-factor solution using a large (N = 1,224) incarcerated male sample. Confirmatory factor analysis of this model resulted in poor model fit. Similarly, using the same EFA procedures as did S. D. Benning et al., the authors found little evidence for a 2-factor model. When they followed the recommendations of J.-W. van Prooijen and W. A. van der Kloot (2001) for recovering EFA solutions, model fit results provided some evidence that a 3-factor EFA solution could be recovered via confirmatory factor analysis.

  16. The validity and clinical utility of structured diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder with forensic patients.

    PubMed

    Marin-Avellan, Luisa E; McGauley, Gillian A; Campbell, Colin D; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Current DSM-based instruments for personality disorders (PDs) limit the investigation of the course and outcome of treatment of these disorders. This study examined the validity of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) in a sample of forensic PD patients. Results based on 66 participants indicated that the SWAP-200 Q-factors reduced the frequency of diagnostic comorbidity of PD categories by half compared with the SCID-II. Only the SWAP-200's Antisocial PD category showed good convergent and discriminant validity with respect to other instruments describing aspects of PD. The validity of the cutoff score for severe antisocial PD was confirmed, and this category predicted severe incidents in the hospital at 1 year of follow-up. A violence risk scale was constructed, which differentiated violent and nonviolent offenders. The results support the validity of the SWAP-200 and its potential clinical utility with forensic PD patients.

  17. Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior.

  18. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory.

  19. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors.

  20. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  1. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  2. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  3. Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

  4. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael P.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Phan, Loan T.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory factor analysis of the scores of 248 counselors-in-training on the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form (CSPD-RF). Authors of the test hypothesized that the CPSD-RF measured 2 factors, personal development and skills development. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors accounting for 58.4% of the total variance,…

  5. Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella): comparisons with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B M; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e., how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition often reflect differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites, including 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e., capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior and the evolution of personality structure in primates.

  6. A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) analogue of cross-national generalization of personality structure: zoological parks and an African sanctuary.

    PubMed

    King, James E; Weiss, Alexander; Farmer, Kay H

    2005-04-01

    Six personality factors, including five resembling the human Big Five, had previously been identified in a separate group of zoo-housed chimpanzees. Comparability of chimpanzee personality factor structure was examined in two highly contrasting habitats: zoos and a large African sanctuary. Questionnaires for the zoo chimpanzees were in English, while most for the chimpanzees in the sanctuary were in French. Differences between the two settings were sufficiently extensive to make them analogous to cross-national human personality studies. Internal consistencies for five of the six factors did not differ between the two samples. The patterns of correlations between the unit-weighted factors were also similar for the two samples. Data from these two samples were pooled and factor analyzed. The resulting factor structure was then rotated to the factor structure described in the original study of chimpanzee personality. Dominance, Extraversion, Dependability, and Agreeableness had high congruences. Emotionality and Openness did not, but the items that had the highest loadings were consistent with the factors' definitions. Finally, sex and age effects for all factors generalized across habitats.

  7. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  8. Telepathology: a diagnostic tool for the millennium?

    PubMed

    Wells, C A; Sowter, C

    2000-05-01

    Many developments in science have their origins in science fiction and telepathology is no exception. The concept was first illustrated in 1924 in the magazine 'Radio News'. It was not until 1980, however, that the first working telepathology system was demonstrated. Although the system was shown to work, it required special hardware, dedicated software and special microwave transmission links to be installed. Little interest was shown worldwide because of the very high cost and the inability of many people to replicate such a system. Ten years later, the personal computer (PC) was able to provide more than adequate performance at low cost for both image display quality and speed, and the development of video technology had resulted in high quality images being produced by television cameras that were now easily affordable. Microscopes were also relatively cheaper. Thus, by 1993 or 1994, all the hardware necessary to produce a telepathology system was available at reasonable cost. Telepathology can now be used for remote primary diagnosis, remote referral to a specialist pathologist, remote teaching, remote presentation of post-mortem or microscopic findings, quality assurance image circulation and feedback, and consensus diagnosis for pathological review in clinical trials. There are two residual problems. The first concerns the speed of data transmission, commonly referred to as the bandwidth. The second is that the software provided by most of the manufacturers and suppliers of these systems is not entirely suitable to the task and the systems are not interoperable. It is clear that the approach of the manufacturers is at present unlikely to produce telepathology systems which pathologists feel comfortable in using. A somewhat different approach is illustrated by the accompanying article in this issue from the Berlin group, where a relatively simple Java-based applet and the Internet are used to allow single or multiple users to view slides on a robotic

  9. The role of visual markers in police victimization among structurally vulnerable persons in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas; FitzGerald, David; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Law enforcement can shape HIV risk behaviours and undermine strategies aimed at curbing HIV infection. Little is known about factors that increase vulnerability to police victimization in Mexico. This study identifies correlates of police or army victimization (i.e., harassment or assault) in the past 6 months among patients seeking care at a free clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods From January to May 2013, 601 patients attending a binational student-run free clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible participants were: (1) ≥18 years old; (2) seeking care at the clinic; and (3) spoke Spanish or English. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with police/army victimization in the past 6 months. Results More than one-third (38%) of participants reported victimization by police/army officials in the past 6 months in Tijuana. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, males (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 3.68; 95% CI: 2.19–6.19), tattooed persons (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04–2.33) and those who injected drugs in the past 6 months (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29–3.43) were significantly more likely to report past 6-month police/army victimization. Recent feelings of rejection (AOR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.47–5.85) and being denied employment (AOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50–3.32) were also independently associated with police/army victimization. Conclusion Structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma against vulnerable populations and increasing social incorporation may aid in reducing victimization events by police/army in Tijuana. Police education and training to reduce abusive policing practices may be warranted. PMID:25281235

  10. Does the early social environment affect structure and consistency of personality in wild-type male's rat?

    PubMed

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2011-09-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating the sex ratio of the litter, at postnatal day (pnd) 3, in wild-type rats, on personality traits in adulthood. We measured the treatment effects on aggression, defensive burying, and open field behavior at pnd 90 and 120, as well as on their contextual generality, and stability over time (differential and structural consistency). Main effects of litter composition were found on open field behavior at pnd 120 but not on the other behaviors. Since correlations between behaviors changed over time irrespective of the specific treatment, whereas in previous studies on unmanipulated litters this was not the case we suggest that early handling may disrupt adult personality traits. Overall the data indicate that personality is less stable over time that often assumed, having both proximate and ultimate implications.

  11. Personality-dependent dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Cote, J.; Clobert, J.; Brodin, T.; Fogarty, S.; Sih, A.

    2010-01-01

    Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts. PMID:21078658

  12. Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.

    PubMed

    Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

    1999-03-01

    It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities.

  13. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  14. A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Perugini, Marco; Szarota, Piotr; de Vries, Reinout E; Di Blas, Lisa; Boies, Kathleen; De Raad, Boele

    2004-02-01

    Standard psycholexical studies of personality structure have produced a similar 6-factor solution in 7 languages (Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Polish). The authors report the content of these personality dimensions and interpret them as follows: (a) a variant of Extraversion, defined by sociability and liveliness (though not by bravery and toughness); (b) a variant of Agreeableness, defined by gentleness, patience, and agreeableness (but also including anger and ill temper at its negative pole); (c) Conscientiousness (emphasizing organization and discipline rather than moral conscience); (d) Emotionality (containing anxiety, vulnerability, sentimentality, lack of bravery, and lack of toughness, but not anger or ill temper); (e) Honesty-Humility; (f) Intellect/Imagination/Unconventionality. A potential reorganization of the Big Five factor structure is discussed.

  15. [Effect of chlorpromazine and amphetamine on incidental memory and its relation to the introvert-extravert structure of personality].

    PubMed

    Zaimov, K; Kokoshkarova, A

    1978-10-01

    A total of fifty-four test subjects divided into one control group and two experimental groups were used to study the effects of chlorpromazine and amphetamine upon the incidental memory, its accuracy, and possible dependence on the introversive or extroversive personality structure, respectively. It has been found that chlorpromazine tends to lessen the incidental memory in extent and increase the number of allomnesias or instances of inaccurate remembrance, whereas amphetamine has the effects of increasing the extent of the incidental memory and reducing the number of allomnesias. A comparison of the extent of the incidental memory with the structure of personality in respect of introversion or extroversion in the control group also showed significant differences, the incidental memory being of smaller extent in the case of introversion and greater extent in the case of extroversion.

  16. Hierarchical Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in a Large Population Sample: Goldberg's Trait-Tier Mapping Procedure.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures.

  17. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  18. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  19. Medicine for the millennium: the challenge of postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Chan, J J; Chan, J E

    2000-04-03

    As the new millennium dawns, Australian society is becoming more post-modern, whereas the medical system remains increasingly modernist in its outlook. In this article, we discuss the emerging prevalence of post-modernism and examine current medical education and practice strategies, such as evidence-based medicine, from a post-modern perspective. We argue that if medicine does not respond to the ideas of post-modernism, which challenges the concepts of truth and our ability to be objective, it may become increasingly irrelevant to the needs of a changing society.

  20. Factor structure of items from the personality Adjective Check List in a sample of normal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tous, Josep M; Pont, Núria; Ruben, Muiños

    2006-11-01

    We present the results of a principal-components analysis of the Personality Adjective Check List (PACL) at the item level, rather than at the scale level. The PACL was constructed by Strack (1987) to evaluate the personality scales proposed by Millon (1981). Data were obtained from a sample of normal adolescents. A scree test was applied to determine the number of factors to be extracted, and the retained factors were then rotated using a varimax procedure. Using the data from this second analysis, congruence coefficients were calculated by correlating the factor weights from the two analyses of men and women. Results reveal the existence in the whole sample of five unipolar personality factors, which we have called: Aggressive, Conscientious, Inhibited, Impulsive and Gregarious. These are not similar to those obtained from a sample of normal adults.

  1. Impact of structured personal on-site patient education on low posaconazole plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Duettmann, Wiebke; Raggam, Reinhard B; Huber-Krassnitzer, Bianca; Theiler, Georg; Seeber, Katharina; Prueller, Florian; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Prattes, Jürgen; Wagner, Jasmin; Wölfler, Albert; Krause, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) are associated with breakthrough invasive mould infections among patients with haematological malignancies. This study evaluated the influence of structured personal on-site patient education on low PPCs. The study was conducted from July 2012 to May 2013 at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Hospital of Graz (Graz, Austria). PPCs were measured in all patients with haematological malignancies receiving the drug prophylactically. Concentrations above the target of 0.5 mg/L were defined as satisfactory and those below this concentration as low. In patients with low PPCs, structured personal on-site education regarding the intake of posaconazole (e.g. intake with fatty/acid food, prevention of nausea and vomiting) was performed. In total, 258 steady-state PPCs were measured in 65 patients [median PPC 0.59 mg/L, interquartile range 0.25-0.92 mg/L; 141/258 (54.7%) satisfactory]. Diarrhoea was the strongest predictor of low PPCs in the multivariate analysis. Initial steady-state PPCs were sufficient in 29 patients and low in 36 patients. Of the 36 patients with low initial steady-state PPCs, 8 were either discharged or antifungal therapy was modified before a follow-up PPC was obtained; in the remaining 28 patients, personal on-site education was performed. In 12/28 patients (43%) the personal on-site education led to sufficient levels, whilst in 16 (57%) PPCs stayed below the target, although increasing from <0.2 mg/L to >0.3 mg/L in 6 of these patients. In conclusion, personal education appears to be a promising tool to increase low PPCs.

  2. Assessing DSM-5-oriented level of personality functioning: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Semi-Structured Interview for Personality Functioning DSM-5 (STiP-5.1).

    PubMed

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Kamphuis, Jan H; Feenstra, Dine J; Weekers, Laura C; De Saeger, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a semistructured interview schedule for the multi-item assessment of the level of personality functioning, the Semi-Structured Interview for Personality Functioning DSM-5 (STiP-5.1). Eighty patients and 18 community subjects completed the STiP-5.1. Patients additionally completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Severity Indices of Personality Problems, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Personality Disorders. Good interrater reliability was observed in subsamples of patients (n = 40) and nonpatients (n = 18). Associations between the interview scores and conceptually relevant external measures consistently supported the construct validity of the instrument. The STiP-5.1 thus offers a brief, relatively user-friendly instrument with generally favorable psychometric properties for the assessment of level of personality functioning of the DSM-5 AMPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE... the public. Dated: March 7, 2012. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  4. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Presidential Documents... Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Memorandum... Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 3345 et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered...

  5. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... transportation service could be created between a recently completed interconnection with Laser Gathering and an... Company, L.L.C., One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965,...

  6. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  7. Southeast Asian perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Tee, E S

    2001-06-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been significant changes in the lifestyles of commmunities, including food habits, and food purchasing and consumption patterns in the Southeast Asian region. As a result, there is a definite change in the food and nutrition issues in the region. Nutritional deficiencies in many of these countries are slowly being decreased in magnitude. On the other hand, the significant proportions of the population are now faced with the other facet of the malnutrition problem, namely diet-related chronic diseases. However, because of the different stages of socio-economic development, the extent of each of these extremes of the malnutrition problems varies considerably between the different countries in Southeast Asia. Nutrition needs in the new millennium would necessarily differ somewhat among these countries while at the same time, there would be a considerable amount of similarities. This presentation highlights several macro issues that countries in the region may focus on in the near future. Various intervention programmes have been undertaken by authorities to tackle the co-existence of twin faces of malnutrition in many developing countries. It would be desirable to have a blue print of such programmes and activities in the National Plans of Action for Nutrition (NPANs) . The NPAN should be more than a framework or a descriptive document. It should be a tool for action, an operational plan that sets out priorities; identifies projects and activities, with details of implementation such as what, how and when; designates responsibilities and accountability for the activities; identifies resource requirements and their source; and sets out the plan for monitoring and evaluation. One of the main obstacles in the formulation and effective implementation of intervention programmes in developing countries is the lack of comprehensive data on the extent of the problems in many cases and the causes of such problems specificy to the

  8. Internal Consistency and Factor Structure of Personality Disorders in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Steptoe, Lesley; Hogue, Todd E.; Taylor, John L.; Mooney, Paul; Haut, Fabian; Johnston, Susan; O'Brien, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Background: The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability…

  9. Bringing Another Perspective To Bear on the Factor Structure of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaha, John; Merydith, Scott P.; Wallbrown, Fred H.; Dowd, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical factor solution on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 standardization sample found a general psychopathology factor and four primary factors similar to those reported by Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, and Kaemmer (1989). (Contains 29 references and 2 tables.) (Author)

  10. Background, Structure and Priorities of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Cloninger, C Robert; Thornicroft, Amalia; Mezzich, Juan E

    Declarations are relevant tools to frame new areas in health care, to raise awareness and to facilitate knowledge-to-action. The International College on Person Centered Medicine (ICPCM) is seeking to extend the impact of the ICPCM Conference Series by producing a declaration on every main topic. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research and to provide additional information on the research priority areas identified during this iterative process. There is a need for more PCM research and for the incorporation of the PCM approach into general health research. Main areas of research focus include: Conceptual, terminological, and ontological issues; research to enhance the empirical evidence of PCM main components such as PCM informed clinical communication; PCM-based diagnostic models; person-centered care and interventions; and people-centered care, research on training and curriculum development. Dissemination and implementation of PCM knowledge-base is integral to Person-centered Health Research and shall engage currently available scientific and translational dissemination tools such journals, events and eHealth.

  11. The Effects of Structured Team Meetings and Performance Feedback on Person-Centered Planning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatland, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    The period of transition from high school is challenging for most adolescents. There are a substantial number of life-changing decisions that transpire during this time. Choices must be made regarding career paths, continued education, future residence, and avenues for social activities and general integration in the community. Person-centered…

  12. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  13. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-06-25

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism.

  14. Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: a VBM and DTI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gaser, Christian

    2015-02-28

    We analysed T1-weighted MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBBS) on diffusion tensor images (DTI) in narcissistic personality disorder (NaPD) patients and healthy controls. Grey matter deficits include right prefrontal and bilateral medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortices, and decreased fractional anisotropy in right frontal lobe white matter.

