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Sample records for mimosa scabrella benth

  1. Development and validation of the first SSR markers for Mimosa scabrella Benth.

    PubMed

    Saiki, F A; Bernardi, A P; Reis, M S; Faoro, H; Souza, E M; Pedrosa, F O; Mantovani, A; Guidolin, A F

    2017-02-16

    Mimosa scabrella Benth., popularly known as ''bracatinga'', is a pioneer and endemic species of Brazil, occurring in Mixed Ombrophilous Forest associated with Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biomes. It is a fast-growing tree of the Fabaceae family that facilitates the dynamics of ecological succession. SSR development, when there is no genome sequence, is time and labor intensive and there are no molecular markers for M. scabrella. We developed and validated the first microsatellite markers for this tetraploid species, evaluating mother trees and progenies. Using Illumina sequencing, we identified 290 SSR loci and 211 primer pairs. After 31 SSR loci PCR/agarose electrophoresis selection, a subset of 11 primer pairs was synthetized with fluorescence in the forward primer for PCR and capillary electrophoresis validation with leaf DNA of 33 adult and 411 progeny individuals. Polymorphic locus percentage was 36, 4 in 11 loci, 3 chloroplast SSRs, and 1 nuclear SSR. Allele number of polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 11 alleles considering all sampling. All 11 primer pairs were also tested for cross-species amplification for five Fabaceae-Mimosoideae species, ranging from 2 loci transferred to Calliandra tweedii Benth. and all 11 loci transferred to Mimosa taimbensis Burkart. The assessed and validated SSR markers for M. scabrella are suitable and useful for analysis and population genetic studies.

  2. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  3. Two galactomannan preparations from seeds from Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga): Complexation with oxovanadium(IV/V) and cytotoxicity on HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia O; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Méndez-Sánchez, Stelia Carolina; Reicher, Fany; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M

    2009-05-01

    Two galactomannans, GALMAN-A and GALMAN-B, were isolated from seeds of Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga), with deactivation and exposure to native enzymes, respectively. They were treated with oxovanadium(IV) and oxovanadium(V), designated (VO(2+)/VO(3+)) to form GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) complexes, respectively. The potentiometric studies provided the binding constants for the complexes and the resulting complexed species were a function of pH. (51)V NMR spectra of GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) at pH 7.8 and at 30 degrees C indicated the occurrence of two types of complexes formed by oxovanadium ions and galactomannans. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) caused loss of HeLa cells viability at concentrations of 50-200microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited low toxicity for 24h, although GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) was extremely toxic, since 50microg/mL was sufficient to decrease HeLa cell viability after 48h by 60%. GALMAN-A gave rise to a slight increase in cell proliferation after 48h at 100microg/mL, whereas GALMAN-B promoted a slight decrease at concentrations of 50-100microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited a significant decrease in cell proliferation after 48h, each reaching 60% inhibition at 5-10microg/mL. The complexes which caused this effect were at concentrations 10 times lower than the uncomplexed polymers.

  4. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  5. Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects induced by the ethanolic extract of the Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae) inflorescences in normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, M E P; Moura, L H P; Mendes, M B; Arcanjo, D D R; Monção, N B N; Araújo, B Q; Lopes, J A D; Silva-Filho, J C; Fernandes, R M; Oliveira, R C M; Citó, A M G L; Oliveira, A P

    2015-04-22

    Caatinga is highly influenced by its seasonality. This species is endemic in the northeastern region, which is rich in plants with pharmacological potential. Many of these plants are used by the population and some of them have confirmed pharmacological properties. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae) is a native plant from northeastern Brazil׳s caatinga, popularly known as sabiá and cascudo. The tea from the inflorescence of this species is used by the population of the semi-arid for the treatment of hypertension, and the utilization of the plant bark for the staunching of bleedings and wound washing in order to prevent inflammation; also, the ingestion of the bark infusion is used in the treatment of bronchitis. However, its pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action have not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the ethanolic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia on the cardiovascular system in rats. In a study for the assessment of the hypotensive effect of the extract, the polyethylene catheters were inserted in the aorta artery and inferior vena cava for the measurement of the arterial pressure and heart rate. When intragastric administration was performed, only one catheter was implanted in the abdominal aorta. In studies for the vasorelaxant activity, mesenteric arterial rings (1-2mm) were used: they were kept in Tyrode׳s solution (95% O2 and 5% CO2) and submitted to tension of 0.75 g/f for 1h. The results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M., significant to the values of p<0.05. The administration of the doses through venous pathway (6.25; 12.5 and 25mg/kg, i.v.) promoted hypotension followed by bradycardia in the higher doses. The pre-treatment with atropine (2mg/kg, i.v.) interrupted both the hypotension and the bradycardia; with hexamethonium, hypotension was reverted and bradycardia was attenuated. While the administration of tea/flowers (25mg/kg i.v.) also promoted a following section of hypotension, a

  6. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  7. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Podadera, Diego S; Engel, Vera L; Parrotta, John A; Machado, Deivid L; Sato, Luciane M; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  8. Electronic Mimosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  9. Lonchocarpus rugosus Benth.

    Treesearch

    Nadia Navarrete-Tindall; Hugo Aragon

    2002-01-01

    Lonchocarpus rugosus is native to southern Mexico and Central America. Other Lonchocarpus species reported in El Salvador are L. atropurpureus Benth., L. minimiflorus Donn. Smith, L. peninsularis (Donn. Smith) Pittier, L. phaseolifolius Benth., and L....

  10. Chamaebatia foliolosa Benth.: bearmat

    Treesearch

    Arthur W. Magill; Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Two varieties of this species - Chamaebatia foliolosa Benth. - are recognized. The typical variety, bearmat, is an evergreen shrub, 15 to 60 cm tall, that grows between 600 and 2,100 m elevation on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California. It occurs in open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and in California red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr...

  11. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of Mimosa annexin.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Hayashi, Asami; Temmei, Yusuke; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2004-09-01

    To characterize the biochemical properties of plant annexin, we isolated annexin from Mimosa pudica L. and analyzed the biochemical properties conserved between Mimosa annexin and animal annexins, e.g. the ability to bind phospholipid and F-actin in the presence of calcium. We show that Mimosa annexin is distributed in a wide variety of tissues. Immunoblot analysis also revealed that the amount of annexin is developmentally regulated. To identify novel functions of Mimosa annexin, we examined the pattern of distribution and the regulation of its expression in the pulvinus. The amount of annexin in the pulvinus increased at night and was sensitive to abscisic acid; however, there was no detectable induction of annexin by cold or mechanical stimulus. Annexin distribution in the cell periphery during the daytime was changed to a cytoplasmic distribution at night, indicating that Mimosa annexin may contribute to the nyctinastic movement in the pulvinus.

  12. Mimosa pudica, Dionaea muscipula and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    De Luccia, Thiago Paes de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Some studies showed that anesthetics reduce the response of physical stimuli in Mimosa pudica and in Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), peculiar plants that have the ability to respond to touch stimuli. In this research we tested the effects of ketamine, lidocaine, diethyl ether, and amlodipine on the movements of Mimosa pudica and Venus Flytrap. With a literature review, we tried to bring elements to theorize about the interaction of these substances with these plants. The angular displacement in Mimosa´s petiole and in Dionaea leaves is what was measured to compare the drugs group with control groups.

  13. Mimosa pudica, Dionaea muscipula and anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    De Luccia, Thiago Paes de Barros

    2012-01-01

    Some studies showed that anesthetics reduce the response of physical stimuli in Mimosa pudica and in Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), peculiar plants that have the ability to respond to touch stimuli. In this research we tested the effects of ketamine, lidocaine, diethyl ether, and amlodipine on the movements of Mimosa pudica and Venus Flytrap. With a literature review, we tried to bring elements to theorize about the interaction of these substances with these plants. The angular displacement in Mimosa´s petiole and in Dionaea leaves is what was measured to compare the drugs group with control groups. PMID:22899087

  14. Boolean function applied to Mimosa pudica movements

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Seismonastic or thigmonastic movements of Mimosa pudica L. is mostly because of the fast loss of water from swollen motor cells, resulting in temporary collapse of cells and quick curvature in the parts where these cells are located. Because of this, the plant has been much studied since the 18th century, leading us to think about the classical binomial stimulus-response (action-reaction) when compared to animals. Mechanic and electrical stimuli were used to investigate the analogy of mimosa branch with an artificial neuron model and to observe the action potential propagation through the mimosa branch. Boolean function applied to the mimosa branch in analogy with an artificial neuron model is one of the peculiarities of our hypothesis. PMID:21847029

  15. Boolean function applied to Mimosa pudica movements.

    PubMed

    De Luccia, Thiago Paes de Barros; Friedman, Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Seismonastic or thigmonastic movements of Mimosa pudica L. is mostly because of the fast loss of water from swollen motor cells, resulting in temporary collapse of cells and quick curvature in the parts where these cells are located. Because of this, the plant has been much studied since the 18th century, leading us to think about the classical binomial stimulus-response (action-reaction) when compared to animals. Mechanic and electrical stimuli were used to investigate the analogy of mimosa branch with an artificial neuron model and to observe the action potential propagation through the mimosa branch. Boolean function applied to the mimosa branch in analogy with an artificial neuron model is one of the peculiarities of our hypothesis.

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of Mimosa pudica decoction.

    PubMed

    Ngo Bum, E; Dawack, D L; Schmutz, M; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Portet, C; Jeker, A; Olpe, H-R; Herrling, P

    2004-06-01

    The decoction of Mimosa pudica leaves given intraperitoneally at dose of 1000-4000 mg/kg protected mice against pentylentetrazol and strychnine-induced seizures. M. pudica had no effect against picrotoxin-induced seizures It also antagonized N-methyl-D-aspartate- induced turning behavior. These properties could explain its use in African traditional medicine. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Molecular electronics in pinnae of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical circuits operate in all plants including the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. The activation of biologically closed circuits with voltage gated ion channels can lead to various mechanical, hydrodynamical, physiological, biochemical, and biophysical responses. Here the biologically closed electrochemical circuit in pinnae of Mimosa pudica is analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Also the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant's pinna is evaluated. These circuits remain linear at small potentials not exceeding 0.5 V. At higher potentials the circuits become strongly non-linear pointing to the opening of ion channels in plant tissues. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect and to different kinetics of a capacitor. These effects can be caused by a redistribution of K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+), and H(+) ions through voltage gated ion channels. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica were investigated and equivalent electrical circuits within the pinnae were proposed to explain the experimental data.

  18. Molecular electronics in pinnae of Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical circuits operate in all plants including the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. The activation of biologically closed circuits with voltage gated ion channels can lead to various mechanical, hydrodynamical, physiological, biochemical and biophysical responses. Here the biologically closed electrochemical circuit in pinnae of Mimosa pudica is analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Also the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant's pinna is evaluated. These circuits remain linear at small potentials not exceeding 0.5 V. At higher potentials the circuits become strongly non-linear pointing to the opening of ion channels in plant tissues. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect and to different kinetics of a capacitor. These effects can be caused by a redistribution of K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and H+ ions through voltage gated ion channels. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica were investigated and equivalent electrical circuits within the pinnae were proposed to explain the experimental data. PMID:20448476

  19. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  20. Rhizobium etli bv. mimosae, a novel biovar isolated from Mimosa affinis.

    PubMed

    Wang, E T; Rogel, M A; García-de los Santos, A; Martínez-Romero, J; Cevallos, M A; Martínez-Romero, E

    1999-10-01

    Fifty rhizobial isolates from root nodules of Mimosa affinis, a small leguminous plant native to Mexico, were identified as Rhizobium etli on the basis of the results of PCR-RFLP and RFLP analyses of small-subunit rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA-DNA homology. They are, however, a restricted group of lineages with low genetic diversity within the species. The isolates from M. affinis differed-from the R. etli strains that orginated from bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the size and replicator region of the symbiotic plasmid and in symbiotic-plasmid-borne traits such as nifH gene sequence and organization, melanin production and host specificity. A new biovar, bv. mimosae, is proposed within R. etli to encompass Rhizobium isolates obtained from M. affinis. The strains from common bean plants have been designated previously as R. etli bv. phaseoli. Strains of both R. etli biovars could nodulate P. vulgaris, but only those of bv. mimosae could form nitrogen-fixing nodules on Leucaena leucocephala.

  1. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  2. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of 'curiosity plant'. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date.

  3. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory.

  4. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  5. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory. PMID:27065905

  6. Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-10-01

    Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical, and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  7. Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-01-01

    Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed. PMID:20855975

  8. Photocontrol of Mimosa pudica L. leaf movement.

    PubMed

    Fondeville, J C; Schneider, M J; Borthwick, H A; Hendricks, S B

    1967-09-01

    1. Mimosa pudica L. pinnae close in darkness when phytochrome is predominantly in the far-red-absorbing form (Pfr) and remain open when Pfr is low [6]. The leaflets remain open, however, in normal light periods irrespective of the form of phytochrome. Pinnae, after closing in darkness, regularly reopen in light. 2. An action spectrum for the opening response shows maxima for effectiveness near 710 and 480 nm. This action spectrum is similar to that for a high-energy response affecting morphogenesis in many plants. 3. Dropping of the petiole of M. pudica can be photostimulated by irradiation of the primary pulvinus after holding the plants in darkness [4]. 4. The photostimulation of the primary pulvinus is effective only at wavelengths less than 520 nm. Wave bands in the region of 400 to 470 nm are about equally effective. 5. These photoresponses of M. pudica are related to current discussion about the nature of the high-energy and phytochrome photomorphogenic reactions.

  9. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive plant ( Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10\\overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ \\bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }}. The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  10. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2016-12-01

    Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }} . The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  11. Chemical investigation of the essential oil of Thymus linearis (Benth. ex Benth) from western Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, R S; Padalia, R C; Chanotiya, C S; Chauhan, A

    2010-12-01

    Thymus linearis (Benth. ex Benth) was collected from five distinct locations of western Himalaya (India) during the summer season. The hydro-distilled essential oil (yield 0.84-0.95%) was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 56 constituents, representing 81.55% to 98.11% of the total oil composition, were identified. Thymol (52.28-66.65%), p-cymene (1.81-21.60%) and γ-terpinene (1.94-12.48%) were the major constituents in all populations. Other constituents identified in significant amounts were carvacrol, p-cymen-8-ol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol methyl ether. The presence of high phenol and essential oil contents in this species make it a suitable substitute for common thyme oil.

  12. Pharmacognostical studies of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arce, E; Gattuso, M; Alvarado, R; Zárate, E; Agüero, J; Feria, I; Lozoya, X

    2007-09-25

    The bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminoseae) tree, known as tepescohuite in Mexico, is commonly used in this country and in Central America to elaborate different products for the treatment of skin burns and lesions. The cicatrizing properties of extracts obtained from this bark have been scientifically studied, attributing the main biological activity to its tannin and saponin content. Studies include clinical trials of phytodrugs based on Mimosae tenuiflora bark extracts for treatment of venous leg ulcerations. Recent commercialization of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex requires pharmacognostical information to develop quality-control methods for raw materials and extracts produced with this plant drug. The present paper reports a group of ethnobotanical, morphological, chemical, and molecular studies performed with Mimosae tenuiflora materials obtained by collection in the southeastern Mexican state of Chiapas. Macro- and micro-morphological parameters were established to authenticate the genuine drug that allowed detection of adulterants usually found in commercial samples of this plant material. These morphological characteristics can be used for rapid identification of the drug and are particularly useful in the case of powdered materials. The chemical studies performed demonstrated that tannins represent the major component group in the bark. Its content in genuine tepescohuite is 16% and is mainly composed of proanthocyanidins, a condition permitting a tannin-based chemical-control method for fingerprinting the plant drug. Contrariwise, the saponin concentration in Mimosae tenuiflora bark is extremely low, and its isolation and content evaluation represent a complex procedure that is unsuitable for routine control purposes. Finally, random amplified DNA (RAPD) analysis results a useful tool for obtaining DNA specific markers of Mimosae tenuiflora species which should be useful in future studies involving raw material

  13. Two diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C, from Mimosa hostilis.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Ayumi; Yokoyama, Ritsuko; Miyatake, Haruka; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2006-12-01

    Two new diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C (1, 2) were isolated together with mimosaside A (3), a known diterpene rhamnoside (4), four known flavones (5-8), five known flavanones (9-13), and four known chalcones (14-17) from the leaves and twigs of a Brazilian medicinal plant, Mimosa hostilis.

  14. Memory elements in the electrical network of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tuckett, Clayton; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The fourth basic circuit element, a memristor, is a resistor with memory that was postulated by Chua in 1971. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Mimosa pudica by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Mimosa pudica is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  15. Mechanoreceptor Cells on the Tertiary Pulvini of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Világi, Ildikó; Varró, Petra; Kristóf, Zoltán

    2007-01-01

    Special red cells were found on the adaxial surface of tertiary pulvini of Mimosa pudica and experiments performed to determine the origin and function of these cells. Using anatomical (light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy) and electrophysiological techniques, we have demonstrated that these red cells are real mechanoreceptor cells. They can generate receptor potential following mechanical stimuli and they are in connection with excitable motor cells (through plasmodesmata). We also provide evidence that these red cells are derived from stomatal subsidiary cells and not guard cells. As histochemical studies show red cells contain tannin, which is important in development of action potentials and movements of plants. These cells could be one of unidentified mechanoreceptors of mimosa. PMID:19517007

  16. Mechanoreceptor Cells on the Tertiary Pulvini of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Visnovitz, Tamás; Világi, Ildikó; Varró, Petra; Kristóf, Zoltán

    2007-11-01

    Special red cells were found on the adaxial surface of tertiary pulvini of Mimosa pudica and experiments performed to determine the origin and function of these cells. Using anatomical (light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy) and electrophysiological techniques, we have demonstrated that these red cells are real mechanoreceptor cells. They can generate receptor potential following mechanical stimuli and they are in connection with excitable motor cells (through plasmodesmata). We also provide evidence that these red cells are derived from stomatal subsidiary cells and not guard cells. As histochemical studies show red cells contain tannin, which is important in development of action potentials and movements of plants. These cells could be one of unidentified mechanoreceptors of mimosa.

  17. Memory elements in the electrical network of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tuckett, Clayton; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The fourth basic circuit element, a memristor, is a resistor with memory that was postulated by Chua in 1971. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Mimosa pudica by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Mimosa pudica is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25482796

  18. Hypolipidemic Activity of Chloroform Extract of Mimosa pudica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-01-01

    Mimosa pudica Lin., known as chue Mue, is a stout straggling prostrate shrubby plant, with spinous stipules and globose pinkish flower heads, and grows as weed in almost all parts of the country. It is traditionally used for its various properties and hence in the present study, chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica leaves has been screened for its hypolipidemic activity. Hypolipidemic activity is screened by inducing hyperlipidemia with the help of atherogenic diet in wistar albino rats and serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol were determined. Atherogenic index shows the measure of the athero-genic potential of the drugs. Chloroform extract showed significant (p < 0.05) hypolipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL level which was similar to the standard drug Atorvastatin. Chloroform extract exhibited significant atherogenic index and percentage protection against hyperlipidemia. These biochemical observations were in turn confirmed by histopathological examinations of aorta, liver and kidney sections and are comparable with the standard hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds which is further confirmed by the thin layer chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The overall experimental results suggests that the biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, glycosides alkaloids present in the chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica, may be responsible for the significant hypolipidemic activity and the results justify the use of Mimosa pudica as a significant hypolipidemic agent. PMID:23408779

  19. Evaluation of wound healing activity of root of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kokane, Dnyaneshwar D; More, Rahul Y; Kale, Mandar B; Nehete, Minakshi N; Mehendale, Prachi C; Gadgoli, Chhaya H

    2009-07-15

    Mimosa pudica, commonly known as touch-me-not, is used in folklore medicine in arresting bleeding and in skin diseases. There was no scientific evidence justifying the use of Mimosa pudica, therefore the present study was aimed at evaluation of wound healing activity of the plant. In the present study the roots of Mimosa pudica were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating the methanolic and the total aqueous extract in simple ointment base B.P. in concentration of 0.5% (w/w), 1% (w/w) and 2% (w/w). Wound healing activity was studied in three types of model in rats viz. excision, incision and estimation of biochemical parameter. In case of the excision wound model wound contraction and period of epithelization was studied while in incision wound model was evaluated by determining tensile strength and hydroxyproline content in the scab. Treatment of wound with ointment containing 2% (w/w) the methanolic and 2% (w/w) the total aqueous extract exhibited significant (P<0.001) wound healing activity. The methanolic and total aqueous extracts were analyzed for total phenols content equivalent to Gallic acid. The content of total phenols was 11% (w/w) and 17% (w/w) in methanolic and total aqueous extract respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited good wound healing activity probably due to phenols constituents.

  20. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  1. Hypolipidemic Activity of Chloroform Extract of Mimosa pudica Leaves.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-10-01

    Mimosa pudica Lin., known as chue Mue, is a stout straggling prostrate shrubby plant, with spinous stipules and globose pinkish flower heads, and grows as weed in almost all parts of the country. It is traditionally used for its various properties and hence in the present study, chloroform extract of Mimosapudica leaves has been screened for its hypolipidemic activity. Hypolipidemic activity is screened by inducing hyperlipidemia with the help of atherogenic diet in wistar albino rats and serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol were determined. Atherogenic index shows the measure of the athero-genic potential of the drugs. Chloroform extract showed significant (p < 0.05) hypolipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL level which was similar to the standard drug Atorvastatin. Chloroform extract exhibited significant atherogenic index and percentage protection against hyperlipidemia. These biochemical observations were in turn confirmed by histopathological examinations of aorta, liver and kidney sections and are comparable with the standard hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds which is further confirmed by the thin layer chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The overall experimental results suggests that the biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, glycosides alkaloids present in the chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica, may be responsible for the significant hypolipidemic activity and the results justify the use of Mimosa pudica as a significant hypolipidemic agent.

  2. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  3. Evaluation of diuretic activity of different extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn.

    PubMed

    Baghel, A; Rathore, D S; Gupta, V

    2013-10-15

    In that study, Mimosa pudica linn was tested for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. The ethanolic and aqoues extract of Mimosa pudica Linn. was studied at two dose level 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Furosemide (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) was used as standard drug in a 0.9% saline solution. Urine volumes were measured for all the groups up to 5 h. The ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica linn was exhibited significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na+ k+ and Cl-.

  4. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Inhalational and local anesthetics reduce tactile and thermal responses in mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Milne, A; Beamish, T

    1999-03-01

    In reaction to a variety of stimuli, the sensitive plant mimosa pudica closes its leaflets and drops its stems. The objective was to investigate the effects of anaesthetics on the reaction of mimosa pudica to a variety of stimuli. The ability of the plants leaflets to close (n=4, Q5min.) was tested after exposure to halothane 4% and 6L x min(-1) O2, or 6L x min(-1) O2. Lidocaine 2% or vehicle were administered through the roots, cut stems, or sprayed on the leaves (n=4). The test consisted of stimulating the leaves, by burning their tips (lidocaine experiments) or touching them with a metal rod (halothane); the closing of the leaflets, or the lack thereof was then observed. After 15 min exposure to halothane, the mimosas had slow and incomplete reactions to tactile stimulation. Following 20 min exposure, the plants had no visible reaction to touch, a stimulus which would normally cause the collapse of the entire leaf. After one minute, mimosa leaves sprayed with lidocaine had no reaction to a lit match being touched to the tips of the leaves, contrary to the control in which the leaves collapsed completely. After exposure to lidocaine 2% through the roots and cut stems, the mimosa's reactivity gradually decreased; after four hours the leaves were insensitive or had slow reaction to tactile stimuli. Inhalational and local anesthetics inhibited motor mechanisms of the mimosa plant. This may be a model to elucidate the mechanisms of action of anesthetics.

  6. The evolutionary history of Mimosa (Leguminosae): toward a phylogeny of the sensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marcelo F; Grether, Rosaura; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Särkinen, Tiina E; Dutra, Valquíria F; Hughes, Colin E

    2011-07-01

    Large genera provide remarkable opportunities to investigate patterns of morphological evolution and historical biogeography in plants. A molecular phylogeny of the species-rich and morphologically and ecologically diverse genus Mimosa was generated to evaluate its infrageneric classification, reconstruct the evolution of a set of morphological characters, and establish the relationships of Old World species to the rest of the genus. We used trnD-trnT plastid sequences for 259 species of Mimosa (ca. 50% of the total) to reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus. Six morphological characters (petiolar nectary, inflorescence type, number of stamens, number of petals, pollen type, and seismonasty) were optimized onto the molecular tree. Mimosa was recovered as a monophyletic clade nested within the Piptadenia group and includes the former members of Schrankia, corroborating transfer of that genus to Mimosa. Although we found good support for several infrageneric groups, only one section (Mimadenia) was recovered as monophyletic. All but one of the morphological characters analyzed showed high levels of homoplasy. High levels of geographic structure were found, with species from the same area tending to group together in the phylogeny. Old World species of Mimosa form a monophyletic clade deeply nested within New World groups, indicating recent (6-10 Ma) long-distance dispersal. Although based on a single plastid region, our results establish a preliminary phylogenetic framework for Mimosa that can be used to infer patterns of morphological evolution and relationships and which provides pointers toward a revised infrageneric classification.

  7. Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-09-25

    Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. M. pudica does not perform merely simple movements, but exhibits a variety of movements that quickly change depending on the type of stimuli. Previous studies have investigated the motile mechanism of the plants from a biochemical perspective. However, an interdisciplinary study on the structural characteristics of M. pudica should be accompanied by biophysical research to explain the principles underlying such movements. In this study, the structural characteristics and seismonastic reactions of M. pudica were experimentally investigated using advanced bio-imaging techniques. The results show that the key factors for the flexible movements by the pulvinus are the following: bendable xylem bundle, expandable/shrinkable epidermis, tiny wrinkles for surface modification, and a xylem vessel network for efficient water transport. This study provides new insight for better understanding the M. pudica motile mechanism through structural modification.

  8. [Chemical constituents of C-glycosylflavones from Mimosa pudica].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke; Lü, Jie-Li; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2006-05-01

    To study chemical constituents of Mimosa pudica of Hainan province. The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography with macroporous adsorption resin Diaion HP-20, Sephadex LH-20, Toyopearl HW-40, MCI Gel CHP-20, RP-18 and normal phase silica gel. Their structures were identified on the basis of physical and spectral data. Four compounds were isolated and identified as: 7, 8, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyl-6-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (I); 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxyl-8-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (II); 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyl-6-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (III); catcher (IV). Compound I is a new compound and componuds II - IV were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  9. Mimosa pudica: Electrical and mechanical stimulation of plant movements.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Ashby, Talitha A; Walker, Ronald K; Johnson, Jon A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-02-01

    Thigmonastic movements in the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica L., associated with fast responses to environmental stimuli, appear to be regulated through electrical and chemical signal transductions. The thigmonastic responses of M. pudica can be considered in three stages: stimulus perception, electrical signal transmission and induction of mechanical, hydrodynamical and biochemical responses. We investigated the mechanical movements of the pinnae and petioles in M. pudica induced by the electrical stimulation of a pulvinus, petiole, secondary pulvinus or pinna by a low electrical voltage and charge. The threshold value was 1.3-1.5 V of applied voltage and 2 to 10 microC of charge for the closing of the pinnules. Both voltage and electrical charge are responsible for the electro-stimulated closing of a leaf. The mechanism behind closing the leaf in M. pudica is discussed. The hydroelastic curvature mechanism closely describes the kinetics of M. pudica leaf movements.

  10. Signal transduction in Mimosa pudica: biologically closed electrical circuits.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-05-01

    Biologically closed electrical circuits operate over large distances in biological tissues. The activation of such circuits can lead to various physiological and biophysical responses. Here, we analyse the biologically closed electrical circuits of the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. using electrostimulation of a petiole or pulvinus by the charged capacitor method, and evaluate the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant. The discharge of a 100 microF capacitor in the pulvinus resulted in the downward fall of the petiole in a few seconds, if the capacitor was charged beforehand by a 1.5 V power supply. Upon disconnection of the capacitor from Ag/AgCl electrodes, the petiole slowly relaxed to the initial position. The electrical properties of the M. pudica were investigated, and an equivalent electrical circuit was proposed that explains the experimental data.

  11. Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-01-01

    Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. M. pudica does not perform merely simple movements, but exhibits a variety of movements that quickly change depending on the type of stimuli. Previous studies have investigated the motile mechanism of the plants from a biochemical perspective. However, an interdisciplinary study on the structural characteristics of M. pudica should be accompanied by biophysical research to explain the principles underlying such movements. In this study, the structural characteristics and seismonastic reactions of M. pudica were experimentally investigated using advanced bio-imaging techniques. The results show that the key factors for the flexible movements by the pulvinus are the following: bendable xylem bundle, expandable/shrinkable epidermis, tiny wrinkles for surface modification, and a xylem vessel network for efficient water transport. This study provides new insight for better understanding the M. pudica motile mechanism through structural modification. PMID:25253083

  12. Coexistence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium sp. Nodule Bacteria on two Mimosa spp. in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Craig F.; Parker, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    rRNA gene sequencing and PCR assays indicated that 215 isolates of root nodule bacteria from two Mimosa species at three sites in Costa Rica belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium. This is the first report of Cupriavidus sp. nodule symbionts for Mimosa populations within their native geographic range in the neotropics. Burkholderia spp. predominated among samples from Mimosa pigra (86% of isolates), while there was a more even distribution of Cupriavidus, Burkholderia, and Rhizobium spp. on Mimosa pudica (38, 37, and 25% of isolates, respectively). All Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genotypes tested formed root nodules and fixed nitrogen on both M. pigra and M. pudica, and sequencing of rRNA genes in strains reisolated from nodules verified identity with inoculant strains. Inoculation tests further indicated that both Cupriavidus and Burkholderia spp. resulted in significantly higher plant growth and nodule nitrogenase activity (as measured by acetylene reduction assays) relative to plant performance with strains of Rhizobium. Given the prevalence of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. on these Mimosa legumes and the widespread distribution of these plants both within and outside the neotropics, it is likely that both β-proteobacterial genera are more ubiquitous as root nodule symbionts than previously believed. PMID:16461667

  13. Coexistence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium sp. nodule bacteria on two Mimosa spp. in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Parker, Matthew A

    2006-02-01

    rRNA gene sequencing and PCR assays indicated that 215 isolates of root nodule bacteria from two Mimosa species at three sites in Costa Rica belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium. This is the first report of Cupriavidus sp. nodule symbionts for Mimosa populations within their native geographic range in the neotropics. Burkholderia spp. predominated among samples from Mimosa pigra (86% of isolates), while there was a more even distribution of Cupriavidus, Burkholderia, and Rhizobium spp. on Mimosa pudica (38, 37, and 25% of isolates, respectively). All Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genotypes tested formed root nodules and fixed nitrogen on both M. pigra and M. pudica, and sequencing of rRNA genes in strains reisolated from nodules verified identity with inoculant strains. Inoculation tests further indicated that both Cupriavidus and Burkholderia spp. resulted in significantly higher plant growth and nodule nitrogenase activity (as measured by acetylene reduction assays) relative to plant performance with strains of Rhizobium. Given the prevalence of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. on these Mimosa legumes and the widespread distribution of these plants both within and outside the neotropics, it is likely that both beta-proteobacterial genera are more ubiquitous as root nodule symbionts than previously believed.