  15. Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    According to Mednick's (1962) theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by “flat” (broader associations) instead of “steep” (few, common associations) associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations—overlap of similar associative responses (“association clouds”). We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick's (1962) theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition. PMID:24959129

  16. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Palmer, Jerry K.; Coker-Juneau, Carla J.; Williams, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the psychometric properties of the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP; L. Gething, 1991). Exploratory factor analysis with 358 undergraduates and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 272 undergraduates suggest that the IDP may provide a reasonable measurement of multidimensional attitudes toward individuals with…

  17. Support Structures for Facilitators of Student Personal Development Planning: Lessons from Two Departmental Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Claire; Lisewski, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, following guidelines set out by the Quality Assurance Agency, personal development planning (PDP) is now operational across all higher education (HE) awards. Like many policy initiatives, PDP requires change, and vital to its implementation are those who facilitate PDP at the grassroots level. Staff given the task of implementing PDP…

  18. Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a Large Incarcerated Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Craig S.; Malterer, Melanie B.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However,…

  19. Brief Report: Structure of Personal Narratives of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Allyssa; Hillier, Ashleigh; Shapiro, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults with High Functioning Autism and a matched comparison group told personal narratives using a standard conversational procedure. Longest narratives were determined (i.e., number of propositions included) and scored using an analysis that looks at the organization of a narrative around a highpoint. The group with Autism Spectrum…

  20. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC (MBTL... and operation of a shipping facility by Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview (MBTL). Currently,...

  1. 76 FR 52654 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC... Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC (Millennium) in Minisink, New York. This EA will be used by the...

  2. Unforced variability in summer storm track position over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil; Young, Giles; Robertson, Iain

    2014-05-01

    Gridded past millennium climate reconstructions, encompassing the European continent (e.g. Luterbacher et al 2004), based on proxy records, have previously been generated assuming that spatial temperature covariance across the region behaves in the past in the same way as it does in the observational period. This strategy bears the risk of artificially identifying the same patterns of variability as presently observed and overlooking periodically occurring modes of internal climate variability, that are not uniformly spatio-temporally expressed. Here, we construct regional proxy composites for Europe which are not constrained by the modes of variability expressed in the 20th century, and should thus broadly represent coherent regional summer temperatures back through time, independent from present modes of variability. The proxy data set analysed was provided by the efforts of the EU 6th Framework Millennium project. Proxy data are dominated by tree ring width, density and annual height increment. Four composites are used describing summer temperatures in the Arctic, Central, Pyrenean and Alpine zones of Europe. The proxy data sets cover the period AD 1260-1996. We jointly analyse an ensemble of simulations with global climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the 5th Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the period AD 850-2005, with the above aims in mind. The climate models were driven by estimations of the main external forcings. The implementations of these forcings may vary among simulations, depending on the different estimates used and on the structure of the models themselves. We analyse three simulations (CCSM4, IPSL, MPI-ESM) that, at the time of writing, provide daily data over the period AD 850-2005 obtained with the very same model version through the whole period. The analysis of both proxy and model data allowed us to more precisely identify the behaviour

  3. Hemispherically asymmetric volcanic forcing of tropical hydroclimate during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing.Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (δ18Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in proxy records

  4. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  5. Latent structure of a two-dimensional model of antisocial personality disorder: construct validation and taxometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2009-12-01

    Indicators from three different self-report measures-the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale, and the Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory-were organized into two dimensions, proactive and reactive, and subjected to construct validation and taxometric analysis in 637 male medium and maximum security inmates. Using three nonredundant and relatively independent taxometric procedures, mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum eigenvalue (MAXEIG), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode), consistent evidence of dimensional latent structure was discerned for the proactive and reactive dimensions of antisociality, both of which correlated moderately with a measure of antisocial personality disorder. It is reasoned that the two-dimensional model may eventually be capable of bridging the gap between childhood aggression and adult criminality as well as provide guidance to clinicians working with criminal offenders.

  6. Factorial structure and age-related psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items across the life span.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, Daniel; Allemand, Mathias; Lachman, Margie E

    2012-03-01

    The present study addresses issues of measurement invariance and comparability of factor parameters of Big Five personality adjective items across age. Data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey were used to investigate age-related developmental psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items in 2 large cross-sectional samples (exploratory sample: N = 862; analysis sample: N = 3,000). After having established and replicated a comprehensive 5-factor structure of the measure, increasing levels of measurement invariance were tested across 10 age groups. Results indicate that the measure demonstrates strict measurement invariance in terms of number of factors and factor loadings. Also, we found that factor variances and covariances were equal across age groups. By contrast, a number of age-related factor mean differences emerged. The practical implications of these results are discussed, and future research is suggested.

  7. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

  8. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Hunting for genes for hypertension: the Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2012-06-01

    The Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension was started in 2000 to identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to hypertension, with the aim of furthering the understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition and realizing genome-based personalized medical care. Two different approaches were launched, genome-wide association analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers, and systematic candidate gene analysis, under the hypothesis that common variants have an important role in the etiology of common diseases. These multilateral approaches identified ATP2B1 as a gene responsible for hypertension in not only Japanese but also Caucasians. The high blood pressure susceptibility conferred by certain alleles of ATP2B1 has been widely replicated in various populations. Ex vivo mRNA expression analysis in umbilical artery smooth muscle cells indicated that reduced expression of this gene associated with the risk allele may be an underlying mechanism relating the ATP2B1 variant to hypertension. However, the effect size of a SNP was too small to clarify the entire picture of the genetic basis of hypertension. Further, dense genome analysis with accurate phenotype data may be required.

  10. Right person, right skills, right job: the contribution of objective structured clinical examinations in advancing staff nurse experts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marion; Strube, Petra; Vaux, Amanda; West, Nicky; Auditore, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Recruitment processes need to discriminate among candidates to ensure that the right person with the right skills is selected for advancement opportunities. An innovative recruitment process using an objective structured clinical examination grounded in best practice guidelines resulted in improved recruitment practices for senior nursing clinical expert roles. Candidates' skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the areas of patient focus, clinical expertise, teamwork, and leadership were assessed using a clinical simulation. Candidates achieving advancement were assessed at 6 months to validate the efficacy of the process.

  11. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  12. Diabetes as a case study of chronic disease management with a personalized approach: the role of a structured feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, Antonio; Barkai, László; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Czupryniak, Leszek; Gomis, Ramon; Harno, Kari; Kulzer, Bernhard; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Némethyová, Zuzana; Owens, David; Schnell, Oliver; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Vergès, Bruno; Weitgasser, Raimund; Wens, Johan

    2012-10-01

    As non-communicable or chronic diseases are a growing threat to human health and economic growth, political stakeholders are aiming to identify options for improved response to the challenges of prevention and management of non-communicable diseases. This paper is intended to contribute ideas on personalized chronic disease management which are based on experience with one major chronic disease, namely diabetes mellitus. Diabetes provides a pertinent case of chronic disease management with a particular focus on patient self-management. Despite advances in diabetes therapy, many people with diabetes still fail to achieve treatment targets thus remaining at risk of complications. Personalizing the management of diabetes according to the patient's individual profile can help in improving therapy adherence and treatment outcomes. This paper suggests using a six-step cycle for personalized diabetes (self-)management and collaborative use of structured blood glucose data. E-health solutions can be used to improve process efficiencies and allow remote access. Decision support tools and algorithms can help doctors in making therapeutic decisions based on individual patient profiles. Available evidence about the effectiveness of the cycle's constituting elements justifies expectations that the diabetes management cycle as a whole can generate medical and economic benefit.

  13. Network Environments and Well-Being: An Examination of Personal Network Structure, Social Capital, and Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungyoon; Chung, Jae Eun; Park, Namkee

    2016-11-18

    Previous studies have demonstrated the role of social networks, social capital, and social support in individuals' well-being. However, the ways in which these related constructs simultaneously influence one's well-being outcomes and relate to one another have not been closely examined. This study pays particular attention to the structural characteristics of personal networks, distinction between offline and online social capital, and different indicators of well-being outcomes. Based on survey data collected from 574 college students, the study found that two dimensions of personal networks-density and gender homophily-and social capital in the form of offline bonding capital explained perceived social support. Further, perceived social support consistently predicted well-being outcomes and played a mediating role between personal network density and well-being, as well as between offline bonding capital and well-being. The results offer implications for a more nuanced understanding of the role of individuals' interpersonal and social environments in well-being outcomes.

  14. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  15. Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Buckley, Brendan M; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D; Jacoby, Gordon C; Wright, William E

    2010-04-23

    The Asian monsoon system affects more than half of humanity worldwide, yet the dynamical processes that govern its complex spatiotemporal variability are not sufficiently understood to model and predict its behavior, due in part to inadequate long-term climate observations. Here we present the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a seasonally resolved gridded spatial reconstruction of Asian monsoon drought and pluvials over the past millennium, derived from a network of tree-ring chronologies. MADA provides the spatiotemporal details of known historic monsoon failures and reveals the occurrence, severity, and fingerprint of previously unknown monsoon megadroughts and their close linkages to large-scale patterns of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures. MADA thus provides a long-term context for recent monsoon variability that is critically needed for climate modeling, prediction, and attribution.

  16. Did the Millennium Development Goals Change Trends in Child Mortality?

    PubMed

    French, Declan

    2016-10-01

    There has been little assessment of the role the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have had in progressing international development. There has been a 41% reduction in the under-five mortality rate worldwide from 1990 to 2011 and an acceleration in the rate of reduction since 2000. This paper explores why this has occurred, and results for all developing countries indicate that it is not due to more healthcare or public health interventions but is driven by a coincidental burst of economic growth. Although the MDGs are considered to have played an important part in securing progress against poverty, hunger and disease, there is very little evidence to back this viewpoint up. A thorough analysis of the successes and failures of the MDGs is therefore necessary before embarking on a new round of global goals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Reflexions on some dilemmas in bioethics for the millennium].

    PubMed

    Villa-Caballero, L; Lifshitz-Guinzberg, A

    2000-01-01

    With the end of the millennium, several proposals or propositions have been made about politics, culture, and economics for the world society. Science cannot be isolated from this well-recognized globalization process. Information through the Internet allows the spread of scientific data and knowledge among professional and no professional users to be exchanged and non shared, with the possibility of storing that information in a very fast manner. However, there are important differences in the availability and quality the information, especially in developing countries. On the other hand, it is clear that advances in technology in recent years are higher and faster than development in humanistic and philosophical areas. This situation points to the necessity of using some basic bioethical principles to deal with very important dilemmas such as euthanasia, assisted suicide, and new bioethical dilemmas such as technified death, restriction of economic resources in health care institutions, cloning and genetic manipulation, among others.

  18. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, Terrell N.

    1999-08-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

  19. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  20. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  1. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  2. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    PubMed

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  3. Personal protection: vicarious liability as applied to the various business structures.

    PubMed

    Winrow, Brian; Winrow, Amanda R

    2008-01-01

    Within the field of midwifery, the issue of vicarious liability has become an emerging issue. The doctrine of respondeat superior imputes liability to an employer without direct negligence. While the issue of vicarious liability has been explored in the past, those studies were focused on the vicarious liability of certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives (CNMs/CMs) for the negligence of their employees. This article explores the issue of vicarious liability under the doctrine of respondeat superior as applied within a practice consisting of two or more co-owners. This issue is of heightened importance, because CNMs/CMs increasingly enter into ventures with other CNMs/CMs in order to pool their resources. Many CNMs/CMs unsuspectingly assume the risks for the malpractice of their colleagues. This increased risk can be minimized by forming their practice as a limited liability entity, thus avoiding personal liability for the malpractice of their co-owner(s).

  4. Insecure attachment representations and child personal narrative structure: implications for delayed discourse in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    The internal working model of attachment has been assessed through attachment interviews and story-stems that exhibit differentiated patterns in adult and child narratives. This study examined variation in length and structure of children's independent personal narratives by attachment representations, discriminating between insecure-avoidant and insecure-ambivalent, and we tested attachment insecurity as a predictor of developmental delay in narrative discourse. Sixty-five preschool-age children completed the Attachment Story Completion Task-Revised and recalled three recent past events. Secure children told longer personal narratives than both avoidant and ambivalent children, and secure children's narrative structure was more coherent than that of ambivalent children but not avoidant children. Likewise, the two insecure categories differentially predicted delayed discourse. Ambivalent children were 10 times more likely to exhibit delayed discourse than secure children, whereas avoidant children were not at significantly greater risk. Differential developmental outcomes of avoidant and ambivalent children are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the role of child attachment in storing, accessing and communicating memories about everyday lived experiences.

  5. Personal remarks on the future of protein crystallography and structural biology.

    PubMed

    Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    Protein crystallography, the main experimental method of structural biology, has undergone in the recent past three revolutionary changes leading to its unexpected renaissance. They were connected with (i) the introduction of synchrotron radiation sources for X-ray diffraction experiments, (ii) implementation of Se-Met multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) for phasing, and (iii) initiation of structural genomics (SG) programs. It can be foreseen that in the next 10-15 years protein crystallography will continue to be in this revolutionary phase. We can expect not only an avalanche of protein crystal structures from SG centers, but also attacking of more demanding projects, such as the structure of membrane proteins and of very large macromolecular complexes. On the technological front, the introduction of X-ray radiation from free-electron lasers will revolutionize the experimental possibilities, making feasible even the imaging of single molecules and of intact biological cells.

  6. 77 FR 75198 - Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin F. Williams, Jr., Vice.... Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Millennium Challenge Corporation. BILLING...

  7. Ecosystem resilience to the Millennium drought in southeast Australia (2001-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    The prolonged Millennium drought in southeast Australia (2001-2009) provides a unique opportunity to analyze the responses of a semiarid ecosystem to severe droughts. In this paper, we analyzed vegetation dynamics in the Millennium drought using visible/infrared observations, passive microwave observations, and a simple ecohydrological model. The satellite observations indicated that the ecosystem maintained its greenness in the Millennium drought, although the total aboveground biomass was significantly decreased by water scarcity. The results of our numerical experiments suggested that the resilience of vegetation greenness to the drought could be explained by a carbon allocation strategy that was sensitive to light and water availability and by temporal changes in vegetation traits. Our numerical experiments successfully simulated the decrease of total aboveground biomass with unchanged vegetation greenness during the Millennium drought.

  8. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-approved maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on its Hickory Grove Lateral Line from 1072 pounds per.... CP98-150, et al; however, in Millenniums application the MAOP of the pipeline is listed at 1072...

  9. Increasing habilitative services for persons with profound handicaps: an application of structural analysis to staff management.

    PubMed

    Green, C W; Reid, D H; Perkins, L I; Gardner, S M

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated a structural analysis methodology for enhancing the utility of a staff management program. In Experiment 1, a structural analysis of direct-care staff behavior in a mental retardation facility revealed differences in work patterns over time. Specific times were identified when few basic care duties were necessary and staff engaged in nonwork activity. In Experiment 2, a management program was implemented to increase staff members' training activities during periods identified through the structural analysis. The program was accompanied by increases in training activities and decreases in nonwork behavior. The improvements were maintained during a 43-week period while the most labor-intensive component of the program was withdrawn. Staff acceptability measures indicated a positive response to the management intervention, although responses varied across components within the multifaceted program. The increased training was accompanied by beneficial changes among clients with profound handicaps. Results are discussed regarding practical considerations for improving staff performance and for adopting innovations resulting from applied research.

  10. Preliminary design methods for fiber reinforced composite structures employing a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastlake, C. N.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a user-friendly interactive computer program to be used as an analytical tool by structural designers. Its intent was to do preliminary, approximate stress analysis to help select or verify sizing choices for composite structural members. The approach to the project was to provide a subroutine which uses classical lamination theory to predict an effective elastic modulus for a laminate of arbitrary material and ply orientation. This effective elastic modulus can then be used in a family of other subroutines which employ the familiar basic structural analysis methods for isotropic materials. This method is simple and convenient to use but only approximate, as is appropriate for a preliminary design tool which will be subsequently verified by more sophisticated analysis. Additional subroutines have been provided to calculate laminate coefficient of thermal expansion and to calculate ply-by-ply strains within a laminate.

  11. Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans.