  14. Chitosan/Mimosa tenuiflora films as potential cellular patch for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Gómez, Laura Elizabeth; Martel-Estrada, Santos Adriana; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Rivera-Armenta, José Luis; Alba-Baena, Noe; Rodríguez-González, Claudia; Olivas-Armendáriz, Imelda

    2016-12-01

    Bio-composites films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of chitosan and bark of Mimosa tenuiflora. The physico-chemical and functional properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamical mechanical analysis, wettability, cytotoxicity and in vitro antibacterial activities. The morphology studies confirmed that the presence of Mimosa tenuiflora change the surface of films. Moreover, the incorporation of Mimosa tenuiflora improved the thermal stability of the films, as it was indicated by the changes in the glass temperatures obtained. Water-uptake ability changed in relation to polymeric composition of film. This property increased by the addition of Mimosa tenuiflora to the film. Improved antibacterial properties were measured against Escherichia Coli and Micrococcus lysodeikticus or luteus. Finally, cytotoxicity was studied by MTT assay and the films were non-toxic. These preliminary results provide a cheap way to prepare chitosan/Mimosa tenuiflora films for wound healing and skin regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    XU, WEI; HUANG, MINGQING; ZHANG, YUQIN; LI, HUANG; ZHENG, HAIYIN; YU, LISHUANG; CHU, KEDAN; LIN, YU; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE-treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27035125

  16. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  17. Teratogenicity of Mimosa tenuiflora seeds to pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R M T; de Figueiredo, A P M; Benício, T M A; Dantas, F P M; Riet-Correa, F

    2008-02-01

    Bone and other malformations caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora are common in ruminants in the Brazilian semiarid. The aim of this research was to study the teratogenic effects of M. tenuiflora in Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus). The experimental group had 15 females and was fed, from the 6th to the 21st day of pregnancy, with a ration containing 10% of M. tenuiflora seeds. The control group, with 10 females, was fed with the same ration without seeds. There were no differences in weight gains, and food and water consumption between treated and control rats. Ninety bone malformations were observed in 40 of the 101 fetuses born in the experimental group, and four malformations were observed in three of the 58 fetuses born in the control group (p<0.05). The weight and number of ossification centers of the fetuses from the experimental group were higher than those from the control group (p<0.05). It is concluded that the seeds of M. tenuiflora are teratogenic to rat fetuses.

  18. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F.; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Methods Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Key Results Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the ‘Old World’ Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. Conclusions The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the ‘local’ Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial. PMID:23712450

  19. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F; Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno Dos; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-07-01

    The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the 'Old World' Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the 'local' Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial.

  20. Novel Cupriavidus Strains Isolated from Root Nodules of Native Uruguayan Mimosa Species.

    PubMed

    Platero, Raúl; James, Euan K; Rios, Cecilia; Iriarte, Andrés; Sandes, Laura; Zabaleta, María; Battistoni, Federico; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-06-01

    The large legume genus Mimosa is known to be associated with both alphaproteobacterial and betaproteobacterial symbionts, depending on environment and plant taxonomy, e.g., Brazilian species are preferentially nodulated by Burkholderia, whereas those in Mexico are associated with alphaproteobacterial symbionts. Little is known, however, about the symbiotic preferences of Mimosa spp. at the southern subtropical limits of the genus. In the present study, rhizobia were isolated from field-collected nodules from Mimosa species that are native to a region in southern Uruguay. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the 16S rRNA, recA, and gyrB core genome and the nifH and nodA symbiosis-essential loci confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the genus Cupriavidus However, none were in the well-described symbiotic species C. taiwanensis, but instead they were closely related to other species, such as C. necator, and to species not previously known to be symbiotic (or diazotrophic), such as C. basilensis and C. pinatubonensis Selection of these novel Cupriavidus symbionts by Uruguayan Mimosa spp. is most likely due to their geographical separation from their Brazilian cousins and to the characteristics of the soils in which they were found. With the aim of exploring the diversity of rhizobia associated with native Mimosa species, symbionts were isolated from root nodules on five Mimosa species that are native to a region in southern Uruguay, Sierra del Abra de Zabaleta. In contrast to data obtained in the major centers of diversification of the genus Mimosa, Brazil and Mexico, where it is mainly associated with Burkholderia and Rhizobium/Ensifer, respectively, the present study has shown that all the isolated symbiotic bacteria belonged to the genus Cupriavidus Interestingly, none of nodules contained bacteria belonging to the well-described symbiotic species C. taiwanensis, but instead they were related to other Cupriavidus species such as C. necator and C

  1. Novel Cupriavidus Strains Isolated from Root Nodules of Native Uruguayan Mimosa Species

    PubMed Central

    James, Euan K.; Rios, Cecilia; Iriarte, Andrés; Sandes, Laura; Zabaleta, María; Battistoni, Federico; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The large legume genus Mimosa is known to be associated with both alphaproteobacterial and betaproteobacterial symbionts, depending on environment and plant taxonomy, e.g., Brazilian species are preferentially nodulated by Burkholderia, whereas those in Mexico are associated with alphaproteobacterial symbionts. Little is known, however, about the symbiotic preferences of Mimosa spp. at the southern subtropical limits of the genus. In the present study, rhizobia were isolated from field-collected nodules from Mimosa species that are native to a region in southern Uruguay. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the 16S rRNA, recA, and gyrB core genome and the nifH and nodA symbiosis-essential loci confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the genus Cupriavidus. However, none were in the well-described symbiotic species C. taiwanensis, but instead they were closely related to other species, such as C. necator, and to species not previously known to be symbiotic (or diazotrophic), such as C. basilensis and C. pinatubonensis. Selection of these novel Cupriavidus symbionts by Uruguayan Mimosa spp. is most likely due to their geographical separation from their Brazilian cousins and to the characteristics of the soils in which they were found. IMPORTANCE With the aim of exploring the diversity of rhizobia associated with native Mimosa species, symbionts were isolated from root nodules on five Mimosa species that are native to a region in southern Uruguay, Sierra del Abra de Zabaleta. In contrast to data obtained in the major centers of diversification of the genus Mimosa, Brazil and Mexico, where it is mainly associated with Burkholderia and Rhizobium/Ensifer, respectively, the present study has shown that all the isolated symbiotic bacteria belonged to the genus Cupriavidus. Interestingly, none of nodules contained bacteria belonging to the well-described symbiotic species C. taiwanensis, but instead they were related to other Cupriavidus species such as C

  2. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Treesearch

    Diego S. Podadera; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta; Deivid L. Machado; Luciane M. Sato; Giselda Durigan

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at...

  3. Endemic Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" within semiarid communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Dhillion, Shivcharn S

    2003-06-01

    This paper explores if Mimosa species (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) can serve as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and nutrient "resource islands" in six plant communities in the semiarid valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico. Spatial heterogeneity related to the occurrence of Mimosa species results in temporal differences in AM-fungal spore numbers and soil nutrients. A higher number of AM-fungal spores were found in the soil below the canopies of six endemic Mimosa species than in the soil from non-vegetated areas. For four species, Mimosa adenantheroides, Mimosa calcicola, Mimosa luisana and Mimosa polyantha, the soil below their canopies had more AM-fungal spores than the soil in non-vegetated areas during the wet season than during the dry season. Two species, Mimosa lacerata and Mimosa texana var. filipes, however, had more spores under their canopies during the dry season than during the wet season. Although physical differences are present within and between sites, in general the soil below the canopies of Mimosa species had significantly higher nutrient levels than the soil from non-vegetated areas. Mimosa species thus form "resource islands" that are not only rich in nutrients but also in mycorrhizal propagules. Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" by directly affecting AM-fungal spore dynamics and/or by serving as spore-traps. A range of plants associated with Mimosa species may benefit from the higher number of AM propagules. We believe that the use of Mimosa resource islands as an option for biodiversity conservation and for land restoration ought to be considered in the Valley.

  4. Essential oil of the Persian sage, Salvia rhytidea Benth.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Seyed-Ebrahim; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2005-09-01

    Chemical composition of volatile compounds from Salvia rhytidea Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The volatiles were isolated from dried aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation. A total yield of 2.0 mg of essential oil per g of plant dry mass was obtained and sixty compounds were identified, representing 98.2% of total volatiles. The essential oil was characterized by a high content of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes. The main constituents were p-cymene-8-ol (11.9%), spathulenol (7.3%), pulegone (6.4%), sabinene (5.8%), terpinen-4-ol (5.5%) and alpha-copaene (5.3%).

  5. Mimosa pudica may possess antidepressant actions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Molina, M; Contreras, C M; Tellez-Alcantara, P

    1999-11-01

    In Mexico, aqueous extracts from dried leaves of Mimosa puolica are employed to alleviate depression. In this study, the behavioral actions of aqueous extracts of M. pudica at various concentrations were tested. Rats having received saline (0.9%; 0.30 ml; I.P.), clomipramine, desipramine or several dosages of aqueous extracts from M. pudica (ml = 2.0 mg/kg; m2 = 4.0 mg/kg; m3 = 6.0 mg/kg; m4 = 8.0 mg/kg) during a 30-day period were submitted to the forced swimming test and to the test for differential reinforcement of low rates of response at 72 sec (DRL-72s). Any possible anxiolytic action resulting from several doses (ml = 2.0 mg/kg; m2 = 4.0 mg/kg; m3 = 6.0 mg/kg; m4 = 8.0 mg/kg) of extracts of M. pudica were compared with those caused by diazepam (1.3 mg/kg, I.P.) in the elevated plus-maze test. Results showed that clomipramine (1.25 mg/kg, I.P.), desipramine (2.14 mg/kg, I.P.) and M. pudica (6.0 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, I.P.) reduced immobility in the forced swimming test and increased the rate of reinforcers received in the DRL-72s test; these data suggest that M. pudica produces antidepressant effects in the rat. Diazepam increased the open-arms exploration time in the elevated plus-maze test, but M. pudica did not show any comparable action at any tested dose. M. pudica therefore produced an antide-pressant-like profile similar to two tricyclic antidepressants.

  6. Extract from Mimosa pigra attenuates chronic experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rakotomalala, G; Agard, C; Tonnerre, P; Tesse, A; Derbré, S; Michalet, S; Hamzaoui, J; Rio, M; Cario-Toumaniantz, C; Richomme, P; Charreau, B; Loirand, G; Pacaud, P

    2013-06-21

    Different parts of Mimosa pigra (MPG) are used in traditional medicine in Madagascar, tropical Africa, South America and Indonesia for various troubles including cardiovascular disorders. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of MPG by assessing in vitro its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its vascular relaxing effects, and in vivo, its action on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PAH) in rats. The antioxidant activity of MPG leaf hydromethanolic extract was determined by using both the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity in vitro assays. Anti-inflammatory properties were assayed on TNFα-induced VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. The vasorelaxant effect of MPG extract was studied on rat arterial rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (1μM) in the presence or absence of the endothelium. In vivo MPG extract effects were analyzed in chronic hypoxic PAH, obtained by housing male Wistar rats, orally treated or not with MPG extract (400mg/kg/d), in a hypobaric chamber for 21 days. MPG leaf extract had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It induced endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation of rat aorta and pulmonary artery. In vivo, chronic MPG treatment reduced hypoxic PAH in rat by decreasing by 22.3% the pulmonary arterial pressure and by 20.0% and 23.9% the pulmonary artery and cardiac remodelling, respectively. This effect was associated with a restoration of endothelium function and a 2.3-fold increase in endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation. MPG leaf hydromethanolic extract contained tryptophan and flavonoids, including quercetin glycosides. Both compounds also efficiently limit hypoxia-induced PAH. Our results show endothelial protective action of MPG leaf hydromethanolic extract which is likely to be due to its antioxidant action. MPG successfully attenuated the development of PAH, thus demonstrating the protective effect of MPG on

  7. Active saponins from root of Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth. and their molluscicidal effects on Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Yang, ChunPing; Zhang, Min; Lei, Bo; Gong, GuoShu; Yue, GuiZhou; Chang, XiaoLi; Sun, XiaoFang; Tian, Yue; Chen, HuaBao

    2017-06-01

    Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata; the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis. Our results showed that the molluscicidal activity of the root crude extract differed between P. canaliculata with different shell diameters after treatment for 72 h. The median lethal concentration (LC50 ) was 5.511 mg L(-1) against snails of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter and 12.383 mg L(-1) against snails of 2.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter. Furthermore, two active ingredients isolated from root methanol extracts were identified as pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C. Both pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C showed strong molluscicidal activities, with LC50 values of 3.893 and 4.252 mg L(-1) , respectively, against snails with shell diameters of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm after treatment for 72 h. Pueraria peduncularis extracts exhibit high molluscicidal activity and have great potential value for exploring a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Schöngart, Jochen; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Wittmann, Florian; Junk, Wolfgang J; Worbes, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) is a dominant legume tree species occurring at low elevations of nutrient-poor black-water (igapó) and nutrient-rich white-water floodplain forests (várzea) of Amazonia. As a consequence of the annual long-term flooding this species forms distinct annual tree rings allowing dendrochronological analyses. From both floodplain types in Central Amazonia we sampled cores from 20 large canopy trees growing at identical elevations with a flood-height up to 7 m. We determined tree age, wood density (WD) and mean radial increment (MRI) and synchronized ring-width patterns of single trees to construct tree-ring chronologies for every study site. Maximum tree age found in the igapó was more than 500 years, contrary to the várzea with ages not older than 200 years. MRI and WD were significantly lower in the igapó (MRI=1.52+/-0.38 mm year(-1), WD=0.39+/-0.05 g cm(-3)) than in the várzea (MRI=2.66+/-0.67 mm year(-1), WD=0.45+/-0.03 g cm(-3)). In both floodplain forests we developed tree-ring chronologies comprising the period 1857-2003 (n=7 trees) in the várzea and 1606-2003 (n=13 trees) in the igapó. The ring-width in both floodplain forests was significantly correlated with the length of the terrestrial phase (vegetation period) derived from the daily recorded water level in the port of Manaus since 1903. In both chronologies we found increased wood growth during El Niño events causing negative precipitation anomalies and a lower water discharge in Amazonian rivers, which leads to an extension of the terrestrial phase. The climate signal of La Niña was not evident in the dendroclimatic proxies.

  9. Cupriavidus taiwanensis bacteroids in Mimosa pudica Indeterminate nodules are not terminally differentiated.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Marta; Catrice, Olivier; Batut, Jacques; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    The beta-rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms indeterminate nodules on Mimosa pudica. C. taiwanensis bacteroids resemble free-living bacteria in terms of genomic DNA content, cell size, membrane permeability, and viability, in contrast to bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of the galegoid clade. Bacteroid differentiation is thus unrelated to nodule ontogeny.

  10. Beta-rhizobia from Mimosa pigra, a newly discovered invasive plant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Sheu, Shih-Yi; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Sprent, Janet I

    2005-12-01

    A total of 191 rhizobial isolates from the root nodules of three geographically separate populations of the invasive plant Mimosa pigra in Taiwan were examined using amplified rDNA restriction analysis, 16S rDNA sequences, protein profiles and ELISA. Of these, 96% were identified as Burkholderia and 4% as Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in two strains of Burkholderia (PAS44 and PTK47), and in one of C. taiwanensis (PAS15). All three could nodulate M. pigra. Light and electron microscopy studies with a green fluorescent protein transconjugant variant of strain PAS44 showed the presence of fluorescent bacteroids in M. pigra nodules. These bacteroids expressed the nifH protein, hence this is the first confirmation that Burkholderia is a genuine symbiont of legume nodules. The predominance of Burkholderia in Taiwanese M. pigra suggests that this species may have brought its symbionts from its native South America, rather than entering into association with the Taiwanese Mimosa symbiont C. taiwanensis which so successfully nodulates Mimosa pudica and Mimosa diplotricha.

  11. Cupriavidus taiwanensis Bacteroids in Mimosa pudica Indeterminate Nodules Are Not Terminally Differentiated ▿

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Marta; Catrice, Olivier; Batut, Jacques; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The beta-rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms indeterminate nodules on Mimosa pudica. C. taiwanensis bacteroids resemble free-living bacteria in terms of genomic DNA content, cell size, membrane permeability, and viability, in contrast to bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of the galegoid clade. Bacteroid differentiation is thus unrelated to nodule ontogeny. PMID:21257807

  12. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nodulation of Mimosa spp. by the beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Prescott, Alan R; Kierans, Martin; Sprent, Janet I

    2003-12-01

    Several beta-proteobacteria have been isolated from legume root nodules and some of these are thought to be capable of nodulating and fixing N2. However, in no case has there been detailed studies confirming that they are the active symbionts. Here, Ralstonia taiwanensis LMG19424, which was originally isolated from Mimosa pudica nodules, was transformed to carry the green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene before being used to inoculate axenically-grown seedlings of M. pudica and M. diplotricha. Plants were harvested at various intervals for 56 days after inoculation, then examined for evidence of infection and nodule formation. Nodulation of both Mimosa spp. was abundant, and acetylene reduction assays confirmed that nodules had nitrogenase activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that fresh M. pudica nodules with nitrogenase activity had infected cells containing bacteroids expressing gfp. In parallel, fixed and embedded nodules from both Mimosa spp. were sectioned for light and electron microscopy, followed by immunogold labeling with antibodies raised against gfp and nitrogenase Fe (nifH) protein. Significant immunolabeling with these antibodies confirmed that R. taiwanensis LMG19424 is an effective N2-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. Both species were infected via root hairs and, in all respects, the nodule ontogeny and development was similar to that described for other mimosoid legumes. The nodules were indeterminate with a persistent meristem, an invasion zone containing host cells being invaded via prominent infection threads, and an N2-fixing zone with infected cells containing membrane-bound symbiosomes.

  14. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  15. Inhibition of fungal colonization on the rhizoplane of the CS2 - producing plant, Mimosa pudica L.

    Treesearch

    Z. Feng; P.G. Hartel; R.W. Roncadori; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1998-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless, volatile, foul-smelling, fungicidal liquid that is produced by some plants. The authors determined the ability of a model CS2-producing plant, Mimosa pudica, to affect the rhizoplane colonization of six species of soil fungi. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  16. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-Sen; Pang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ding, Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  17. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-sen; Pang, Nan-nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-ping; Ding, Jian-bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  18. [Effect produced by the alkaloid fraction of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite) on the peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig ileum].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L; Martínez, M

    1990-01-01

    An alkaloidal fraction was obtained from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (tepescohuite) trunk bark. The product contained mainly an indolealkylamine and three minor alkaloids. This fraction inhibited the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum in vitro.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of antihypertensive effect of aerial parts of Thymus linearis benth.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Haroon-Ur-Rash; Karim, Sabeha; Rasool, Shahid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Khan, Kifayatullah; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally Thymus linearis Benth. have been used for treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Thymus linearis Benth. in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Acute and subchronic studies were also conducted. The aqueous methanolic extract produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP and heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. LDv, of the extract was found to be 3000 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a reduction in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels, while a significant increase in HDL level was observed. It is conceivable therefore, that Thymus linearis Benth. contains certain active compound(s) that are possibly responsible for the observed antihypertensive activity. Moreover, these findings further authenticate the traditional use of this plant in folklore medicine.

  20. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  1. Treatment with Aqueous Extract from Croton cajucara Benth Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Éder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  2. American origin of Cupriavidus bacteria associated with invasive Mimosa legumes in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Alexis D; Andam, Cheryl; Parker, Matthew A

    2012-06-01

    To identify the origins of Cupriavidus nodule symbionts associated with two invasive Mimosa species in the Philippines, 22 isolates were sequenced for portions of three chromosomal genes and two symbiotic plasmid loci. Eleven isolates were identical at all gene loci (2713 bp) to a lineage found in Central America. Four other Philippine isolates were identical to a second Cupriavidus lineage distributed both in Central America and in the Caribbean. None of the remaining Philippine strains had more than 0.6% sequence divergence from American Cupriavidus lineages. These results imply that the Philippine population was founded by multiple introductions from the native range of their Mimosa hosts. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Burkholderia spp. are the most competitive symbionts of Mimosa, particularly under N-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Ming; Bloemberg, Guido V; Bontemps, Cyril; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Velázquez, Encarna; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2009-04-01

    Bacteria isolated from Mimosa nodules in Taiwan, Papua New Guinea, Mexico and Puerto Rico were identified as belonging to either the alpha- or beta-proteobacteria. The beta-proteobacterial Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains formed effective symbioses with the common invasive species Mimosa diplotricha, M. pigra and M. pudica, but the alpha-proteobacterial Rhizobium etli and R. tropici strains produced a range of symbiotic phenotypes from no nodulation through ineffective to effective nodulation, depending on Mimosa species. Competition studies were performed between three of the alpha-proteobacteria (R. etli TJ167, R. tropici NGR181 and UPRM8021) and two of the beta-rhizobial symbionts (Burkholderia mimosarum PAS44 and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424) for nodulation of these invasive Mimosa species. Under flooded conditions, B. mimosarum PAS44 out-competed LMG19424 and all three alpha-proteobacteria to the point of exclusion. This advantage was not explained by initial inoculum levels, rates of bacterial growth, rhizobia-rhizobia growth inhibition or individual nodulation rate. However, the competitive domination of PAS44 over LMG19424 was reduced in the presence of nitrate for all three plant hosts. The largest significant effect was for M. pudica, in which LMG19424 formed 57% of the nodules in the presence of 0.5 mM potassium nitrate. In this host, ammonium also had a similar, but lesser, effect. Comparable results were also found using an N-containing soil mixture, and environmental N levels are therefore suggested as a factor in the competitive success of the bacterial symbiont in vivo.

  4. Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica root extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, M; Mukherjee, A K

    2001-04-01

    Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of dried roots of Mimosa pudica were tested for their inhibitory activity on lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom. The aqueous extract, particularly the normal water extract, displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, myotoxicity and tested enzyme activities of venom compared with alcoholic extracts. The present finding suggests that aqueous extracts of M. pudica root possess compound(s), which inhibit the activity of cobra venom.

  5. An Analysis of Mimosa pudica Leaves Movement by Using LoggerPro Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugito; Susilo; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    The unique phenomena of Mimosa pudica are the closing and opening movements of its leaves when they got a stimulus. By using certain software, these movements can be drawn into graphic that can be analysed. The LoggerPro provides facilities needed to analyse recorded videos of the plant's reaction to stimulus. Then, through the resulted graph, analysis of some variables can be carried out. The result showed that the plant's movement fits an equation of y = mx + c.

  6. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Hl, Kalabharathi; Sl, Shruthi; Ps, Vaibhavi; Vh, Pushpa; Am, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet's apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet's test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions.

  7. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    SL, Shruthi; PS, Vaibhavi; VH, Pushpa; AM, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introducation Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. Aim To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Materials and Methods Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet’s apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet’s test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. Results EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. Conclusion EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. PMID:26870704

  8. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-SolMimosa mucilage at 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) concentration as the binder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and diversity of β-rhizobia associated with Mimosa species grown in Sishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Yun; Wu, Wei; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Bin; Macdermott, Jomo; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate the genetic diversity of rhizobia associated with various exotic and invasive species in tropical mainland China, 116 bacterial isolates were obtained from Mimosa root nodules collected from Sishuangbanna and Yuanjiang districts of Yunnan province. Isolated rhizobia were characterized by RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and BOX-PCR. Most of the isolated strains were identified as β-rhizobia belonging to diverse populations of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus, and the phylogenetic relationships of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they were closely related to one of four β-rhizobia species: Burkholderia phymatum, B. mimosarum, B. caribensis or Cupriavidus taiwanensis. Additionally, among the 116 isolates, 53 different whole-cell SDS-PAGE profiles and 30 distinct BOX-PCR genotypic patterns were detected, which demonstrated the genetic and phenotypic diversity found within these Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that β-rhizobia are extant and possibly widespread on the Chinese mainland and nodulate easily with Mimosa plants. We also find it especially interesting that this appears to be the first report from mainland China of Cupriavidus symbionts of Mimosa. These records enrich our knowledge and understanding of the geographical distribution and diversity of these bacteria.

  10. Circadian variations in biologically closed electrochemical circuits in Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Baker, Kara; Foster, Justin C; Clemmons, Jacqueline; Jovanov, Emil; Markin, Vladislav S

    2011-04-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. This paper presents, for the first time, the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. Here we show circadian variation of the plant responses to electrical stimulation. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. The electrostimulation was provided with different timing and different voltages. Resistance between Ag/AgCl electrodes in the leaf of Aloe vera was higher during the day than at night. Discharge of the capacitor in Aloe vera at night was faster than during the day. Discharge of the capacitor in a pulvinus of Mimosa pudica was faster during the day. The biologically closed electrical circuits with voltage gated ion channels in Mimosa pudica are also activated the next day, even in the darkness. These results show that the circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. We present the equivalent electrical circuits in both plants and their circadian variation to explain the experimental data.

  11. Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) associated with Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.) (Phyllanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Houhun; Yang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 are described based on specimens reared from fruits of Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.): Epicephala microcarpa sp. n. and Epicephala laeviclada sp. n. from Guangxi and Hainan, and Epicephala tertiaria sp. n. from Guangdong and Guangxi. Photographs of adults and illustrations of genital structures are provided. PMID:25829842

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America).

    PubMed

    Moulin, Lionel; Mornico, Damien; Melkonian, Rémy; Klonowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Mornico, Damien; Melkonian, Rémy; Klonowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica. PMID:23405314

  14. Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Chen, Wen-Ming; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Wang, Hui-Chun; Sheu, Shih-Yi; Perin, Liamara; Reis, Veronica M; Moulin, Lionel; Simon, Marcelo F; Bontemps, Cyril; Sutherland, Joan M; Bessi, Rosana; de Faria, Sergio M; Trinick, Michael J; Prescott, Alan R; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2007-01-01

    * The ability of Burkholderia phymatum STM815 to effectively nodulate Mimosa spp., and to fix nitrogen ex planta, was compared with that of the known Mimosa symbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424. * Both strains were equally effective symbionts of M. pudica, but nodules formed by STM815 had greater nitrogenase activity. STM815 was shown to have a broader host range across the genus Mimosa than LMG19424, nodulating 30 out of 31 species, 21 of these effectively. LMG19424 effectively nodulated only nine species. GFP-marked variants were used to visualise symbiont presence within nodules. * STM815 gave significant acetylene reduction assay (ARA) activity in semisolid JMV medium ex planta, but no ARA activity was detected with LMG19424. 16S rDNA sequences of two isolates originally from Mimosa nodules in Papua New Guinea (NGR114 and NGR195A) identified them as Burkholderia phymatum also, with nodA, nodC and nifH genes of NGR195A identical to those of STM815. * B. phymatum is therefore an effective Mimosa symbiont with a broad host range, and is the first reported beta-rhizobial strain to fix nitrogen in free-living culture.

  15. Diverse bacteria isolated from root nodules of Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa grown in the subtropical regions of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Yun; Wang, En Tao; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the diversity and relationships of rhizobia in the subtropical and tropical zones of China, we characterized 67 bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of five legume species in the genera Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa . PCR-amplified 16S rDNA RFLP, numerical taxonomy, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins, sequencing of 16S rDNA and DNA-DNA hybridization grouped the isolates into 17 lineages belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Burkholderia, as well as a non-symbiotic group of Agrobacterium. The Rhizobium group contained twenty strains isolated from Mimosa pudica, Crotalaria pallida and two species of Trifolium. Fifteen of them were R. leguminosarum. Twenty-one strains isolated from four species of Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa were classified into five groups of Bradyrhizobium, including B. japonicum. Agrobacterium group composed of 20 isolates from Mimosa pudica, C. pallida and Trifolium fragiferum. In addition, several strains of Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium associated with Trifolium and Burkholderia associated with Mimosa pudica were also identified. The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in the nodules of Trifolium was a novel finding and it demonstrated that the nodule microsymbionts might be selected by both the geographic factors and the legume hosts.

  16. Proof that Burkholderia strains form effective symbioses with legumes: a study of novel Mimosa-nodulating strains from South America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2005-11-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other beta-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known beta-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes.

  17. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  18. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from thorns of Mimosa pudica, a probable natural source of chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Claudio Guedes; da Silva, Jorge Pereira; Diniz, José Antônio Picanço; da Silva, Moisés Batista; da Costa, Patrícia Fagundes; Teixeira, Claudio; Salgado, Ubirajara Imbiriba

    2004-01-01

    We report the isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from thorns of the plant Mimosa pudica L. at the place of infection identified by one of our patients. Clinical diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was established by direct microscopic examination and cultures from the patient's lesion. The same species was isolated from the patient and from the plant. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the thorns showed the characteristic conidial arrangement of F. pedrosoi. These data indicate that M. pudica could be a natural source of infection for the fungus F. pedrosoi.

  19. A mathematical model on water redistribution mechanism of the seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kwan, K W; Ye, Z W; Chye, M L; Ngan, A H W

    2013-07-02

    A theoretical model based on the water redistribution mechanism is proposed to predict the volumetric strain of motor cells in Mimosa pudica during the seismonastic movement. The model describes the water and ion movements following the opening of ion channels triggered by stimulation. The cellular strain is related to the angular velocity of the plant movement, and both their predictions are in good agreement with experimental data, thus validating the water redistribution mechanism. The results reveal that an increase in ion diffusivity across the cell membrane of <15-fold is sufficient to produce the observed seismonastic movement. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pharmacological properties in vitro of various extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite)].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biological effects of polar extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. trunk bark (tepescohuite) were studied. Ethyl acetate extract, with a high tannin content, inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. Alkaloids were particularly abundant in the butanol extract and this product strongly inhibited the intestinal peristalsis and produced contraction of uterine and gastric strips of rat and guinea pig. Saponins were detected in butanol and methanol extracts producing hemolysis. The screenings performed showed the diversity of bioactive compounds present in this plant product.