    PubMed

    Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; de Araujo, Draulio B; Riba, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Psychedelic agents have a long history of use by humans for their capacity to induce profound modifications in perception, emotion and cognitive processes. Despite increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms involved in the acute effects of these drugs, the impact of sustained psychedelic use on the human brain remains largely unknown. Molecular pharmacology studies have shown that psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2A agonists stimulate neurotrophic and transcription factors associated with synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that psychedelics could potentially induce structural changes in brain tissue. Here we looked for differences in cortical thickness (CT) in regular users of psychedelics. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brains of 22 regular users of ayahuasca (a preparation whose active principle is the psychedelic 5HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)) and 22 controls matched for age, sex, years of education, verbal IQ and fluid IQ. Ayahuasca users showed significant CT differences in midline structures of the brain, with thinning in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node of the default mode network. CT values in the PCC were inversely correlated with the intensity and duration of prior use of ayahuasca and with scores on self-transcendence, a personality trait measuring religiousness, transpersonal feelings and spirituality. Although direct causation cannot be established, these data suggest that regular use of psychedelic drugs could potentially lead to structural changes in brain areas supporting attentional processes, self-referential thought, and internal mentation. These changes could underlie the previously reported personality changes in long-term users and highlight the involvement of the PCC in the effects of psychedelics.

  12. Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons.

    PubMed

    Huffine, E; Crews, J; Kennedy, B; Bomberger, K; Zinbo, A

    2001-06-01

    The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia.

  13. Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hänel, Claudia; Pieperhoff, Peter; Hentschel, Bernd; Amunts, Katrin; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.

  14. Prevention Activities for Older Adults: Social Structures and Personal Competencies That Maintain Useful Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…

  15. A Guatemalan Speleothem Record Of Climate Of The Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.

    2012-12-01

    A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 δ18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The δ18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative δ18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average δ18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as δ18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in δ18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new δ18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that

  16. Amobarbital treatment of multiple personality. Use of structured video tape interviews as a basis for intensive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hall, R C; LeCann, A F; Schoolar, J C

    1978-09-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with five distinct personalities is presented. The patient was treated, using a system of structured video taped sodium amobarbital interviews, in which areas to be explored were developed in psychotherapy. Tapes were played for the patient after each session. The taped material was used as the basis for psychotherapeutic investigation. The patient evidenced many of the features previously reported in cases of multiple personality, specifically: being the product of an unwanted pregnancy in a repressively rigid family; emotional distancing by one parent; strong sibling rivalry with an adopted sib; family history of mental illness; a traumatic first sexual experience (rape); a marriage to a maladjusted individual in an attempt to escape the parental home; a high internalized standard of performance and an inability to display anger or negative feelings toward the parents. In the course of treatment, the patient's personalties fused and she was able to accept each component as part of herself. No further fragmentation has occurred during the year following discharge. The therapy technique minimized dependency, and the possiblity of addiction to amobarbital interviews permitted more active patient therapy involvement, and set clear-cut goals and expectations for improvement before further amobarbital interviews could be conducted.

  17. Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: the role of insecure and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Dolores; Gonzalez, Anabel; Leeds, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Persistent problems in emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships in borderline patients can be understood as developing from difficulties in early dyadic regulation with primary caregivers. Early attachment patterns are a relevant causal factor in the development of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Links between attachment issues, early history of neglect, and traumatic experiences, and symptoms observed in patients with BPD as per the DSM-5 classification (American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (Fifth ed.). Washington, D.C; (2013)) are described in this article, while delineating possible pathways from attachment disruptions to the specific symptomatology of these patients. The theory of structural dissociation of the personality (TSDP) provides an essential framework for understanding the processes that may lead from insecure early attachment to the development and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Dyadic parent-child interactions and subsequent modulation of emotion in the child and future adult are considered closely related, but other factors in the development of BPD, such as genetic predisposition and traumatic experiences, should also be considered in conceptualizing and organizing clinical approaches based on a view of BPD as a heterogeneous disorder.

  18. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  19. Development of a structural model explaining medication compliance of persons with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi A; Min, Sung Kil

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a structural model explaining medication compliance of schizophrenia. From a review of the literature, a hypothetical model was developed based on the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model with medication knowledge, symptom severity and social support as the exogenous variables, and perceived benefits, perceived barriers, substance use and medication compliance as the endogenous variables. Data was collected at various mental health facilities, including psychiatric outpatient clinics of general hospitals and community mental health centers, between March and May, 2001. A structured questionnaire was used by one- on- one interviews to collect data on 208 schizophrenic patients. Well established measurement instruments, with confirmed reliability, were used to assess each method variable. As a result of covariance structural analysis, the hypothetical model was found not to fit the empirical data well, so a parsimonious model was adopted after modifying the model. The final model was able to explain the 33 % medication compliance. Medication knowledge, social support and perceived benefits had significant effects on medication compliance. The findings of this study address the importance of medication education and social support to promote medication compliance. It is also suggested that various education programs and support groups are needed to enhance medication compliance.

  20. Behavioral Health Providers for Persons Who Are Deaf, Deafblind, or Hard-of-Hearing: A National Survey of the Structural and Process Domains of Care.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathos, Kimberly; Fusco, Laura E; Post, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests higher prevalence of mental health problems for those with hearing problems than in the general population. Despite barriers, mental health services for persons who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (HOH) have developed to meet the cultural and communication needs of this population. The authors conducted a national survey of mental health service providers to persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH, to learn about their structural and process domains of care. Results indicate that services for persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH are inadequate for consumers with serious mental illness. Results also uncovered unique pathways to care and practitioners.

  1. Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

  2. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency.

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2017-03-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering.

  3. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering. PMID:28232772

  4. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  5. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  6. Unmarried parenthood: new insights from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Kathleen; Smith, Kate

    2003-01-01

    This study uses information from the Millennium Cohort Study to examine the characteristics of families where children are born within a marriage, within a cohabiting union or outside of a co-residential partnership. For this latter group, for the first time in a national data set, an assessment can be made of the 'strength' of the parent's relationship at the time of the birth. We show that the context of childbearing varies with respect to geography, ethnicity, age, parity and educational status of the mother, and that the socioeconomic wellbeing of families varies according to the partnership status of their parents. A closer look at the non-partnered parents shows that the extent to which the fathers were involved with the mother of the child around the time the baby was born was related to the presence of the father at the birth of the child and whether his name was recorded on the child's birth certificate; as well as to subsequent behaviour, such as, whether they moved in with the mother, saw their children on a regular basis or contributed money to the child's maintenance.

  7. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  8. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000–1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing. PMID:27922004

  9. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  10. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated.

  11. Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium.

  12. Brr2p RNA helicase with a split personality: insights into structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniela; Beggs, Jean D

    2010-08-01

    RNA helicases are involved in many cellular processes. Pre-mRNA splicing requires eight different DExD/H-box RNA helicases, which facilitate spliceosome assembly and remodelling of the intricate network of RNA rearrangements that are central to the splicing process. Brr2p, one of the spliceosomal RNA helicases, stands out through its unusual domain architecture. In the present review we highlight the advances made by recent structural and biochemical studies that have important implications for the mechanism and regulation of Brr2p activity. We also discuss the involvement of human Brr2 in retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative eye disease, and how its functions in splicing might connect to the molecular pathology of the disease.

  13. Biotechnology and ethics in medical education of the new millennium: physician roles and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2001-07-01

    Although the medical education curriculum varies internationally, we suggest that it is desirable for medical educators to share a universal responsibility to prepare physicians to perform three distinct, yet interrelated professional roles. The first is that of a clinician who has the knowledge and technical skills to care for individual patients, as well as the public. The second role can be viewed as that of an educator, a teacher, or a consultant who has the interpersonal skills and personal qualities to teach, advise and counsel patients and the public about their health and illness, risk factors and healthy lifestyle. The third role is that of a resource manager to enable physicians to care for patients and serve the public not only by drawing on available material assets but also by prudent use of the resources for better serving the most number of people at the least expense without compromising the quality of care. The very nature of the medical profession also obligates medical educators through the world to sensitize medical students and physicians to the ethical responsibilities that are implicit to each of the three aforementioned roles. Although the basic ethical responsibilities of do no harm and confidentiality are universal, certain global changes, such as rapid advancements in biotechnology and resource allocation, are now reshaping medical ethics on every continent. Spawned by the rapid advances in the biomedical sciences, biotechnology is revolutionizing human reproduction, sustaining human life, cloning human beings, and mapping the entire human genetic terrain. These advances imply changes in medical education and formal preparation of physicians in performing their roles as clinicians, educators and resource managers. These biotechnological developments, coupled with the increasing cost of healthcare and maldistribution of resources worldwide, present unprecedented ethical-social challenges that need to be addressed in the education of the

  14. The person's conception of the structures of developing intellect: early adolescence to middle age.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, A; Efklides, A

    1989-08-01

    According to experiential structuralism, thought abilities have six capacity spheres: experimental, propositional, quantitative, imaginal, qualitative, and metacognitive. The first five are applied to the environment. The metacognitive capacity is applied to the others, serving as the interface between reality and the cognitive system or between any of the other capacities. To test this postulate, 648 subjects aged 12 to 40 years, solved eight tasks that were addressed, in pairs, to the first four capacity spheres. One of the tasks in each pair tapped the first and the other the third formal level of the sphere. Having solved the tasks, the subjects were required to rate each pair of tasks in terms of similarity of operations, difficulty, and success of solution. Factor analysis of difficulty and success evaluation scores revealed the same capacity-specific factors as the analysis of performance scores. Factor analysis of similarity scores differentiated between same- and different-sphere pairs. Analysis of variance showed that difficulty and success evaluation scores preserved performance differences between the first and the third formal tasks. Cognitive level, age, socioeconomic status, and sex were related to the metacognitive measures in ways similar to their relations to performance measures. These findings were integrated into a model aimed at capturing real-time metacognitive functioning.

  15. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  16. The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised: factor structure and gender invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling analyses in a high-stakes setting.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) technique, the authors show that model fits improve markedly over conventional confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the same data set, but that (a) factor interpretations do not change under ESEM analyses, (b) ESEM factor scores, just like CFA factors scores, correlate at near unity with sums of observed scores, (c) NEO-PI-R facets under ESEM analyses are invariant across gender, and (d) ESEM highlights the inappropriateness of alpha and beta as a higher order representation of NEO-PI-R facets, whereas a CFA approach might lead researchers to believe in the appropriateness of these higher order factors. These results, coupled with the existing validity evidence for the NEO-PI-R, suggest that the five-factor structure is the most parsimonious structure for summarizing NEO-PI-R responses from high-stakes settings in the United Kingdom.

  17. Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

    2014-12-30

    The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures.

  18. How Much Is Personality Structure Affected If One or More Highest-Level Factors Are First Removed? A Sequential Factors Approach.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2014-11-01

    Rotations of 1 to 12 factors were compared by Goldberg's "bass-ackward" method, with or without initially holding constant one or more principal components. Two sets of data were employed: ratings by 320 undergraduates using 435 personality-descriptive adjectives, and 512 Oregon community members' responses to 184 scales from 8 personality inventories. Holding constant none or one or three initial factors made relatively little difference to the resulting structure. On the whole, that structure was not strongly hierarchical: allowing an additional dimension usually resulted in a new substantive dimension rather than in the splitting of an old one.

  19. How Much Is Personality Structure Affected If One or More Highest-Level Factors Are First Removed? A Sequential Factors Approach

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, John C.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Rotations of 1 to 12 factors were compared by Goldberg's “bass-ackward” method, with or without initially holding constant one or more principal components. Two sets of data were employed: ratings by 320 undergraduates using 435 personality-descriptive adjectives, and 512 Oregon community members' responses to 184 scales from 8 personality inventories. Holding constant none or one or three initial factors made relatively little difference to the resulting structure. On the whole, that structure was not strongly hierarchical: allowing an additional dimension usually resulted in a new substantive dimension rather than in the splitting of an old one. PMID:25197156

  20. Using repeated daily assessments to uncover oscillating patterns and temporally-dynamic triggers in structures of psychopathology: Applications to the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-11-01

    Articulating an accurate and clinically useful structure of psychopathology is a crucial and difficult task. Dimensions identified through cross-sectional factor analyses are increasingly being linked with temporally dynamic processes of social cognition, emotion regulation, symptom expression, and functional impairment to demonstrate how between-person structures and within-person dynamics can be integrated. The present research considers how structure and processes are integrated in the DSM-5, specifically in the alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD). Participants (n = 248) completed a 14-day electronic diary, and results indicated that personality impairments oscillated across days and were triggered by daily negative emotions and cognitive distortions. Importantly, some aspects of the AMPD model that are identified as potentially redundant in cross-sectional research are shown here to increment each other in the prediction of dynamic oscillations and triggers. Thus, longitudinal designs and temporally dynamic analyses may provide new and novel evidence to fully inform structures of psychopathology. Such research is a needed step in the integration of the structure and process in classification and diagnosis of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  2. The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.

    PubMed

    Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders.

  3. "Mayday mayday mayday", the millennium ark is sinking!

    PubMed

    Monfort, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Despite exceptional advances in ensuring the health and well-being of animals in human care, zoos of the twenty-first century are ill-prepared and overwhelmed by the sheer number of species requiring conservation support. Furthermore, small population management paradigms have failed to achieve the demographic and genetic targets required to sustain most endangered species in human care. Predictions made in the 1980s regarding the potential of a "millennium ark"-aided by the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)-for saving species have proven to be wildly over-optimistic. ARTs continue to be touted as a panacea for saving endangered species and even for resurrecting extinct ones. And yet, while the first successful interspecies embryo transfer in a wildlife species occurred 30 years ago, there still is not a single example of embryo-based technologies being used to consistently manage a conservation-reliant species. The limited contribution of ARTs to species conservation to date principally stems from the lack of knowledge of species biology, as well as inadequate facilities, space, expertise, and funding needed for their successful application. ARTs could and should be an important tool in our conservation toolbox, but we cannot fall into the trap of believing that we can "assist" or clone our way out of the present biodiversity crisis. Reproductive technologists overstate the potential of ARTs for saving endangered species, zoos overestimate their ability to sustain genetically and demographically viable captive populations with existing resources, and conservationists underestimate their need for zoos in the face of failing efforts to sustain species in nature. Unless all parties concerned-reproductive technologists, zoo biologists and conservationists-adopt parallel efforts to sustain wild populations and places, zoos risk becoming living museums exhibiting relic species that no longer exist in nature.

  4. Male and Female Ministers: Comparing Roman Catholic and Methodist Deacons on Personality Structure, Religious Beliefs, and Leadership Styles.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Joseph R

    2017-03-01

    Christian deacons (50 Roman Catholic; 50 Methodist) self-reported their personality, religiosity, and leadership attributes, plus social desirability tendencies. There were no significant correlates between social desirability and any of these self-reported variables. Results also found no significant differences across Christian denominations on personality dimensions, religious and spirituality beliefs, or leadership styles. Also, there were no significant differences in self-reported personality, religiosity, or leadership among Catholic male deacons with Methodist female deacons only ( n = 43). Taken together, in the present exploratory study across denomination and gender, Christian deacons view themselves similarly in personality, religiosity, and overall leadership characteristics.

  5. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  6. Microbial community structure and pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal in a membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhao; Xiao-chun, Wang; Zhong-lin, Chen; Hao, Xu; Qing-fang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A process involving the use of membrane bioreactor seeded with aerobic granular sludge (GMBR) was applied to the treatment of sewage containing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The removal effects of five kinds of medicines in the reactor were investigated, and the microbial communities were constructed by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We also determined the effects of different sludge retention and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT, respectively) and influent organic loading on GMBR's efficiency in processing sewage containing PPCPs. The removal effects of the GMBR on five PPCPs varied. Using the GMBR, the removal rates of prednisolone, naproxen and norfloxacin were 98.56, 84.02 and 87.85%, respectively. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen were 77.83 and 63.32%, respectively. In the system, PPCP drugs had relatively less effect on microbial diversity. A certain succession was observed in the structural variation of microbial species in the GMBR. Microorganisms that can degrade PPCPs gradually accumulated, and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as Firmicutes sp., Aeromonas sp. and Nitrospira sp., served a key function in the treatment of sewage containing antibiotics. Long SRT and HRT during the GMBR process can facilitate the removal of most PPCPs. The system efficiently removed PPCPs at high influent organic loading.