  1. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora bark extracts on WI38 and KB human cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Nicasio, P; Alonso-Cortés, D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of three extracts from barks of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd) Poir, Leguminosae, on the growth rate of two human cell lines were investigated. The plant material was extracted with petroleum ether, ethylacetate and butanol, and the obtained products were evaluated in their ability to modify growth of WI38 normal embryonic fibroblasts, and KB cells from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma in tissue culture conditions. The ethylacetate and butanol extracts produced growth rate inhibition with a different pattern depending on the cell line studied; in contrast, the petroleum ether extract markedly increased proliferation of the same cells in vitro.

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants.

  3. Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides with interesterification from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Yang, Zhuo; Jia, Qi; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2013-10-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (1-2), along with seven known ones (3-9), were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 failed to separated, because they can easily transform into each other by acyl migrant reaction. In this paper, the interesterification mechanism was discussed firstly and the rule can be used in the similar structure elucidation in future.

  4. An antibacterial and antifungal phenylpropanoid from Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. et Hook.

    PubMed

    Laouer, Hocine; Meriem, El Kolli; Prado, Soizic; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. et Hook. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS, and the main component was isolated and identified as nothoapiole. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of this compound and of the total oil were investigated against Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa, E. coli), Gram-positive (E. faecalis, S. aureus, S. epidermitis, S. saprophyticus, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis) bacteria and on one strain of fungus (C. tropicalis).

  5. Iridoid glycosides isolated from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Zhu, Tiantian; Qian, Fei; Xu, Jinwen; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-10-01

    Scrodentosides A-E (1-5), five new acylated iridoid glycosides, together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. The structures of these isolated glycosides were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay showed that compounds 7 and 11 had significant inhibitory effect against NF-κB activation with IC50 value of 43.7 μM and 1.02 μM respectively.

  6. Phytochemical study of essential oil from the aerial parts of Coleus aromaticus Benth.

    PubMed

    Tewari, G; Pande, C; Kharkwal, G; Singh, S; Singh, C

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Coleus aromaticus Benth. (family Lamiaceae) was examined by capillary GC and GC-MS. Analyses revealed the presence of 28 constituents, of which 16 were identified. Thymol (83.39%) was found to be the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and α-cadinol were present as minor constituents.

  7. Efficacy evaluations of Mimosa pudica tannin isolate (MPT) for its anti-ophidian properties.

    PubMed

    Ambikabothy, Jamunaa; Ibrahim, Halijah; Ambu, Stephen; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Awang, Khalijah; Vejayan, Jaya

    2011-09-01

    Evaluations of the anti-snake venom efficacy of Mimosa pudica tannin isolate (MPT) obtained from root of the plant. MPT was investigated in vitro and in vivo for its efficacy against the venom of Naja kaouthia snake. In vitro: (1) mice injected i.p. with MPT pre-incubated with Naja kaouthia venom at concentrations as low as 0.625 mg/ml showed 100% survival after a 24-h observation period. (2) In the proteomics study, mice injected with MPT pre-incubated with the Naja kaouthia venom showed down-regulation of five serum proteins. (3) In the protein-dye-binding study, the percentage of Bradford dye-protein binding showed a reduction relative to the decrease in MPT concentration used to incubate with the venom. In vivo: the results from the animal studies showed that MPT had no in vivo protection against the Naja kaouthia venom (0.875 mg/kg) in four different rescue modes and in an oral pre-treatment experiment. The study indicated the promising ability of MPT to neutralize the Naja kaouthia venom in in vitro experiments but fell short in its in vivo potential. As such, the use of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) as therapeutics for snake bites is questionable as all the possible in vivo rescue studies and pre-treatment of the active constituents showed no protection against the affected mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  9. Neutralizing effects of Mimosa tenuiflora extracts against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; de Souza Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom.

  10. Use and management of mimosa species in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, a tropical semi-arid region in Mexico (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L; Dhillion, S S

    2004-12-01

    We report on the use of 15 Mimosa species within the Tehucán-Cuicatlán Valley, south-central Mexico. Seven of these species are endemic to Mexico, and four species and one variety are endemic to the Valley. We reviewed historical, ethnobotanical and floristic manuscripts, and conducted field studies. Several herbaria were consulted, as well as the BADEPLAM data base. Field work in the Valley has been done from 1994 to date. Most of the Mimosa species occur in the arid tropical scrub and the tropical deciduous forest, which are considered the most endangered vegetation types of the Valley. Our findings show that Mimosa species are used as fodder (45%), fuel (31%), living fences (14%) and construction material (7%). Only one species is used as medicine. Mimosa species are "multipurpose" shrubs/trees of the agrosilvopastoral system of this region.

  11. Change in the actin cytoskeleton during seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Yoshinori; Chiba, Makiko; Hoshino, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Kamasawa, Naomi; Kishi, Yoshiro; Osumi, Masako; Sameshima, Masazumi; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2006-04-01

    The seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica is triggered by a sudden loss of turgor pressure. In the present study, we compared the cell cytoskeleton by immunofluorescence analysis before and after movement, and the effects of actin- and microtubule-targeted drugs were examined by injecting them into the cut pulvinus. We found that fragmentation of actin filaments and microtubules occurs during bending, although the actin cytoskeleton, but not the microtubules, was involved in regulation of the movement. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that actin cables became loose after the bending. We injected phosphatase inhibitors into the severed pulvinus to examine the effects of such inhibitors on the actin cytoskeleton. We found that changes in actin isoforms, fragmentation of actin filaments and the bending movement were all inhibited after injection of a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. We thus propose that the phosphorylation status of actin at tyrosine residues affects the dynamic reorganization of actin filaments and causes seismonastic movement.

  12. Genome sequence of Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256T, a Mimosa pigra microsymbiont from Anso, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Anne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Mimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant). LMG 23256T was isolated from a nodule recovered from the roots of the M. pigra growing in Anso, Taiwan. LMG 23256T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pigra. Here we describe the features of B. mimosarum strain LMG 23256T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 8,410,967 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 268 scaffolds of 270 contigs containing 7,800 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197434

  13. Genome sequence of Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256(T), a Mimosa pigra microsymbiont from Anso, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Willems, Anne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2014-06-15

    Burkholderia mimosarum strain LMG 23256(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Mimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant). LMG 23256(T) was isolated from a nodule recovered from the roots of the M. pigra growing in Anso, Taiwan. LMG 23256(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pigra. Here we describe the features of B. mimosarum strain LMG 23256(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 8,410,967 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 268 scaffolds of 270 contigs containing 7,800 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  14. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol.

  15. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  17. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Pithecell’obium dulce Benth. Leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Sugumaran, M.; Vetrichelvan, T.; Venkapayya, D

    2006-01-01

    The macroscopical characters of the leaves, leaf constants, physico-chemical constants, extractive values, colour, consistency, pH, extractive values with different solvents, micro chemical test, fluorescence characters of liquid extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under visible and UV light at 254mn, measurement of cell and tissues were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters for leaves of Pithecellobium, dulce Benth which will enable the future investigators for identification of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study on different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22557213

  18. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Wabo, Hippolyte K; Ateh, Eugene N; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-03-27

    Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) preparations are used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat a number of ailments, including prostate cancer and malaria, and is used as an anthelmintic, adaptogen and antidote. The aim of this study was to continue the validation of the activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. extracts and isolated molecules against cancer cell lines following the previous isolation of an anti-prostate cancer sugar ester from the root extract. Acetone extracts of Vernonia guineensis Benth. leaves were tested for activity against 10 cancer cell lines (Breast-MDA-MB-231, Breast-MCF-7, Colon-HCT-116, Leukemia-HL-60, Lung-A549, Melanoma-A375, Ovarian-OVCAR3, Pancreas-Mia-paca, Prostate-PC-3 and Prostate-DU-145). The acetone extract was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation. Anti-proliferation and clonogenic activity of the isolated compounds were tested. The WST-1 assay was used for the anti-proliferation activity, while the standard clonogenic test was used to determine the clonogenic activity. The acetone extract of Vernonia guineensis Benth. demonstrated in vitro activity ranging from IC50 4-26μg/mL against the 10 cell lines. Activity guided fractionation of this extract yielded two sesquiterpene lactones, isolated for the first time from the genus Vernonia. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic experiments, including a combination of 1D and 2D NMR data. Vernopicrin (1) and Vernomelitensin (2) demonstrated in vitro activity against human cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.35-2.04μM (P<0.05) and 0.13-1.5μM (P<0.05), respectively, between the most and least sensitive cell lines for each compound. Vernopicrin was most active against the human melanoma (A375) cell line and least active against the lung cancer (A549) cell line, while Vernomelitensin was also most active against the human melanoma (A375) cell line and least active against the breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. Both compounds also demonstrated

  19. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Wabo, Hippolyte K.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) preparations are used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat a number of ailments, including prostate cancer and malaria, and is used as an anthelmintic, adaptogen and antidote. The aim of this study was to continue the validation of the activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. extracts and isolated molecules against cancer cell lines following the previous isolation of an anti-prostate cancer sugar ester from the root extract. Materials and methods Acetone extracts of Vernonia guineensis Benth. leaves were tested for activity against 10 cancer cell lines (Breast—MDA-MB-231, Breast—MCF-7, Colon—HCT-116, Leukemia—HL-60, Lung—A549, Melanoma—A375, Ovarian—OVCAR3, Pancreas—Mia-paca, Prostate—PC-3 and Prostate—DU-145). The acetone extract was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation. Anti-proliferation and clonogenic activity of the isolated compounds were tested. The WST-1 assay was used for the anti-proliferation activity, while the standard clonogenic test was used to determine the clonogenic activity. Results The acetone extract of Vernonia guineensis Benth. demonstrated in vitro activity ranging from IC50 4–26 mg/mL against the 10 cell lines. Activity guided fractionation of this extract yielded two sesquiterpene lactones, isolated for the first time from the genus Vernonia. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopic experiments, including a combination of 1D and 2D NMR data. Vernopicrin (1) and Vernomelitensin (2) demonstrated in vitro activity against human cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.35–2.04 μM (P < 0.05) and 0.13–1.5 μM (P < 0.05), respectively, between the most and least sensitive cell lines for each compound. Vernopicrin was most active against the human melanoma (A375) cell line and least active against the lung cancer (A549) cell line, while Vernomelitensin was also most active against the human melanoma (A375) cell line and least

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Mimosa Pudica Leaves Shaped α-Iron Oxide Nanostructures for Ethanol Chemical Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Kumar, R; Umar, Ahmad; Abaker, M; Hwang, S W; Baskoutas, S

    2016-03-01

    Herein, the synthesis of mimosa pudica leaves shaped a-iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures is reported through simple and facile hydrothermal process. The prepared α-Fe2O3 nanostructures were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties through a variety of characterization techniques such as FESEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed characterizations revealed the well-crystallinity and dense growth of mimosa pudica leaf shaped α-Fe2O3 nanostructures. Further, the prepared nanomaterials were used as efficient electron mediator to fabricate sensitive ethanol chemical sensor. The fabricated sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of -30.37 μAmM(-1) cm(-2) and low detection limit of -0.62 μM. The observed linear dynamic range (LDR) was in the range from 10 μM-0.625 μM.

  1. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Treesearch

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  2. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glaburata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have higher levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa. Higher RUP can result in more efficient utilization of nitrogen by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmen...

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  4. [Identification of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) benth and quantitative determination of the total alkaloid of rhizoma coptidis in yuhuanglian extract].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-mei; Peng, Shu-ling

    2007-03-01

    To identify Eevodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth and determine the contents of the total alkaloid of Rhizoma Coptidis in Yuhuanglian extract. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used for the identification of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth with a mixed solvent of cyclohexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-triethylamine (19:5:1:1) as the developer and spraying with 10% sulfuric acid ethanol solution as colorimetric method. The contents of the total alkaloid of Rhizoma Coptidis was determined by UV spectrophometry in Yuhuanglian extract and the detection wavelength was 349 nm. Special spots could be observed at 365 nm on positions corresponding to Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, and the preparation, while the negative control showed no spots. The linear range of berberine hydrochloric was 1.04-11.44 microg/ml, r = 0.9999; the average recovery was 99.2%, and RSD was 1.0% (n=5). Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth can be identified simply and fast using TLC and the method to determine the contents of the total alkalid of Rhizoma Coptidis by UV spectrophometry is accurate, rapid and simple. It can be used for quality control of Yuhuanglian extract.

  5. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    DOE PAGES

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; ...

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together withmore » sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  6. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together with sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  7. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815(T), a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A C; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K; Young, J Peter W; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-06-15

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815(T), was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  8. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K.; Young, J. Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp). PMID:25197461

  9. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Remy; James, Euan; Young, Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Copeland, A; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, James; Riley, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  10. X-ray CT and histological imaging of xylem vessels organization in Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Song, Kahye; Kim, Hae Koo; Park, Joonghyuk

    2013-11-01

    Mimosa pudica has three distinct specialized organs, namely, pulvinus, secondary pulvinus, and pulvinule, which are respectively controlling the movements of petioles, leaflets, and pinna in response to external stimuli. Water flow is a key factor for such movements, but detailed studies on the organization of the vascular system for water transport in these organs have not been published yet. In this study, organizations of the xylem vessels and morphological features of the pulvinus, the secondary pulvinus, and the pulvinule were experimentally investigated by X-ray computed tomography and histological technique. Results showed that the xylem vessels were circularly distributed in the specialized motile organs and reorganized into distinct vascular bundles at the extremities. The number and the total cross-sectional area of the xylem vessels were increased inside the specialized motile organs. Morphological characteristics obtained in this study provided new insight to understand the functions of the vascular networks in the dynamic movements of M. pudica. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Membrane effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Moyen, Christelle; Bonmort, Janine; Roblin, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid applied to excised leaves of Mimosa pudica L. inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the shock-induced pulvinar movement. This inhibition was negatively correlated with the amount of [(14)C] 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid present in the vicinity of the motor cells. Although 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a weak acid, its greatest physiological efficiency was obtained with pH values close to neutrality. This observation opens the question of its mode of action which may be through external signaling or following internal transport by a specific anionic form transporter. The effect was related to molecular structure since 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid>3,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid>2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. An essential target of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid action lies at the plasmalemma as indicated by the induced hyperpolarization of the cell membrane. Compared to indole-3-acetic acid and fusicoccin, it induced a complex effect on H(+) fluxes. Applied to plasma membrane vesicles purified from motor organs, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid enhanced proton pumping, but, unlike fusicoccin, it did not increase the H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity in our experimental conditions. Taken together, the data suggest that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid acts on cell turgor variation and the concomittant ion migration, in particular K(+), by a mechanism involving specific steps compared to indole-3-acetic acid and fusicoccin.

  12. The gelsolin/fragmin family protein identified in the higher plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Kameyama, K; Kanzawa, N; Tamiya, T; Mabuchi, I; Tsuchiya, T

    2001-08-01

    Mimosa pudica L. rapidly closes its leaves and bends its petioles downward when mechanically stimulated. It has been suggested that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the bending motion since both cytochalasin B and phalloidin inhibit the motion. In order to clarify the mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton functions in the motion, we attempted to find actin-modulating proteins in the M. pudica plant by DNase I-affinity column chromatography. The EGTA-eluate from the DNase I column contained proteins with apparent molecular masses of 90- and 42-kDa. The 42-kDa band consisted of two closely migrating components: the slower migrating component was actin while the faster migrating components was a distinct protein. The eluate showed an activity to sever actin filaments and to enhance the rate of polymerization of actin, both in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Microsequencing of the faster migrating 42-kDa protein revealed its similarity to proteins in the gelsolin/fragmin family. Our results provide the first biochemical evidence for the presence in a higher plant of a gelsolin/fragmin family actin-modulating protein that severs actin filament in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

  13. Actin dynamics mediates the changes of calcium level during the pulvinus movement of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Yao, Heng; Xu, Qiangyi; Yuan, Ming

    2008-11-01

    The bending movement of the pulvinus of Mimosa pudica is caused by a rapid change in volume of the abaxial motor cells, in response to various environmental stimuli. We investigated the relationship between the actin cytoskeleton and changes in the level of calcium during rapid contractile movement of the motor cells that was induced by electrical stimulation. The bending of the pulvinus was retarded by treatments with actin-affecting reagents and calcium channel inhibitors. The actin filaments in the motor cells were fragmented in response to electrical stimulation. Further investigations were performed using protoplasts from the motor cells of M. pudica pulvini. Calcium-channel inhibitors and EGTA had an inhibitory effect on contractile movement of the protoplasts. The level of calcium increased and became concentrated in the tannin vacuole after electrical stimulation. Ruthenium Red inhibited the increase in the level of calcium in the tannin vacuole and the contractile movement of the protoplasts. However, treatment with latrunculin A abolished the inhibitory effect of Ruthenium Red. Phalloidin inhibited the contractile movement and the increase in the level of calcium in the protoplasts. Our study demonstrates that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in pulvinus motor cells in response to electrical signals results in increased levels of calcium.

  14. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) hiding time depends on individual and state.

    PubMed

    Reed-Guy, Sarah; Gehris, Connor; Shi, Meng; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants.

  16. Indoleamines and calcium channels influence morphogenesis in in vitro cultures of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Giridhar, Parvatam; Ravishankar, G A

    2009-12-01

    The present article reports the interplay of indoleamine neurohormones viz. serotonin, melatonin and calcium channels on shoot organogenesis in Mimosa pudica L. In vitro grown nodal segments were cultured on MS medium with B5 vitamins containing Serotonin (SER) and Melatonin (MEL) at 100 microM and indoleamine inhibitors viz. serotonin to melatonin conversion inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) at 40 microM, serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Prozac) 20 microM. In another set of experiment, calcium at 5 mM, calcium ionophore (A23187) 100 microM, and calcium channel blocker varapamil hydrochloride (1 mM) a calcium chelator EGTA (100 microM) were administered to the culture medium. The percentage of shoot multiplication, endogenous MEL and SER were monitored during shoot organogenesis. At 100 microM SER and MEL treatment 60% and 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication respectively. Medium supplemented with either SER or MEL along with calcium (5 mM) 75%-80% explants responded for organogenesis. SER or MEL along with calcium ionophore (A23187) at 100 microM 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication. p-CPA, prozac, verapamil and EGTA, shoot multiplication was reduced and endogenous pools of SER, MEL decreased by 40-70%. The results clearly demonstrated that indoleamines and calcium channels positively influenced shoot organogenesis in M. pudica L.

  17. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) hiding time depends on individual and state

    PubMed Central

    Reed-Guy, Sarah; Gehris, Connor; Shi, Meng

    2017-01-01

    The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants. PMID:28785516

  18. Indoleamines and calcium channels influence morphogenesis in in vitro cultures of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports the interplay of indoleamine neurohormones viz. serotonin, melatonin and calcium channels on shoot organogenesis in Mimosa pudica L. In vitro grown nodal segments were cultured on MS medium with B5 vitamins containing Serotonin (SER) and Melatonin (MEL) at 100 µM and indoleamine inhibitors viz. serotonin to melatonin conversion inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) at 40 µM, serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Prozac) 20 µM. In another set of experiment, calcium at 5 mM, calcium ionophore (A23187) 100 µM, and calcium channel blocker varapamil hydrochloride (1 mM) a calcium chelator EGTA (100 µM) were administered to the culture medium. The percentage of shoot multiplication, endogenous MEL and SER were monitored during shoot organogenesis. At 100 µM SER and MEL treatment 60% and 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication respectively. Medium supplemented with either SER or MEL along with calcium (5 mM) 75%–80% explants responded for organogenesis. SER or MEL along with calcium ionophore (A23187) at 100 µM 70% explants responded for shoot multiplication. p-CPA, prozac, verapamil and EGTA, shoot multiplication was reduced and endogenous pools of SER, MEL decreased by 40–70%. The results clearly demonstrated that indoleamines and calcium channels positively influenced shoot organogenesis in M. pudica L. PMID:20514228

  19. Actin dynamics mediates the changes of calcium level during the pulvinus movement of Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Heng; Xu, Qiangyi

    2008-01-01

    The bending movement of the pulvinus of Mimosa pudica is caused by a rapid change in volume of the abaxial motor cells, in response to various environmental stimuli. We investigated the relationship between the actin cytoskeleton and changes in the level of calcium during rapid contractile movement of the motor cells that was induced by electrical stimulation. The bending of the pulvinus was retarded by treatments with actin-affecting reagents and calcium channel inhibitors. The actin filaments in the motor cells were fragmented in response to electrical stimulation. Further investigations were performed using protoplasts from the motor cells of M. pudica pulvini. Calcium-channel inhibitors and EGTA had an inhibitory effect on contractile movement of the protoplasts. The level of calcium increased and became concentrated in the tannin vacuole after electrical stimulation. Ruthenium Red inhibited the increase in the level of calcium in the tannin vacuole and the contractile movement of the protoplasts. However, treatment with latrunculin A abolished the inhibitory effect of Ruthenium Red. Phalloidin inhibited the contractile movement and the increase in the level of calcium in the protoplasts. Our study demonstrates that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in pulvinus motor cells in response to electrical signals results in increased levels of calcium. PMID:19513198

  20. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells.

  1. Morphing structures and signal transduction in Mimosa pudica L. induced by localized thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; O'Neal, Lawrence; Volkova, Maia I; Markin, Vladislav S

    2013-10-15

    Leaf movements in Mimosa pudica, are in response to thermal stress, touch, and light or darkness, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical, and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of the M. pudica shows elastic properties. We have found that the movements of the petiole, or pinnules, are accompanied by a change of the pulvinus morphing structures. After brief flaming of a pinna, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of electrolytes between these parts of the pulvinus; as a result of these changes the petiole falls. During the relaxation of the petiole, the process goes in the opposite direction. Ion and water channel blockers, uncouplers as well as anesthetic agents diethyl ether or chloroform decrease the speed of alert wave propagation along the plant. Brief flaming of a pinna induces bidirectional propagation of electrical signal in pulvini. Transduction of electrical signals along a pulvinus induces generation of an action potential in perpendicular direction between extensor and flexor sides of a pulvinus. Inhibition of signal transduction and mechanical responses in M. pudica by volatile anesthetic agents chloroform or by blockers of voltage gated ion channels shows that the generation and propagation of electrical signals is a primary effect responsible for turgor change and propagation of an excitation. There is an electrical coupling in a pulvinus similar to the electrical synapse in the animal nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Mimosa Origami: A nanostructure-enabled directional self-organization regime of materials.

    PubMed

    Wong, William S Y; Li, Minfei; Nisbet, David R; Craig, Vincent S J; Wang, Zuankai; Tricoli, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    One of the innate fundamentals of living systems is their ability to respond toward distinct stimuli by various self-organization behaviors. Despite extensive progress, the engineering of spontaneous motion in man-made inorganic materials still lacks the directionality and scale observed in nature. We report the directional self-organization of soft materials into three-dimensional geometries by the rapid propagation of a folding stimulus along a predetermined path. We engineer a unique Janus bilayer architecture with superior chemical and mechanical properties that enables the efficient transformation of surface energy into directional kinetic and elastic energies. This Janus bilayer can respond to pinpoint water stimuli by a rapid, several-centimeters-long self-assembly that is reminiscent of the Mimosa pudica's leaflet folding. The Janus bilayers also shuttle water at flow rates up to two orders of magnitude higher than traditional wicking-based devices, reaching velocities of 8 cm/s and flow rates of 4.7 μl/s. This self-organization regime enables the ease of fabricating curved, bent, and split flexible channels with lengths greater than 10 cm, demonstrating immense potential for microfluidics, biosensors, and water purification applications.

  3. Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon (PHC) Contaminated Soil by Using Mimosa pudica L. .

    PubMed

    Budhadev, Basumatary; Rubul, Saikia; Sabitry, Bordoloi; Hari Prasad, Sarma

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Mimosa pudica L. that could be effective in phytoremediation of PHC-contaminated soil. Experiments were conducted in net house to determine the tolerance of this species to a heavy crude oil contaminated soil under the application of two fertilizer levels and reduction of PHC was monitored for 180 days. Assessment of plant growth, biomass and Total Oil and Grease (TOG) degradation were carried out at an interval of 60 days. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were reduced up to 27% and 10.4% respectively. Experiments with different percentages of crude oil showed that M. pudica could tolerate crude-oil contamination up to 6.2% (w/w). The estimation of TOG in soil of the tested plants revealed that M. pudica could decrease 31.7% of crude oil contaminants in low fertilizer level (200N, 100P, 100K) and 24.7% in high fertilizer level (240N, 120P, 120K). In case of unplanted pots, the reduction of TOG was 13.7% in low fertilizer level and 11.2% in high fertilizer level. This experiment has identified the suitability of a native candidate plant species for further investigation of their phytoremediation potential.

  4. Mimosa tenuiflora as a cause of malformations in ruminants in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, L A; Correa, F Riet; Gardner, D; Panter, K E; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T; Mota, R A; Araújo, J A S

    2007-11-01

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to groups of 4 pregnant goats each. Fresh green M. tenuiflora was collected daily and fed ad libitum to 4 goats in group 1 throughout pregnancy. This treatment group also received a supplemental feed concentrate equivalent to 1% body weight. Four goats in group 2 received a ration with 70% of P. juliflora pods and 30% hay throughout pregnancy. Four control goats were fed supplemental feed concentrate (1% body weight) and hay ad libitum throughout pregnancy. Goats treated with P. juliflora pods and the control goats delivered 9 normal kids. The four goats that were fed M. tenuiflora during pregnancy delivered 4 kids, 3 of which had abnormalities similar to those observed in field cases, including cleft lip, unilateral corneal opacity, ocular bilateral dermoids, buphthalmos with a cloudy brownish appearance of the anterior chamber due to an iridal cyst, and segmental stenosis of the colon. Malformations induced experimentally by M. tenuiflora were similar to those observed in field cases, suggesting that M. tenuiflora is a cause of the field cases observed in the Brazilian semiarid rangelands.

  5. Mimosa Origami: A nanostructure-enabled directional self-organization regime of materials

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William S. Y.; Li, Minfei; Nisbet, David R.; Craig, Vincent S. J.; Wang, Zuankai; Tricoli, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    One of the innate fundamentals of living systems is their ability to respond toward distinct stimuli by various self-organization behaviors. Despite extensive progress, the engineering of spontaneous motion in man-made inorganic materials still lacks the directionality and scale observed in nature. We report the directional self-organization of soft materials into three-dimensional geometries by the rapid propagation of a folding stimulus along a predetermined path. We engineer a unique Janus bilayer architecture with superior chemical and mechanical properties that enables the efficient transformation of surface energy into directional kinetic and elastic energies. This Janus bilayer can respond to pinpoint water stimuli by a rapid, several-centimeters-long self-assembly that is reminiscent of the Mimosa pudica’s leaflet folding. The Janus bilayers also shuttle water at flow rates up to two orders of magnitude higher than traditional wicking-based devices, reaching velocities of 8 cm/s and flow rates of 4.7 μl/s. This self-organization regime enables the ease of fabricating curved, bent, and split flexible channels with lengths greater than 10 cm, demonstrating immense potential for microfluidics, biosensors, and water purification applications. PMID:28861471

  6. State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.).

    PubMed

    Simon, Franz W; Hodson, Christina N; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2016-09-01

    Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily when disturbed) is affected by an individual's energy state and the quality of the current environment and also repeatedly tested the behavior of individuals from two seed sources to determine whether individuals exhibit a "personality" (i.e., behavioral syndrome). We found that when individuals are in a low-energy state, they adopt a riskier light-foraging strategy, opening leaflets faster, and not closing leaflets as often in response to a disturbance. However, when plants are in a high-energy state, they exhibit a plastic light-foraging strategy dependent on environment quality. Although we found no evidence that individuals exhibit behavioral syndromes, we found that individuals from different seed sources consistently behave differently from each other. Our results suggest that plants are capable of making state-dependent decisions and that plant decision making is complex, depending on the interplay between internal and external factors.

  7. Anti-mumps virus activity by extracts of Mimosa pudica, a unique Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Malayan, Jeevan; Selvaraj, Balaji; Warrier, Aparna; Shanmugam, Sambantham; Mathayan, Manikannan; Menon, Thangam

    2013-09-01

    Mumps is an acute and self-limiting disease characterized by parotitis, however in some cases it leads to aseptic meningitis, deafness, encephalitis and orchitis, which is a serious health concern. MMR vaccination was successful in eradicating the disease however, recent reports question the efficacy of MMR vaccine and countless outbreaks are observed in vaccinated populations throughout the world. Lack of specific treatment methods for mumps infection and inefficiency of MMR vaccine in vaccinated populations accentuates the need for the development of novel drugs to control mumps virus mediated serious infections. It was with this backdrop of information that the anti-mumps virus activity of Mimosa pudica was evaluated. Suspected mumps cases were collected to isolate a standard mumps virus by systematic laboratory testing which included IgM antibody assays, virus isolation, RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. The virus was quantified by TCID50 assay and anti-mumps virus property was evaluated by CPE reduction assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was measured by MTT assay and phytochemical analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The RT-PCR and phylogenetic tree analysis of the SH gene sequence of the clinical isolate showed it to be mumps virus genotype C. 150 μg/ml concentration of M. pudica completely inhibited mumps virus and the drug was found to be non-toxic up to 2 mg/ml. M. pudica was thus found to be a potent inhibitor of MuV.

  8. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa)

    PubMed Central

    Auwal, Mohammed Shaibu; Saka, Sanni; Mairiga, Ismail Alhaji; Sanda, Kyari Abba; Shuaibu, Abdullahi; Ibrahim, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod. PMID:25568701

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Conferin, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory isoflavone from Caragana conferta Benth.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amna Nisar; Perveen, Shagufta; Malik, Abdul; Afza, Nighat; Iqbal, Lubna; Latif, Mehreen; Saleem, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    Conferin (1), a new isoflavone, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Caragana conferta Benth. along with seven known compounds, namely biochanin A (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), erythrodiol (6), pinoresinol (7), and syringresinol (8), reported for the first time from this species. The structure of the new isoflavone was deduced on the basis of spectroscopic studies. Compounds 1 and 2 were investigated for biological activities and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema of rats. Evaluation of antioxidant activity by the radical scavenging method indicated that compound 1 is a potent antioxidant while 2 is moderately active. It was also shown that the reducing capability of compound 2 was remarkably increased in a concentration dependent manner as compared to 1. Compound 1 showed moderate inhibitory activity against the enzyme lipoxygenase, while 2 showed weak activity.