  7. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

  8. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action – inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most “globally connected” websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs – up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site – encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows. PMID:25465236

  9. The protocadherin 17 gene affects cognition, personality, amygdala structure and function, synapse development and risk of major mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Hoshina, N; Zhang, C; Ma, Y; Cao, H; Wang, Y; Wu, D-D; Bergen, S E; Landén, M; Hultman, C M; Preisig, M; Kutalik, Z; Castelao, E; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M; Forstner, A J; Strohmaier, J; Hecker, J; Schulze, T G; Müller-Myhsok, B; Reif, A; Mitchell, P B; Martin, N G; Schofield, P R; Cichon, S; Nöthen, M M; Walter, H; Erk, S; Heinz, A; Amin, N; van Duijn, C M; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Tost, H; Xiao, X; Yamamoto, T; Rietschel, M; Li, M

    2017-01-10

    Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers. The risk allele predicted higher transcriptional levels of PCDH17 mRNA in postmortem brain samples, which is consistent with increased gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy subjects. Further, overexpression of PCDH17 in primary cortical neurons revealed significantly decreased spine density and abnormal dendritic morphology compared with control groups, which again is consistent with the clinical observations of reduced numbers of dendritic spines in the brains of patients with major mood disorders. Given that synaptic spines are dynamic structures which regulate neuronal plasticity and have crucial roles in myriad brain functions, this study reveals a potential underlying biological mechanism of a novel risk gene for major mood disorders involved in synaptic function and related intermediate phenotypes.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.231.

  10. Implementing structured functional assessments in general practice for persons with long-term sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Hofoss, Dag; Brage, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing attention on functional assessments in medical and vocational rehabilitation requires a focus change for the general practitioners (GP) into paying attention to patient resources, possibilities and coping instead of symptoms, problems and limitations. The GPs report difficulties in performing the requested explicit functional assessments. The purpose of this study was to implement a structured method in general practice for assessing functional ability in persons with long-term sick leave. The study aim was to evaluate intervention effects on important GP parameters; knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy towards functional assessments and knowledge about patient work factors. Methods Fifty-seven GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs attended an introductory one-day work-shop and implemented structured functional assessments during an eight months intervention period. GP knowledge, GP attitudes, and GP self-efficacy towards functional assessments, as well as GP knowledge of patient work factors, were collected before, after and six months after the intervention period started. Evaluation score-sheets were filled in by both the intervention GPs and their patients immediately after the consultation to evaluate the GPs' knowledge of patient work factors. Results The intervention GPs reported increased knowledge (B: 0.56, 95% CI (0.19, 0.91)) and self-efficacy (B: 0.90, 95% CI (0.53, 1.26)) towards functional assessments, and increased knowledge about their patients' workplace (B: 0.75, 95% CI (0.35, 1.15)) and perceived stressors (B: 0.55, 95% CI (0.23, 0.88)) with lasting effects at the second follow-up. No intervention effect was seen in relation to GP attitudes. Both before and after the intervention, the GPs were most informed about physical stressors, and less about mental and work organisational stressors (Guttman's reproducibility coefficient: 0.95 and 1.00). After the consultation

  11. Structured interviews examining the burden, coping, self-efficacy, and quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Seow, Chuen Chai Dennis; Xiao, Chunxiang; Lee, Hui Min Julian; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia.

  12. 76 FR 57765 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... and Corporate Secretary, Millennium Challenge Corporation. BILLING CODE 9211-03-P...

  13. 77 FR 41779 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC... Pipeline Company, LLC (Millennium) in Delaware County, New York. The Commission will use this EA in...

  14. A multilevel structural equation model of within- and between-person associations among subjective responses to alcohol, craving, and laboratory alcohol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-11-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age = 19.90, SD = 0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hr intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 min later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to isolate within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is linked

  15. A Multilevel Structural Equation Model of Within- and Between-Person Associations among Subjective Responses to Alcohol, Craving, and Laboratory Alcohol Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age=19.90, SD=0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 minutes later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to disentangle within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is

  16. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  17. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  18. First Results from The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, G. J.; Steig, E. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Noone, D. C.; Anderson, D. M.; Tardif, R.; Steiger, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxies provide the only measured record of Earth's climate history, but they are noisy and sparse in space and time. Climate model simulations provide dynamically consistent spatial fields, but lack a direct connection to specific climate states prior to the instrumental record. Paleoclimate data assimilation (PDA) provides an optimally weighted estimate of the climate state from these two sources of information based on their error characteristics. The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project (LMR) uses an ensemble-based PDA method and annually-resolved proxy records to reconstruct Earth's climate for the past 1000 years on a regular latitude--longitude grid. First results of the LMR project are reported here. Proxy records used in the first LMR reconstructions include: trees (ring width and wood density), corals (d18O and luminescence), ice cores (d18O), and a small number of sediment and speleothem records. A component of the data assimilation approach that distinguishes it from other techniques concerns the use of proxy system models to estimate the proxy from climate variables from a model simulation. Proxies are linearly related to 2-meter air temperature in a calibration dataset. Given a prior estimate of the climate from a model (here, a randomly sampled 1000-year control integration of CCSM4), we estimate the proxy value from the linear relationship (derived independently from the model). LMR analyses are compared against both existing gridded reanalysis records and withheld proxy records. Results show a cooling trend in global-mean air temperature during 1000-1900 CE, which derives primarily from cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, offset by weak tropical warming. There is no evidence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. During the 20th century, the LMR estimate of the global-mean air temperature compares very closely with other reanalysis products. Skill appears insensitive to the calibration dataset used to derive the proxy system

  19. The Interaction with Disabled Persons scale: revisiting its internal consistency and factor structure, and examining item-level properties.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The Interaction with Disabled Persons scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a multidimensional construct and has good internal consistency. Such assumptions about the IDP appear flawed, particularly in light of failures to replicate its underlying factor structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the construct validity and dimensionality of the IDP. This study used a prospective survey approach. Participants were recruited from first and second year undergraduate university students enrolled in health sciences, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, community and emergency health, nursing, and combined degrees of nursing and midwifery, and health sciences and social work at a large Australian university (n=373). Students completed the IDP, a 20-item self-report scale of attitudes towards people with disabilities. The IDP data were analysed using a combination of factor analysis (Classical Test Theory approach) and Rasch analysis (Item Response Theory approach). The results indicated that the original IDP 6-factor solution was not supported. Instead, one factor consisting of five IDP items (9, 11, 12, 17, and 18) labelled Discomfort met the four criteria for empirical validation of test quality: interval level scaling (scalability), unidimensionality, lacked of DIF across the two participant groups and data collection occasions, and hierarchical ordering. Researchers should consider using the Discomfort subscale of the IDP in future attitude research since it exhibits sound measurement properties.

  20. Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning: Strategies and Resources for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, John W.; Walz, Garry R.

    This book is designed to assist counselors in becoming better informed about cybercounseling so that they can decide for themselves what their personal opinion is on its worth and use. It describes current practices that will give a glimpse as to the behavioral health professions in the future. The book contains the following chapters: (1)…

  1. The madness of Nietzsche: a misdiagnosis of the millennium?

    PubMed

    Cybulska, E M

    2000-08-01

    This article represents a personal discussion about Nietzsche's mental illness, which formed part of a larger paper 'The masks of Nietzsche and eternal return of the repressed'. This was presented at the 6th Annual Conference of The Friedrich Nietzsche Society, September 1996, Manchester UK, as reported by Nussbaumer-Benz (1998).

  2. Educational Leadership in the New Millennium: A Vision for 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Thomas W.; Miller, Jean M.

    2001-01-01

    In assessing educational leadership dimensions for 2020, one must consider the effects of technology and automation in education, important influences of changes in society, and progress in developing and understanding administrators' personal/professional needs. Conscience, creative imagination, and interpersonal skill development are essential…

  3. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  4. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  5. First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Julie; Evershed, Richard P; Salque, Mélanie; Cramp, Lucy; Bruni, Silvia; Ryan, Kathleen; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2012-06-20

    In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found widely across the region depicts cattle herding among early Saharan pastoral groups, and includes rare scenes of milking; however, these images can rarely be reliably dated. Although the faunal evidence provides further confirmation of the importance of cattle and other domesticates, the scarcity of cattle bones makes it impossible to ascertain herd structures via kill-off patterns, thereby precluding interpretations of whether dairying was practiced. Because pottery production begins early in northern Africa the potential exists to investigate diet and subsistence practices using molecular and isotopic analyses of absorbed food residues. This approach has been successful in determining the chronology of dairying beginning in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Near East and its spread across Europe. Here we report the first unequivocal chemical evidence, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major alkanoic acids of milk fat, for the adoption of dairying practices by prehistoric Saharan African people in the fifth millennium bc. Interpretations are supported by a new database of modern ruminant animal fats collected from Africa. These findings confirm the importance of 'lifetime products', such as milk, in early Saharan pastoralism, and provide an evolutionary context for the emergence of lactase persistence in Africa.

  6. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  7. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  8. Written discourse and acquired brain impairment: evaluation of structural and semantic features of personal letters from a Systemic Functional Linguistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated written discourse in the form of personal letters written by ten people with aphasia following stroke and ten people with cognitive-language disorder as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged writers. Personal letters perform the dual function of providing information and maintaining social relationships. Using the Systemic Functional Linguistics framework for investigation, letters were examined in terms of their dual functions, and at two different strata of language--generic structure and semantic organisation. A small quantum of research suggests that the dissociation between different strata of language (i.e., macro and micro linguistic abilities), identified in the spoken discourse of people with aphasia and people with cognitive-language disorder is mirrored in written discourse. Aphasic writers largely maintain coherent text structure while writers with cognitive-language impairment demonstrate problems with global text coherence and the episodic structure of texts. Results of the generic structure analysis did not support the hypothesis. However, the semantic Move analysis revealed how diminished linguistic resources, most evident in the letters written by the subjects with aphasia, impacted upon the semantic diversity of the text, as well as the interpersonal function of the personal letter. Variable performance as a feature pathology and normality is highlighted and clinical implications discussed.

  9. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  10. Governing by Partnerships: Dilemmas in Swedish Education Policy at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…

  11. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  12. Languages in the University Sector at the Beginning of the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the position of languages in the university sector in Australia at the start of the new millennium and after almost two decades of language policy initiatives aimed at fostering the learning of languages other than English. Reveals an ambivalent picture of the situation of languages in the university sector. (Author/VWL)

  13. How Will Bilingual/ESL Programs in Literacy Change in the Next Millennium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Jimenez, Robert T.; Barrera, Rosalinda

    2000-01-01

    Presents three short essays on how bilingual/ESL programs in literacy will change in the next millennium. Discusses particular future reading instruction practices in two-way bilingual programs; what literacy instruction would look like based on second-language theory and bilingual research; and pressing needs in the literacy education of…

  14. The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

  15. Hispanic Students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising Results Extending to the Third College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Denson, Nida; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Financing college is increasingly difficult for many college students and it can be especially difficult for low-income students. Using data from the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, this study provides a portrait of the 1st and 3rd year experiences of a sample of both high achieving Hispanic scholarship recipients and non-recipients.…

  16. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  17. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  19. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  20. Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin…

  1. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

  3. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

  4. 75 FR 10822 - Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., March 24, 2010. Place: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... and the meeting will be closed to the public. Dated: March 5, 2010. Henry C. Pitney, Acting...

  5. 76 FR 12134 - Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., March 23, 2011. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... to the public. Dated: March 1, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and...

  6. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  7. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  8. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  9. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  10. Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

  11. Schoolwide Literacy and Service-Learning through the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Amanda; Edmunds, J. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways one school continues to enhance both literacy and service-learning through the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. Over the course of their middle-school years, young adolescents at Canterbury School visit a range of sites in the community. They also explore service-learning at home and around the world by…

  12. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Klasen, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…

  13. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  14. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  15. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  16. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents, as…

  17. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  18. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a personality inventory designed to measure six major dimensions of personality derived from lexical studies of personality structure. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) consists of 24 facet-level personality trait scales that define the six personality factors named Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X),…

  20. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  1. The Aegean in the Early 7th Millennium BC: Maritime Networks and Colonization.

    PubMed

    Horejs, B; Milić, B; Ostmann, F; Thanheiser, U; Weninger, B; Galik, A

    The process of Near Eastern neolithization and its westward expansion from the core zone in the Levant and upper Mesopotamia has been broadly discussed in recent decades, and many models have been developed to describe the spread of early farming in terms of its timing, structure, geography and sociocultural impact. Until now, based on recent intensive investigations in northwestern and western Anatolia, the discussion has mainly centred on the importance of Anatolian inland routes for the westward spread of neolithization. This contribution focuses on the potential impact of east Mediterranean and Aegean maritime networks on the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle to the western edge of the Anatolian subcontinent in the earliest phases of sedentism. Employing the longue durée model and the concept of 'social memory', we will discuss the arrival of new groups via established maritime routes. The existence of maritime networks prior to the spread of farming is already indicated by the high mobility of Epipalaeolithic/Mesolithic groups exploring the Aegean and east Mediterranean seas, and reaching, for example, the Cyclades and Cyprus. Successful navigation by these early mobile groups across the open sea is attested by the distribution of Melian obsidian. The potential existence of an additional Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) obsidian network that operated between Cappadocia/Cilicia and Cyprus further hints at the importance of maritime coastal trade. Since both the coastal and the high seas networks were apparently already well established in this early period, we may further assume appropriate knowledge of geographic routes, navigational technology and other aspects of successful seafaring. This Mesolithic/PPN maritime know-how package appears to have been used by later groups, in the early 7th millennium calBC, exploring the centre of the Anatolian Aegean coast, and in time establishing some of the first permanent settlements in that region. In the present paper, we

  2. [Responses to "The Congruence Myth: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the Person-Environment Fit Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.; Gati, Itamar; Hesketh, Beryl; Prediger, Dale J.; Rounds, James; McKenna, Molly C.; Hubert, Lawrence; Day, Susan X.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Darcy, Maria; Kovalski, Theresa M.

    2000-01-01

    Includes "P-E [Person-Environment] Fit as Paradigm" (Dawis); "Pitfalls of Congruence Research" (Gati); "The Next Millennium of 'Fit' Research" (Hesketh); "Holland's Hexagon Is Alive and Well--Though Somewhat out of Shape" (Prediger); "Tinsley on Holland: A Misshapen Argument" (Rounds, McKenna,…

  3. Sociology of Aging in Canada: Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Sociological Issues for the Millennium. [and] Commentary: Asian Perspectives on Sociological Issues for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews sociological gerontology in Canada in four areas: (1) inequality, population aging, and the social construction of aging; (2) retirement and income security; (3) health, health care services, and health policy; and (4) family relations and caregiving. Identifies the importance of social structures for individual experience of aging.…

  4. Personality in Bonobos.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Staes, Nicky; Pereboom, Jeffrey J M; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    To better understand human and chimpanzee personality evolution, we obtained trait ratings of personality for 154 captive bonobos (~80% of the U.S. and European population). We found factors that we labeled Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Agreeableness, Attentiveness, and Extraversion. The interrater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities for these factors were comparable to those found in humans and other species. Using orthogonal targeted Procrustes rotations, we compared the bonobo dimensions with those of three samples of captive chimpanzees. Overall congruence coefficients indicated a fair degree of similarity; at the factor level, there was good evidence for Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness in the chimpanzee samples; evidence for Attentiveness and Extraversion was poor. These findings suggest that, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship, bonobo personality structure resembles chimpanzee personality structure in some respects. However, divergent evolution, perhaps as a result of socioecological differences between bonobos and chimpanzees, also appears to have shaped personality structure in these species.

  5. A closer look at the lower-order structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: comparison with the Five-Factor Model.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah A; Samuel, Douglas B

    2014-10-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has been much less attention on the specific locations of the 25 lower-order traits. Joint exploratory factor analysis of the PID-5 traits and the 30 facets of the NEO-PI-R were used to determine the lower-order structure of the PID-5. Results indicated the PID-5's domain-level structure closely resembled the FFM. We also explored the placement of several lower-order facets that have not loaded consistently in previous studies. Overall, these results indicate that the PID-5 shares a common structure with the FFM and clarify the placement of some interstitial facets. More research investigating the lower-order facets is needed to determine how they fit into the hierarchical structure and explicate their relationships to existing measures of pathological traits.

  6. The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" Scale: Revisiting Its Internal Consistency and Factor Structure, and Examining Item-Level Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa; Tracy, Jane; Keating, Jenny; Brown, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The "Interaction with Disabled Persons" scale (IDP) has been used in research into baseline attitudes and to evaluate whether a shift in attitudes towards people with developmental disabilities has occurred following some form of intervention. This research has been conducted on the assumption that the IDP measures attitudes as a…

  7. A Structural Model of Parental Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Psychological Health: The Mediating Effects of Hardiness and Personal Growth Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to: (a) determine whether personal-growth orientation and hardiness mediated the relations of parental alcoholism and family functioning to psychological well-being and distress; (b) determine whether this model was invariant across men and women; and (c) examine the role of parental alcoholism in a model that included family…

  8. Reviewing the Differences in Size, Composition and Structure between the Personal Networks of High-and Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An interesting aspect in the current literature about learning networks is the shift of focus from the understanding of the "whole network" of a course to the examination of the "personal networks" of individual students. This line of research is relatively new, based on small-scale studies and diverse analysis techniques,…

  9. The Structure of the Biblioblogosphere: An Examination of the Linking Practices of Institutional and Personal Library Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, S. Craig; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Johnson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The biblioblogosphere is comprised of the institutional publication of blogs of libraries and the personal, professionally-oriented publication of blogs by librarians. Since introduction of this neologism in 2004, a number of researchers have examined this particular class of bloggers and blogging. However, there is limited investigation into the…

  10. [Keys to demographic changes in the new millennium].