  11. Diterpene esters and phenolic compounds from Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Purusotam; Yahara, Shoji

    2009-11-01

    From the leaves of Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil., two new phorbol derivatives, such as 16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (4) and 4beta-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (5) along with twelve known phenolic compounds such as 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1,3-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3), rutin (6), 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (7), quercetin (8), guaijaverin (9), nicotiflorin (10), scopolin (11), methyl gallate (12), corilagin (13) and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14) were isolated. All of these compounds have been isolated for the first time from this plant.

  12. A new antibacterial octaketide and cytotoxic phenylethanoid glycosides from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Beemelmanns, Christine; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng

    2015-07-15

    A new octaketide, named cytosporone V (1), and two other known phenylethanoid glycosides (2-3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including extensive 2D NMR and HR-MS. Compounds 1-3 displayed weak antibacterial activity against two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.73 to 9.52 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clarifying the Dioscoreabuchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A Muthama

    2015-01-01

    The Dioscoreabuchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorearupicola Kunth and Dioscoreamultiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscoreabuchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscoreabuchananiisubsp.undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made.

  14. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoid glycosides extract of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoxing; Shang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruxue; Jia, Zhengping; Fan, Pengcheng; Ying, Qiang; Wei, Lili

    2010-04-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo is a perennial herb (Labiatae) used as the Tibetan traditional medicine with the effects of alleviating pain, detumescence, hemostasis, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and reinforcing marrow. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoid glycosides extract of L. rotata (IGLR) in mice. Our results showed that the iridoid glycosides extract could decrease acetic-acid-induced writhings times and formalin-induced lickings times, inhibit carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and xylene-induced ear swelling, and suppress peritoneal capillary permeability and leukocyte infiltration also induced by acetic acid in mice. All of these results suggested that the iridoid glycosides extract possesses the significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Akter, A; Neela, F A; Khan, M S I; Islam, M S; Alam, M F

    2010-05-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract.

  17. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

  18. A Mathematical Model on Water Redistribution Mechanism of the Seismonastic Movement of Mimosa Pudica

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, K.W.; Ye, Z.W.; Chye, M.L.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model based on the water redistribution mechanism is proposed to predict the volumetric strain of motor cells in Mimosa pudica during the seismonastic movement. The model describes the water and ion movements following the opening of ion channels triggered by stimulation. The cellular strain is related to the angular velocity of the plant movement, and both their predictions are in good agreement with experimental data, thus validating the water redistribution mechanism. The results reveal that an increase in ion diffusivity across the cell membrane of <15-fold is sufficient to produce the observed seismonastic movement. PMID:23823246

  19. Effect of Mimosa pudica root powder on oestrous cycle and ovulation in cycling female albino rat, Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Valsala, S; Karpagaganapathy, P R

    2002-03-01

    Mimosa pudica root powder (150 mg/kg body weight) when administered intragastrically, altered the oestrous cycle pattern in female Rattus norvegicus. Nucleated and cornified cells were absent in all rats. The smear was characterized by leucocytes only, as in dioestrus, which persisted for 2 weeks. There was a significant reduction in the number of normal ova in rats treated with the root powder compared with the control rats, and a significant increase in the number of degenerated ova. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of Mimosa pudica L. leaves extract on anxiety, depression and memory.

    PubMed

    Patro, Ganesh; Kumar Bhattamisra, Subrat; Kumar Mohanty, Bijay

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT). The behavioral findings were further corroborated with estimation of neurotransmitters and their metabolites from mouse brain homogenate. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated by EPM, passive avoidance (PA) tests. Further, it was confirmed with assessment of acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity in brain homogenate. EAMP showed significant anti-anxiety activity by increasing the time spent in open arm of EPM, light box of LDB. Social interaction time was increased significantly (p<0.01) as compared to vehicle control. There was also significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST without any changes in locomotor activity in the OFT. Monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine and norepinephrine) concentrations were increased significantly (p<0.01) after 4 weeks of treatment as compared to stress control and substantiated the anti-depressant activity. Step down latency was increased (p<0.01) in PA test and transfer latency was decreased (p<0.01) in EPM test of EAMP-treated mice. Acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity was significantly (p<0.05) changed in mice treated with EAMP (200 and 400 mg/kg). The results revealed that EAMP has anti-anxiety, anti-depressant and memory enhancing activities that are mediated through multiple mechanisms.

  1. Evaluation of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage as sustained-release excipient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Ashok; Langyan, Naresh; Ahuja, Munish

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the sustained-release properties of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage. Matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium containing different proportions of mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate as diluent were formulated by wet granulation method. The tablets had uniform physical appearance, average weight, drug content, and adequate hardness. The results of in vitro release conducted using USP type II dissolution rate apparatus, in a dissolution media comprising of 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl for 2 h followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 24 h at 37 degrees C and 50 rpm, revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in the matrix was increased there was a corresponding decrease in the release of drug. Further, the matrix tablets were found to release the drug following Higuchi square root release kinetics, with the mechanism of release being diffusion for tablets containing higher proportion of mucilage and a combination of matrix erosion and diffusion for tablets containing smaller proportion of mucilage. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The SEM photomicrographs showed gelling structures in tablets containing higher percentage of mucilage, while both pores and gelling structures were present on the surface of tablets containing smaller proportion of mucilage and commercial formulation. On comparative evaluation, the dissolution profile from formulation containing mucilage to drug in the proportion of 1:40 was found to be similar to the commercial sustained-release formulation of diclofenac.

  2. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation method for the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements.

  3. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel ecto-apyrase, MP67, from Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Riku; Takishima, Takeshi; Nishimura, Naoaki; Ueda, Shogo; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-09-01

    We have previously reported the presence of an apyrase in Mimosa pudica. However, only limited information is available for this enzyme. Thus, in this study, the apyrase was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of around 67 kD and was able to hydrolyze both nucleotide triphosphate and nucleotide diphosphate as substrates. The ratio of ATP to ADP hydrolysis velocity of the purified protein was 0.01 in the presence of calcium ion, showing extremely high substrate specificity toward ADP. Thus, we designated this novel apyrase as MP67. A cDNA clone of MP67 was obtained using primers designed from the amino acid sequence of trypsin-digested fragments of the protein. In addition, rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction was performed to clone a conventional apyrase (MpAPY2). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that MP67 is similar to ecto-apyrases; however, it was distinct from conventional apyrase based on phylogenetic classification. MP67 and MpAPY2 were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The recombinant MP67 showed high substrate specificity toward ADP rather than ATP. A polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant MP67 was used to examine the tissue distribution and localization of native MP67 in the plant. The results showed that MP67 was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues, most abundantly in leaves, and was localized to plasma membranes. Thus, MP67 is a novel ecto-apyrase with extremely high substrate specificity for ADP.

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  5. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-dermatophyte activity of Leguminosae plants from Southern Brazil with emphasis on Mimosa pigra (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    de Morais, C B; Scopel, M; Pedrazza, G P R; da Silva, F K; Dalla Lana, D F; Tonello, M L; Miotto, S T S; Machado, M M; De Oliveira, L F S; Fuentefria, A M; Zuanazzi, J A S

    2017-08-16

    Intensive prophylactic use of antifungals leads to the increase of drug resistance and the need for new and more effective treatments are real. Plants from Leguminosae family are rich in flavonoids, for which numerous biological activities have been described, including antifungal effects. To screen methanolic extracts from Leguminosae species looking for alternative sources for antifungal agents (anti-dermatophyte and anti-Candida) and their innocuity. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the strains Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and, Microsporum gypseum in the broth microdilution method. Later, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Mimosa pigra, Eriosema heterophyllum, and Chamaecrista nictitans was determined. The most promising extract was fractionated and cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the most active fraction were also assayed. Fungicide and/or fungistatic activity against dermatophyte strains were presented by 60% of the methanolic extracts assayed. M. pigra, E. heterophyllum, and C. nictitans methanolic extracts could inhibit dermatophyte strains at concentrations ranging from 1.9 to 1000μg/mL. M. pigra showed the lowest MIC values for a dichloromethane fraction (1.9μg/mL) without DNA damage at 10 and 50μg/mL and 100% of cell viability of human leukocytes. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts from Leguminosae plants are potential sources of antifungal compounds, mainly the extract and fractions from M. pigra. The dichloromethane fraction from M. pigra did not showed in vitro toxicity according to the applied assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Mimosa pudica L. leaves extract on anxiety, depression and memory

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Kumar Bhattamisra, Subrat; Kumar Mohanty, Bijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT). The behavioral findings were further corroborated with estimation of neurotransmitters and their metabolites from mouse brain homogenate. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated by EPM, passive avoidance (PA) tests. Further, it was confirmed with assessment of acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity in brain homogenate. Results: EAMP showed significant anti-anxiety activity by increasing the time spent in open arm of EPM, light box of LDB. Social interaction time was increased significantly (p<0.01) as compared to vehicle control. There was also significant reduction of immobility time in both FST and TST without any changes in locomotor activity in the OFT. Monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine and norepinephrine) concentrations were increased significantly (p<0.01) after 4 weeks of treatment as compared to stress control and substantiated the anti-depressant activity. Step down latency was increased (p<0.01) in PA test and transfer latency was decreased (p<0.01) in EPM test of EAMP-treated mice. Acetylcholinesterase and caspase-3 activity was significantly (p<0.05) changed in mice treated with EAMP (200 and 400 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results revealed that EAMP has anti-anxiety, anti-depressant and memory enhancing activities that are mediated through multiple mechanisms. PMID:28078250

  8. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl and N,N-dimethyltryptamine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuif lora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuif lora and comp...

  9. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-Long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21472077

  11. Cold plasma interactions with plants: Morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica induced by argon plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Xu, Kunning G; Kolobov, Vladimir I

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature (cold) plasma finds an increasing number of applications in biology, medicine and agriculture. In this paper, we report a new effect of plasma induced morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica. We have experimentally observed plasma activation of sensitive plant movements and morphing structures in these plants similar to stimulation of their mechanosensors in vivo. Application of an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet to the inside or outside of a lobe, midrib, or cilia in Dionaea muscipula Ellis induces trap closing. Treatment of Mimosa pudica by plasma induces movements of pinnules and petioles similar to the effects of mechanical stimulation. We have conducted control experiments and simulations to illustrate that gas flow and UV radiation associated with plasma are not the primary reasons for the observed effects. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by cold plasma in atmospheric air appear to be the primary reason of plasma-induced activation of phytoactuators in plants. Some of these RONS are known to be signaling molecules, which control plants' developmental processes. Understanding these mechanisms could promote plasma-based technology for plant developmental control and future use for plant protection from pathogens. Our work offers new insight into mechanisms which trigger plant morphing and movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Methods Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. Conclusions It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass

  13. [Description, distribution, anatomy, chemical composition and uses of Mimosa tenuiflora(Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L

    2000-12-01

    Because of some catastrophic events which occurred in Mexico during the 1980 decade, the utilization of "tepescohuite" bark against skin wounds and burns was popularized. The media manipulated the lack of available information about its medical properties and gave erroneous information to the society propagating a lot of myths. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine its taxonomic identity and to study the distribution, bark and wood anatomy of this species, and to determine its actual and historic uses, and the compilation of the information about bark pharmacology and toxicity. Its taxonomic identity is established as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae). It blooms and fructifies from November to June, occurring in Mexico (the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, at altitudes of 0-1110 (-1520) m. In Mexico, it is found in dry forests, thorny thickets, Pinus and Pinus-Quercus forests, and in M. tenuiflora pure thickets, along roads and in resting or abandoned culture lands. This species has an aggregate distribution in the forests and a uniform one in the thickets. It presents a mean density of 9 individuals per m2, with 0.45 of frequency per quadrat and 1.69 m2 of mean coverture, and it has a wide range of tolerance to climatic and edaphic factors, confirming their invasive character. Regionally, the wood is used as fuel and fence construction, and against skin wounds and burns (bark tea, powder and/or ointment), and diverse products, such as shampoos, creams, capsules, soaps, etc., are commercialized. The bark is wrinkled, reddish-brown to grey, fibrous texture, 0.5-1.5 mm thick, resinous and with an astringent odor and flavor, and with a great quantity of tannins. The wood presents extremely short vessel elements, with alternate areolate punctuations, and simple perforated plates, vasicentric axial parenchima, confluent stripes, uniseriated rays, extremely

  14. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  15. Regulatory roles of 24-epibrassinolide in tolerance of Acacia gerrardii Benth to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; Hashem, Abeer; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2017-07-11

    This experiment aimed to investigate the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) against NaCl-induced salinity stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. NaCl (200 mM) imparted deleterious effects on the growth and chlorophyll contents of A. gerrardii, but foliar application of EBL (1.0 mg/l; each plant received 2.5 ml) mitigated the negative effect considerably. NaCl reduced chlorophyll content but this was significantly ameliorated by the application of EBL. EBL reduced significantly NaCl-induced oxidative stress hence protect membranes and also improved the relative water content significantly by 6.6% as compared with control. Nitrate reductase activity declined after NaCl treatment but EBL application sustained its activity under normal and stressed conditions. Exogenous application of EBL significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway thereby protecting the photosynthetic electron transport chain and other metabolic processes in A. gerrardii from NaCl-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  18. [Stability of anthocyanins in pasteurized juice of blackberry ((Rubus glaucus benth].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Alvarez, Mario José; Viloria Matos, Alfredo; López, Eliezer; Belén, Douglas

    2002-06-01

    In this research the chemical stability of total anthocyanins in three pasteurized juices elaborated from 12% of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) pulp, and addition of ascorbic acid (Formulation A: 0.1%, Formulation B: 0.05% and Formulation C: 0.01%), was evaluated by means of absorption visible spectra (400-580 nm). Physicol-chemical characterization (acidity, soluble solids content in degree Brix, pH), and count of mesophilic microorganism, fungi, yeasts, fecal coliforms (PMN/mL) and Escherichia coli, were evaluated. Sensorial parameters (color, smell, flavor) were investigated by means of un-trained panel using a hedonic scale (Fridman, P < 0.05). The study was performed during storage for 9 days. The total anthocyanins were reported as pelargonidin-3-glycoside g/L, and no significant differences were founded among the evaluated in each formulation during storage (P > 0.05). Bactocromic effect due to oxidation as not observed. Acidity (6.0-7.2 mL NaOH 0.079 N), soluble solids content (9.0-9.8 degrees Brix) and pH (3.4) did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). The microbiological evaluation showed minimum values for pasturized products (fungi CFU/mL < 10, yeast CFU/mL < 10, fecal coliforms CFU/mL < 10 and mesophilic microorganism CFU/mL between 120-140 on first day in storage). Sensorial analysis did not show significant differences (Fridman, P > 0.05).

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues of variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, M.A. )

    1990-06-01

    Mature, variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. contained stachyose and other raffinose series sugars in both green, photosynthetic and white, nonphotosynthetic tissues. However, unlike the green tissues, white tissues had no detectable level of galactinol synthase activity and a low level of sucrose phosphate synthase indicating that stachyose and possibly sucrose present in white tissues may have originated in green tissues. Uptake of exogenously supplied ({sup 14}C)stachyose or ({sup 14}C)sucrose into either tissue type showed conventional kinetic profiles indicating combined operation of liner first-order and saturable systems. Autoradiographs of white discs showed no detectable minor vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)stachyose, but some degree of vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)sucrose. Autoradiographs of green discs showed substantial vein loading with either sugar. In both tissues, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid had no effect on the linear component of sucrose or stachyose uptake but inhibited the saturable component. Both tissues contained high levels of invertase, sucrose synthase and {alpha}-galactosidase and extensively metabolized exogenously supplied {sup 14}C-sugars. In green tissues, label from exogenous sugars was recovered as raffinose-series sugars. In white tissues, exogenous sugars were hydrolyzed and converted to amino acids and organic acids. The results indicate that variegated Coleus leaves may be useful for studies on both phloem loading and phloem unloading processes in stachyose-transporting species.

  20. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

    PubMed

    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  1. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Kwofie, Kofi D.; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M.; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Anyan, William K.; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A.; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  2. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  3. Chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels leaf oil from ivory coast.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Zana Adama; Boti, Jean Brice; Attioua, Koffi Barthelemy; Ahibo, Antoine Coffy; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of 48 leaf oil samples isolated from individual plants of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels harvested in four Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID (determination of retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The main components identified were β-pinene (traces-59.1%), sabinene (traces-54.2%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.3-39.3%), linalool (0.1-38.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.1-33.2%), germacrene D (0.0-33.1%), α-pinene (0.1-32.3%), and germacrene B (0-21.2%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The oil composition of the major group (GroupI, 33 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene and linalool. The oils of Group II (eight samples) contained mainly β-pinene and α-pinene, while those of Group III (seven samples) were dominated by sabinene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. Moreover, the compositions of the Ivoirian C. patens leaf oils differed from those of Nigerian and Cameroonian origins. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4aα, 7α, and 7aα-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants.

  5. Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Dinesh S; Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta erecta Benth. (Family: Lamiaceae) from Uttarakhand, India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified representing 94.6% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (74.0%) constituted the major proportion of the oil, dominated by isoiridomyrmecin (70.6%) as a single major constituent. Other significant constituents were caryophyllene oxide (9.6%), β-Bourbonene (2.0%), humulene epoxide II (1.7%) and linalool (1.0%). The in vitro antioxidant activity (AOA) was assessed using β-Carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oil was found to exhibit AOA by inhibiting β-Carotene bleaching (54.6 ± 2.52%) and by scavenging DPPH free radical (IC(50) = 0.74 ± 0.12 mg mL(-1)). The AOA of the essential oil of N. erecta and its major compound isoiridomyrmecin has not been reported so far.

  6. In vivo antimalarial activity of a labdane diterpenoid from the leaves of Otostegia integrifolia Benth.

    PubMed

    Endale, Abyot; Bisrat, Daniel; Animut, Abebe; Bucar, Franz; Asres, Kaleab

    2013-12-01

    In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Otostegia integrifolia Benth. are used for the treatment of several diseases including malaria. In an ongoing search for effective, safe and cheap antimalarial agents from plants, the 80% methanol leaf extract O. integrifolia was tested for its in vivo antimalarial activity, in a 4-day suppressive assay against Plasmodium berghei. Activity-guided fractionation of this extract which showed potent antiplasmodial activity resulted in the isolation of a labdane diterpenoid identified as otostegindiol. Otostegindiol displayed a significant (P < 0.001) antimalarial activity at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg with chemosuppression values of 50.13, 65.58 and 73.16%, respectively. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the crude extract possesses no toxicity in mice up to a maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg suggesting the relative safety of the plant when administered orally. The results of the present study indicate that otostegindiol is among the antimalarial principles in this medicinal plant, and further support claims for the traditional medicinal use of the plant for the treatment of malaria. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Color, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines.

    PubMed

    Arozarena, Íñigo; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Urretavizcaya, Inés; Salvatierra, Sara; Córdova, Inés; Marín-Arroyo, María Remedios; Noriega, María José; Navarro, Montserrat

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-eight blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines elaborated under different processing conditions were analyzed for total phenolics, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, color, and antioxidant activity. Ellagitannins were the main phenolic compounds and the most determinant factor in the antioxidant capacity of wines (r = 0.980). The major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside (64 ± 6%) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (19 ± 4%), followed by several minor compounds (17 ± 4%). Two of them were native blackberry anthocyanins, namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin 3-xylorutinoside. The remaining seven compounds were anthocyanin-related pigments generated during and after the alcoholic fermentation, identified as A-type and B-type vitisins and hydroxyphenylpyranoanthocyanins. The presence of fruit solids in contact with the liquid fraction during fermentation and the ratio of water to fruit employed in the preparation of the musts had a great impact on the content of ellagitannins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activity of wines and a minor impact on their color and anthocyanin composition.

  8. Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).

    PubMed

    Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benomari, Fatima Zahra; Djabou, Nassim; Medbouhi, Ali; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Selles, Chaouki; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. collected in 24 Algerian localities was investigated from the first time using GC-FID, GC/MS and (13) C-NMR. Altogether, 83 components which accounted for 94.7% of the total oil composition were identified. The main compounds were trans-sesquisabinene hydrate (1; 20.9%), α-terpinyl acetate (2; 19.8%), globulol (3; 4.9%), caryophyllene oxide (4; 4.3%), β-bisabolol (5; 2.9%) and trans-7-epi-sesquisabinene hydrate (6; 2.6%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Algerian M. inodora oil and indicated that 1 might be used as taxonomical marker. The study of the chemical variability allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential-oil compositions and the soil nature of the harvest locations. Biological activity of M. inodora essential oil was assessed against fourteen species of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections using paper disc diffusion and dilution agar assays. The in vitro study demonstrated a good activity against Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis, and moderate activity against Candida albicans. These results might be useful for the future commercial valorization of M. inodora essential oil as a promising source of natural products with potential against various nosocomial community and toxinic infections.

  10. New terpenes from Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syriaca L. growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abrouni, Khadeja K; Al-Qudah, Mahmuod A; Abu Zarga, Musa H

    2012-01-01

    The novel seco-ursane-type triterpenoid 3β,11α-dihydroxy-17,22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source from two Salvia species growing wild in Jordan, Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syrica L. In addition to compound 1, S. syriaca afforded a new sesquiterpene named syriacine (2). S. palaestina also afforded 15 other known compounds, 6 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant, and these include velutin, hyptadienic acid, cirsilineol, 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanan-28-oic acid, and 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. S. syriaca also afforded 16 other known compounds, 7 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant. These are 1α,3α-dihydroxyolean-9(11),12-diene, maslinic acid, 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 11-oxo-oleanolic acid, 11-oxo-ursolic acid, poriferast-5-en-3,7-diol, and pectolinangenin.

  11. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  12. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth. from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth., collected in Lebanon in the Horsh Ehden reserve, yielded 0.13% (w/w) of essential oil. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy analysis enabled the identification of 75 compounds representing 96.8% of the total oil. The most abundant compounds were spathulenol (15.1%), hexadecanoic acid (14%), δ-cadinene (5.5%) and α-copaene (4.5%). On the whole, the oil was constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes (45.9%), among which sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (27.6%) slightly prevailed over oxygenated sesquiterpenes (18.3%).

  13. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis.

  14. Rhizobium altiplani sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules on Mimosa pudica growing in untypically alkaline soil in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baraúna, Alexandre C; Rouws, Luc F M; Simoes-Araujo, Jean L; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Maluk, Marta; Goi, Silvia R; Reis, Veronica M; James, Euan K; Zilli, Jerri E

    2016-10-01

    Root nodule bacteria were isolated from nodules on Mimosa pudica L. growing in neutral-alkaline soils from the Distrito Federal in central Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of 10 strains placed them into the genus Rhizobium with the closest neighbouring species (each with 99 % similarity) being Rhizobium grahamii, Rhizobium cauense, Rhizobium mesoamericanum and Rhizobium tibeticum. This high similarity, however, was not confirmed by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII and rpoB), which revealed R. mesoamericanum CCGE 501T to be the closest type strain (92 % sequence similarity or less). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles [with majority being C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c)], DNA G+C content (57.6 mol%), and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the placement of the novel strains in the genus Rhizobium. Results of average nucleotide identity (ANI) differentiated the novel strains from the closest species of the genus Rhizobium, R. mesoamericanum, R. grahamii and R. tibeticum with 89.0, 88.1 and 87.8 % similarity, respectively. The symbiotic genes essential for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) were most similar (99-100 %) to those of R. mesoamericanum, another Mimosa-nodulating species. Based on the current data, these 10 strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium altiplani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR 10423T (=HAMBI 3664T).

  15. Biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is essential for effective symbioses between betarhizobia and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2012-07-01

    Burkholderia phymatum STM815 and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 are betaproteobacterial strains that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. A Tn5 mutant, derived from B. phymatum STM815 (KM60), and another derived from C. taiwanensis LMG19424 (KM184-55) induced Fix(-) nodules on Mimosa pudica. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to ilvE, which encodes a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, and leuC, which encodes the large subunit of isopropylmalate isomerase. Both enzymes are known to be involved in the biosynthetic pathways for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, valine and isoleucine). The B. phymatum ilvE mutant, KM60, was not auxotrophic for BCAAs and could grow well on minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source. However, it grew less efficiently than the wild-type (WT) strain when ammonia was substituted with valine or isoleucine as a nitrogen source. The BCAA aminotransferase activity of KM60 was significantly reduced relative to the WT strain, especially with isoleucine and valine as amino group donors. The C. taiwanensis leuC mutant, KM184-55, could not grow on a minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source, but its growth was restored when leucine was added to the medium. The isopropylmalate isomerase activity of KM184-55 was completely lost compared with the WT strain. Both mutants recovered their respective enzyme activities after complementation with the WT ilvE or leuC genes and were subsequently able to grow as well as their parental strains on minimal medium. They were also able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on M. pudica. We conclude that the biosynthesis of BCAAs is essential for the free-living growth of betarhizobia, as well as for their ability to form effective symbioses with their host plant.

  16. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  17. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters, in particular, can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO su...

  18. Gastroprotective effects of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. on gastric ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite; Vieira, Charliene Freire Xavier; Santos, Edgleyson Chaves Dos; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Aragão, Kalynca Kayla Viana; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Araújo, Pâmella Cristina da Costa; Vasconcelos, Yuri de Abreu Gomes; Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha de; Oliveira, Hermógenes David de; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha

    2013-10-07

    Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "hortelã-brava" or "hortelã do campo", is widely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. In Brazil, the leaves of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, including gastric ulcers. In an attempt to experimentally validate this claimed antiulcerogenic activity, the gastroprotective effects of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of the Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (EOHc) were evaluated in recognized gastric ulcer models in mice. EOHc was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Swiss male mice (25-30g) were used for the studies. The gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45min after oral pretreatment with EOHc, vehicle and positive control drugs. One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and the area of the lesions was measured. The volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretions were determined using the pylorus ligature model. The gastrointestinal motility was measured using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The ethanol-induced gastric mucus depletion and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. Our findings are as follows: A significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol was observed in the mice pre-treated with EOHc, at a dose of 30 and 100 and 300mg/kg (5.56±1.51, 2.88±0.82 and 1.71±0.54mm(2), respectively) compared to control group (118.03±35.4mm(2)). Also, EOHc (300mg/kg) produced a gastroprotective effect against the gastric lesions induced by indomethacin (16.07±4.68mm(2)) compared to control group (38.64±6.1mm(2)). EOHc pretreatment produced a reduction in the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation from 3.9±0.22 to 2.4±0.1μmol/mg tissue (EOHc-300mg/kg and control group, respectively). We also observed that EOHc pretreatment decreased the gastric emptying, but did

  19. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass along the symplast via plasmodesmata into the adjoining

  20. Glandular trichomes and essential oil characteristics of in vitro propagated Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Stojičić, Dragana; Tošić, Svetlana; Slavkovska, Violeta; Zlatković, Bojan; Budimir, Snežana; Janošević, Dušica; Uzelac, Branka

    2016-08-01

    In vitro conditions and benzyladenine influenced both content and composition of micropropagated Micromeria pulegium essential oils, with pulegone and menthone being the main essential oil components. The content and chemical composition of Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. essential oils were studied in native plant material at vegetative stage and in micropropagated plants, obtained from nodal segments cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin at different concentrations, alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid. Shoot proliferation was achieved in all treatments, but the highest biomass production was obtained after treatment with 10 μM BA. Phytochemical analysis identified up to 21 compounds in the essential oils of wild-growing and in vitro cultivated plants, both showing very high percentages of total monoterpenoids dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes of the menthane type. Pulegone and menthone were the main essential oil components detected in both wild-growing plants (60.07 and 26.85 %, respectively) and micropropagated plants grown on either plant growth regulator-free medium (44.57 and 29.14 %, respectively) or BA-supplemented medium (50.77 and 14.45 %, respectively). The percentage of total sesquiterpenoids increased in vitro, particularly owing to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons that were not found in wild-growing plants. Differences in both content and the composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples indicated that in vitro culture conditions and plant growth regulators significantly influence the essential oils properties. In addition, the morphology and structure of M. pulegium glandular trichomes in relation to the secretory process were characterized for the first time using SEM and light microscopy, and their secretion was histochemically analyzed.