    PubMed

    Solsona, Montse; Viciana, Francisco

    2004-05-01

    This article describes the main features of the dynamics of demographic change in the population of Spain during the twentieth century, emphasizing the most recent developments: population ageing, the establishment of a very low fertility regime and the increasing importance of foreign immigration as well as the impact which all these have on the composition of households. Those aspects most directly related to the provision of health and social services is discussed, such as the impact of increased life expectancy on the incidence of illness and handicap in the population, the role of foreign immigration in providing personal services within the family and the health implications of the new model of delayed fertility. Finally, the health implications of population projections for the next 50 years are discussed.

  11. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  12. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  13. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  14. An approach to estimating human resource requirements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dreesch, Norbert; Dolea, Carmen; Dal Poz, Mario R; Goubarev, Alexandre; Adams, Orvill; Aregawi, Maru; Bergstrom, Karin; Fogstad, Helga; Sheratt, Della; Linkins, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Robert; Youssef-Fox, Mayada

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, human resources represent the most critical constraint in achieving the targets. Therefore, it is important for health planners and decision-makers to identify what are the human resources required to meet those targets. Planning the human resources for health is a complex process. It needs to consider both the technical aspects related to estimating the number, skills and distribution of health personnel for meeting population health needs, and the political implications, values and choices that health policy- and decision-makers need to make within given resources limitations. After presenting an overview of the various methods for planning human resources for health, with their advantages and limitations, this paper proposes a methodological approach to estimating the requirements of human resources to achieve the goals set forth by the Millennium Declaration. The method builds on the service-target approach and functional job analysis.

  15. [Crisis in human resources for health: millennium development goals for maternal and child health threatened].

    PubMed

    Beltman, Jogchum J; Stekelenburg, Jelle; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    International migration of health care workers from low-income countries to the West has increased considerably in recent years, thereby jeopardizing the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals, especially number 4 (reduction of child mortality) and 5 (improvement of maternal health).This migration, as well as the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of training of health care personnel and poverty, are mainly responsible for this health care personnel deficit. It is essential that awareness be raised amongst donors and local governments so that staffing increases, and that infection prevention measures be in place for their health care personnel. Western countries should conduct a more ethical recruitment of health care workers, otherwise a new millennium development goal will have to be created: to reduce the human resources for health crisis.

  16. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the Zambian experience.

    PubMed

    Mukonka, Victor M; Malumo, Sarai; Kalesha, Penelope; Nambao, Mary; Mwale, Rodgers; Mwinga, Kasonde; Katepa-Bwalya, Mary; Babaniyi, Olusegan; Mason, Elizabeth; Phiri, Caroline; Wamulume, Pauline K

    2014-01-21

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia's experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs.

  17. Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.

    PubMed

    Levin, M

    2001-06-01

    As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval.

  18. Multi-proxy dating the 'Millennium Eruption' of Changbaishan to late 946 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Wacker, Lukas; Xu, Jiandong; Galván, Juan Diego; Stoffel, Markus; Guillet, Sébastien; Corona, Christophe; Sigl, Michael; Di Cosmo, Nicola; Hajdas, Irka; Pan, Bo; Breuker, Remco; Schneider, Lea; Esper, Jan; Fei, Jie; Hammond, James O. S.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-02-01

    Ranking among the largest volcanic eruptions of the Common Era (CE), the 'Millennium Eruption' of Changbaishan produced a widely-dispersed tephra layer (known as the B-Tm ash), which represents an important tie point for palaeoenvironmental studies in East Asia. Hitherto, there has been no consensus on its age, with estimates spanning at least the tenth century CE. Here, we identify the cosmogenic radiocarbon signal of 775 CE in a subfossil larch engulfed and killed by pyroclastic currents emplaced during the initial rhyolitic phase of the explosive eruption. Combined with glaciochemical evidence from Greenland, this enables us to date the eruption to late 946 CE. This secure date rules out the possibility that the Millennium Eruption contributed to the collapse of the Bohai Kingdom (Manchuria/Korea) in 926 CE, as has previously been hypothesised. Further, despite the magnitude of the eruption, we do not see a consequent cooling signal in tree-ring-based reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures. A tightly-constrained date for the Millennium Eruption improves the prospect for further investigations of historical sources that may shed light on the eruption's impacts, and enhances the value of the B-Tm ash as a chronostratigraphic marker.

  19. Advanced flight computing technologies for validation by NASA's new millennium program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1996-11-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) consists of a series of Deep-Space and Earth Orbiting missions that are technology-driven, in contrast to the more traditional science-driven space exploration missions of the past. These flights are designed to validate technologies that will enable a new era of low-cost highly miniaturized and highly capable spacebome applications in the new millennium. In addition to the series of flight projects managed by separate flight teams, the NMP technology initiatives are managed by the following six focused technology programs: Microelectronics Systems, Autonomy, Telecommunications, Instrument Technologies and Architectures, In-Situ Instruments and Micro-electromechanical Systems, and Modular and Multifunctional Systems. Each technology program is managed as an Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) of government, academic, and industry partners. In this paper, we will describe elements of the technology roadmap proposed by the NMP Microelectronics IPDT. Moreover, we will relate the proposed technology roadmap to existing NASA technology development programs, such as the Advanced Flight Computing (AFC) program, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) program, which constitute part of the on-going NASA technology development pipeline. We will also describe the Microelectronics Systems technologies that have been accepted as part of the first New Millennium Deep-Space One spacecraft, which is an asteroid fly-by mission scheduled for launched in July 1998.

  20. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  1. Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Sanislow, Charles A; Little, Todd D; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Daversa, Maria; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; McGlashan, Thomas H

    2009-08-01

    Evaluation of the validity of personality disorder (PD) diagnostic constructs is important for the impending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Prior factor analytic studies have tested these constructs in cross-sectional studies, and models have been replicated longitudinally, but no study has tested a constrained longitudinal model. The authors examined 4 PDs in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study (schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive) over 7 time points (baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years, 6 years, and 10 years). Data for 2-, 4-, 6- and 10-year assessments were obtained in semistructured interviews by raters blind to prior PD diagnoses at each assessment. The latent structure of the 4 constructs was differentiated during the initial time points but became less differentiated over time as the mean levels of the constructs dropped and stability increased. Obsessive-compulsive PD became more correlated with schizotypal and borderline PD than with avoidant PD. The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders.

  2. The Effect of Response Format on the Psychometric Properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for Item Meaning and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Roberts, Brent W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i.e., 5-point Likert-type response scales for each item; n = 2,156). Analyses suggested that the "narcissistic" and "nonnarcissistic" response options from the Entitlement and Superiority subscales refer to independent personality dimensions rather than high and low levels of the same attribute. In addition, factor analyses revealed that although the Leadership dimension was evident across formats, dimensions with entitlement and superiority were not as robust. Implications for continued use of the NPI are discussed.

  3. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M.; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching–learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching–learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching–learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  4. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching-learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching-learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching-learning context at university.

  5. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  6. Bilingualism: Language and Personality Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Philip V.

    A study of the relationship of bilingualism to personality traits focused on two questions: (1) are any language-associated differences between memory systems in bilinguals reflected in similar differences in personality structures?; and (2) if such differences exist, can they be tapped by comparing responses to personality-evoking stimulus in the…

  7. The food choice kaleidoscope. A framework for structured description of product, place and person as sources of variation in food choices.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Sara R; Bava, Christina M; Worch, Thierry; Dawson, John; Marshall, David W

    2011-04-01

    Despite a wide range of research approaches already being used to study eating and drinking, this complex aspect of human activity lacks conceptualisation and methodology for structured description of food choices. This paper introduces a metaphoric framework--the food choice kaleidoscope--as an approach to such inquiry. It conceptualises individual food choice events (or eating occasions) as being shaped by three main factors--product, person and place--and provides a descriptive approach through which patterns and variability in food choice events can be observed. The factors can be studied separately or in combination to reveal the joint influence of product, place and/or person factors. The approach is 'data hungry' and requires information about large numbers of eating occasions obtained for a variety of foods/beverage in a variety of situations. Using information about ∼5800 eating occasions obtained from 25 New Zealand women who self-completed 24-h recall diaries, the kaleidoscopic approach is illustrated. The data are analysed in relation to 30 food/beverage categories and 37 contextual (or 'place') variables, and at the level of individual participants. Results are presented that document: product-to-product variability in who eats/drinks what and where/how it is consumed; place-to-place variation in what is consumed and by whom; and person-to-person variability in what is consumed and where/how it is consumed. The most significant insight to emerge is the considerable heterogeneity that is hidden beneath the average patterns, and that average values may be inappropriate/irrelevant for this type of data.

  8. GENUS STATISTICS USING THE DELAUNAY TESSELLATION FIELD ESTIMATION METHOD. I. TESTS WITH THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND THE SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Springel, Volker

    2010-10-10

    We study the topology of cosmic large-scale structure through the genus statistics, using galaxy catalogs generated from the Millennium Simulation and observational data from the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS DR7). We introduce a new method for constructing galaxy density fields and for measuring the genus statistics of its isodensity surfaces. It is based on a Delaunay tessellation field estimation (DTFE) technique that allows the definition of a piece-wise continuous density field and the exact computation of the topology of its polygonal isodensity contours, without introducing any free numerical parameter. Besides this new approach, we also employ the traditional approaches of smoothing the galaxy distribution with a Gaussian of fixed width, or by adaptively smoothing with a kernel that encloses a constant number of neighboring galaxies. Our results show that the Delaunay-based method extracts the largest amount of topological information. Unlike the traditional approach for genus statistics, it is able to discriminate between the different theoretical galaxy catalogs analyzed here, both in real space and in redshift space, even though they are based on the same underlying simulation model. In particular, the DTFE approach detects with high confidence a discrepancy of one of the semi-analytic models studied here compared with the SDSS data, while the other models are found to be consistent.

  9. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change.

  10. A study of structural differences between TBM patients' and non-TBM persons' CSF using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fangcheng; Wang, Xin; Xu, Huajia; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a very common infectious disease in the central nervous system. The delay of diagnosing and treating TBM will lead to high disability and mortality of TBM. Hence, it is very important to promptly diagnose TBM early. In this work, we proposed a new method for diagnosing TBM with CSF samples by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. CSF samples from TBM patients and non-TBM persons were compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value reached 83.6%, 69.8%, 77.2%, 76.1% respectively. Our work indicated investigation of CSF using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy might become a potentially useful method for TBM diagnosis.

  11. Understanding maltreating mothers: a synthesis of relational trauma, attachment disorganization, structural dissociation of the personality, and experiential avoidance.

    PubMed

    Amos, Jackie; Furber, Gareth; Segal, Leonie

    2011-01-01

    Treatment options are limited for families in which the child has severe and intractable disturbances of emotion and behavior, in which there is suspected or confirmed maltreatment by the mother, and in which the mother has her own history of childhood neglect and abuse. This paper proposes a model for understanding maltreatment in mother-child dyads, drawing upon the developmental psychopathology, behavior, and trauma literatures. At the core of this model is the hypothesis that a mother's maltreating behavior arises from unconscious attempts to experientially avoid the reemergence of an attachment-related dissociative part of the personality that contains the distress arising from her own early experiences of attachment relationships. The implications of this model for therapy are considered.

  12. Schizotypal personality questionnaire--brief revised (updated): An update of norms, factor structure, and item content in a large non-clinical young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Charlie A; Hoffman, Lesa; Spaulding, William D

    2016-04-30

    This study updates and provides evidence for the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of a standard instrument for detection and measurement of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults. Schizotypy represents a set of traits on which both nonclinical and schizophrenia-spectrum populations vary meaningfully. These traits are linked to biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of serious mental illness (SMI), to clinical and subclinical variation in personal and social functioning, and to risk for SMI. Reliable and valid identification of schizotypal traits has important implications for clinical practice and research. Four consecutive independent samples of undergraduates were administered the SPQ-BR (N=2552). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a minor item wording change improved reliability, and this Updated questionnaire was implemented for three-quarters of the sample (SPQ-BRU). A, single-order, nine-factor structure had acceptable psychometric properties. The best fitting second-order structure included four higher-order factors that distinguished Social Anxiety and Interpersonal factors. This differentiation was supported by differential relationships with treatment history. The Disorganized factor had the greatest unique relationship with personal and family treatment history. With few exceptions, factor loadings showed stability across samples. Overall, the higher-order and lower-order factors of schizotypy demonstrated reliability and convergent and discriminant validity; detailed psychometric data are presented in a supplement.

  13. An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other personality disorders; depression, anxiety). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution. Likewise, the 2 factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a 2-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a 2-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed.

  14. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, L F; Glass, T; Brissette, I; Seeman, T E

    2000-09-01

    It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including social networks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms using a single framework. We discuss: (1) theoretical orientations from diverse disciplines which we believe are fundamental to advancing research in this area; (2) a set of definitions accompanied by major assessment tools; and (3) an overarching model which integrates multilevel phenomena. Theoretical orientations that we draw upon were developed by Durkheim whose work on social integration and suicide are seminal and John Bowlby, a psychiatrist who developed attachment theory in relation to child development and contemporary social network theorists. We present a conceptual model of how social networks impact health. We envision a cascading causal process beginning with the macro-social to psychobiological processes that are dynamically linked together to form the processes by which social integration effects health. We start by embedding social networks in a larger social and cultural context in which upstream forces are seen to condition network structure. Serious consideration of the larger macro-social context in which networks form and are sustained has been lacking in all but a small number of studies and is almost completely absent in studies of social network influences on health. We then move downstream to understand the influences network structure and function have on social and interpersonal behavior. We argue that networks operate at the behavioral level through four primary pathways: (1) provision of social support; (2) social influence; (3) on social engagement and attachment; and (4) access to resources and material goods.

  15. Mystery Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  16. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing…

  17. X-ray astronomy in the new millennium: a summary.

    PubMed

    Blandford, Roger D

    2002-09-15

    Recent X-ray observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from proto-stars to cosmology. They have also drawn attention to important and general physical processes that currently limit our understanding of thermal and non-thermal X-ray sources. These include unmeasured atomic astrophysics data (wavelengths, oscillator strengths, etc.), basic hydromagnetic processes (e.g. shock structure, reconnection), plasma processes (such as electron-ion equipartition and heat conduction) and radiative transfer (in discs and accretion columns). Progress on these problems will probably come from integrative studies that draw upon observations, throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, of different classes of source. X-ray observations are also giving a new perspective on astronomical subjects, like the nature of galactic nuclei and the evolution of stellar populations. In addition, they are helping us to address central cosmological questions, including the measurement of the matter content of the Universe, understanding its overall luminosity density, describing its chemical evolution and locating the first luminous objects. X-ray astronomy has a healthy future with several international space missions under construction and in development.

  18. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, Joanna; Zajączkowski, Marek; Łącka, Magdalena; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes over the last millennium in Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard), based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by an analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on the non-fossilized monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations during the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 1000-1600), the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1600-1900) and the modern warming (MW, AD 1900 to present). Our study indicates that the environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ˜ AD 1800) were relatively stable. The beginning of the LIA (˜ AD 1600) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record but was well marked in the aDNA data by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (˜ 1600 to ˜ AD 1800) was marked by an increase in the abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ˜ AD 1800), the conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal and were characterized by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, the major glacier fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, which limited the iceberg discharge to the fjord's centre and caused a shift in the foraminiferal community that was reflected in both the fossil and aDNA records. The palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glacial activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but they were well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the

  19. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  20. Measurement Structure of the Trait Hope Scale in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Tu, Wei-Mo; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement structure of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Design: Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Participants: 242 individuals with spinal cord injury. Results: Results support the two-factor measurement model for the THS with agency…

  1. Are Low-Income Canadians Financially Literate? Placing Financial Literacy in the Context of Personal and Structural Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that financial literacy varies across socioeconomic groups and their neighborhoods, in part because of the adult learning that occurs within a local context. The study begins by explaining that financial literacy needs vary across socioeconomic groups and that there are important structural factors affecting the financial…

  2. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  3. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-03-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

  4. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  5. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  6. Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

  7. An appraisal of China's progress toward the Millennium Development Goals as they relate to children.

    PubMed

    Strand, Mark A; Fischer, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    Since their inception in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have improved understanding of the global development process. Although the goals will not be significantly achieved on a global scale, each country has had accomplishments deserving of attention and analysis. With regard to the MDGs as they relate to children, China has made significant achievements, the deeper understanding of which might help in the process of refreshing the MDGs beyond 2015. China's accomplishments in economic development and human welfare, and the benefits this has brought to its children potentially teach lessons that can be modelled by other countries moving from low- to middle-income status.