  1. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate) while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.), produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o). The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant increase (p < 0.01) of intestinal transit in comparison with castor oil (2 mL) (p < 0.01). Moreover, the extract induced a significant enteropooling and excretion of Cl-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p < 0.01). Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine. PMID:20158903

  3. Depressant effects of Clinopodium mexicanum Benth. Govaerts (Lamiaceae) on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Martínez-Vázquez, M; Gallegos-Solís, A; Heinze, G; Moreno, J

    2010-07-06

    The decoction of leaves of Clinopodium mexicanum Benth. Goaverts (Lamiaceae), commonly known as "Toronjil de Monte", is used in the Mexican traditional medicine to induce sleep, as well as sedative and analgesic remedy. To evaluate the putative depressant effects of an aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Clinopodium mexicanum on the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the extract (AECM) on mice were tested in several animal paradigms, including sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep, open field tests, and hole-board tests. The effects of AECM on pentylenetetrazole- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions in mice and on the antithermonociceptive response in the hot-plate paradigm were also tested. Additionally, the active extract (AECM) was analyzed with HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. Mice acutely treated with AECM at 100, 200, 500 and 1000mg/kg doses prolonged the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (42mg/kg). This extract, at 100 and 200mg/kg doses, showed a sedative effect in the hole-board paradigm and decreased spontaneous activity in mice. AECM at 10, 100 and 200mg/kg prolonged the onset of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (90mg/kg) and antagonized tonic convulsions induced by picrotoxin (10mg/kg). Additionally, AECM inhibited the response to a thermonociceptive stimulus. The intraperitoneal AECM treatment produced mortality with an LD(50)=2154mg/kg. Chemical analysis showed that the flavanone glycosides neoponcirin, poncirin, and isonaringenin are the main compounds of the active extract. This study demonstrates that an acutely administered single dose of an aqueous extract of Clinopodium mexicanum can exert depressant effects on the CNS. These findings are in agreement with the traditional use of Clinopodium mexicanum to induce sleep as well as sedative and analgesic remedy. The chemical analysis of AECM revealed the presence of the flavanone glycosides neoponcirin, poncirin, and isonaringin. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  4. Patchouli alcohol: in vitro direct anti-influenza virus sesquiterpene in Pogostemon cablin Benth.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Ichino, Chikara; Kawamura, Yuka; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Noriko; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    During the screening of anti-influenza virus substances from traditional herbal medicines, the methanol extract from the leaves of Pogostemon cablin Benth. showed potent in vitro antiviral activity (99.8% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μg/mL) against influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The anti-influenza virus principle was isolated from the hexane-soluble fraction, through solvent fractionation, repeated silica gel column chromatography, and reversed-phase HPLC. The major active principle was a volatile substance that was identified as a sesquiterpene, patchouli alcohol (1), on the basis of its spectral analyses. When anti-influenza virus activity against A/PR/8/34 was evaluated by the plaque forming assay, patchouli alcohol reduced the number of plaques by 75% at 2 μg/mL and 89% at 10 μg/mL. Patchouli alcohol showed dose-dependent anti-influenza virus activity, and its IC(50) value was estimated to be 2.635 μM. Although 11 different sesquiterpenes were tested for antiviral activity against influenza virus A/PR/8/34, no or negligible activity was observed except for patchouli alcohol. Patchouli alcohol did not show anti-influenza virus activity against A/Guizhou/54/89 (H3N2), but showed weak activity against B/Ibaraki/2/85 (IC(50) = 40.82 μM). Patchouli alcohol did not show inhibitory activity against influenza virus neuraminidase.

  5. Polyphenolic glycosides isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Wei; Deng, Chao; Wu, Zhaoquan; Zeng, Guangyao; Zhou, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is historically an ancient disease that causes annual epidemics and, at irregular intervals, pandemics. At present, the first-line drugs (oseltamivir and zanamivir) don't seem to be optimistic due to the spontaneously arising and spreading of oseltamivir resistance among influenza virus. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (P. cablin) is an important traditional Chinese medicine herb that has been widely used for treatment on common cold, nausea and fever. In our previous study, we have identified an extract derived from P. cablin as a novel selective neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor. A series of polyphenolic compounds were isolated from P. cablin for their potential ability to inhibit neuraminidase of influenza A virus. Two new octaketides (1, 2), together with other twenty compounds were isolated from P. cablin. These compounds showed better inhibitory activity against NA. The significant potent compounds of this series were compounds 2 (IC50 = 3.87 ± 0.19 μ mol/ml), 11, 12, 14, 15, 19 and 20 (IC50 was in 2.12 to 3.87 μ mol/ml), which were about fourfold to doubled less potent than zanamivir and could be used to design novel influenza NA inhibitors, especially compound 2, that exhibit increased activity based on these compounds. With the help of molecular docking, we had a preliminary understanding of the mechanism of the two new compounds (1-2)' NA inhibitory activity. Fractions 6 and polyphenolic compounds isolated from fractions 6 showed higher NA inhibition than that of the initial plant exacts. The findings of this study indicate that polyphenolic compounds and fractions 6 derived from P. cablin are potential NA inhibitors. This work is one of the evidence that P. cablin has better inhibitory activity against influenza, which not only enriches the compound library of P. cablin, but also facilitates further development and promises its therapeutic potential for the rising challenge of influenza diseases.

  6. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-01-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  7. Differential proteomics of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. in response to dark stress.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Jai; Kashyap, Sanjeeta; Kalita, Prakash Jyoti; Devi, Manjula; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Dutt, Som

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) an important medicinal herb of western Himalayan region has been used to treat various diseases and disorders. Over-harvesting and lack of cultivation has led to its entry in Red Data Book as an endangered species. Further, its very restrictive habitat and lesser biomass production are major limitations for bringing it under commercial cultivation. All these issues necessitate deeper insights into mechanisms governing its growth and interaction with the environmental cues. Light may be one of the important factors to be studied for its role in regulating growth and adaptation of Picrorhiza as in natural habitat it prefers shady niches. Keeping this in view, proteome of Picrorhiza kept under light vis-à-vis under dark was analysed and compared. Leaf as well as root proteome of Picrorhiza was studied. Denaturing two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to detect and identify differentially expressed proteins, respectively. Twenty two proteins from leaf and 25 proteins from root showed differential expression levels under dark and light conditions. Among the differentially expressed proteins, majority were those involved in metabolism, protein synthesis, and stress and defense response. Other differentially expressed proteins were those involved in photosynthetic process, photorespiration and few proteins were with unknown function indicating that many different processes work together to establish a new cellular homeostasis in response to dark and light conditions. Proteins found to be differentially expressed under light vis-à-vis dark conditions suggested a range of biochemical pathways and processes being associated with response of plant to dark conditions. The identified proteins may be utilized for developing strategies for improving the biomass production/performance of Picrorhiza under varied light/dark habitats.

  8. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo.

  9. Micromorphology of the Labellum and Floral Spur of Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gross vegetative and floral morphology, as well as modern molecular techniques, indicate that Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. are related to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. However, they differ from Maxillaria in their possession of floral spurs and, in this respect, are atypical of Maxillariinae. The labellar micromorphology of Maxillaria, unlike that of the other two genera, has been extensively studied. In the present report, the labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus is compared with that of Maxillaria and, for the first time, the micromorphology of the floral spur as found in Maxillariinae is described. Methods Labella and dissected floral spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results In each case, the labellum consists of a papillose mid-lobe (epichile), a cymbiform region (hypochile) and, proximally, a spur, which is pronounced in Cryptocentrum but short and blunt in Sepalosaccus. The inner epidermal surface of the spur of Cryptocentrum is glabrous or pubescent, and the bicellular hairs, where present, are unlike any hitherto described for Maxillariinae. Similar but unicellular hairs also occur in the floral spur of Sepalosaccus, whereas the glabrous epidermis lining the spur of C. peruvianum contains putative nectar pores. Conclusions The labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus generally resembles that of Maxillaria. The floral spur of Cryptocentrum displays two types of organization in that the epidermal lining may be glabrous (possibly with nectar pores) or pubescent. This may have taxonomic significance and perhaps reflects physiological differences relating to nectar secretion. The trichomes found within the spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus more closely resemble the hairs of certain unrelated, nectariferous orchid taxa than those found in the largely nectarless genus Maxillaria, and this further

  10. Ebony (Phitecellobium flexicaule Benth) and proteins fractionation, solubilization, characterization and production of an isolate.

    PubMed

    González-Quijada, Mario R; Alanís-Guzman, María Guadalupe; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2003-03-01

    Different combinations of pHs (2 to 12) and temperatures (25, 30 and 35 degrees C) were tested to obtain a protein isolate from ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule, Benth) seeds. Seed proteins contained 54.6% albumins, 32% globulins, 5.7% glutelins and 1.3% prolamins. The isoelectric points for albumins, globulins and glutelins were in the pH range of 2.3-2.7. The average molecular weight of albumins ranged from 92 to 100 kDa and for the four globulin subunits in the range of 28.4 to 57.3 kDa. For isolate production, proteins were sequentially extracted with distilled water and a 5% NaCl solution. The resulting supernatants were mixed. The best extraction was achieved at pH 11 and 25 degrees C. 45.6% of the total seed protein was precipitated at pH 2.6 yielding an isolate with 90% protein (N x 6.25). The isolate contained high quantities of lysine, leucine, threonine and phenylalanine but were low in sulfur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. The extraction process reduced tannins, phytates and trypsin inhibitor in 53, 70 and 70%, respectively. In vivo protein digestibility of the protein isolate was 85.4% and the corrected digestibility essential amino acid score was of 44% due to the lack of sulfur containing amino acids. In order to upgrade the protein quality of ebony isolate it is recommend to supplement with methionine or sulfur containing rich foods.

  11. Gastroprotective and Ulcer Healing Effects of Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Oliveira, Alisson Rodrigo da Silva; Araújo, Alice Valença; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ferreira, Fabiano; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control), pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model) or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated) was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (–SH groups), as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and –SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA). EOHM (400 mg/kg) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%), reduced levels of MDA (72.5%) and prevented the depletion of –SH groups (73.8%) in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:24454726

  12. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  13. Genetic diversity of Mimosa pudica rhizobial symbionts in soils of French Guiana: investigating the origin and diversity of Burkholderia phymatum and other beta-rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ravi P N; Tisseyre, Pierre; Melkonian, Rémy; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Miché, Lucie; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Bena, Gilles; Laguerre, Gisèle; Moulin, Lionel

    2012-02-01

    The genetic diversity of 221 Mimosa pudica bacterial symbionts trapped from eight soils from diverse environments in French Guiana was assessed by 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP, REP-PCR fingerprints, as well as by phylogenies of their 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping genes, and by their nifH, nodA and nodC symbiotic genes. Interestingly, we found a large diversity of beta-rhizobia, with Burkholderia phymatum and Burkholderia tuberum being the most frequent and diverse symbiotic species. Other species were also found, such as Burkholderia mimosarum, an unnamed Burkholderia species and, for the first time in South America, Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The sampling site had a strong influence on the diversity of the symbionts sampled, and the specific distributions of symbiotic populations between the soils were related to soil composition in some cases. Some alpha-rhizobial strains taxonomically close to Rhizobium endophyticum were also trapped in one soil, and these carried two copies of the nodA gene, a feature not previously reported. Phylogenies of nodA, nodC and nifH genes showed a monophyly of symbiotic genes for beta-rhizobia isolated from Mimosa spp., indicative of a long history of interaction between beta-rhizobia and Mimosa species. Based on their symbiotic gene phylogenies and legume hosts, B. tuberum was shown to contain two large biovars: one specific to the mimosoid genus Mimosa and one to South African papilionoid legumes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antitrypanosomal activity of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense isolates.

    PubMed

    Mergia, Ermias; Shibeshi, Workineh; Terefe, Getachew; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2016-09-15

    African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall. It is traditionally used to treat wound, stomachache, viral infection, cancer, sunstroke, fever, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hemorrhage, anthrax, and hepatitis. The efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of V. sinaiticum was evaluated in a randomized experiment with Swiss albino mice infected with T. congolense field isolate. The extracts were administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for seven days at 12 Days Post-Infection (DPI) when the peak parasitaemia level was approximately 10(8) trypanosomes/ml. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), mean survival time and change in body weight were used as indices for monitoring the efficacy of the extracts. Diminazene (28 mg/kg) was used as a positive control while 2 % Tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals screening were conducted following standard methods. The extracts showed no toxicity effect in Swiss albino mice and had LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. The phytochemicals screened in V. sinaiticum were alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, and tannins. The mice treated with absolute methanol leaf extract of V. sinaiticum at 400 mg/kg dose had significantly lower mean parasitaemia (7.20 ± 0.16) (p < 0.001) as compared to the negative control group (8.82 ± 0.12) on day 14 of treatment. Animals treated with the same dose had significant (p < 0.001) higher PCV value and body

  15. Antileishmanial activity and trypanothione reductase effects of terpenes from the Amazonian species Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Gerson S; Castro-Pinto, Denise B; Machado, Gerzia C; Maciel, Maria A M; Echevarria, Aurea

    2015-11-15

    Leishmaniasis comprises several infectious diseases caused by protozoa parasites of Leishmania genus. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products to treat parasitic diseases. Among them Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant found in the Amazonian region with a history of safe use in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clerodane diterpenes, trans-dehydrocrotonin (DCTN), trans-crotonin (CTN) and acetylaleuritolic acid (AAA) obtained from powdered bark of C. cajucara against promastigotes, axenic and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, the effects of DCTN and CTN on the trypanotiona reductase enzyme were also investigated. The extraction of the terpenes was carried out as previously reported (Maciel et al., 1998; 2003). The effect of the isolated compounds (DCTN, CTN and AAA) from the bark of C. cajucara was assessed in vitro against promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis by counting of remaining parasites in a Neubauer chamber in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The action of natural products on trypanothione reductase was assessed using soluble protein fraction of promastigotes. The assays were performed by incubation with HEPES, EDTA, NADPH and trypanothione disulfide to quantify the NAPH consumption by TryR. The results showed very high efficacy, especially of the diterpene DCTN, against promastigotes (IC50 = 6.30 ± 0.06 µg/ml) and axenic amastigotes (IC50 = 19.98 ± 0.05 µg/ml) of L. amazonenesis. The cytotoxic effect of the best active natural product was evaluated on mouse peritoneal infected macrophages (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.03 µg/ml in 24 h of culture), and the treatment revealed that DCTN never reaches toxic concentrations while reducing the infection and, most importantly, with no toxicity (>100 µg/ml with 0% of macrophage kill) when compared to

  16. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative

  17. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in

  18. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  19. [Use of chigo seed (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) in human nutrition. II. Process of non-industrial manufacture of chiga].

    PubMed

    Barreiro, J A; Brito, O; Hevia, P; Pérez, C; Orozco, M

    1984-09-01

    A quantitative study of the traditional process for making "chiga" flour was performed. The "chiga" flour is obtained from the seed of the "chigo" (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) and is utilized as a human food in areas of Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, especially in the State of Apure and in the Territorio Federal Amazonas. The block diagram with the description of the traditional process is presented, together with labor and time requirement studies of the different stages of the process. The yields as well as the requirements for raw materials are also discussed. This research work was carried out to study and provide quantitative information that may allow the duplication of the process, in order to improve the efficiency and yield of the product.

  20. Modulation of the Antibiotic Activity by Extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Fernando G.; Ferreira, Emerson O.; Lucena, Bruno F. F.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Lucetti, Daniel L.; Lucetti, Elaine C. P.; Silva, João Marcos F. L.; Santos, Francisco A. V.; Medeiros, Cássio R.; Oliveira, Gardênia M. M.; Colares, Aracélio V.; Costa, José G. M.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Silva, Júlio C. F.; Kerntopf, Marta R.; Figueiredo, Patrícia R. L.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between ethanol extracts of Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan, combined with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from humans. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The microdilution assay was performed to verify the interactions between the natural products and the antibiotics using a subinhibitory concentration. The activity of amikacin associated with the extract of Anadenanthera macrocarpa against EC 27 was enhanced, demonstrating an MIC reduction from 128 to 4 μg/mL. Among the β-lactams, no potentiation on its activity was observed, with exception to the antagonism of the natural products with ampicillin against S. aureus 358. PMID:23509756

  1. In vitro biological activity of Salvia leriifolia benth essential oil relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Conforti, Filomena; Nadjafi, Farsad; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition, cholinesterase inhibitory property and anti-inflammatory activity of S. leriifolia Benth. essential oil was evaluated for the first time. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of camphor (10.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphene (6.2%) and alpha-pinene (4.7%) as main constituents. S. leriifolia oil exhibited a promising antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with an IC(50) 2.26 microL/mL. Interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity was also found with IC(50) values of 0.32 and 0.29 microL/mL for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Moreover, this oil inhibited LPS-induced NO production with an IC(50) value of 165 microg/mL. The absence of cytotoxicity at 1000 microg/mL was evaluated by MTT assay in 142BR cells.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory evaluation of compounds from an aqueous extract of Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Adamara M; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Dal Lin, Fernando T; Kimura, Alexandre; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R; de Souza, Lauro M

    2017-10-25

    Croton cajucara Benth. is a medicinal plant popularly used in the Brazilian Amazonia, where it is known as sacaca, being consumed as tea, decoction or infusion of the leaves and stem bark. From a decoction of the leaves, a comprehensive phytochemical analysis was developed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Many compounds were identified for the first time in C. cajucara, such as O-glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, flavonoid-C-glycosides, tannins and cinnamic acid derivatives. These compounds were fractionated by polarity and assayed for their anti-inflammatory activity, using a model of mice edema, induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. All fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Syahida

    2013-01-24

    Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila Benth. were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Antifungal activity of all plant extracts were characterized against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc. Anti-inflammatory assays were performed using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-g and cytotoxic activity was determined using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. The overall result demonstrated that leaf and root extracts of all three varieties of L. pumila exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor compared to streptomycin used as positive control. Leaf and root extracts of all varieties significantly decreased NO release. However, the root extracts showed higher activity compared to the leaf extracts. Cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Chang cell lines were observed with all extracts. These findings suggest the potential use of L. pumila Benth. as a natural medicine and indicated the possible application of this medicinal plant such anti inflammatory activity and cytotoxic agents.

  4. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila Benth. were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Antifungal activity of all plant extracts were characterized against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc. Anti-inflammatory assays were performed using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-g and cytotoxic activity was determined using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Results The overall result demonstrated that leaf and root extracts of all three varieties of L. pumila exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor compared to streptomycin used as positive control. Leaf and root extracts of all varieties significantly decreased NO release. However, the root extracts showed higher activity compared to the leaf extracts. Cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Chang cell lines were observed with all extracts. Conclusions These findings suggest the potential use of L. pumila Benth. as a natural medicine and indicated the possible application of this medicinal plant such anti inflammatory activity and cytotoxic agents. PMID:23347830

  5. Effect of Mimosa pudica (Linn.) extract on anxiety behaviour and GABAergic regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Mbomo, Rigobert; Gartside, Sasha; Ngo Bum, Elizabeth; Njikam, Njifutie; Okello, Ed; McQuade, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Mimosa pudica (Linn.) (M. pudica L.) is a plant used in some countries to treat anxiety and depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of M. pudica L. on mouse anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated T maze, and on regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity using an in-vitro mouse brain slice preparation. Acute treatment with M. pudica L. extract had an anxiolytic effect on behaviour in the elevated T maze, specifically on inhibitory avoidance behaviour. Acute application of the extract alone had no effect on the activity of DRN 5-HT neurones. However, when co-applied with the GABA(A) receptor agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), the extract enhanced the inhibitory effect of the THIP on DRN 5-HT neurones. These observed effects of M. pudica L. on both behaviour and GABA modulation of 5-HT neuronal activity are similar to the effects of diazepam, the established anxiolytic and positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This study suggests that the aqueous extract of M. pudica L. contains a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor function and provides impetus for further investigation of the neuropharmacologically active constituents of the extract.

  6. Water channel activities of Mimosa pudica plasma membrane intrinsic proteins are regulated by direct interaction and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Temmei, Yusuke; Uchida, Shinichi; Hoshino, Daisuke; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Kuwahara, Michio; Sasaki, Sei; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2005-08-15

    cDNAs encoding aquaporins PIP1;1, PIP2;1, and TIP1;1 were isolated from Mimosa pudica (Mp) cDNA library. MpPIP1;1 exhibited no water channel activity; however, it facilitated the water channel activity of MpPIP2;1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1 was phosphorylated by PKA and that cooperative regulation of the water channel activity of MpPIP2;1 was regulated by phosphorylation of Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MpPIP1;1 binds directly to MpPIP2;1 in a phosphorylation-independent manner, suggesting that phosphorylation of Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1 is involved in regulation of the structure of the channel complex with MpMIP2;1 and thereby affects water channel activity.

  7. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. High-quality draft genome sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum strain STM6155, a Mimosa pudica microsymbiont from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Klonowska, Agnieszka; López-López, Aline; Moulin, Lionel; Ardley, Julie; Gollagher, Margaret; Marinova, Dora; Tian, Rui; Huntemann, Marcel; Reddy, T B K; Varghese, Neha; Woyke, Tanja; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Seshadri, Rekha; Baeshen, Mohamed N; Baeshen, Nabih A; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM6155 (INSCD = ATYY01000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of the legume Mimosa pudica L.. STM6155 was isolated in 2009 from a nodule of the trap host M. pudica grown in nickel-rich soil collected near Mont Dore, New Caledonia. R. mesoamericanum STM6155 was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) genome sequencing project. Here we describe the symbiotic properties of R. mesoamericanum STM6155, together with its genome sequence information and annotation. The 6,927,906 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged into 147 scaffolds of 152 contigs containing 6855 protein-coding genes and 71 RNA-only encoding genes. Strain STM6155 forms an ANI clique (ID 2435) with the sequenced R. mesoamericanum strain STM3625, and the nodulation genes are highly conserved in these strains and the type strain of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE501(T). Within the STM6155 genome, we have identified a chr chromate efflux gene cluster of six genes arranged into two putative operons and we postulate that this cluster is important for the survival of STM6155 in ultramafic soils containing high concentrations of chromate.

  9. Rapid hydropassive opening and subsequent active stomatal closure follow heat-induced electrical signals in Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Hartmut; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2006-01-01

    In Mimosa pudica L., heat stimulation triggers leaflet folding in local, neighbouring and distant leaves. Stomatal movements were observed microscopically during this folding reaction and electrical potentials, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf CO(2)/H(2)O-gas exchange were measured simultaneously. Upon heat stimulation of a neighbouring pinna, epidermal cells depolarized and the stomata began a rapid and pronounced transient opening response, leading to an approximately 2-fold increase of stomatal aperture within 60 s. At the same time, net CO(2) exchange showed a pronounced transient decrease, which was followed by a similar drop in photochemical quantum yield at photosystem (PS) II. Subsequently, CO(2)-gas exchange and photochemical quantum yield recovered and stomata closed partly or completely. The transient and fast stomatal opening response is interpreted as a hydropassive stomatal movement caused by a sudden loss of epidermal turgor. Thus, epidermal cells appear to respond in a similar manner to heat-induced signals as the pulvinar extensor cells. The subsequent closing of the stomata confirms earlier reports that stomatal movements can be induced by electrical signals. The substantial delay (several minutes) of guard cell turgor loss compared with the immediate response of the extensor and epidermal cells suggests a different, less direct mechanism for transmission of the propagating signal to the guard cells.

  10. Involvement of respiratory processes in the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake in Mimosa pudica upon heat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lautner, Silke; Stummer, Michaela; Matyssek, Rainer; Fromm, Jörg; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2014-01-01

    Leaf photosynthesis of the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica displays a transient knockout in response to electrical signals induced by heat stimulation. This study aims at clarifying the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the involvement of respiration. To this end, leaf gas exchange and light reactions of photosynthesis were assessed under atmospheric conditions largely eliminating photorespiration by either elevated atmospheric CO2 or lowered O2 concentration (i.e. 2000 μmol mol(-1) or 1%, respectively). In addition, leaf gas exchange was studied in the absence of light. Under darkness, heat stimulation caused a transient increase of respiratory CO2 release simultaneously with stomatal opening, hence reflecting direct involvement of respiratory stimulation in the drop of the net CO2 uptake rate. However, persistence of the transient decline in net CO2 uptake rate under illumination and elevated CO2 or 1% O2 makes it unlikely that photorespiration is the metabolic origin of the respiratory CO2 release. In conclusion, the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake is at least partially attributed to an increased CO2 release through mitochondrial respiration as stimulated by electrical signals. Putative CO2 limitation of Rubisco due to decreased activity of carbonic anhydrase was ruled out as the photosynthesis effect was not prevented by elevated CO2 . © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Rabi A.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Maron, Max J.; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L.; Long, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl− compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K+ and Cl− in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  12. Mimosa pudica (L.) assisted green synthesis and photoluminescence studies of Y2O3:Mg2+ nanophosphor for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalaiah, KN; Venkataravanappa, M.; Nagabhushana, H.; Basavaraj, R. B.

    2016-09-01

    For the first time green route method was used to synthesize pure and Mg2+(1-11 mol %) doped Y2O3 nanophosphors by using Mimosa pudica leaves extract as a fuel. The final product was well characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL).The PXRD result shows the formation of single phase, cubic structure of Y2O3 with crystallite sizes ∼25 nm. The SEM results showed porous and agglomerated structures, TEM images showed the crystallite size of the material and was found to be around ∼ 25 nm. PL emission spectra show the blue light emission under the excitation wavelength of 315 nm. The emission peaks of Mg2+were observed at 428 nm, 515 nm and 600 nm corresponding to the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6Hi7/2 (violet), 4F9/2 → 6Hi5/2 (blue), 4F9/2 → 6HJ3/2 (yellow) respectively. The estimated CIE chromaticity co-ordinate was very close to the national television standard committee value of blue emission. CCT was found to be ∼ 6891 K as a result the present phosphor was potential to be used for warm white light emitting display applications.

  13. High-quality draft genome sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum strain STM6155, a Mimosa pudica microsymbiont from New Caledonia

    DOE PAGES

    Klonowska, Agnieszka; López-López, Aline; Moulin, Lionel; ...

    2017-01-17

    Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM6155 (INSCD=ATYY01000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of the legume Mimosa pudica L.. STM6155 was isolated in 2009 from a nodule of the trap host M. pudica grown in nickel-rich soil collected near Mont Dore, New Caledonia. R. mesoamericanum STM6155 was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) genome sequencing project. Here we describe the symbiotic properties of R. mesoamericanum STM6155, together with its genome sequence information and annotation. Themore » 6,927,906bp high-quality draft genome is arranged into 147 scaffolds of 152 contigs containing 6855 protein-coding genes and 71 RNA-only encoding genes. Strain STM6155 forms an ANI clique (ID 2435) with the sequenced R. mesoamericanum strain STM3625, and the nodulation genes are highly conserved in these strains and the type strain of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE501 T . Within the STM6155 genome, we have identified a chr chromate efflux gene cluster of six genes arranged into two putative operons and we postulate that this cluster is important for the survival of STM6155 in ultramafic soils containing high concentrations of chromate.« less

  14. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix BR3459a (CLA1), a Heat-Tolerant, Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa flocculosa

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Cunha, Cláudio; Goda Zuleta, Luiz Fernando; Paula de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Prioli Ciapina, Luciane; Lustrino Borges, Wardsson; Pitard, Rosa Maria; Baldani, José Ivo; Straliotto, Rosangela; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Hungria, Mariangela; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Mercante, Fábio Martins

    2012-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia represents a challenge to the fields of taxonomy and phylogeny and, especially, to the understanding of the contrasting roles as either opportunistic pathogens or bacteria with biotechnological potential. Few genomes of nonpathogenic strains, especially of diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria, have been sequenced to improve understanding of the genus. Here, we contribute with the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (CLA1), an effective diazotrophic symbiont of the leguminous tree Mimosa flocculosa Burkart, which is endemic to South America. PMID:23144415

  16. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Ecto-Apyrase, MP67, from Mimosa pudica1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Okuhata, Riku; Takishima, Takeshi; Nishimura, Naoaki; Ueda, Shogo; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported the presence of an apyrase in Mimosa pudica. However, only limited information is available for this enzyme. Thus, in this study, the apyrase was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of around 67 kD and was able to hydrolyze both nucleotide triphosphate and nucleotide diphosphate as substrates. The ratio of ATP to ADP hydrolysis velocity of the purified protein was 0.01 in the presence of calcium ion, showing extremely high substrate specificity toward ADP. Thus, we designated this novel apyrase as MP67. A cDNA clone of MP67 was obtained using primers designed from the amino acid sequence of trypsin-digested fragments of the protein. In addition, rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction was performed to clone a conventional apyrase (MpAPY2). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that MP67 is similar to ecto-apyrases; however, it was distinct from conventional apyrase based on phylogenetic classification. MP67 and MpAPY2 were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The recombinant MP67 showed high substrate specificity toward ADP rather than ATP. A polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant MP67 was used to examine the tissue distribution and localization of native MP67 in the plant. The results showed that MP67 was ubiquitously distributed in various tissues, most abundantly in leaves, and was localized to plasma membranes. Thus, MP67 is a novel ecto-apyrase with extremely high substrate specificity for ADP. PMID:21788364

  17. Metal biosorption capability of Cupriavidus taiwanensis and its effects on heavy metal removal by nodulated Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Wu, Chih-Hui; James, Euan K; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-03-01

    A novel metal biosorption system consisting of the symbiotic combination of an indigenous metal-resistant rhizobial strain, Cupriavidus taiwanensis TJ208, and its host plant Mimosa pudica has been developed for the removal of heavy-metal pollutants. Free-living C. taiwanensis TJ208 cells were able to adsorb 50.1, 19.0, and 19.6 mg/g of Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. After nodulation via inoculation with strain TJ208, the metal uptake ability of M. pudica markedly increased, as the nodulated M. pudica displayed a high metal uptake capacity (qmax) of 485, 25, and 43 mg/g, respectively, which is 86, 12, and 70% higher than that of nodule-free plants. Moreover, with TJ208 nodules, the M. pudica plant also displayed a 71, 81, and 33% enhancement in metal adsorption efficiency (eta) for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. The nodulation appeared to give the greatest enhancing effect on the uptake of Pb, which is consistent with the preference of metal adsorption ability of TJ208. This seems to indicate the crucial role that the rhizobial strain may play in stimulating metal uptake of the nodulated plant. Furthermore, the results show that metal accumulation in the nodulated plant mainly occurred in the roots, accounting for 65-95% of total metal uptake. In contrast, the nodules and the shoots only contributed to 3-12 and 2-23% of total metal uptake, respectively. Nevertheless, the specific adsorption capacity of nodules is comparable to that of the roots. Hence, this work demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of using the nodulated plants to promote phyto-removal of heavy metals from the polluted environment as well as to restrict the metal contaminants in the unharmful region of the plant.

  18. Effect of Mimosa pudica root extract on vaginal estrous and serum hormones for screening of antifertility activity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mausumi; Devi, Nirada; Mahanta, Rita; Borthakur, Mridul K

    2007-12-01

    Several plants are traditionally used as birth control agents by the rural people in India. Mimosa pudica is one of the folk medicinal plants commonly used as antifertility agent in some places in India. The present work was carried out to evaluate the claimed antifertility effect of the plant by carrying out pharmacological studies with the root extract of the plant. Air-dried roots of M. pudica were extracted using methanol. Dried methanol extract of the root was administered orally to Swiss albino mice for 21 consecutive days. Estrous cycle, reproductive hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) and number of litters produced were studied in both control and extract-administered groups by using standard methods. Phytochemical studies of the methanolic root extract were carried out using qualitative and thin-layer chromatography methods. M. pudica root extract, when administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day, prolonged the length of the estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of the diestrous phase and reduced the number of litters in albino mice. The number of litters was increased in the posttreatment period. The analysis of the principal hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle showed that the root extract altered gonadotropin release and estradiol secretion. The root extract of M. pudica has antifertility effect as it prolongs the estrous cycle and disturbs the secretion of gonadotropin hormones in albino mice. The decrease in FSH level in the proestrus and estrus stages in the extract-administered group compared with those of control animals indicates the disturbance of estrous cycle and ovulation through suppression of FSH.

  19. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae), jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Rosalva; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; García-Moya, Edmundo; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Montaño, Noé Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu) P. laevigata, Site 2 (González) M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón) with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3) had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2). Soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus-Olsen (P) and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI) created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems.

  20. The Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Following Experimental Colitis: Role of COX-2 and TNF-Alpha Expression.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; da Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Ruiz, Pedro Luiz Menin; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive and/or protective action of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (M. caesalpiniifolia) following experimental colitis in rats. The rats were randomized into ten groups (n=10 per group), as follows: G1 - Sham group:; G2 - TNBS group; G3, G4 -colitis and treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia 250 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively; G5, G6 - colitis and treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia at 125 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis respectively; G7,G8 - colitis and treated with ethylacetate fraction of M. caesalpiniifolia at 50 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively; G9,G10 - colitis and treated with ethylacetate fraction of M. caesalpiniifolia at 50 mg/kg/day after and before/after inducing colitis, respectively. Rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. caesalpiniifolia for both doses showed lower tissue damage in the distal colon. Ethylacetate fraction was effective at the highest dose only when administrated after inducing colitis. A downregulation of COX-2 was detected to rats suffering colitis and treated with M. caesalpiniifolia at high dose. On the other hand, TNF-alpha immunoexpression decreased in groups treated with M. caesalpiniifolia at low dose after inducing colitis. In summary, our results suggest that M. caesalpiniifolia attenuated the lesions of the colon, reduced inflammation, and modulates the expression of COX-2 and TNF-α during chronic colitis induced by TNBS when using for therapeutic purposes on a dose-dependent manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Protective effect of Mimosa pudica L. in an L-arginine model of acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-07-01

    Mimosa pudica is used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders such as inflammatory conditions, diarrhoea, insomnia, alopecia, urogenital infections and wounds. The present study investigated the effect of M. pudica extract (MPE) on L-arginine-induced acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats. The ethanolic extract of M. pudica leaves was studied for the presence of quercetin and gallic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Four groups were employed-normal control rats, L-arginine control rats (two intraperitoneal [i.p.] injections of 2 g/kg at an interval of 1 h), MPE-treated rats (400 mg/kg orally) and melatonin-treated rats (positive control 10 mg/kg i.p.), which were further divided into subgroups according to time points (24 h, 3 days and 14 days). Serum amylase, lipase, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, protein, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), thiobarbituric reactive substances, glutathione, nitrite/nitrate, collagen content and histopathological examination were carried out. MPE significantly improved acute necrotising pancreatitis by modulating diagnostic markers of pancreatitis such as serum lipase and pancreatic amylase, inflammation (TNF-α), and oxidative and nitrosative stress. Moreover, MPE administration induced regenerative changes in the pancreas evidenced by increased levels of pancreatic proteins, nucleic acid content and histopathology report. In addition, MPE improved TGF-β1 and collagen levels thereby preventing fibrosis. The current investigation indicates the novel role of MPE in reducing the severity of acute necrotising pancreatitis by plausible mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity and by promoting repair and regeneration of the pancreas.

  2. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Scopolin isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems suppresses adjuvant-induced rat arthritis by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Dai, Yue; Gao, Xinghua; Xia, Yufeng

    2009-07-01

    Despite scopolin is a main coumarin constituent in the stems of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, a herb drug that has long been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, little information is available about the pharmacological activities of this compound. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-rheumatic effects of scopolin in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats, and explore the underlying mechanisms of action in views of anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties in the synovial tissues. Scopolin (50, 100 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally for 10 days from the onset of secondary response, significantly inhibited both inoculated and non-inoculated paw swelling as well as articular index scores in AIA. Meanwhile, the mean body weight of rats treated with scopolin was higher than that of model group. Rats treated with high dose of scopolin (100 mg/kg) preserved a nearly normal histological architecture of the joints and showed a significant reduction of the new blood vessels in the synovial tissues. Additionally, scopolin could reduce IL-6, VEGF and FGF-2 expressions in rat synovial tissues. In conclusion, scopolin can reduce the clinical symptoms of rat AIA by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis, and this compound may be a potent agent for angiogenesis related diseases and can serve as a structural base for screening more potent synthetic analogs.

  4. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    PubMed Central

    Nwokeleme, C. O.; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  5. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  6. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice. PMID:24151521

  7. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Kumari, Santosh; Malik, Akhtar Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n = 2x = 24 (diploid). Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n = 4x = 48 (tetraploid) in addition to normal meiocytes (2n = 24) during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells) lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x) meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1). Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species. PMID:25544950

  8. Involvement of abscisic acid in ozone-induced puerarin production of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Su, Hu; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Maojun

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ozone induced a rapid increase in the levels of the sesquiterpene phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the isoflavone puerarin in suspension cell cultures of Pueraria thomsnii Benth. The observed increases in ABA and puerarin were dependent on the concentration of ozone applied to P. thomsnii cell cultures. In order to examine the role of ABA in ozone-induced puerarin production, cell suspensions were pretreated with the ABA biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone. Following ozone exposure, fluridone treatment suppressed ABA accumulation suggesting ABA was normally synthesized de novo through the carotenoid pathway. Fluridone also blocked ozone-induced puerarin production, which could be reversed through application of exogenous ABA. However, in the absence of ozone, ABA itself had no effect on puerarin accumulation in the suspension cells. Taken together, the data indicate that ozone is an efficient elicitor of puerarin production and may be particularly applicable for improving puerarin production in plant cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ABA is one factor associated with ozone-induced puerarin production in P. thomsnii cell cultures.

  9. Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth.

    PubMed

    Mossi, A J; Pauletti, G F; Rota, L; Echeverrigaray, S; Barros, I B I; Oliveira, J V; Paroul, N; Cansian, R L

    2012-11-01

    Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L(-1)) and a completely random experimental design was used, with four replications and three chemotypes, set up in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The parameters evaluated were dry weight of aerial parts, essential oil content and chemical composition of essential oil. Results showed that liming affects the biomass production, essential oil yield and chemical composition, with cross interaction verified between chemotype and limestone dosage. For the higher dosage lower biomass production, lower yield of essential oil as well as the lowest content of citral (citral chemotype) and limonene (menthene chemotype) was observed. In the ocimene chemotype, no liming influence was observed on the essential oil yield and on the content of major compounds. The dosage of 3.15 g.L(-1) can be considered the best limestone dosage for the production of poejo for the experimental conditions evaluated.

  10. Vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents against four stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Hymavathi, Atmakur; Devanand, Peta; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Sreelatha, Thonthula; Pathipati, Usha Rani; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2011-03-09

    The vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents was evaluated against four stored-product pests ( Callosobruchus chinensis L., Sitophilus oryzae L., Rhyzopertha dominica L., and Tribolium castaneum H.) using fumigation bioassays and compared to those of commonly used insecticides. The structures of all constituents of were characterized by spectroscopic analyses [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry]. The sensitivity of the test insect to compounds varied with exposure time, concentration, and insect species. Over 100% mortality after 24 h was achieved with the compounds osajin (2), scandinone (5), sphaerobioside (8), and genistein (9) against all of the test insects, while laxifolin (3) and lupalbigenin (4) showed 100% mortality after 72 h against T. csataneum and R. dominica . Scandenone (1), scandenin A (6), and scandenin (7) were less effective. Among the insects, C. chinensis , S. oryzae , and R. dominica were more susceptible to the treatments, whereas T. castaneum was less susceptible. The results of fumigation tests indicated that compounds from D. scandens whole plant extract are potential candidates to control stored-product pests.

  11. Anti-allodynic and neuroprotective effects of koumine, a Benth alkaloid, in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qian; Liu, Ming; Wu, Min-Xia; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jian; Huang, Hui-Hui; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve fibers associated with diabetes mellitus. Antidepressants and anticonvulsants are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment, but are often limited in effectiveness against the core clinical feature of pain. In the current study, we examined the potential effects of koumine, a Gelsemium elegans Benth alkaloid, using a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. Rats were administered intraperitoneally a single dose of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) to induce type 1 diabetes. Koumine was given at a dose range of 0.056-7 mg/kg subcutaneously for one week starting 3 weeks after streptozocin adminstration. Behavioral responses to mechanical stimuli were evaluated every day after streptozocin injection. At 4 weeks after streptozocin injection, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and morphological alternation of sciatic nerves were assessed by electron microscopy. Diabetic rats developed mechanical hyperalgesia within 3 weeks after streptozocin injection and exhibited reduced SNCV and impaired myelin/axonal structure. Koumine treatment of diabetic rats decreased neuropathic pain behavior as early as after the first administration. At a dose of 7 mg/kg, koumine was more effective than gabapentin (100 mg/kg), and decreased mechanical sensitivity threshold to a level comparable to healthy control. Repeated treatment of koumine significantly reduced the damage to axon and myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve and increased SNCV, without affecting body weight and blood glucose. These findings encourage the use of koumine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  13. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mariluze P; Andrade, Cassya M F; Silva, Kelle O; de Souza, Erika P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) hay replacing Buffel grass hay.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Paulo André Vidal; Filho, José Morais Pereira; de Azevêdo Silva, Aderbal Marcos; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Bakke, Olaf Andreas; Silva, Uilma Laurentino; Borburema, Jucileide Barbosa; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) hay replacing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Twenty-eight Santa Inês male lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 20.3 ± 1.49 kg(mean ± SD) were allocated in individual stalls and distributed in a completely random design with four treatments (0, 20, 40, and 60 g/100 g total DM M. tenuiflora hay replacing Buffel grass hay in diet) with seven replications. M. tenuiflora hay at the level of 20% dry matter (DM) total replacing Buffel grass hay increased final weight (P = 0.006), total weight gain (P < 0.001), average daily weight gain (ADWG; P < 0.001), DM intake (P < 0.001), and feed efficiency (P < 0.001). Intake of crude protein, NDFap, ADFap, ash, ether extract, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients presented a positive quadratic effect with M. tenuiflora hay replacing Buffel grass hay and 40 g/100 g total DM level presented greater intake. There were positive quadratic effects by M. tenuiflora hay inclusion at 20 g/100 g total DM level on slaughtering weight (P = 0.005), hot carcass weight (P = 0.002), cold carcass weight (P = 0.002), empty body weight (P = 0.001), hot carcass yield (P = 0.002), cold carcass yield (P = 0.003), and increase linear on biological yield (P = 0.003). There was no influence on cooling weight loss (P = 0.284). M. tenuiflora hay may be included in lamb diets at amounts up to 20 g/100 g total DM substitution of Buffel grass hay because increase in the nutrients intake, growth performance, and carcass characteristics.

  15. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mariluze P.; Andrade, Cassya M. F.; Silva, Kelle O.; de Souza, Erika P.; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.; Napimoga, Marcelo H.; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T.

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as “jurema preta” in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane—H, DCM—D, EtOAc—E and BuOH—B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4’-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100–200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50–200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin

  16. Identification of evodiamine as the bioactive compound in evodia (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth.) fruit extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    PubMed

    Rebhun, John F; Roloff, Samantha J; Velliquette, Rodney A; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    The dried unripe fruit from Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., known as Wu zhu yu in China, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that evodia fruit extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, the activating phytochemical is evodiamine. Evodiamine was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Antinociceptive effect of geranylgeraniol and 6α,7β-dihydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester isolated from Pterodon pubescens Benth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pterodon pubescens Benth seeds are commercially available in the Brazilian medicinal plant street market. The crude alcoholic extracts of this plant are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-rheumatic preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of geranylgeraniol (C1) and 6α, 7β-dihydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester (C2) isolated from Pterodon pubescens Benth. to the antinociceptive activity of the crude extract. Results Compounds C1 and C2 demonstrated activity against writhing with intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) routes, capsaicin (i.p. and p.o.), glutamate (i.p.), and in the hot-plate (p.o.) tests, demonstrating their contribution to the antinociceptive activity of crude Pterodon pubescens Benth extracts. The observed activity of compounds C1 and C2 may be related to vanilloid receptors VR1, and/or glutamate peripheral receptors. In hot-plate model, the antinociceptive activity was maintained when naloxone chloride (opioid antagonist) was administered prior to treatment with compounds suggesting that C1 and C2 (p.o.) do not exert their antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate test via opioid receptors. The findings presented herein also suggest that compounds within the crude Pterodon pubescens Benth. extract may exert a synergistic interactive effect, since the crude extract (300 mg.kg-1) containing lower concentrations of compounds C1 (11.5%- 34.6 mg. kg-1) and C2 (1.5% - 4.7 mg.kg-1) gave statistically the same effect to the pure compounds when tested separately (C1 = C2 = 300 mg.kg-1) in writhing experimental model with p.o. administration. Further studies will be undertaken to establish more specifically the mechanisms of action for compounds C1 and C2. Possible synergistic interactions will be evaluated employing the Isobole method. Conclusion These results allowed us to establish a relationship between the popular use of Pterodon pubescens seeds for pain relief and the activity of

  18. Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Barhoumi, Lina M; Abaza, Ismail F; Afifi, Fatma U

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The essential oils of fresh and air-dried S. palaestina were mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.66% and 65.98%, respectively). The major component detected in the oils of fresh and dry S. palaestina was germacrene D (21.18% and 26.02%, respectively). Air drying resulted in a general increase of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and a great decrease in the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons.

  19. Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Nicasio, María Del Pilar; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gillet, Françoise; Bensaddek, Lamine; Fliniaux, Marc-André

    2005-01-01

    The present article reports the accumulation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and its metabolic precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine) in different organs of micropropagated Mimosa tenuiflora trees (leaves, flowers and bark) subjected to seasonal variations (January and June), as well as in in vitro cultures (plantlets and calluses) of this plant species. The accumulation of all the tested compounds varied according to the organ, the month of collection, and age of the plant material. In all cases, the neurotoxic compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) was detected with the lowest concentration 0.01% dry weight (DW) in flowers, and the highest 0.33% DW in bark. For the in vitro cultures, DMT was present in high yields in plantlets (0.1-0.2% DW), while in calluses this compound was initially detected but its concentration decreased significantly in the subsequent subcultures.

  20. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl- and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Dale; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Lemos, Danilo; Welch, Kevin; Pfister, James; Panter, Kip

    2014-07-30

    Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuiflora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuiflora and components therefrom for bioassay and fractionation of possible teratogenic compounds. Rat pups were examined for cranial-facial defects and skeletal malformations. Experimental diets included M. tenuiflora leaf and seed material, extracts of leaf and seed, alkaloid extracts of leaf and seed, and N-methyltryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Pups from mothers who received M. tenuiflora plant material, methanol extracts, alkaloid extracts, and purified N-methyltryptamines had a higher incidence of soft tissue cleft palate and skeletal malformations. Results are summarized as to the frequency of observed cleft palate and other noted malformations for each diet versus control.

  1. Phylogeny based on 16S rDNA and nifH sequences of Ralstonia taiwanensis strains isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Mimosa pudica, in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subhash Chandra; Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2004-05-01

    Bacterial symbionts present in the indeterminate-type nitrogen (N)-fixing nodules of Mimosa pudica grown in North and South India showed maximum similarity to Ralstonia taiwanensis on the basis of carbon-source utilization patterns and 16S rDNA sequence. Isolates from the nodules of M. pudica from North India and South India showed identical ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) patterns with Sau3AI and RsaI, but AluI revealed dimorphy between the North Indian and South Indian isolates. Alignment of 16S rDNA sequences revealed similarity of North Indian isolates with an R. taiwanensis strain isolated from M. pudica in Taiwan, whereas South Indian isolates showed closer relatedness with the isolates from Mimosa diplotricha. Alignment of nifH sequences from both North Indian and South Indian isolates with that of the related isolates revealed their closer affinity to alpha-rhizobia, suggesting that nif genes in the beta-rhizobia might have been acquired from alpha-rhizobia via lateral transfer during co-occupancy of nodules by alpha-rhizobia and progenitors of R. taiwanensis, members of the beta-subclass of Proteobacteria. Immunological cross-reaction of the bacteroid preparation of M. pudica nodules showed strong a positive signal with anti-dinitrogenase reductase antibody, whereas a weak positive cross-reaction was observed with free-living R. taiwanensis grown microaerobically in minimal medium with and without NH4Cl. In spite of the expression of dinitrogenase reductase under free-living conditions, acetylene reduction was not observed under N-free conditions even after prolonged incubation.

  2. Chemical Composition, Modulatory Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil the Hyptis martiusii Benth by Direct and Gaseous Contact

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Allan Demetrius Leite; Galvao Rodrigue, Fabiola Fernandes; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that species of the genus Hyptis, have promising antimicrobial and antifungal effects. Objectives: Identify of chemical constituents of essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii and evaluate its effect against bacterial strains by direct and gaseous contact. Materials and Methods: Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth using hydro-distillation, and its composition was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical analysis showed that there was a predominance of sesquiterpenes. The leaf essential oil was screened for its minimal inhibitory concentration and modulatory effect of aminoglycoside by the direct (MIC) and gaseous (MID) micro-dilution assays for various pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacteria (MIC < 512 μg/mL) except S. aureus (SA358) multidrug resistant (MRSA) by direct contact. Results: Twenty-four compounds representing 92.13% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; δ -3-carene (6.88%), 1, 8-cineole (7.01%), trans-caryophyllene (9.21%), Cariophyllene oxide (7.47%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.61%) were found as the major components. Modulatory aminoglycoside effect, by direct contact, was showed antagonistic relationship with antimicrobial activity. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of all of the tested bacteria in 50% and 25% of oil concentration and demonstrated synergistic interactions can be attributed to the constituting the oil compounds. Conclusions: These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:25237640

  3. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  4. C15083. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-02-10

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9-94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1.7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into 3 groups and 2 subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6 to -32.4%, and from -2.5 to -64.4%, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  6. Evaluation of field resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The relationship with strigolactones.

    PubMed

    Mohemed, Nasreldin; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bakker, Evert J; van Ast, Aad; Babiker, Abdelgabar Gt; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2016-11-01

    Significant losses in sorghum biomass and grain yield occur in sub-Saharan Africa owing to infection by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. One strategy to avoid these losses is to adopt resistant crop varieties. For further delineation of the role of germination stimulants in resistance, we conducted a field experiment employing six sorghum genotypes, in eastern Sudan, and in parallel analysed the strigolactone levels in the root exudates of these genotypes under controlled conditions in Wageningen. The root exudates of these genotypes displayed large differences in strigolactone composition and Striga-germination-inducing activity. Korokollow, Fakimustahi and Wadfahel exuded the highest amounts of 5-deoxystrigol. Fakimustahi was by far the highest sorgomol producer, and Wadbaco and SRN39 produced the highest amount of orobanchol. The concentration of 5-deoxystrigol in the root exudate showed a significant positive correlation with in vitro Striga germination and was positively associated with Striga infection in the field experiments, whereas orobanchol was negatively associated with Striga infection in the field experiments. For the first time a close association is reported between strigolactone levels analysed under laboratory conditions and Striga infection in the field in sorghum genotypes. These genotypes may be used for further study of this resistance mechanism and for the introgression of the low germination trait in other sorghum varieties to breed for a strigolactone composition with low stimulant activity. The use of such improved varieties in combination with other Striga management tools could possibly alleviate the current Striga problem on the African continent. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  8. Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Properties of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Cat's Whiskers): Intervention in the Bcl-2-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil; Mariod, Abdelbasit Adam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Alkharfy, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, β-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC50 values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5 μg/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of β-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits. PMID:21234328

  9. In-vitro cytotoxicity study of methanolic fraction from Ajuga Bracteosa wall ex. benth on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and hep-2 larynx carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Akiriti; Toppo, Fedelic Aahish; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Singour, Pradeep K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth (Labiatae) is popularly known in India as Neelkanthi. A decoction of the leaves, flowers, and barks is used in India for the treatment of cancer including diabetes, malaria, and inflammation etc. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of Ajuga bracteosa. Materials and Methods: Successive solvent extraction of Ajuga bracteosa in petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts was done. These extracts were tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. Results: The methanolic fraction of Ajuga bracteosa had shown the significant results against MCF-7 and Hep-2 tumor cell lines. The methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract from Ajuga bracteosa, presented an IC50 value at 24 h of 10, 65, 70 μg/ml and 5, 30, 15 μg/ml on MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. Steroids compounds namely β-sitosterol and unknown constituents were identified in the most active methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. These known and unknown compounds exhibited cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 and Hep-2 cancer cells. Conclusion: Among all the tested extracts, methanolic extract can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations. PMID:24497749

  10. Phenolic Compounds from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze and Their Inhibitory Effects on α-Glucosidase and Vascular Endothelial Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Biao; Chen, Kai; Du, Ping; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ren, Bei; Ren, Yan-Li; Yan, Hang-Song; Liang, Yan; Wu, Fei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Following an in vitro bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, 14 compounds including eight flavonoids and six phenylpropanoids were isolated and identified from the AcOEt fraction of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. All constituents were tested for α-glucosidase and high glucose-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inhibitory activities. All constituents exhibited varying degrees α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and protective activity on HUVECs. Among them, luteolin (2), eriodictyol (5), ethyl rosmarinate (13), and clinopodic acids B (14) were proved to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 value ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 μm. Additionally, luteolin (2), naringenin (4), eriodictyol (5), ethyl (2R)-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropanate (9), caffeic acid (11), ethyl rosmarinate (13), and clinopodic acids B (14) significantly ameliorate HUVECs injury induced by high glucose with an approximate EC50 value of 3 - 36 μm. These results suggest that the 14 bioactive constituents were responsible for hypoglycemic and protective vascular endothelium effect of C. chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze and their structure-activity relationship was also analyzed briefly. Eriodictyol, luteolin, ethyl rosmarinate, and clinopodic acids B were the potential lead compounds of antidiabetic drugs.

  11. In-vitro cytotoxicity study of methanolic fraction from Ajuga Bracteosa wall ex. benth on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and hep-2 larynx carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pal, Akiriti; Toppo, Fedelic Aahish; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Singour, Pradeep K; Pawar, Rajesh S

    2014-01-01

    Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth (Labiatae) is popularly known in India as Neelkanthi. A decoction of the leaves, flowers, and barks is used in India for the treatment of cancer including diabetes, malaria, and inflammation etc. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of Ajuga bracteosa. Successive solvent extraction of Ajuga bracteosa in petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts was done. These extracts were tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The methanolic fraction of Ajuga bracteosa had shown the significant results against MCF-7 and Hep-2 tumor cell lines. The methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract from Ajuga bracteosa, presented an IC50 value at 24 h of 10, 65, 70 μg/ml and 5, 30, 15 μg/ml on MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. Steroids compounds namely β-sitosterol and unknown constituents were identified in the most active methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. These known and unknown compounds exhibited cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 and Hep-2 cancer cells. Among all the tested extracts, methanolic extract can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations.

  12. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-06-13

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  13. Preparative isolation and purification of three rotenoids and one isoflavone from the seeds of Millettia pachycarpa Benth by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haoyu; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Yanfang; Peng, Aihua; Fu, Afu; Song, Hang; Tang, Minghai; Luo, Houding; Luo, Youfu; Xu, Yongbin; Shi, Jianyou; Wei, Yuquan

    2008-01-18

    Both analytical and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were used to isolate and separate chemical bioactive constituents from the seeds of Millettia pachycarpa Benth, a famous traditional Chinese medicine. Three rotenoids and one isoflavone were successfully purified for the first time by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) (1:0.8:1:0.6, v/v/v/v). The separation parameters were first performed on the analytical HSCCC and optimized conditions were then scaled up to preparative HSCCC. The separation produced 160.2 mg tephrosin, 14.6 mg 4',5'-dimethoxy-6,6-dimethylpyranoisoflavone, 109.4 mg deguelin, 6.7 mg 6a,12a-dehydrodeguelin with respective purities of 95, 93, 95, 95%, in one single run from 400 mg crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa Benth. The purity of the isolated compounds was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS); (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis. This paper is an excellent example of the role that CCC is playing in isolating active compounds for pre-clinical trials of new chemical entities, even when scaling up between centrifuges from different manufacturers.

  14. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  15. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  17. The main chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Wen; Li, Sheng-Kun; Wu, Wen-Jun

    2009-01-08

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%), (Z)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%), cyclohexene (4.41%), alpha- cadinol (3.99%), 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%), 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%), beta-cubebene (1.97%), guaia-1(10),11-diene (1.58%), cadinene (1.41%) (E)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36%) and beta-guaiene (1.30%). The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  19. Early changes in membrane permeability, production of oxidative burst and modification of PAL activity induced by ergosterol in cotyledons of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Rossard, Stéphanie; Luini, Estelle; Pérault, Jean-Michel; Bonmort, Janine; Roblin, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Ergosterol (a fungal membrane component) was shown to induce transient influx of protons and membrane hyperpolarization in cotyledonary cells of Mimosa pudica L. By contrast, chitosan (a fungal wall component with known elicitor properties) triggered membrane depolarization. In the processes induced by ergosterol, a specific desensitization was observed, since cells did not react to a second ergosterol application but did respond to a chitosan treatment. This comparative study correspondingly shows that ergosterol and chitosan were perceived in a distinct manner by plant cells. Generation of O2*-, visualized by infiltration with nitroblue tetrazolium, was displayed in organs treated with ergosterol and chitosan. This AOS production was preceded by an increase in activity of NADPH oxidase measured in protein extracts of treated cotyledons. In all the previously described processes, cholesterol had no effect, thereby indicating that ergosterol specifically induced these physiological changes known to participate in the reaction chain activated by characteristic elicitors. Contrary to chitosan, ergosterol did not greatly activate secondary metabolism as shown by the small change in content of free phenolics and by the low modification in activity of PAL, the key enzyme of this metabolic pathway. Therefore, future studies have to clarify the signalling cascade triggered by ergosterol recognition.

  20. Applying behavioral-ecological theory to plant defense: light-dependent movement in Mimosa pudica suggests a trade-off between predation risk and energetic reward.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Evelyn L; Dill, Lawrence M; Cahill, James F

    2011-03-01

    Many animal species tolerate different amounts of predation risk based on environmental conditions and the individual's own condition, often accepting greater risk when energetically stressed. We studied the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica to see whether it too accepts greater risk of predation when less light energy is available. This plant displays a defensive behavior of rapidly folding its leaves when stimulated by touch, thereby decreasing visibility to herbivores. Averting herbivory involves a trade-off because leaf closure results in a reduction in light foraging. We manipulated the light environment of individual M. pudica plants and recorded the time it took a plant to reopen its leaves following stimulation as a measure of tolerance of predation risk. As predicted by theory, avoidance behavior was sustained longer under high light conditions than under more light-limited conditions. These findings suggest this species balances the risk and reward of antiherbivore behavior in relation to current environmental conditions and that behavioral-ecological theory is a useful framework for understanding plant responses to predators.

  1. Structural characterization of a novel derivative of myricetin from Mimosa pudica as an anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jose, Joby; Dhanya, A T; Haridas, Karickal R; Sumesh Kumar, T M; Jayaraman, Sony; Variyar, E Jayadevi; Sudhakaran, Sudheesh

    2016-12-01

    The study was initiated to determine the anticancer activity of a novel compound isolated from the plant Mimosa pudica. The structure of the compound was identified as a derivative of myricetin having alkyl, hydroxy alkyl and methyl substitutions on the basis of spectral evidences (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and Mass spectra). The isolated compound was interpreted as 2-(2',6'-dimethyl-3',4',5'-alkyl or hydroxy alkyl substituted phenyl)-3-oxy-(alkyl or hydoxy alkyl)- 5,7-dihydroxy-chromen-4-one. In vitro evaluation of anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human erythroleukemic cell line (K562) were conducted using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vivo anticancer activity was determined against Dalton's Ascites Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. The mice were treated with intraperitoneal administration of the compound at 25mg/kg and 100mg/kg body weight and were compared with the normal, DAL control and standard drug cyclophosphamide treated groups. The histology revealed that the compound could protect the cellular architecture of liver and kidney. The results from the in vitro, in vivo and histological examinations confirmed the ethnopharmacological significance of the isolated compound and could be considered further for the development of an effective drug against cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodiversity of Mimosa pudica rhizobial symbionts (Cupriavidus taiwanensis, Rhizobium mesoamericanum) in New Caledonia and their adaptation to heavy metal-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Klonowska, Agnieszka; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Tisseyre, Pierre; Miché, Lucie; Melkonian, Rémy; Ducousso, Marc; Laguerre, Gisèle; Brunel, Brigitte; Moulin, Lionel

    2012-09-01

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legumes. They are taxonomically spread among the alpha and beta subclasses of the Proteobacteria. Mimosa pudica, a tropical invasive weed, has been found to have an affinity for beta-rhizobia, including species within the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus genera. In this study, we describe the diversity of M. pudica symbionts in the island of New Caledonia, which is characterized by soils with high heavy metal content, especially of Ni. By using a plant-trapping approach on four soils, we isolated 96 strains, the great majority of which belonged to the species Cupriavidus taiwanensis (16S rRNA and recA gene phylogenies). A few Rhizobium strains in the newly described species Rhizobium mesoamericanum were also isolated. The housekeeping and nod gene phylogenies supported the hypothesis of the arrival of the C. taiwanensis and R. mesoamericanum strains together with their host at the time of the introduction of M. pudica in New Caledonia (NC) for its use as a fodder. The C. taiwanensis strains exhibited various tolerances to Ni, Zn and Cr, suggesting their adaptation to the specific environments in NC. Specific metal tolerance marker genes were found in the genomes of these symbionts, and their origin was investigated by phylogenetic analyses. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; Béna, Gilles; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Heulin, Karine; Rezkallah, Naïma; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Simon, Marcelo; Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the patterns of diversity of symbionts have been described worldwide on Mimosa pudica, a pan-tropical invasive species that interacts with both α and β-rhizobia. In this study, we investigated if symbiont competitiveness can explain these variations and the apparent prevalence of β- over α-rhizobia. We developed an indirect method to measure the proportion of nodulation against a GFP reference strain and tested its reproducibility and efficiency. We estimated the competitiveness of 54 strains belonging to four species of β-rhizobia and four of α-rhizobia, and the influence of the host genotype on their competitiveness. Our results were compared with biogeographical patterns of symbionts and host varieties. We found: (i) a strong strain effect on competitiveness largely explained by the rhizobial species, with Burkholderia phymatum being the most competitive species, followed by B. tuberum, whereas all other species shared similar and reduced levels of competitiveness; (ii) plant genotype can increase the competitiveness of Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The latter data support the likelihood of the strong adaptation of C. taiwanensis with the M. pudica var. unijuga and help explain its prevalence as a symbiont of this variety over Burkholderia species in some environments, most notably in Taiwan.