  8. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement.

  9. Children's Development and Parental Input: Evidence From the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alava, Mónica; Popli, Gurleen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we use the UK Millennium Cohort Study to estimate a dynamic factor model of child development. Our model follows the children from birth until 7 years of age and allows for both cognitive and noncognitive abilities in children. We find a significant self-productivity effect in both cognitive and noncognitive development, as well as some evidence of dynamic dependence across different abilities. The activities that parents carry out with children at home (parental investment) have a significant effect on children's development; we find substantial evidence of two distinct latent parental investment variables with differential effects across the two abilities.

  10. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during water recycling: microbial community structure and effects of substrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J

    2014-04-01

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 μg liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-μg liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs.

  11. [Telecommunications, health and radiology: potential synergies for the new millennium].

    PubMed

    Lagalla, R

    2001-01-01

    (AINR) was received with great satisfaction and is proof that we are working towards common goals. As on other occasions, this was reflected in the excellent collaboration between the National Radiologists' Union (SNR), the Italian Association of Medical Physics (AIFM) and the National Federation of Radiology Technicians (F.N.C.TSRM) in drafting the document. The document aims to highlight the potentialities and limitations in the use of Teleradiology and to provide a set of recommendations/guidelines, which are not, however, to be intended as strict, absolute rules. Because this field is continually evolving both in structural and regulatory terms, and because it is very difficult to establish universal criteria to rigidly define behavioural models for implementing and managing Teleradiology-related activities (which in any case fall into the category of radiological medical acts), the recommendations/guidelines proposed necessarily have an informative rather than prescriptive nature. The document starts by defining the meaning of the following currently used terms: Teleconsultation; Telediagnosis; Teledidactics. It then goes on to analyse the following aspects of Teleradiology: Technological requirements; Qualifications and training of Medical Personnel; Qualifications, training and competences of Radiology Technicians. Based on the regulations in force in Italy, these recommendations are structured in terms of rationale and possible professional issues arising from the use of Teleradiology. A section is devoted to data security and confidentiality, including legal implications, an area which is currently evolving and being studied in Italy and abroad. Finally, the professional liabilities of all the healthcare providers involved in Teleradiology (imprudence, incompetence, negligence) are outlined, as well as the responsibilities related to the necessary maintenance of equipment. The aim of the document is to propose recommendations/guidelines for the correct use and

  12. Personal Competencies in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--are applied by students in learning (mastery of knowledge and skills). These competencies are both acquired through learning and applied in the learning process. Personalized learning--a promising approach to education made practical by advances in…

  13. Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles

    2009-03-01

    This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure.

  14. Distinguishing between multiple personality disorder (dissociative identity disorder) and schizophrenia using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, M; Cicchetti, D; Buchanan, J; Rakfeldt, J; Rounsaville, B

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe the systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) in 50 psychiatric outpatients with a referring DSM-III-R diagnosis of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 31) and subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD [DSM-IV name change: dissociative identity disorder]; N = 19). Results indicate that patients with MPD experience significantly higher scores for five specific dissociative symptoms than patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The range, severity, and nature of the five dissociative symptom areas evaluated by the SCID-D distinguish MPD from the occasional occurrence of dissociative symptoms which may be seen in schizophrenia. Systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms using the SCID-D can assist in accurate differential diagnosis of MPD and schizophrenia.

  15. Reliability, Factor Structure, and Associations With Measures of Problem Relationship and Behavior of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 in a Sample of Italian Community-Dwelling Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Giarolli, Laura E; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F; Fossati, Andrea

    2017-01-10

    In order to assess the reliability, factorial validity, and criterion validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) among adolescents, 1,264 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5. Participants were also administered the Questionnaire on Relationships and Substance Use as a criterion measure. In the full sample, McDonald's ω values were adequate for the PID-5 scales (median ω = .85, SD = .06), except for Suspiciousness. However, all PID-5 scales showed average inter-item correlation values in the .20-.55 range. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses provided moderate support for the a priori model of PID-5 trait scales. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that selected PID-5 trait scales predicted a significant, albeit moderate (Cox & Snell R(2) values ranged from .08 to .15, all ps < .001) amount of variance in Questionnaire on Relationships and Substance Use variables.

  16. That "vision thing": the state of theory in social and personality psychology at the edge of the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, A W

    2001-06-01

    Social psychololgy's status as a theoretical discipline is assessed. Whereas it has excelled as an experimental science, the field has generally eschewed broad theorizing and tended to limit its conceptualizations to relatively narrow, "mid-range" notions closely linked to the operational level of analysis. Such "theory shyness" may have spawned several negative consequences, including the tendency to invent new names for old concepts, fragmentation of the field, and isolation from the general cultural dialogue. Recently, steps have been taken to encourage greater theoretical activity by social psychologists, and there are now several major outlets for theoretical contributions. Further initiatives are needed, however, to instigate theoretical creativity, including ways of overcoming disciplinary risk aversion and the training of young social psychologists in ways and means of theory construction.

  17. The dynamics of death and meaning: the effects of death-relevant cognitions and personal need for structure on perceptions of meaning in life.

    PubMed

    Vess, Matthew; Routledge, Clay; Landau, Mark J; Arndt, Jamie

    2009-10-01

    Do reminders of mortality increase or decrease perceptions of life's meaning? The authors propose that death-relevant thought has divergent effects on meaning perceptions depending on individuals' personal need for structure (PNS) or dispositional desire for structured knowledge. In prior research, high-PNS individuals primed with mortality-related stimuli were found to employ clearly structured conceptions of reality. Consequently, these individuals were expected to show stable or even bolstered perceptions of meaning when death thought was heightened. Low-PNS individuals did not show this tendency and were therefore expected to show decreased meaning under heightened death-thought activation. The results of Studies 1a-1d supported these hypotheses. Studies 2 and 3 sought to identify how low-PNS individuals might reaffirm meaning and found that death thought increased their willingness to explore novelty. Studies 4 and 5 directly tested the meaning-conferring function of novelty seeking among low-PNS individuals, showing that the consideration of novel interpretations of the world and their experiences affirmed a sense of meaning in life following reminders of death. Discussion focuses on the relationship between meaning and death and the unique ways low-PNS individuals respond to mortality concerns.

  18. Personal Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

    1982-01-01

    Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

  19. Personalized ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880

  20. The South American monsoon variability over the last millennium in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Maisa; Arias, Paola A.; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Seth, Anji; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we assess South American monsoon system (SAMS) variability in the last millennium as depicted by global coupled climate model simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small external forcing during the past 1000 years, model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, in contrast with the rainfall reconstructions in South America. Therefore, we used an ad hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation in order to account for model-specific signals. Thereby, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies are identified. The models feature a stronger monsoon during the LIA associated with (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer; (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-tropospheric anticyclone; (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results in a poleward shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone; and (iv) a weaker upper-level subtropical jet over South America. The diagnosed changes provide important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  1. Common Deficiencies in Existing Methods for Reconstructing High-Resolution Temperature Fields During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Kaplan, A.; Zorita, E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperatures during the last millennium vary significantly in their estimates of decadal-to-centennial variability. Although several estimates are based on spatially-resolved climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods, comparisons have been limited to mean Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Spatial skill is explicitly investigated for four CFR methods using pseudoproxy experiments derived from two millennial-length coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations. The adopted pseudoproxy network approximates the spatial distribution of a widely used multi-proxy network and the CFRs target annual temperature variability on a 5-degree latitude-longitude grid. Results indicate that the spatial skill of presently available large-scale CFRs depends on proxy type and location, target data, and the employed reconstruction methodology, although there are widespread consistencies in the general performance of all four methods. While results are somewhat sensitive to the ability of the AOGCMs to resolve ENSO and its teleconnections, important areas such as the ocean basins and much of the Southern Hemisphere are reconstructed with particularly poor skill in both model experiments. New high-resolution proxies from poorly sampled regions may be one of the best means of improving estimates of large-scale CFRs of the last millennium.

  2. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  3. The millennium water vapour drop in the stratosphere in chemistry-climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Joeckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the millennium water vapour drop, the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in year 2000, by means of various simulations using the Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC. Since the beginning 1980s, balloon borne stratospheric water vapour measurements and corresponding satellite measurements starting in the early 1990s indicated a long-term steady increase of water vapour concentrations. However, the multi-year data sets also show significant fluctuations on different time scales. In the year 2000, an extraordinary sudden drop of stratospheric water vapour concentration has been observed followed by persistent low values for several years. Solomon et al. (2010) showed that this drop slowed down the rate of increase in global surface temperature over the following decade by about 25%. So far, the stratospheric water vapour variations observed by satellite from 1992 to 2012 are not reproduced by CCM simulations forced by observed changes in sea surface temperatures, greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances (Gettelman et al., 2010, Randel and Jensen, 2013). However, the CCM EMAC is able to reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour disturbances in agreement with those derived from observations. In this paper we present results of a hierarchy of simulations with the CCM EMAC, demonstrating that it is possible to retrace the observed water vapour fluctuations in the stratosphere (incl. the millennium drop), if suitable inner and outer boundary conditions are applied.

  4. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  5. A perspective: the new millennium dawns on a new paradigm for cardiology--molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R

    2000-09-01

    Western civilization had two great epochs--the sixth century B.C. and the 18th century. The 21st century is likely to be the third great epoch. Although cardiology has advanced more in the last 50 years than in the previous 2,000, it is likely to advance more in the next two or three decades than in the previous 2,000 years, including those 50 golden years. The engines of ingenuity to provide the thrust for the 21th century will come from molecular genetics and the application of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques. Identification of all human genes (50,000 to 100,000) in the next two to three years will help link thousands of etiologies and risk factors with their respective diseases, which represents a new paradigm in medicine. This is illustrated by the implications to be drawn from familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the 50 new genes already identified to be responsible for cardiac disease. The hope for prevention and treatment of human disease is unprecedented. Twenty diseases account for 80% of the deaths in the Western world and are due to 100 to 200 genes, all of which will be available in a couple of years. The Phoenician alphabet (inclusive of the Greek vowels) of 26 letters launched two millenniums of Western civilization, whereas the DNA alphabet of only four letters will launch and dominate the next millennium.

  6. Impact of Uncertainty of Boundary Conditions on Simulations of the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrande, A. N.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)-E2-R sampled the broadest range of boundary conditions for simulations of the last millennium, with a dozen different experiments sampling three different volcanic forcing scenarios, three anthropogenic land use change scenarios, and three different solar (TSI) scenarios. This suite of experiment yields 15,000 years of simulations for the last millennium. Here the forcings of these experiments are distilled down into basic fingerprints of each type of change - volcanic, solar, and, anthropogenic land use - to test whether it is feasible to detect these climate changes in various proxy archives. I will illustrate the difficulty in the detection of any of these changes in individual proxy archives, and establish the minimum critieria (given a perfect simulation) to identify solar minima, volcanic eruptions, and large changes in land use. Further, preliminary new results to illustrate the impact of various degrees of sophistication in applying volcanic forcing on the resultant climate signal will be presented. We will also study the impact of atmospheric composition on climate, by presenting results from atmosphere-only model simulations with the GISS-E2 model, which includes interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols at decadal-scale time slices, driven by the millennial-length coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations.

  7. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  8. ENSO response to external forcing in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is dominant mode of interannual climate variability, but its response to external climate forcings remains uncertain. Past studies have limitations including the use of short datasets and the uncertainty contained in reconstructions or simulations of past ENSO variations. To improve our understanding on ENSO variations, it is important to examine its response to these forcings by using multi model simulations since they provide longer datasets and help improving the statistical significance of the results. In this study, Granger causality test is applied to investigate the influence of external forcings on ENSO by using past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 CE) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. The results show robust influence of volcanic forcing to ENSO during preindustrial times of last millennium. The response of ENSO to solar forcing is more likely to be weak. Detection of GHGs variations signal in ENSO response is not significant. However, this study also indicates that there are uncertainties in the responses of ENSO to solar forcing and GHGs radiative forcing. The possibility of the true causal connection between Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) or GHGs radiative forcing and ENSO cannot be rejected at 95% significance level.

  9. Solar Imprints on Asian Inland Moisture Fluctuations over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Zhou, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, W.; Li, S. H.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Solar irradiance changes are thought to play an important role in natural climate variability. How solar activities affected hydrological changes in westerly-controlled arid central Asia (ACA) on decadal/centennial timescales remains poorly investigated, due to lack of high-quality records. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy records of lake level changes, and thus effective moisture fluctuations, over the last millennium, from a shoreline sediment core retrieved from Lake Manas, northwestern China. Besides generally confirmed relatively wet conditions during the cool Little Ice Age, records of the geophysical and geochemical indicators, including lightness, calcium counts, and C37 alkenone contents, consistently show substantial and frequent lake level fluctuations, and more importantly, resemble solar irradiance changes. Further, the ~11-year Schwabe cycle, ~70-100-year Gleissberg cycle, and relatively weak spectral power in between, as characters in the sunspot number record, together with the ~200-year Suess-de Vries cycle revealed in the reconstructed total solar irradiance records, are all evident in the higher-resolution calcium and lightness records. Together, our records clearly demonstrate solar imprints on effective moisture fluctuations in ACA over the last millennium, and the occurrence of the Schwabe cycle even during the solar minima.

  10. North Pacific decadal variability in the CMIP5 last millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Laura E.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific ocean-atmosphere system exerts an important influence on the climate of Asia and North America, but the limited length of the observational record prevents a complete understanding of its bidecadal and multidecadal time scales. Paleoclimate reconstructions provide one source of information on longer time scales, although they differ in their estimation of the behavior of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) prior to the instrumental period. Forced general circulation model simulations offer complementary long-term perspectives on both the history and dynamics of this important mode of variability. Here, we analyze the PDO in the ensemble of CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium (past1000 + historical) simulations. We evaluate the modeled spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of this mode, as well as teleconnections between North Pacific variability and global climate. All models produce a mode of North Pacific variability over the last millennium with spatial patterns and spectral power density similar to observations. CCSM, FGOALS, and IPSL best reproduce observed spatial patterns, spectral characteristics, and teleconnections to terrestrial regions used in paleoclimate proxy reconstructions. In these simulations, the PDO shows no consistent response to solar or volcanic forcing.

  11. [Regionalisation of the Millennium Development Goals: markers for assessing child health in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bedrouni, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) include measurable, quantifiable objectives that facilitate the monitoring of their progress and help focus the work of local authorities intended to improve the living conditions of their populations. Since the adoption of the Declaration of the Millennium in September 2000, Algeria has made considerable progress, with excellent scores for some objectives but substantial delays for others. We also note that even when national averages provide a satisfactory impression, they often hide striking inequalities. This work is thus an attempt to evaluate progress for one of the eight objectives on a less aggregate scale that should permit a more realistic assessment. We thus restrict this article to a single aspect child health. Successive surveys have all confirmed substantial achievements on a national scale. These improvements nonetheless remain insufficient in light of the available resources. For example, the infant mortality rate, one of the most valuable child health indicators, decreased from 46.8 per thousand in 1990 to 25.5 per thousand in 2008. Nonetheless, the same studies showed the persistence of inequalities between geographic areas, urban and rural areas, and between sexes. Additional efforts are thus necessary if we are to reach the objective of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years by two-thirds. Results will also be more effective if healthy policy is regionalized, especially through the promotion of the implementation of this goal at the local level.

  12. Testing DARKexp against energy and density distributions of Millennium-II halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolting, Chris; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-09-01

    We test the DARKexp model for relaxed, self-gravitating, collisionless systems against equilibrium dark matter halos from the Millennium-II simulation. While limited tests of DARKexp against simulations and observations have been carried out elsewhere, this is the first time the testing is done with a large sample of simulated halos spanning a factor of ~ 50 in mass, and using independent fits to density and energy distributions. We show that DARKexp, a one shape parameter family, provides very good fits to the shapes of density profiles, ρ(r), and differential energy distributions, N(E), of individual simulated halos. The best fit shape parameter phi0 obtained from the two types of fits are correlated, though with scatter. Our most important conclusions come from ρ(r) and N(E) that have been averaged over many halos. These show that the bulk of the deviations between DARKexp and individual Millennium-II halos come from halo-to-halo fluctuations, likely driven by substructure, and other density perturbations. The average ρ(r) and N(E) are quite smooth and follow DARKexp very closely. The only deviation that remains after averaging is small, and located at most bound energies for N(E) and smallest radii for ρ(r). Since the deviation is confined to 3-4 smoothing lengths, and is larger for low mass halos, it is likely due to numerical resolution effects.

  13. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... are often seen in the development of antisocial personality. Some doctors believe that psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is ...

  14. Personalized ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Porter, L F; Black, G C M

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty.

  15. Sensitivity of Asian climate change to radiative forcing during the last millennium in a multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Xu, Tingting; Wang, Hongli

    2016-04-01

    The outputs of last millennium (A.D. 850-1850) experiments from seven climate models of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3, have been used to analyze decadal to centennial climatic variations over Asia, including the Indian monsoon, the East Asian monsoon and the westerly jet. In particular, the differences between the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, A.D. 901-1200) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, A.D. 1551-1850) are focused on. Statistically, significant temperature contrasts between the MWP and LIA are simulated by all of the models, and larger temperature deviations occur during colder periods. Although discrepancies exist, stronger Indian and East Asian summer monsoon circulations, as well as a stronger Asian westerly jet stream in winter, are found during the MWP compared to the LIA, in most of the models. These changes primarily originate from different atmospheric thermal structures over the two periods, which occur in response to the external radiative forcings. However, the monsoon-associated precipitation is quite complicated, with distinctly different patterns simulated among the models. There are phase differences in the multi-decadal variability of precipitation among the models, which consistently fail to detect a weakening in the precipitation at the minima of the radiative forcings. Only limited models are able to simulate the quasi-100-year solar cycles in the changes of precipitation over India and East Asia. Thus, although the climate system is certainly affected by external radiative forcings, our results imply that the natural forcings may not exert such a substantial influence on the Asian monsoon rainfall, or the models may underestimate the response.

  16. 75 FR 71144 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ..., Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... (ROD) for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Environmental Impact... capacity of approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of power. The Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project is...

  17. Electronic Publishing and Academic Dialogue between Academicians via Online Journals in the New Millennium: A Case of "TOJDE"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiray, Ugur

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to discuss electronic scholarly publishing and dialogue an academicians in the millennium. There are three main part of this presentation. In the first part focuses on some concepts dealt with electronic publishing and advantages and disadvantages its. The needs of dialog of the academicians are mentioned in the second part of the…

  18. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  19. Integrative Approaches of Native and Foreign Scholars to Pedology in the Context of Views of the Third Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzminsky, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    Problems of appearing and functioning of human study science, i.e. pedology, have been studied in the paper. Theoretical analysis of integrative approaches of native and foreign scholars to pedology in the context of views of the third millennium has been performed. Useful and positive achievements of this science as well as wrong ones determined…

  20. 76 FR 34273 - Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... to the public. Dated: June 9, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  1. 75 FR 80544 - Change of Date for December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE... Williams, Jr., Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc... Corporation published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to the Government in the Sunshine Act (5...

  2. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  3. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber);…

  4. No Pending National Elections, Who Cares? What Newspaper Publications Reveal about Local Efforts Towards Millennium Development Goal 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Arku, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana's prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles…

  5. The Graceful and Gritty Princess: Managing Notions of Girlhood from the New Nation to the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam; Eaton, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate the nearly ubiquitous cultural icon for girls' play, the princess. They survey historical instances of princess play from the beginning of the American republic to the New Millennium, look at the literature concerning princesses in various periods, and discuss the individual recollections about princess play of a number of…

  6. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  7. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  8. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  9. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  10. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  11. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  12. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  13. [Celibacy, solitude, and personal autonomy: personal choice and social restrictions].

    PubMed

    Jelin, E

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between celibacy and the status of single persons is examined at the individual and societal levels, with a focus on the impact of social changes in marriage patterns, family structure, and personal autonomy. The geographical scope is worldwide, with some emphasis on Latin America. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Personality structure in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus), Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and African lion (Panthera leo): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. We assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, African lions, and previous data on Scottish wildcats-and compared the results. In addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential to provide information on evolutionary relationships among closely related species. Each of the species studied was found to have three factors of personality. Scottish wildcats' factors were labeled Dominance, Agreeableness, and Self Control; domestic cats' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism; clouded leopards' factors were Dominance/Impulsiveness, Agreeableness/Openness, and Neuroticism; snow leopards' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness/Openness, and Neuroticism; and African lions' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism. The Neuroticism and Impulsiveness factors were similar, as were two of the Dominance factors. A taxon-level personality structure also showed three similar factors. Age and sex effects are also discussed.

  15. Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak

  16. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…

  17. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

    2012-06-12

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector.

  18. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  19. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  20. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  1. New Millennium DS2 electronic packaging an advanced electronic packaging "sandbox".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, G.; D'Agostino, S.

    New Millennium Deep Space 2 (DS2), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), consists of a pair of probes that will be carried to Mars by the Mars Polar Lander. After release from the Lander, both probes enter the atmosphere, impact and penetrate the Martian surface. After impact, a soil sample is taken and analyzed for the presence of water. Other scientific data is collected during descent and after impact. The proposed size and mass of the probes imposed enormous constraints on the packaging of the electronics. To fit the electronics within the probe envelope, the DS2 became a virtual advanced packaging experiment: Chip-on-Board (COB) technology, High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology, and novel flexible interconnects were used in a highly integrated package to meet the requirements. This paper describes the development and testing of the DS2 electronics package and possible follow-on developments at JPL.

  2. Healthcare for the poor and dispossessed: from Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, S R

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare models which recognize the equity principle have had to confront the challenge of providing healthcare for the poor and dispossessed. Healthcare premised on "human rights" strives to remove/ reduce barriers to access by a complete waiver of all fees in the public sector or various other subsidies to make healthcare more affordable. Social welfare programmes are held hostage to the vagaries of the economy and resource scarcity. The Alma-Ata's primary healthcare is inherently a health development strategy which embraces a wholistic approach to health and wellness. This strategy, by refocussing on the Millennium Development Goals, can therefore accommodate the innovations required to overcome the challenges posed by technological, financial, cultural and geographical factors to provide a better quality of life for all, but moreso for the poor and dispossessed.

  3. Towards realizing the health-related millennium development goals for migrants from Burma in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ditton, Mary J; Lehane, Leigh

    2009-09-01

    ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH-RELATED research on politically oppressed migrant populations differ in significant ways from community health research in other contexts. The United Nations has set goals for such research. The health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were investigated in communities ("clusters") of migrants from Burma living in villages in the Sangkhlaburi District of Thailand, adjacent to the Thai-Burma border. Hunger was experienced regularly in 70% of the households, and 26% of children under 5 years were underweight. Malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS were prevalent. Few households took part in family planning, and there were many large families and disabled children. The health of the migrant populations was compromised by poverty, social exclusion, and under- or unemployment. Stakeholders in discussion groups concurred with the authors that tuberculosis detection and treatment and food production activities were important issues to address in developing projects to improve migrant health. This case study illustrates how the MDGs can be operationally defined.

  4. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  5. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  6. The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-10-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

  7. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium.

  8. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  9. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  10. The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wansink, B; Wansink, C S

    2010-05-01

    Portion sizes of foods have been noticably increasing in recent years, but when did this trend begin? If art imitates life and if food portions have been generally increasing with time, we might expect this trend to be reflected in paintings that depict food. Perhaps the most commonly painted meal has been that of Jesus Christ's Last Supper, chronicled in the New Testament of the Bible. A CAD-CAM analysis of the relative food-to-head ratio in 52 representative paintings of the Last Supper showed that the relative sizes of the main dish (entree) (r=0.52, P=0.002), bread (r=0.30, P=0.04), and plates (r=0.46, P=0.02) have linearly increased over the past millennium.

  11. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.

  12. Spatial distribution and velocities of satellite galaxies in the Millennium SimulationÂ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, L.; García Lambas, D.; Navarro, J. F.

    We study the spatial distribution and kinematics of satellites orbiting isolated primary galaxies using a galaxy catalogue constructed applying a semianalytic galaxy formation model to the Millennium Run (Springel et al 2005, Croton et al 2005). In order to compare with observations, satellites samples are constructed by carefully stacking systems of similar halo mass, after appropriate rescaling of their positions and velocities. Our main results are that: (i) the spatial distribution of satellites may be well approximated by an NFW profile with concentration c ~ 6 almost independent of host virial mass; (ii) the velocity dispersion drops substantially from the center outwards, typically by a factor of ~ 2 at the virial radius; and (iii) the velocity ellipsoid is radially anisotropic near the center, becomin gradually more isotropic in the outer regions These trends may very well be obscured in observational samples unless proper care is taken to remove interlopers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-08-24

    The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application.

  14. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice

  15. The geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Iberian Peninsula during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Akimova, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    The pattern of variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field starting from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. is reconstructed from the data about the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field in the region of the Iberian Peninsula provided by the archaeomagnetic studies of ceramics from archaeological monuments. In this time interval, the intensity of the field widely varies from ~30 to ~90 µT. The smooth variation of the field is superimposed by the variations with characteristic times from thousands to hundreds of years. The intensity variations can be subdivided into two groups: rather sharp variations with a characteristic duration of about 200 years and smooth quasi-harmonic fluctuations with a duration of a few hundred years.

  16. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities.

  17. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  18. A tree-ring field reconstruction of Fennoscandian summer hydroclimate variability for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftigen, Kristina; Björklund, Jesper; Cook, Edward R.; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroclimatological extremes, such as droughts and floods, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with global climate change. An improved knowledge of its natural variability and the underlying physical mechanisms for changes in the hydrological cycle will help understand the response of extreme hydroclimatic events to climate warming. This study presents the first gridded hydroclimatic reconstruction (0.5° × 0.5° grid resolution), as expressed by the warm season Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), for most of Fennoscandia. A point-by-point regression approach is used to develop the reconstruction from a network of moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies spanning over the past millennium. The reconstruction gives a unique opportunity to examine the frequency, severity, persistence, and spatial characteristics of Fennoscandian hydroclimatic variability in the context of the last 1,000 years. The full SPEI reconstruction highlights the seventeenth century as a period of frequent severe and widespread hydroclimatic anomalies. Although some severe extremes have occurred locally throughout the domain over the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the period is surprisingly free from any spatially extensive anomalies. The twentieth century is not anomalous in terms of the number of severe and spatially extensive hydro climatic extremes in the context of the last millennium. Principle component analysis reveals that there are two dominant modes of spatial moisture variability across Fennoscandia. The same patterns are evident in the observational record and in the reconstructed dataset over the instrumental era and two paleoperiods. The 500 mb pressure patterns associated with the two modes suggests the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.

  19. Time-varying spectral characteristics of ENSO over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Pandora; Henley, Benjamin J.; Gergis, Joelle; Brown, Josephine; Ye, Hua

    2016-10-01

    The characteristics of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) spectra over the Last Millennium are examined to characterise variability over past centuries. Seven published palaeo-ENSO reconstructions and Nino3.4 from six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 and Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project-Phase 3 (CMIP5-PMIP3) Last Millennium simulations were analysed. The corresponding Historical and pre-industrial Control CMIP5-PMIP3 simulations were also considered. The post-1850 spectrum of each modelled or reconstructed ENSO series captures aspects of the observed spectrum to varying degrees. We note that no single model or ENSO reconstruction completely reproduces the instrumental spectral characteristics. The spectral power across the 2-3 years (near biennial), 3-8 years (classical ENSO) and 8-25 years (decadal) periodicity bands was calculated in a sliding 50 year window, revealing temporal variability in the spectra. There was strong temporal variability in the spectral power of each periodicity band in observed Nino3.4 and SOI and for all reconstructions and simulations of ENSO. Significant peaks in spectral power such as observed in recent decades also occur in some of the reconstructed palaeo-ENSO (around 1600, the early 1700s and 1900) and modelled series (around the major volcanic eruptions of 1258 and 1452). While the recent increase in spectral power might be in response to enhanced greenhouse gas levels, the increase lies within the range of variability across the suite of ENSO reconstructions and simulations examined here. This study demonstrates that the analysis of a suite of ENSO reconstructions and model simulations can build a broader understanding of the time-varying nature of ENSO spectra, and how the nature of the past spectra of ENSO is to some extent dependant on the climate model or palaeo-ENSO reconstruction chosen.

  20. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  1. Stability of ENSO and Its Tropical Pacific Teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Sophie; Legrande, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific

  2. Sources and pathways of dust during the Australian "Millennium Drought" decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Chubb, Thomas; Baddock, Matthew; Kelly, Tyler; Tapper, Nigel J.; De Deckker, Patrick; McTainsh, Grant

    2017-01-01

    From the late 1990s to mid-2010, Australia was affected by a prolonged period of drought, the "Millennium Drought," during which numerous severe dust storms crossed the continent. We inspect this period to produce the first continental-scale climatology of air-parcel trajectories that is specific to dust and use it to gain new insights into dust transport dynamics over the eastern half of Australia. The analysis is based upon dust arrival times from airport meteorological observations made at nine mostly coastal cities for 2000-2009. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model was used to calculate 1.26 million backward trajectories from receptor cities, with only those trajectories associated with a dust storm observation considered in the analysis of dust transport. To tie dust trajectories from receptors to likely emission sources, trajectories were linked to six known major dust source regions in and around the Lake Eyre Basin. The Lake Eyre North ephemeral lake system, alluvial-dominated Channel Country, and agricultural Mallee-Riverina regions emerge as important sources for the period, providing variable contributions to different parts of the seaboard as controlled by different front-related wind systems. Our study also provides new detail regarding dust pathways from continental Australia. For the Millennium Drought we identify that the broadly established Southeast Dust Path may be more accurately subdivided into three active pathways, driven by prefrontal northerly winds and a variation in the influence of frontal westerlies. The detail of these pathways has implications for dust delivery from specific Australian sources to different marine environments.

  3. Personal Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  4. Personality and social context.

    PubMed

    Webster, Mike M; Ward, Ashley J W

    2011-11-01

    There has been considerable interest among biologists in the phenomenon of non-human animal personality in recent years. Consistent variations among individuals in their behavioural responses to ecologically relevant stimuli, often relating to a trade-off between level of risk and reward, have been recorded in a wide variety of species, representing many animal taxa. Research into behavioural variation among individuals has major implications for our understanding of ecological patterns and processes at scales from the level of the individual to the level of the population. Until recently, however, many studies that have considered the broader ecological implications of animal personality have failed to take into account the crucial moderating effect of social context. It is well documented that social processes, such as conformity and facilitation, exert considerable influence on the behaviour of grouping animals and hence that isolated individuals may often behave in a qualitatively as well as quantitatively different manner to those in groups. Recently, a number of studies have begun to address aspects of this gap in our knowledge and have provided vital insights. In this review we examine the state of our knowledge on the relationship between individual personality and sociality. In doing so we consider the influence of the social context on individual personality responses, the interaction between the collective personalities of group members and the expression of those personalities in the individual, and the influence of the personalities of group members on group structure and function. We propose key areas of focus for future studies in order to develop our understanding of this fundamentally important area.