  4. Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Mimosa tenuiflora inner barks by matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gaujac, Alain; Aquino, Adriano; Navickiene, Sandro; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2012-01-15

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent hallucinogen found in beverages consumed in religion rituals and neo-shamanic practices over the world. Two of these religions, Santo Daime and União do Vegetal (UDV), are represented in countries including Australia, the United States and several European nations. In some of this countries there have been legal disputes concerning the legalization of ayahuasca consumption during religious rituals, a beverage rich in DMT. In Brazil, even children and pregnant women are legally authorized to consume ayahuasca in a religious context. A simple and low-cost method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Mimosa tenuiflora inner bark. The experimental variables that affect the MSPD method, such as the amounts of solid-phase and herbal sample, solvent nature, eluate volume and NaOH concentration were optimized using an experimental design. The method showed good linearity (r = 0.9962) and repeatability (RSD < 7.4%) for DMT compound, with detection limit of 0.12 mg/g. The proposed method was used to analyze 24 samples obtained locally. The results showed that concentrations of the target compound in M. tenuiflora barks, ranged from 1.26 to 9.35 mg/g for these samples.

  5. A preliminary investigation of pre-dispersal seed predation by Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze trees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laura A; Maimoni-Rodella, Rita C S; Rossi, Marcelo N

    2007-01-01

    This is the first record of Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn. feeding in seeds of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze. We investigated the pattern of oviposition and seed exploitation by A. schrankiae, and the distribution of mature fruits and seed predation in the inflorescences. We also compared the percentage of predated seeds, the total dry weight of fruits and non-predated seeds, the percentage of aborted seeds, and the percentage of non-emergent insects, among different quadrants of the M. bimucronata canopy. To determine the occurring species, the emergence of bruchids and parasitoids was observed in the laboratory, resulting altogether, only in individuals of A. schrankiae and Horismenus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species, respectively. Mean number of fruits produced in the median region of inflorescence was significantly higher than in the inferior and superior regions, and the frequencies (observed and expected) of predated and non-predated seeds differed among the different regions of inflorescence. Females of A. schrankiae laid their eggs on fruits, and larvae, after emergence, perforated the exocarp to reach the seeds. Most fruits presented one to three eggs and only one bruchid larva was observed in each seed. The highest value of the rate "number of eggs/fruit" and the highest percentage of predated seeds were recorded in April. Dry weight of fruits (total) and seeds (non-predated), proportions of predated seeds, seed abortions, and non-emergent seed predators, were evenly distributed in the canopy.

  6. An investigation on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) as affected by both water soakings and hot air oven treatments.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Thailand to investigate effects of different water-soaking durations and hot air oven treatments on the germination of seeds of Kwao Kreu Kao (Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth) plants. The experiment was laid in a Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications. The results showed that after tested for Electrical Conductivity (EC) values for cracking of seeds, all seeds being used were at a normal condition (with an average EC value of 28.56 microS cm(-1) g(-1)) and all seeds were ready for germination. Strength on impermeability of seeds declined after soaking in water for 10 h and onwards then the treated seeds had increased in weights. However, after treated under hot air oven, dry weights of all seeds became similar. Germination percentage of all treatments was most rapid during the first three weeks of germination period and later slowly increased with time. At day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest percentage of germination (52%) and the lowest was found with T1 (control) with 31.25%. Again at day 91 after sowing, T2 gave the highest mean value of plant numbers (16.38) and the lowest was found with T1 (7.28). Numbers of abnormal seedlings determined at day 63 after sowing were lowest with T2 (6.25%) and worst with T4 (20.14%). Again at day 63 after sowing, plant height was significantly tallest with T2 (3.88 cm) and the lowest was found with T4 (2.71 cm). Numbers of leaves were not significantly different among the treated plants reaching a highest value of 11.25 leaves plant(-1) for T3. It may be concluded that T2 was the best treatment for use in germinating seeds of Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth plants. Further improvements on longevity and high percentage of germination of seeds were discussed and suggested.

  7. The effect of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley on the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley is a native tree of the Brazilian Savannah. The fish Oreochromis niloticus L. was used as an experimental model to determine the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract as well as ethyl acetate, hexanic and chloroform fractions obtained from its leaves. The plant ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that both the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from H. canum induced vasoactive activity, causing vasodilation and vascular congestion, and the hexanic fraction also caused an apparent proliferation of capillaries. Hepatopancreas toxicity was evident through inflammatory processes. Pancreatic (chloroform fraction) and hepatic alterations, hemorrhagic spots and necroses were observed in fish treated with-ethanol extract and fractions. This study is the first description of the biologic action of the crude ethanol extract and the hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions in fish.

  8. Involvement of glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and heat-shock protein-70 in the gastroprotective mechanism of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; de Mello Moraes, Thiago; Kushima, Hélio; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action of the essential oil of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, nitric oxide, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds in the gastroprotective effect was determined in male Wistar rats. The minimum inhibitory concentration against H. pylori was determined in vitro. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. C. cajucara decreased ethanol-induced ulcer area in 100% of ulcers and decreased the histologic lesions. In the C. cajucara group, the area marked by heat-shock protein-70 was significantly higher than the area in the control group; this finding was not seen for vasoactive intestinal peptide. C. cajucara could not maintain glutathione levels close to those in the sham group. The gastric ulcer area of rats treated with the sulfhydryl compound blocker was decreased, but the ulcer area of rats treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor showed no alteration. The minimum inhibitory concentration obtained for C. cajucara was 125 μg/mL. These findings suggest that sulfhydryl compounds and heat-shock protein-70, but not nitric oxide, glutathione, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, are involved in the C. cajucara gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

  9. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  10. Phloem loading in Coleus blumei in the absence of carrier-mediated uptake of export sugar from the apoplast. [Coleus blumei Benth

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, R.; Gowan, E. )

    1990-11-01

    Phloem loading in Coleus blumei Benth. leaves cannot be explained by carrier-mediated transport of export sugar from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, the mechanism by which sucrose is thought to load in other species that have been studied in detail. Uptake profiles of the export sugars sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose into leaf discs were composed of two components, one saturable and other other not. Saturable (carrier-mediated) uptake of all three sugars was almost completely eliminated by the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS). However, when PCMBS was introduced by transpiration into mature leaves it did not prevent accumulation of {sup 14}C-photosynthate in minor veins or translocation of labeled photosynthate from green to nonchlorophyllous regions of the leaf following exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The efficacy of introducing inhibitor solutions in the transpiration stream was proven by observing saffranin O and calcofluor white movement in the minor veins and leaf apoplast. PCMBS introduced by transpiration completely inhibited phloem loading in tobacco leaves. Phloem loading in C. blumei was also studied in plasmolysis experiments. The carbohydrate content of leaves was lowered by keeping plants in the dark and then increased by exposing them to light. The solute level of intermediary cells increased in the light (phloem loading) in both PCMBS-treated and control tissues. A mechanism of symplastic phloem loading is proposed for species that translocate the raffinose series of oligosaccharides.

  11. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    PubMed

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.

  12. Antibacterial activity of 14, 15-dihydroajugapitin and 8-o-acetylharpagide isolated from Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth against human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Hilal A; Ali, Md Niamat; Ganai, Bashir A; Meraj, Maryum; Ahmad, Mudasar

    2017-02-01

    Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as Bungle Weed has been in use since ancient times and is mentioned Ayurvedic literature. The upper ground parts of the plant are used for treatment of various diseases. The weed is credited with astringent, febrifugal, stimulant, aperient, tonic, diuretic and depurative properties and is used for the treatment of gout and rheumatism, palsy and amenorrhoea. Two compounds 1) 14, 15-dihydroajugapitin and 2) 8-o-acetylharpagide were isolated from the aerial parts of the plant and tested for antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Compound 1 and 2 showed maximum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with zone of inhibitions of 25. 0 ± 1.4 mm and 22.6 ± 0.9 mm respectively. The MIC value of compound 1 and 2 ranged between 500 and 1000 μg/ml. It could be concluded that both compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Ajuga bracteosa possess antibacterial activity against pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-07-05

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  14. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics Content, Anthocyanin, and Color Stability of Isotonic Model Beverages Colored with Andes Berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) Anthocyanin Powder

    PubMed Central

    Estupiñan, D.C.; Schwartz, S.J.; Garzón, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages. PMID:21535712

  15. Anti-arthritic effect of scopoletin, a coumarin compound occurring in Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems, is associated with decreased angiogenesis in synovium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Li, Ying; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue

    2010-08-01

    Scopoletin is the main constituent of coumarin found in the stems of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We have previously demonstrated that scopoletin is able to decrease the serum level of uric acid in hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate, and attenuate croton oil-induced inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-arthritic effects of scopoletin in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by assessing paw swelling, pathology, and synovial angiogenesis. It was found that scopoletin, injected intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100 mg/kg, reduced both inoculated and non-inoculated paw swelling as well as articular index scores, and elevated the mean body weight of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Rats treated with higher dose of scopoletin showed a near-normal histological architecture of the joints and a reduced new blood vessel formation in the synovial tissues. Furthermore, scopoletin downregulated the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and interleukin 6 in the synovial tissues of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In conclusion, scopoletin is capable of ameliorating clinical symptoms of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis, by reducing numbers of new blood vessels in the synovium and the production of important endogenous angiogenic inducers. Therefore, this compound may be a potential agent for angiogenesis-related diseases and could serve as a structural base for screening more potent synthetic analogs.

  16. Prevention of FGF-2-induced angiogenesis by scopoletin, a coumarin compound isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Gao, XingHua; Lu, Dan; Xu, XianXiang; Xia, YuFeng; Dai, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that scopoletin, one of the main bioactive constituents of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems, exerts anti-arthritic activity in vivo partly by preventing synovial angiogenesis. The present study was performed to further investigate the anti-angiogenic potential of scopoletin, focusing on the mechanisms of action in vitro. In the aortic ring sprouting assay, scopoletin (10, 30 and 100 μM) significantly inhibited the growth of endothelial sprouts in a concentration-dependent manner. As to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), scopoletin could inhibit their proliferation, migration and tubule formation induced by FGF-2, especially the proliferation. It also remarkably decreased the expression of VEGF at mRNA and protein levels, and the phosphorylations of IKKα and IκB but not Akt, as well as the degradation of IκB caused by FGF-2 in HUVECs. These findings suggest that scopoletin is substantially able to attenuate FGF-2-induced angiogenesis, and it might act by directly preventing the stimulation action of FGF-2 and by indirectly decreasing the production of VEGF. Scopoletin down-regulated the VEGF expression through NF-κB rather than PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-05-12

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  18. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2010-12-29

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  19. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  20. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  1. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).

  2. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    PubMed

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  3. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  4. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 1 to monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils of Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth. and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Salehi, B; Schnitzler, P; Ayatollahi, S A; Kobarfard, F; Fathi, M; Eisazadeh, M; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2017-08-30

    In recent years, with increased the prevalence of viral infections and having no specific for  their treatment  and also the continuous appearance of resistant viral strains, the finding of novel antiviral agents is necessary. In this study, monoterpenes of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils from Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth. and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro on Vero cell line CCL-81-ATCC using a plaque reduction assay. The antiviral activity of three monoterpenes (thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene) and three essential oils were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay, direct plaque test. In addition, the modes of antiviral action of these compounds were investigated during the viral infection cycle. Results showed that the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.002%, 0.037%, >0.1%, 0.035%, 0.018% and 0.001% for thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, S. arvensis oil, L. royleana oil and P. vulgaris oil, respectively. A manifestly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-1 could be exhibited for compounds tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, compounds were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the compounds, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 80% when HSV-1 was preincubated with p-cymene. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the compounds were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-1 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that compounds affected HSV-1 mostly before adsorption and might interact with the viral envelope. Thymol exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as antiviral agent for treatment of herpetic infections.

  5. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  6. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  7. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  8. Efficacy and safety of Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. for musculoskeletal pain treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Puttarak, Panupong; Sawangjit, Ratree; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-12-24

    Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. has been used as active ingredient in Thai traditional medicine recipes for pain treatment. Dry stem powder and ethanolic extract also recommended in Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (NLEMs) for musculoskeletal pain treatment as herbal medicine. However, no summarization of clinical effect and safety has been evaluated. Our study aimed to determine the clinical effects and safety of D. scandens for musculoskeletal pain treatment compared with standard regimen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). International and Thai databases were searched from inception through August 2015. Comparative randomized controlled trials investigating oral D. scandens for musculoskeletal pain were included. Outcomes of interest included level of pain and adverse event. Mean changes of the outcomes from baseline were compared between D. scandens and NSAIDs by calculating mean difference. From 42 articles identified, 4 studies involving a total of 414 patients were included for efficacy analysis. The effects of oral D. scandens on reducing pain score were no different from those of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at any time points (3, 7, 14 days and overall). The overall pain reduction in the D. scandens group was not inferior to treatment with NSAIDs (weighted mean difference 0.06; 95% CI: -0.20, 0.31) without evident of heterogeneity (I(2)=0.00%, p=0.768). When compared, the adverse events (AEs) of D. scandens showed no different relative risk with NSAIDs. The major adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms. D. scandens may be considered as an alternative for musculoskeletal pain reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length. To study pollen morphology, pollens were extracted by hand pressure and was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The viable pollen grains were identified by staining with 1% acetocarmine. Even though Tree tomato and Blackberry pollen grains are morphologically similar, their exine shapes differ. We observed four times increase in pollen germination rate when suspended in nutrient solution (Sucrose with Boric acid) than control (water). Pollen grains under nutrient solution were subjected to different groups of pesticides for the period of 2, 4, and 6 h. With respect to pesticide affect, the Blackberry pollen grain germination followed the following order: Lecaniceb > Beauveb > Metazeb => Myceb > Control. However, the effect on Tree tomato pollen grains was as follows: Lecaniceb > Myceb > Cantus > Bacillus thuringiensis > Kripton > Control. As per as pollen grain germination is concerned, we observed that the chemical pesticides are more harmful than other pesticides. So, it is necessary to perform screening test for different pesticides and their effect on pollen grain germination before applying to the fields.

  10. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-11-20

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  11. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  12. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  13. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone.

  14. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  15. Demonstration of biological activities of extracts from Isodon rugosus Wall. Ex Benth: Separation and identification of bioactive phytoconstituents by GC-MS analysis in the ethyl acetate extract.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Anwar; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2017-05-30

    Since long, natural sources have been explored for possible managements of various diseases. In this context, the study is designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth for biological potentials including antibacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-termites and anti-Pharaoh activities followed by GC-MS analysis of active fraction to identify various bioactive compounds. I. rugosus was investigated against eight bacterial strains using well diffusion method and microdilution method with ceftriaxone as positive control. Similarly, the insecticidal activity was carried out against Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica, Monomorium pharaonis and Heterotermis indicola following contact toxicity method. Likewise, anthelmintic activity was performed against Ascaridia galli and Pherethima posthuma using albendazole as positive control, in which the paralysis and death times of the worms were observed. The GC-MS analysis of the most active solvent fraction was performed for identifications of various bioactive compounds. Among the tested samples of I. rugosus, flavonoids and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited high antibacterial activities. The crude saponins showed highest anthelmintic activity against Pherethima posthuma and Ascaridia galli with death times of 27.67 and 29.22 min respectively at concentrations of 40 mg/ml. In insecticidal activity, chloroform fraction and saponins exhibited notable results against R. dominica (60 and 70%) and T. castaneum (70 and 76%) at concentration of 200 mg/ml. In anti-termite assay, all the plant samples showed overwhelming results, i.e. all the 25 termites were killed on the 3rd day. Similarly, in anti-Pharaoh activity, the chloroform, ethyl acetate and saponins fractions were most potent, each exhibiting LD50 of <0.1 mg/ml. In GC-MS analysis, total of 57 compounds were identified. Some of the bioactive compounds identified in GC-MS analysis are palmitic acid, hinokiol, α-amyrin, phytol, ethyl linolate, cyclohexanone

  16. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  17. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  18. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation.

  19. Ameliorative potential of standardized fruit extract of Pterodon pubescens Benth on neuropathic pain in mice: Evidence for the mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Nucci-Martins, Catharina; Martins, Daniel F; Nascimento, Leandro F; Venzke, Dalila; Oliveira, Aldo S; Frederico, Marisa J S; Silva, Fátima R M B; Brighente, Inês M C; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Santos, Adair R S

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal plant Pterodon pubescens Benth has been traditionally used for a long time to treat rheumatic diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract from P. pubescens fruits (EEPp) in a model of neuropathic pain in mice. The phytochemical analysis of EEPp was performed through GC-MS, HPLC and colorimetric analysis. The antinociceptive effects of EEPp (30-300 mg/kg, i.g.) were evaluated on mechanical and thermal (cold or heat) hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in mice. We also investigated the effects of EEPp on the nociceptive response induced by intrathecal injection (i.t.) of ionotropic (AMPA, NMDA and kainate) and metabotropic (trans-ACPD) glutamate receptor agonists, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists. In addition, we also investigated the safety profile of prolonged treatment with EEPp in mice. The phytochemical analysis showed a higher amount terpenes, being nine sesquiterpenes and seven diterpenes with vouacapan skeletons, as well as a small amount of phenols and flavonoids. The exact mechanism by which EEPp promotes its antinociceptive effect is not yet fully understood, but its oral administration causes significant inhibition of glutamate-, kainate-, NMDA-, trans-ACPD-induced biting responses, as well as of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels activators (capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively). These results may indicate, at least in part, some of the mechanisms that are involved in this effect. In particular, EEPp decreases neuropathic pain and clearly shows, for the first time, a thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia reduction in the model of partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL), without inducing tolerance. Furthermore, the prolonged treatment with EEPp (300 mg/kg, i.g.) showed a cumulative effect over 24h

  20. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Paraburkholderia species isolated from nodules of Mimosa pudica (L.) and Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) grown in soils of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica).

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-04-01

    Some species of the genus Paraburkholderia that are able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes are called β-rhizobia and represent a group of ecological and biotechnological importance. We used Mimosa pudica and Phaseolus vulgaris to trap 427 rhizobial isolates from rhizospheric soil of Mimoseae trees in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Eighty-four representative strains were selected according to the 16S rRNA haplotypes and taxonomically characterized using a concatenated 16S rRNA-recA phylogeny. Most strains were assembled in the genus Paraburkholderia, including Paraburkholderia sabiae and Pa. nodosa. Mesorhizobium (α-rhizobia) and Cupriavidus (β-rhizobia) were also isolated, but in smaller proportions. Multilocus sequence analysis and BOX-PCR analyses indicated that six clusters of Paraburkholderia represent potential new species. In the phylogenetic analysis of the nodC gene, the majority of the strains were positioned in the same groups as in the 16S rRNA-recA tree, indicative of stability and vertical inheritance, but we also identified horizontal transfer of nodC in Pa. sabiae. All α- and β-rhizobial species were trapped by both legumes, although preferences of the host plants for specific rhizobial species have been observed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Growth of tropical tree species and absorption of copper in soil artificially contaminated.

    PubMed

    Silva, R F; Andreazza, R; Da Ros, C; Dellai, A; Jacques, R J S; Scheid, D

    2015-11-01

    Reclamation of copper contaminated sites using forest species may be an efficient alternative to reduce the negative impact. The aim of this study was to quantify the growth and evaluate the quality of seedlings of native species at different doses of copper in the soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven replications in a factorial arrangement (3×9), using three indigenous species of plants (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella and Apuleia leiocarpa) and nine doses of copper in the soil (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 and 480 mg kg-1).The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse which the seedlings were grown for 180 days. The experimental units were plastic pots of 125 cm3 filled with Oxisol. The results indicated that the levels of copper applied to the soil decreased the quality of seedlings and growth of Apuleia leiocarpato a lesser extent compared with Mimosa scabrella and Anadenanthera macrocarpa. Anadenanthera macrocarpa was the forest species that resulted in the lowest copper translocation from roots to shoots. In addition, the Apuleia leiocarpa exhibited high resistance and tolerance for copper in the soil and also, it is highlighted an ability for copper phytoremediation.

  2. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. II. Influence of various molecular properties in relation to membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Roblin, Gabriel; Chollet, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    Early prediction of compound absorption by cells is of considerable importance in the building of an integrated scheme describing the impact of a compound on intracellular biological processes. In this scope, we study the structure-activity relationships of several benzoic acid-related phenolics which are involved in many plant biological phenomena (growth, flowering, allelopathy, defense processes). Using the partial least squares (PLS) regression method, the impact of molecular descriptors that have been shown to play an important role concerning the uptake of pharmacologically active compounds by animal cells was analyzed in terms of the modification of membrane potential, variations in proton flux, and inhibition of the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica leaves. The hydrogen bond donors (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), polar surface area (PSA), halogen ratio (Hal ratio), number of rotatable bonds (FRB), molar volume (MV), molecular weight (MW), and molar refractivity (MR) were considered in addition to two physicochemical properties (logD and the amount of non-dissociated form in relation to pKa). HBD + HBA and PSA predominantly impacted the three biological processes compared to the other descriptors. The coefficient of determination in the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated that a major part of the observed seismonasty inhibition and proton flux modification can be explained by the impact of these descriptors, whereas this was not the case for membrane potential variations. These results indicate that the transmembrane transport of the compounds is a predominant component. An increasing number of implicated descriptors as the biological processes become more complex may reflect their impacts on an increasing number of sites in the cell. The determination of the most efficient effectors may lead to a practical use to improve drugs in the control of microbial attacks on plants.

  3. Chemical composition of total flavonoids from Salvia chinensia Benth and their pro-apoptotic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: potential roles of suppressing cellular NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Hu, Yajing; Hu, Yun; Yang, Tianming; Shu, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Salvia chinensia Benth (S. chinensia) is a medical plant that has been traditionally applied for centuries in the treatment of malignant diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity has not been fully established. In this study, the chemical profiles of total flavonoids from S. chinensia (TFSC) were explored. Thirteen compounds which constituted the major components of TFSC were separated and identified. Flow cytometry analysis and caspase activity assays showed that TFSC dose-dependently induced HepG2 and Huh-7 HCC cell apoptosis. TFSC was also shown to substantially suppress NF-κB activity in HCC cells. Moreover, TFSC significantly repressed transplanted murine H22 ascitic hepatic cancer cell growth in vivo. Further studies revealed that TFSC induced HCC cell apoptosis and inhibited expressional levels of NF-κB responsive genes in transplanted tumor tissues. In addition, the toxic impact of TFSC on tumor-bearing mice was undetectable. These results indicate that TFSC induces HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The suppression of cellular NF-κB activity is implicated in the TFSC-mediated HCC cell apoptosis.

  4. In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain).

    PubMed

    Ono, Lucy; Wollinger, Wagner; Rocco, Iray M; Coimbra, Terezinha L M; Gorin, Philip A J; Sierakowski, Maria-Rita

    2003-11-01

    Two galactomannans, one extracted from seeds of Mimosa scabrella, having a mannose to galactose ratio of 1.1, and another with a 1.4 ratio from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, were sulfated. The products from M. scabrella (BRS) and L. leucocephala (LLS) had a degree of sulfation of 0.62 and 0.50, and an average molecular weight of 620x10(3) and 574x10(3) gmol(-1), respectively. Their activities against yellow fever virus (YFV; BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (DEN-1; Hawaii strain) were evaluated. This was carried out in young mice following intraperitoneal infection with YFV. At a dose of 49 mgkg(-1), BRS and LLS gave protection against death in 87.7 and 96.5% of the mice, respectively. When challenged with 37.5 LD50 of YFV, mice previously inoculated with BRS+virus or LLS+virus, showed 93.3 and 100% resistance, respectively, with neutralization titers similar to mice injected with 25 LD50 of formaldehyde-inactivated YFV. In vitro experiments with YFV and DEN-1 in C6/36 cell culture assays in 24-well microplates showed that concentrations that produced a 100-fold decrease in virus titer of YFV were 586 and 385 mgl(-1) for BRS and LLS, respectively. For DEN-1 they were 347 and 37 mgl(-1), respectively. Sulfated galactomannans, thus demonstrate in vitro and in vivo activity against flaviviruses.

  5. Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of galactomannan composition on the binary gel formation with xanthan.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, T M; Milas, M; Rinaudo, M; Reicher, F; Ganter, J L

    1999-12-01

    The influence of the galactomannan characteristic ratios (M/G) on the temperature of gelation (Tg) and the gel strength of mixtures of galactomannan with xanthan is reported. Two galactomannans were investigated: one highly substituted from the seeds of Mimosa scabrella (M/G = 11), and the other, less substituted, from the endosperm of Schizolobium parahybae, with (M/G = 30) [Ganter JLMS, Zawadzki-Baggio SF, Leitner SC, Sierakowski MR, Reicher F. J Carbohydr Chem 1993;12:753]. The xanthan:galactomannan systems (4:2 g l(-1), in 5 mM NaCl) showed a temperature of gel formation (Tg) of 24 degrees C for that of S. parahybae [Bresolin TMB, Milas M, Rinaudo M and Ganter JLMS. Int J Biol Macromol 1998;23:263] and 20 degrees C for the galactomannan of M. scabrella, determined by viscoelastic measurements and microcalorimetry. A Tg of 40-50 degrees C was found by Shatwell et al. [Shatwell KP, Sutherland IW, Ross-Murphy SB, Dea ICM. Carbohydr Polym 1991;14:29] for locust bean gum-LBG (M/G = 43). Lundin and Hermansson [Lundin L, Hermansson AM. Carbohydr Polym 1995;26:129] reported a difference of 13 degrees C for Tg of two LBG samples with M/G = 3 (40 degrees C) and 5 (53 degrees C), in mixtures with xanthan. It appears that the more substituted galactomannans have lower temperatures of gelation in the presence of xanthan. The mechanism of gelation depends also on the M/G ratio. For the lower values it involves only disordered xanthan chains in contrast to M/G ratios higher than 3. In addition, the presence of the galactomannan from M. scabrella increased slightly the temperature of the conformational change (Tm) of xanthan probably due to the ionic strength contribution of proteins (3.9%) present in the galactomannan. On the other hand, the galactomannans from S. parahybae, with 1.5% of proteins and M. scabrella, with 2.4% of protein, did not show this effect, the Tm of xanthan alone or in a mixture being practically unchanged.

  7. Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alkaloid contents of the leaves and seeds of M. tenuiflora collected from northeastern Brazil were studied. Alkaloids were isolated by classical acid/base extraction procedures and by cation exchange solid phase extraction. The crude alkaloid fractions were then analysed by thin layer chromatogr...

  8. Phagostimulants for larvae of the mimosa webworm, Homadaula anisocentra

    Treesearch

    John W. Peacock; Frank W. Fisk

    1970-01-01

    The chemical constituents of honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos L., leaves were investigated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Homodaula anisocentra Meyrick. A water-soluble fraction evoked a significant feeding response. Several sugars and amino acids were present in this extract, but only sucrose and fructose stimulated...

  9. Characterization of indigenous rhizobia from caatinga

    PubMed Central

    Pires e Teixeira, Fernanda Cíntia; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize rhizobial isolates from Cratylia mollis Mart. ex Benth, Calliandra depauperata Benth. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. by means of rhizobial colonies morphology and restriction analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rDNA-ARDRA). Nodules were collected in the field and from plants cultivated in a greenhouse experiment using Caatinga soil samples. Sixty seven isolates were described by morphological analysis. Forty seven representative isolates were used for ARDRA analysis using seven restriction enzymes. We observed high diversity of both slow and fast-growing rhizobia that formed three morpho-physiological clusters. A few fast-growing isolates formed a group of strains of the Bradyrhizobium type; however, most of them diverged from the B. japonicum and B. elkanii species. Cratylia mollis nodule isolates were the most diverse, while all Mimosa tenuiflora isolates displayed fast growth with no pH change and were clustered into groups bearing 100% similarity, according to ARDRA results. PMID:24031482

  10. Characterization of indigenous rhizobia from caatinga.

    PubMed

    Pires E Teixeira, Fernanda Cíntia; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize rhizobial isolates from Cratylia mollis Mart. ex Benth, Calliandra depauperata Benth. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. by means of rhizobial colonies morphology and restriction analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rDNA-ARDRA). Nodules were collected in the field and from plants cultivated in a greenhouse experiment using Caatinga soil samples. Sixty seven isolates were described by morphological analysis. Forty seven representative isolates were used for ARDRA analysis using seven restriction enzymes. We observed high diversity of both slow and fast-growing rhizobia that formed three morpho-physiological clusters. A few fast-growing isolates formed a group of strains of the Bradyrhizobium type; however, most of them diverged from the B. japonicum and B. elkanii species. Cratylia mollis nodule isolates were the most diverse, while all Mimosa tenuiflora isolates displayed fast growth with no pH change and were clustered into groups bearing 100% similarity, according to ARDRA results.

  11. Induction of growth hormone release by Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH.

    PubMed

    Jung, D Y; Ha, H; Kim, C

    2004-02-01

    Puerariae Radix (PR), Puerariae Flos (PF), and Puerariae Surculus (PS) as well as their constituents were tested for induction of rat growth hormone (rGH) release by both rat pituitary cell culture and in vivo experimentation in order to develop them to novel drugs. Through a calibration curve of the rGH released by addition of rat growth hormone-releasing hormone (rGHRH) to rat pituitary cells, the 70 % ethanol extracts of PR and PS increased rGH release by about 1.6 and 1.7 times as high, respectively, as the control group (264.6 +/- 13.6 pM). However, each puerarin type as a representative constituent of PR in Korea Pharmacopeia (KP) and tectorigenin and an important ingredient of PF were twice as effective as in the control group. The acid hydrolysate of Puerariae Surculus (HPS) increased rGH release concentration-dependently, and its EC (50) was approximately 10.4 microg/ml. The T (max) value for rGH after injection of 20 microg/kg of rGHRH was 10 - 30 min, while the C (max) value was increased by approximately 12-fold compared to the control group (198.2 +/- 25.0 pM) and the AUC (0 - 45) was increased to 10 times the level of the control group (10,840.9 +/- 845.5 min. pM). On the other hand, T (max) for the HPS was 60 min, while C (max) was increased approximately to 5.8 fold compared to control (244.1 +/- 36.4 pM). C (max) for puerarin was 1,028.6 +/- 502.7 pM, that is, approximately 5.2 times as high as the control level. However, tectorigenin (20 microg/kg) was of no statistical significance. Therefore, we suggest that the HPS and puerarin act either on GH secretagogue receptors or on GHRH receptor of somatotrophin as possible agonists or an inhibitor on somatostatin receptor to release rGH, respectively.