  5. The Personality Structure of Pre-Service Teachers as Measured by the 16 PF: Estimates of Stability across Time and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marth, Joseph R.; Newman, Isadore

    In a study of the personalities of preservice teachers, Cattell's 16 Personality Factor (PF) Questionnaire was administered to 2,225 applicants to the College of Education of the University of Akron (Ohio). Data were analyzed by gender and by year of application (Year 1, 2, or 3). Results indicated that at the primary factor level, personality…

  6. Written Discourse and Acquired Brain Impairment: Evaluation of Structural and Semantic Features of Personal Letters from a Systemic Functional Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated written discourse in the form of personal letters written by ten people with aphasia following stroke and ten people with cognitive-language disorder as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged writers. Personal letters perform the dual function of…

  7. Death Anxiety, Reliability, Validity, and Factorial Structure of the Farsi Form of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety in Iranian Old-Aged Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Lester, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining the level of death anxiety and the sex-related differences among old-aged Iranian individuals sample to compare the old-aged persons with young college students and to explore the psychometric properties of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors in old-aged sample. A sample of 146 volunteer Iranian individuals took part in the study. The mean ages were 68.58 (SD = 7.10), men 68.81 (SD = 7.44) and women 68.28 (SD = 6.76), respectively. The mean score of the ASDA was 51.09 (SD = 20.19). Cronbach's alpha of the ASDA was found to be high (0.94); and Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.92. Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA. Old-aged individuals had a significantly higher mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 25.77). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors accounting for 67.88% of the total variance labeled (F1) fear of dead people and tombs; (F2) fear of lethal disease and postmortem events; and (F3) death fear. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a middle-aged Kuwaiti sample. On the basis of the present results, there are the following three general conclusions: death anxiety is not significantly correlated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are striking in the Iranian samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure among two Iranian and Arab countries. PMID:27867662

  8. Death Anxiety, Reliability, Validity, and Factorial Structure of the Farsi Form of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety in Iranian Old-Aged Persons.

    PubMed

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Lester, David; Bahrami, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining the level of death anxiety and the sex-related differences among old-aged Iranian individuals sample to compare the old-aged persons with young college students and to explore the psychometric properties of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors in old-aged sample. A sample of 146 volunteer Iranian individuals took part in the study. The mean ages were 68.58 (SD = 7.10), men 68.81 (SD = 7.44) and women 68.28 (SD = 6.76), respectively. The mean score of the ASDA was 51.09 (SD = 20.19). Cronbach's alpha of the ASDA was found to be high (0.94); and Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.92. Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA. Old-aged individuals had a significantly higher mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 25.77). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors accounting for 67.88% of the total variance labeled (F1) fear of dead people and tombs; (F2) fear of lethal disease and postmortem events; and (F3) death fear. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a middle-aged Kuwaiti sample. On the basis of the present results, there are the following three general conclusions: death anxiety is not significantly correlated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are striking in the Iranian samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure among two Iranian and Arab countries.

  9. Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population.

  10. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  11. Glacier variations in the Northern Caucasus compared to climatic reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomina, Olga; Bushueva, Irina; Dolgova, Ekaterina; Jomelli, Vincent; Alexandrin, Mikhail; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Matskovsky, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    In the Northern Caucasus, glacier and climatic variations over the past centuries remain insufficiently documented. In this review, we summarized the high-resolution information on glacier and climate fluctuations in the region for the past millennium and provided a synthesis of these two lines of evidence with respect to regional climate change. The key areas considered in the paper are the Elbrus area, the Teberda and Arkhyz valleys in the Western Caucasus and the Cherek Bezengiisky and Tsey valleys in the Eastern Caucasus, where the most paleoclimatic evidence has been retrieved. We focused on the fluctuation records of the ten glaciers that are best documented. To reconstruct changes in glacier length in the past, we used aerial photos, optical space images, repeated photographs and old maps. The ages of moraines were defined with the help of instrumental records, historical images, old maps, and tree-ring dating. Lichenometry was used as a supplementary tool to determine the relative ages of glacial landforms. We reviewed the collection of control points used for the lichenometric curves and determined the time limit of potential use of this method in the Caucasus to be up to one millennium. High-resolution tree-ring-based hydroclimatic reconstructions in the Northern Caucasus are presented based on the reconstruction of June-September temperature (1595-2012 CE), the mass balance reconstruction of the Garabashi Glacier (1800-2008 CE) and the runoff of the Teberda River (low-frequency variations) for May, July and August for 1850-2005 CE. The synthesis of all the available paleoclimatic records revealed several distinct climatic periods. Evidence of a warm interval (traditionally referred to as the "Arkhyz break in glaciation") preceding the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Caucasus is based on archeological, palynological, geochemical and pedological data. However, the conclusions concerning the duration and magnitude of this warming are still vague due to the low

  12. Cognitive Function and Brain Structure in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Intensive Lowering of Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeff D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Bryan, R. Nick; Coker, Laura H.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Murray, Anne M.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L.; Davatzikos, Christos; Barzilay, Joshua; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Linz, Peter E.; Miller, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for decline in cognitive function, reduced brain volume, and increased white matter lesions in the brain. Poor control of blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels are risk factors for T2DM-related cognitive decline, but the effect of intensive treatment on brain function and structure is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intensive therapy for hypertension and combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate reduces the risk of decline in cognitive function and total brain volume (TBV) in patients with T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A North American multicenter clinical trial including 2977 participants without baseline clinical evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 7.5% randomized to a systolic BP goal of less than 120 vs less than 140 mm Hg (n = 1439) or to a fibrate vs placebo in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dL (n = 1538). Participants were recruited from August 1, 2003, through October 31, 2005, with the final follow-up visit by June 30, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cognition was assessed at baseline and 20 and 40 months. A subset of 503 participants underwent baseline and 40-month brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess for change in TBV and other structural measures of brain health. RESULTS Baseline mean HbA1c level was 8.3%; mean age, 62 years; and mean duration of T2DM, 10 years. At 40 months, no differences in cognitive function were found in the intensive BP-lowering trial or in the fibrate trial. At 40 months, TBV had declined more in the intensive vs standard BP-lowering group (difference, −4.4 [95% CI, −7.8 to −1.1] cm3; P = .01). Fibrate therapy had no effect on TBV compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In participants with long-standing T2DM and at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive BP control and fibrate therapy in the presence of

  13. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  14. Dynamical analysis of the Indian Ocean climate network and its correlation with Australian Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Laura; Masoller, Cristina; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2015-04-01

    During the period between the mid-1990s and late 2000s Australia had suffered one of the worst droughts on record. Severe rainfall deficits affected great part of southeast Australia, causing widespread drought conditions and catastrophic bushfires. The "Millennium Drought", as it was called, was unusual in terms of its severity, duration and extent, leaving important environmental and financial damages. One of the most important drivers of Australia climate variability is the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), that is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The IOD is measured by an index (DMI) that is the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Its positive phase is characterized by lower than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern coast, and higher than normal in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events are associated to severe droughts in countries located over the eastern Indian Ocean, and to severe floods in the western tropical ones. Recent research works projected that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase significantly over the twenty-first century and consequently, the frequency of extreme climate conditions in the zones affected by it. In this work we study the dynamics of the Indian Ocean for the period of 1979-2014, by using climate networks of skin temperature and humidity (reanalysis data). Annual networks are constructed by creating links when the Pearson correlation coefficient between two nodes is greater than a specific value. The distance distribution Pd(k), that indicates the fraction of pairs of nodes at distance k, is computed to characterize the dynamics of the network by using Information Theory quantifiers. We found a clear change in the Indian Ocean dynamics and an increment in the network's similarities quantified by the Jensen-Shannon divergence in the late 1990s. We speculate that

  15. Teaching a Course in Personal Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, James

    This teacher's guide, one of a series on personal economics, is a refinement of a course of study in personal economics prepared for the Fairfield School, Lancaster, Ohio. An introduction describes the structure of personal economics by offering a definition, discussing the ideas and concepts involved, and setting out a process for analyzing…

  16. Personality Traits: Hierarchically Organized Systems.

    PubMed

    Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2017-03-13

    Personality science has always been and is still ready for new theorizing on traits. Accordingly, this paper presents the recently proposed Traits as Hierarchical Systems (THS) model, where personality traits are not only the emergent properties of the three-level hierarchy of the personality system, but are also hierarchical per se. As hierarchical systems, they are organized into three levels: mechanisms and processes, structures, and behavioral markers. In this approach trait denotes the underlying, recurrent mechanisms that pattern its structure and account for the stability/variability of individual characteristics. Here, traits might be described as processes with a slow rate of change that can be substituted for structure. The main function of personality traits, within the personality system, is stimulation processing. Three dominant functions of stimulation processing in traits are proposed: reactive, regulative, and self-regulative. Some important questions regarding the concept of trait remain, e.g. concerning trait stability, determinacy, measurement, their relation to overt behaviors, personality type or state, differentiation between temperament traits and other-than-temperament personality traits. All of these topics are discussed in this paper, as well as the compatible and distinctive features of this approach in relation to selected, modern trait theories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium.

  18. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  19. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  20. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Schizotypal personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric ... in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds ...

  1. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  2. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  3. Spatiotemporal drought variability of the eastern Tibetan Plateau during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yang; Gou, Xiaohua; Gao, Linlin; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

    2016-11-01

    Tibetan Plateau is the headwater region of many major Asian rivers and very susceptive to climate change. Therefore, knowledge about climate and its spatiotemporal variability in this area is very important for ecological conservation, water resource management and social development. The aim of this study was to reconstruct and analyze the hydroclimate variation on eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) over many centuries and explore possible forcing factors on regional hydroclimate variability. We used 118 tree-ring chronologies from ETP to reconstruct the gridded May-July Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the ETP over the last millennium. The reconstruction was developed using an ensemble point-by-point reconstruction method, and a searching region method was used to locate the candidate tree-ring chronologies. The reconstructions have nicely captured the spatial and temporal features of the regional drought variation. The drought variations in south and north of 32.5°N are notably different, which may be related to the divergence influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on the climate systems in the south and north, as well as differences in local climate. Spectral analysis and series comparison suggest that the drought variation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau has been possibly influenced by solar activity on centurial and longer time scale.

  4. Ranking of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Jan; Krusic, Paul J.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Carrer, Marco; Cook, Ed; Davi, Nicole K.; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Konter, Oliver; Myglan, Vladimir; Timonen, Mauri; Treydte, Kerstin; Trouet, Valerie; Villalba, Ricardo; Yang, Bao; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies are widely used to reconstruct high-to low-frequency variations in growing season temperatures over centuries to millennia. The relevance of these timeseries in large-scale climate reconstructions is often determined by the strength of their correlation against instrumental temperature data. However, this single criterion ignores several important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tree-ring chronologies. Those characteristics are (i) data homogeneity, (ii) sample replication, (iii) growth coherence, (iv) chronology development, and (v) climate signal including the correlation with instrumental data. Based on these 5 characteristics, a reconstruction-scoring scheme is proposed and applied to 39 published, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from Asia, Europe, North America, and the Southern Hemisphere. Results reveal no reconstruction scores highest in every category and each has their own strengths and weaknesses. Reconstructions that perform better overall include N-Scan and Finland from Europe, E-Canada from North America, Yamal and Dzhelo from Asia. Reconstructions performing less well include W-Himalaya and Karakorum from Asia, Tatra and S-Finland from Europe, and Great Basin from North America. By providing a comprehensive set of criteria to evaluate tree-ring chronologies we hope to improve the development of large-scale temperature reconstructions spanning the past millennium. All reconstructions and their corresponding scores are provided at http://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology.

  5. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  6. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  7. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

  8. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S.; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tree ring–based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May–June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  9. Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century.

    PubMed

    Pechony, O; Shindell, D T

    2010-11-09

    Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries.

  10. Characterizing strong lensing galaxy clusters using the Millennium-XXL and MOKA simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Angulo, Raul E.; Despali, Giulia; Jullo, Eric

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the strong lensing statistics in galaxyclusters. We extract dark matter haloes from the Millennium-XXL simulation, compute their Einstein radius distribution, and find a very good agreement with Monte Carlo predictions produced with the MOKA code. The distribution of the Einstein radii is well described by a lognormal distribution, with a considerable fraction of the largest systems boosted by different projection effects. We discuss the importance of substructures and triaxiality in shaping the size of the critical lines for cluster size haloes. We then model and interpret the different deviations, accounting for the presence of a Brightest Central Galaxy (BCG) and two different stellar mass density profiles. We present scaling relations between weak lensing quantities and the size of the Einstein radii. Finally, we discuss how sensible is the distribution of the Einstein radii on the cosmological parameters ΩM - σ8 finding that cosmologies with higher ΩM and σ8 possess a large sample of strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radius distribution may help distinguish Planck13 and WMAP7 cosmology at 3σ.

  11. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  12. Variation of solar activity recorded in Korean chronicles during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Jeon, Junhyeok

    2015-08-01

    Korea has a long history in astronomy, which is proved by many observational records written in Korean chronicles. There are 43 sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) and 13 records in Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). According to analysis of Korean historical records, it is known that sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty show well in match with the well-known solar activity of 11.3 years. It means that Korean historical sunspot records show real solar phenomena. Korean sunspot records also show that solar activity decrease in Joseon dynasty compared with the previous ~500 years. In order to know the change of solar activity in detail, we examine Korean historical atmospheric records which can indicate climate change. We first analyze historical frost records. Korean chronicles have around 600 frost records during the last millennium. We find that the climate change shows sign of cooling down when check the variation of epoch that the first and last frost events in each year are written. This result is well in accord with that of historical sunspot records. Therefore, we claim that solar activity decrease during the last thousand years.

  13. Performance of Major Flare Watches from the Max Millennium Program (2001 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Marquette, W. H.; Milligan, R. O.; Canfield, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood, and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares ≥ X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). We present a review of the performance of MFWs from 1 February 2001 to 31 May 2010, inclusive, which finds that (1) 220 MFWs were issued in 3407 days considered (6.5 % duty cycle), with these occurring in 32 uninterrupted periods that typically last 2 - 8 days; (2) 56% of flares ≥ X1 were caught, occurring in 19 % of MFW days; (3) MFW periods ended at suitable times, but substantial gain could have been achieved in percentage of flares caught if periods had started 24 h earlier; (4) MFWs successfully forecast X-class flares with a true skill statistic (TSS) verification metric score of 0.500, that is comparable to a categorical flare/no-flare interpretation of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre probabilistic forecasts (TSS = 0.488).

  14. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  15. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linkages between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) is crucial to sustain the flow of ES for HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided a state-of-the-art synthesis of such knowledge. However, due to the complexity of the linkages between ES and HWB, there are still many knowledge gaps, and in particular a lack of quantitative indicators and integrated models based on the MA framework. To fill some of these research needs, we developed a quantitative index system to measure HWB, and assessed the impacts of an external driver – the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – on HWB. Our results suggest that our proposed index system of HWB is well-designed, valid and could be useful for better understanding the linkages between ES and HWB. The earthquake significantly affected households' well-being in our demonstration sites. Such impacts differed across space and across the five dimensions of the sub-index (i.e., the basic material for good life, security, health, good social relations, and freedom of choice and action). Since the conceptual framework is based on the generalizable MA framework, our methods should also be applicable to other study areas. PMID:23717635

  16. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  17. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  18. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

  19. A utility perspective on the deployment of CCTs into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The successful Clean Coal Technology projects which are being discussed in this conference are all a testament to the positive advancements that can be made with environmentally superior technologies when the government and industry cooperate in the context of a properly funded and a well thought-out program. Many of the technologies developed in the Clean Coal Technology Program have taken a competitive position in the marketplace, and many others are on the verge of being competitive in the marketplace. Based on the success of the Clean Coal Technology Program, one would expect that they would be ready for full deployment in the marketplace with the approach of the next millennium. This is not happening. There are several hurdles that impede their deployment. Some of those hurdles, such as the higher first-of-a-kind cost and technology risk factors that accompany not-yet mature technologies, have existed since the initiation of the Clean Coal Technology Program. However, several new hurdles are impeding the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies. Those hurdles include the radically different marketplace due to the restructuring of the electric utility industry, a soft market, the difficulty in financing new power plants, low natural gas prices, and lower-cost and higher-efficiency natural gas combined cycle technology.

  20. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Palma-Solís, Marco Antonio; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democracy, and income inequality. Excess infant mortality in the exposed countries, attributable to reductions in GC, was estimated. Fifty countries were found to have reduced GC, and 111 had increased GC. The gap in infant mortality rate between these groups of countries doubled in the study period. Non-achievement of MDG4 was associated with reductions in GC and increases in income inequality. The excess infant mortality attributable to GC reductions in the exposed countries from 1990 to 2002 was 4,473,348 deaths. The probability of achieving MDG4 seems to be seriously compromised for many countries because of reduced public sector expenditure during the last 25 years of the 20th century, in response to World Bank/International Monetary Fund Washington Consensus policies. This seeming contradiction between the goals of different U.N. branches may be undermining achievement of MDG4 and should be taken into account when developing future global governance policy.