  12. Comparative pollen preferences by africanized honeybees Apis mellifera L. of two colonies in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Cynthia F P; Bacha Junior, Gabriel L; Fonseca, Rafael L S E; Sousa, Priscila R de

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polliniferous floral sources used by Apis mellifera (L.) (africanized) in an apiary situated in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais state, and evaluate the pollen prefences among the beehives. Two beehives of Langstroth type with frontal pollen trap collectors were used. The harvest was made from September 2007 to March 2008, with three samples of pollen pellets colected per month per beehive. The subsamples of 2 grams each were prepared according to the European standard melissopalynological method. A total of 56 pollen types were observed, identifying 43 genus and 32 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Mimosaceae (8), Asteraceae (6), Fabaceae (3), Arecaceae (3), Euphorbiaceae (3), Rubiaceae (3), Caesalpiniaceae (2), Moraceae (2) and Myrtaceae (2). The most frequent pollen types (> 45%) were Mimosa scabrella, Myrcia and Sorocea. The results demonstrated a similarity regarding the preferences of floral sources during the major part of the time. There was a distinct utilization of floral sources among the pollen types of minor frequency. In spite of the strong antropic influence, the region showed a great polliniferous variety, which was an indicative of the potential for monofloral as well as heterofloral pollen production.

  13. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-07

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  14. Energy from wood biomass: The experience of the Brazilian forest sector

    SciTech Connect

    Couto, L.; Graca, L.R.; Betters, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    Wood biomass is one of the most significant renewable sources of energy in Brazil. Fuelwood and charcoal play a very important role not only for household energy consumption but also for the cement, iron and steel industries. Wood is used as an energy source by the pulp and paper, composite board and other industries of the country, mainly for steam and electricity generation. Ethanol, lignin-based coke and methanol from wood were produced at experimental units in Brazil but were not implemented on a commercial scale. Currently, a new experimental plant using a technology developed in the US is being built in the state of Bahia to generate electricity from Eucalyptus. This technology is a Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine process which is expected to make the use of wood biomass economically feasible for electricity generation. Forest plantations are the main source of wood biomass for energy consumption by the Brazilian industrial sector. Fiscal incentives in the 1960s helped the country to begin a massive reforestation program mainly using Eucalyptus and Pinus species. A native species, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) has also been used extensively for wood energy plantations in southern Brazil. Technical, economic, social and environmental impacts of these plantation forests are discussed along with a forecast of the future wood energy utilization in Brazil.

  15. Macrophage activation and leishmanicidal activity by galactomannan and its oxovanadium (IV/V) complex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adriazola, Izabela Ono; Evangelista do Amaral, Alex; Amorim, Juliana Carolina; Correia, Beatriz Lourenço; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Compounds that activate macrophage antimicrobial activity are potential targets for treatment of leishmaniasis. The present study investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of a galactomannan (GALMAN-A) isolated from seeds of Mimosa scabrella and its oxovanadium (IV/V) complex (GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+)) on macrophage activity. GALMAN-A increased nitric oxide levels by ~33% at a concentration of 250μg/ml, while GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) decreased nitric oxide levels by ~33% at a concentration of 50μg/ml. Furthermore, GALMAN-A increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels by 5.5 and 2.3 times, respectively, at a concentration of 25μg/ml; at the same concentration, GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) promoted an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 production by 8 and 5.5 times, respectively. However, neither GALMAN-A nor GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) affected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Importantly, both GALMAN-A and GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited leishmanicidal activity on amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, reaching ~60% activity at concentrations of 100 and 25μg/ml, respectively. These results indicate that GALMAN-A is three times more potent and its oxovanadium complex is twelve times more potent than Glucantime (300μg/ml), which is the drug of choice in leishmaniasis treatment. The IC50 value for GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) was 74.4μg/ml (0.58μg/ml of vanadium). Thus, the significant activation of macrophages and the noted leishmanicidal effect demonstrate the need for further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  16. Mimosa: Mixture Model of Co-expression to Detect Modulators of Regulatory Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Matthew; Everett, Logan; Singh, Larry; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    Functionally related genes tend to be correlated in their expression patterns across multiple conditions and/or tissue-types. Thus co-expression networks are often used to investigate functional groups of genes. In particular, when one of the genes is a transcription factor (TF), the co-expression-based interaction is interpreted, with caution, as a direct regulatory interaction. However, any particular TF, and more importantly, any particular regulatory interaction, is likely to be active only in a subset of experimental conditions. Moreover, the subset of expression samples where the regulatory interaction holds may be marked by presence or absence of a modifier gene, such as an enzyme that post-translationally modifies the TF. Such subtlety of regulatory interactions is overlooked when one computes an overall expression correlation. Here we present a novel mixture modeling approach where a TF-Gene pair is presumed to be significantly correlated (with unknown coefficient) in a (unknown) subset of expression samples. The parameters of the model are estimated using a Maximum Likelihood approach. The estimated mixture of expression samples is then mined to identify genes potentially modulating the TF-Gene interaction. We have validated our approach using synthetic data and on three biological cases in cow and in yeast. While limited in some ways, as discussed, the work represents a novel approach to mine expression data and detect potential modulators of regulatory interactions.

  17. Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax. & Hoffman

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, David A.; Abioye, Emmanuel O.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Akinpelu, Oluseun F.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s) of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract. PMID:25688278

  19. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  20. Nephroprotective effect of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth leaves on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira Galdino, Pablinny; Nunes Alexandre, Layse; Fernanda Pacheco, Lílian; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; de Paula, José Realino; Rodrigues Pedrino, Gustavo; Henrique Xavier, Carlos; Maria Ferreira, Patrícia

    2017-04-06

    Rudgea viburnoides, popularly known as "congonha-de-bugre" or "erva de bugre", is used in folk medicine as hypotensive, blood depurative, anti-rheumatic, diuretic and in the treatment of kidney and bladder pain. Based on the popularly acclaimed nephron-protective effect of R. viburnoides, we investigated, using rats, the protective effect of this plant extract on gentamicin-induced kidney injury. Urinary volume, water and food intakes were assessed in adult male Wistar rats (naive or gentamicin-induced model of nephrotoxicity) treated with R. viburnoides extract. Also blood and kidney samples were collected for further laboratory and histological analyses. R. viburnoides leaves extract improved renal function. It also improved the renal function impairments caused by gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, as revealed by glomerular filtration rate, urine output and proteinuria. R. viburnoides exert renoprotective effect, which may support its popular use for renal diseases treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antioxidant and Toxicity Studies of 50% Methanolic Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chung Pin; Fung Ang, Lee; Por, Lip Yee; Wong, Siew Tung; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity and potential toxicity of 50% methanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae) leaves (MEOS) after acute and subchronic administration in rats. Superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extract. In acute toxicity study, single dose of MEOS, 5000 mg/kg, was administered to rats by oral gavage, and the treated rats were monitored for 14 days. While in the subchronic toxicity study, MEOS was administered orally, at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. From the results, MEOS showed good superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and antilipid peroxidation activities. There was no mortality detected or any signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical parameters between both male and female treated rats in any doses tested. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The oral lethal dose determined was more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of MEOS for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day. PMID:24490155

  2. Cotton by-products supplementation for steers grazing tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica [Buckl.] Benth.) rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of growing cattle fed COBY-processed CBP or a commercial supplement during winter and spring. In addition, forage utilization was also measured. Three treatments were evaluated: (1) control (CON), no supplement, (2) commercial supplement ...

  3. Technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) Benth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakshapal; Divya, S; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. The rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. The rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Treatment with bioinoculants (except Trichoderma harzianum) substantially improved the root and shoot biomass of nursery raised rooted cuttings particularly in treatments containing Azotobacter chroococcum (150 and 91.67%, respectively), Glomus intraradices (117 and 91.67%, respectively) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (117 and 83%, respectively). The transplanted rooted plants in pots, over two harvests, yielded higher shoot biomass when rooting medium contained A. chroococcum (147%), G. intraradices (139%) and P. fluorescencs (139%). Although the treatments did not affect the content of essential oil, the quality of essential oil as measured by the content of patchouli alcohol improved with Glomus aggregatum (18%). Similar trends were observed in field trials with significantly higher biomass yield achieved with A. chroococcum (51%), G. intraradices (46%) and P. fluorescencs (17%) compared to control (un-inoculated) plots. Increased in herb yield was found to be related with increased nutrient uptake. The population of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere was observed to be considerably higher in plots receiving vermicompost enriched with bioinoculants. This technology can be a successful way of delivering sufficient propagules of bioinoculants along with vermicompost especially in organic fields.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Dioclea rostrata Benth seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Benevides, Raquel G.; Oliveira, Taiana Maia de; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Freire, Valder Nogueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2006-02-01

    D. rostrata lectin was crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222 and diffracted to 1.87 Å resolution. Lectins from the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) are highly similar proteins that promote various biological activities with distinctly differing potencies. The structural basis for this experimental data is not yet fully understood. Dioclea rostrata lectin was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.51, b = 88.22, c = 87.76 Å. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 47.9%. A complete data set was collected at 1.87 Å resolution.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Almeida, Catia A; Bizzo, Humberto R; Duarte, Rafael S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2013-01-16

    Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10⁻³ μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10⁻⁸ μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  6. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

  7. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa.

  8. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth

    PubMed Central

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  9. Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts

    PubMed Central

    Farrapo, Nicole M; Silva, Gleidy AA; Costa, Karine N; Silva, Magali G; Cogo, José C; Belo, Cháriston A Dal; dos Santos, Márcio G; Groppo, Francisco C; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40μg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was analyzed by Student's t-test or repeated measures ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts. Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ± 6.2%) than EA (81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7%) > M (54 ±10%) against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be mediated by tannins. PMID:22331992

  10. 'Insect aquaplaning' on a superhydrophilic hairy surface: how Heliamphora nutans Benth. pitcher plants capture prey.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Scharmann, Mathias; Skepper, Jeremy; Federle, Walter

    2013-02-22

    Trichomes are a common feature of plants and perform important and diverse functions. Here, we show that the inward-pointing hairs on the inner wall of insect-trapping Heliamphora nutans pitchers are highly wettable, causing water droplets to spread rapidly across the surface. Wetting strongly enhanced the slipperiness and increased the capture rate for ants from 29 to 88 per cent. Force measurements and tarsal ablation experiments revealed that wetting affected the insects' adhesive pads but not the claws, similar to the 'aquaplaning' mechanism of (unrelated) Asian Nepenthes pitcher plants. The inward-pointing trichomes provided much higher traction when insects were pulled outwards. The wetness-dependent capture mechanisms of H. nutans and Nepenthes pitchers present a striking case of functional convergence, whereas the use of wettable trichomes constitutes a previously unknown mechanism to make plant surfaces slippery.

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Nepeta graciliflora Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C; Sharma, Rabia; Dhyani, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Nepeta graciliflora was analysed, for the first time, by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 27 compounds were identified, constituting over 91.44% of oil composition. The oil was strongly characterised by sesquiterpenes (86.72%), with β-sesquiphellandrene (28.75%), caryophyllene oxide (12.15%), α-bisabolol (8.97%), α-bergamotene (8.51%), β-bisabolene (6.33%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.34%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil was determined against four micro-organisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. The oil exhibited good activity against all tested organisms.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Guo, Sen; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Yang, Meiqi; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Li; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2017-07-27

    Ptychopetalum olacoides is a folk medicinal plant for health care in market, especially in Brazil. Fourteen known compounds were isolated from P. olacoides and their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data, including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, UV, IR and HR-ESI-MS. The 14 known compounds were identified as N-trans-feruloyl-3,5-dihydroxyindolin-2-one (1), magnoflorine (2), menisperine (3), 4-coumaroylserotonin (4), moschamine (5), luteolin (6), 4'-methoxyluteolin (7), 3-methoxyluteolin (8), 3, 7-dimethoxyluteolin (9), caffeic acid (10), ferulic acid (11), vanillic acid (12), syringic acid (13) and ginsenoside Re (14). To our knowledge, compounds (1-6, 13-14) were isolated from the plant for the first time. Additionally, quantitative analysis results indicated that calibration equations of compounds (1-3, 6, 9, 11-13) exhibited good linear regressions within the test ranges (R(2) ≥ 0.9990) and magnoflorine and menisperine were the major constituents in the barks of P. olacoides. The contents of magnoflorine and menisperine accounted for 75.96% of all analytes. However, the content of phenolic components was smaller and the highest content was no more than 1.04 mg/g. Collectively, these results suggested that alkaloids are the dominant substances in P. olacoides, which can make a difference for the quality control and further use of P. olacoides.

  13. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation.

  14. Toxicity, antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Ateh, Eugene N; Keiser, Jennifer; Vargas, Mireille; Bach, Horacio; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Davis, Harry; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2012-12-18

    This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties of extracts obtained from the plant Vernonia guineensis, a plant commonly used in traditional Cameroonian medicine. For in vitro studies, 10 g of leaf and tuber powder from V. guineensis was extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used for antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity studies. In the antimicrobial assay, extracts were tested against bacterial and fungal organisms including; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the anthelmintic assay, larval and adult stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum and the mouse nematode Trichuris muris were used. For the acute toxicity test, male and female rats of 150-200 g body weight were used in the experiment. The aqueous extract of V. guineensis tubers was administered in 4 doses of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg per group (n=6), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. The crude extracts exhibited weak antibacterial and antifungal activity except for the dichloromethane extract, which showed moderate activity against A. fumigatus (MIC=200 μg/ml). In the anthelmintic assay, the organic extracts of the tubers had 100% killing efficacy against T. muris at 2mg/ml in 48 h, while the aqueous extract showed no activity. The organic leaf extracts demonstrated potent activity killing 100% of the adult worms 1mg/ml in 24h. The aqueous leaf extract was active at 2mg/ml in 72 h, killing 100% of the adult worms. In the acute toxicity test, V. guineensis did not produce any toxic signs or death at the maximum concentration of 4000 mg/kg. Crude extracts from V. guineensis possess anthelmintic activity against T. muris with only weak antibiotic activity. Acute administration of aqueous extract from V. guineensis tubers did not produce toxic effects in rats. The absence of acute toxicity at the highest concentration tested indicates that the tea decoction from V. guineensis extract is safe at concentrations ≤ 4000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenolic contents and bioactivities of pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri (Benth.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Said, Ataa; Abuotabl, Elsayed A; Raoof, Gehan Fawzy Abdel; Huefner, Antje; Nada, Somaia A

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to develop drugs from natural sources to overcome the side effects of many of synthetic drugs. Methanol extracts of both pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri were used to investigate antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects and to determine the chemical composition of the extract responsible for bioactivity. Methanol (70%) extracts of the seeds and pericarps of P. solandri were prepared. Hot plate method was used to test analgesic activity, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation method was used to test anti-inflammatory activity, and colorimetric methods were used to test antioxidant, hepatoprotective (by determination of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities), and renal function protective effects (by measuring uric acid and creatinine levels). Chromatographic methods and means of (1)H-NMR, (13)C -NMR, and UV spectra were used for isolation and identification of the responsible compounds. In this study for the first time, four phenolic compounds were isolated from the pericarp of P. solandri which were identified as catechin, quercetin, quercetrin and rutin. Methanolic extract of both seeds and pericarp of P. solandri showed strong antioxidant effect, hepatoprotective, renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, seed extract had lower effect than pericarp in a dose dependent manner. This study showed that methanol extract of pericarp of P. solandri is more powerful than that of the seed regarding its antioxidant, hepato-protective; renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The phenolic compounds isolated from the methanol extract of pericarp were responsible for bioactivity.

  16. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  17. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.

  18. Antifungal activities and active ingredients of Melodinus suaveolens Champ. ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Ling, Siquan; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tang, Wenwei

    2017-07-16

    Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL). A new compound, (2R, 3S, 5S, 6R)-1-O-methyl- chiro-inositol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, along with 15 known compounds. The antifungal activities of compounds (1-16) were evaluated for the first time. Compound (4) had potent antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, C. graminicola and A. musae.

  19. Protective effect of Coleus aromaticus Benth (Lamiaceae) against naphthalene-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Anbuselvam, C; Ashokkumar, B

    2013-04-01

    To investigate protective effect of Coleus aromaticus leaf extract against naphthalene induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups. Group I rats were treated as control. Group II rats were intraperitoneally administered with naphthalene (435 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in corn oil once a day for a period of 30 days. Group III rats were treated with leaf extract (100 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in 0.9% saline and naphthalene (435 mg/kg b.wt) dissolved in corn oil once a day for a period of 30 days. Significant protective effect was observed against naphthalene induced liver damage, which appeared evident from the response levels of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase). The biochemical components viz. triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol acyl transferase, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol and bilirubin were found to be increased in liver and serum of naphthalene stressed rats when compared to control. Treatment of naphthalene intoxicated rats with plant extract reversed these distorted parameters to near normal levels. Liver histology showed supportive evidence regarding the protective nature of plant extract against fatty changes induced by naphthalene. The present study provides a scientific rationale for using C. aromaticus in the management of liver disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyses of the leaf, fruit and seed of Thaumatococcus daniefii (Benth.): exploring potential uses.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Oluwadamisi, Adetayo Y; Popoola, Samuel T; David, Bolaji J; Epelle, Tamunotonyesia

    2014-06-01

    Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatannin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus.

  1. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy.

  2. Genetic diversity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. in fragments of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C; Júnior, A L Silva; Souza, M C; Kunz, S H; Miranda, F D

    2017-09-21

    Studies of genetic diversity in natural populations are important for the definition of conservation strategies, especially in populations reduced by processes of fragmentation and continuous forest extraction. Molecular markers stand out as interesting tools for these studies. The objective of this research was to characterize the diversity and genetic structure of Plathymenia reticulata (Fabaceae), occurring in two fragments of the Montana Semideciduous Forest in the southern of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. DNA samples from 149 individuals were analyzed using 10 ISSR primers, generating 156 fragments, of which 101 were polymorphic (64.74%). The individuals sampled were classified into three units: adult trees (A), a mixture of progenies (B), and young regenerating individuals (C). The number of loci used (N = 101) was greater than that established as optimal number (N = 88), indicating precision in analyses. The genetic diversity index of Nei (H' = 0.407) and the Shannon index (I = 0.594) were found to have high genetic diversity. Besides, through the diversity parameters evaluated, it was possible to confirm that in the areas of natural regeneration and progeny mix there is genetic diversity equivalent to that found in adults. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation is found within the groups (96.53%). Genetic differentiation among adult trees was low (ΦST = 0.03) indicating that high gene flow rates (Nm = 12.70) are counteracting the effects of genetic drift. The data obtained allowed to evaluate the potential of adult trees as matrices for seed collection and to obtain seedlings with confirmed genetic variability.

  3. Ripening of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Guamúchil] Fruit: Physicochemical, Chemical and Antioxidant Changes.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe F; López-Díaz, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 (o)Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %). Carotenoids were not detected and chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound. Maximal availability of these bioactives per ripening stage (p ≤ 0.03) was as follows: I (protein/ lipids/ sucrose/ proanthocyanidins/ hydrolysable phenolics), II (total sugars/ascorbic acid), III (total phenolics), IV (flavonoids/ chlorogenic acid) and VI (fructose/ glucose/ anthocyanins). Color change was explained by sucrose (β = 0.47) and anthocyanin (β = 0.20) contents (p < 0.001). Radical scavenging capacity (ORAC, DPPH and TEAC) strongly correlated with total PC (r = 0.49-0.65, p ≤ 0.001) but 89 % of ORAC's associated variance was explained by anthocyanin + sucrose + ascorbic acid (p ≤ 0.0001). Guamúchil fruit could be a more convenient source of specific bioactive compounds if harvested at different ripening stages.

  4. Growth of a leguminous tree (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.) inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Marques, M S; Gonçalves, L M; Lemos-Filho, J P; Rocha, D; Vale, M T; Scotti, M R

    1997-01-01

    Leguminous trees are being suggested for revegetation programs due to their ability to develop associations with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. The growth of a native species of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Centrolobium tomentosum, was evaluated in a native forest soil and in a Eucalyptus forest soil under different treatments of inoculation. C. tomentosum produced more biomass under nursery conditions after inoculation with Rhizobium BHICB-Ab1 associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM). This treatment improved shoot and root growth and nodule weight under forest soil condition, while in eucalyptus soil only shoot biomass and nodule weight were significantly modified. In another experiment, using forest soil, height and stem diameter were also increased by dual inoculation procedures. The height and diameter growth promoting effect was observed when BHICB-Ab1 was used as inoculant associated with AM, but not with BHICB-Ab1 alone. In contrast, plants inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 alone were similar in height and diameter growth, to those which were inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 associated with AM. These results suggest that benefits of dual inoculation depend on triparty symbiosis and especially on the choice of Rhizobium strain.

  5. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  6. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neeraj K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders.

  7. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  8. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  9. Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity of inclusion complexes of Hyptis martiusii Benth essential oil in β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Tatianny A; Freitas, Thiago S; Araújo, Francielly O; Menezes, Paula P; Dória, Grace Anne A; Rabelo, Alessandra S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santos, Márcio R V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin Rose A; Nunes, Paula Santos; Araújo, Adriano A S; Costa, Maria S; Campina, Fábia F; Santos, Antonia T L; Silva, Ana R P; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2017-02-19

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used as important pharmaceutical excipients for improve the physicochemical properties of the drugs of low solubility as the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii. This oil is important therapeutically, but the low solubility and bioavailability compromises your use. Therein, the aim of this study was to obtain and to characterize physico-chemically the samples obtained by physical mixture (PM), paste complexation (PC) and slurry complexation (SC) of the essential oil Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) in β-CD, and to compare the antibacterial and modulatory-antibiotic activity of products obtained and oil free. The physicochemical characterization was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Karl Fischer titration. Additionally, the antibacterial tests were performed by microdilution technique. Thus, it was observed that the PM method showed low complexing capacity, unlike PC and SC in which it was observed the formation of inclusion complexes. In addition, the second stage of the TG/DTG curves showed that SC was the best method inclusion with mass loss of 6.9% over the PC that was 6.0%. The XRD results corroborate with the results above suggesting the formation of new solid phase and the SEM photomicrographs showed the porous surface of the samples PC and SC. The essential oil alone demonstrated an antibacterial and modulatory effect against the S. aureus and the Gram negative strain, respectively. However, the β-CD and the inclusion complex did not demonstrate any biological activity in the performed antibacterial assays.

  10. Constituents of leaves from Bauhinia curvula Benth. exert gastroprotective activity in rodents: role of quercitrin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Beber, Ana Paula; de Souza, Priscila; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Cury, Benhur Judah; Burci, Ligia Moura; da Silva, Cristiane Bezerra; Simionatto, Euclésio; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2017-02-07

    The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The oral treatment with HEBC and SPFr decreased the gastric ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice and by indomethacin (only HEBC) in rats. The gastroprotective effect of HEBC was abolished in mice pretreated with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-Ethylmaleimide, glibenclamide or indomethacin. Both HEBC and SPFr reduced myeloperoxidase activity in parallel with a decrease of lipoperoxides content at the site of the lesion. On the other hand, HEBC did not alter volume, pH, total acidity or pepsin activity of acid gastric secretion in rats, and neither inhibited the in vitro H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, the compounds identified and isolated from the SPFr, the flavonoids quercitrin (65%) and kaempferol (35%), were able to diminish the extent of ulcerated area induced by both ethanol/HCl and indomethacin. Taking together, these findings show that B. curvula extracts present gastroprotective effect, mainly explained by the presence of flavonoids quercitrin and kaempferol, which may possibly improve the defensive factors of gastric mucosa.

  11. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Formagio, Maira Dante; Oliveira, Cristhian Santos; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Alves Stefanello, Maria Élida; Lanza Junior, Ubirajara; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. Methods In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o.) were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed. Results The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control) significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment), SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking) and emotionality (grooming and freezing) compared with controls, similar to the naive group. Conclusion SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain. PMID:28222143

  12. Monophyly of Kelloggia Torrey ex Benth. (Rubiaceae) and evolution of its intercontinental disjunction between western North America and eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Wen, Jun; Sun, Hang; Bartholomew, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    Kelloggia Torrey ex Bentham (Rubiaceae) consists of two species disjunctly distributed in western North America (K. galioides Torrey) and the western part of eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.). The two species exhibit a high level of morphological divergence. To test its monophyly and to infer its biogeographic history, we estimated the phylogeny of Kelloggia and its relatives from sequences of three chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL gene, atpB-rbcL spacer, and rps16 intron). The monophyly of Kelloggia was strongly supported, and it forms a sister relationship with the tribe Rubieae. The divergence time between the two disjunct species of Kelloggia was estimated to be 5.42 ± 2.32 million years ago (mya) using the penalized likelihood method based on rbcL sequence data with fossil calibration. Our result does not support the Madrean-Tethyan hypothesis, which assumes an earlier divergence time of 20-25 mya. Ancestral area analysis, as well as dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analysis, suggests the Asian origin of Kelloggia and the importance of Eurasia in the diversification of its close relatives in the Rubieae-Theligoneae-Paederieae group. The intercontinental disjunction in Kelloggia is suggested to have evolved via long-distance dispersal from Asia into western North America.

  13. Plant regeneration, genetic fidelity, and active ingredient content of encapsulated hairy roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Janhvi Mishra; Rawat, Balwant; Mehrotra, Shakti

    2013-06-01

    Among five hairy root lines of Picrorhiza kurrooa that were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes, one (H7) was selected for encapsulation due to high accumulation of picrotin and picrotoxinin (8.3 and 47.6 μg/g DW, respectively). Re-grown encapsulated roots induced adventitious shoots with 73 % frequency on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, following 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Regenerated plantlets had 85 % survival after 2 months. Regenerants were of similar morphotype having increased leaf number and branched root system as compared to non-transformed plants. The transformed nature of the plants was confirmed through PCR and Southern blot analysis. Genetic fidelity analysis of transformed plants using RAPD and ISSR showed 5.2 and 3.6 % polymorphism, respectively. Phytochemical analysis also showed that picrotin and picrotoxinin content were similar in hairy root line and its regenerants.

  14. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth.

    PubMed

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Noman, Omar M; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam S; Khaled, Jamal M; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J

    2017-02-27

    The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae), collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%). Hexadecanoic acid (32.8%) and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8%) were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%). Camphor (6.1%) and linalool (3.2%) were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  15. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1–8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced. PMID:26039483

  16. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  17. Effect of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) ethyl acetate and acetone fractions on insulin resistance in fructose drinking mice.

    PubMed

    Bakoma, Batomayena; Berké, Bénédicte; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amegnona; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Gbeassor, Messanvi; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-05-14

    The root of Bridelia ferruginea is traditionally used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effect of Bridelia ferruginea root bark fractions on some markers of type 2 diabetes on fructose drinking mice. Mice received a solution of fructose 15% during 42 days ad libitum; at the 15th day to the 42nd day, they received distilled water for fructose drinking control group, metformin 50 mg/kg per day or fractions 50 mg/kg per day for treatment groups. The normal control group received only distilled water during the experiment. After 6 weeks of experiment, OGTT, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, AST and ALT levels were measured. Fructose drinking control group (F) showed significant (p<0.001) increase of glucose tolerance, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin index for insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment ratio HOMA-IR) as compared to normal control mice. In treated groups, there was a significant reduction of glucose intolerance respectively 74% (p<0.001), 25% (p<0.5) and 92% (p<0.001) for ethyl acetate fraction, acetone fraction and metformin at the same dose of 50 mg/kg per day during 4 weeks administration. In ethyl acetate fraction and metformin treated groups, biochemical parameters and insulin index were significantly (p<0.001) lower than that of fructose drinking control group. This indicates that Bridelia ferruginea root bark ethyl acetate fraction improved insulin resistance as metformin significantly in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  19. Nodule Ultrastructure and Initial Growth of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul Plants Infected with Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, E.; CORDEIRO, L.; CAETANO, F. H.

    2002-01-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (Leguminosae‐Mimosoideae) were analysed, as was plant growth. To ensure that nodules developed, seedlings were inoculated with a mixture of six strains of rhizobia. Nodules were produced that differed in appearance—and probably also effectiveness—but their structure was similar and they showed characteristics typical of indeterminate nodules, such as persistent meristematic tissue and a gradient of cells at different stages of development. Many starch grains were present in inner cortex cells and interstitial cells of infected tissue. Infected cells were densely packed with bacteroids, which contained many poly‐β‐hydroxybutyrate granules. The high incidence of these granules, together with high levels of starch accumulation in interstitial cells, suggested low N2‐fixation efficiency of the rhizobia isolates used for inoculation. In the symbiosomes of early‐senescent infected cells, reticulum‐like structures, small vesicles and a fibrillar material were observed; these may be related to bacteroid degradation. In the cytoplasm of late‐senescent infected cells, many vesicles and membrane‐like structures were observed, probably associated with membrane degradation of bacteroids and peribacteroids. The total biomass of plants inoculated with rhizobia was low and their xylopodia and shoots had low levels of N compared with non‐inoculated plants fertilized with ammonium nitrate. However, inoculated plants did not show N‐deficiency symptoms and grew better than non‐inoculated plants without N fertilization. These growth results, together with ultrastructural observations of nodules, suggest that nitrogen fixation of rhizobia isolates associated with Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata roots is poor. PMID:12197515

  20. Polarity based characterization of biologically active extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and RP-HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Syeda Saniya; Ahmed, Madiha; Qasim, Muhammad; Gul, Bilquees; Zia, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Haq, Ihsan-Ul

    2017-09-05

    The concept of botanical therapeutics has revitalized due to wide importance of plant derived pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the ameliorative characteristics of Ajuga bracteosa were studied. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, reducing power and free-radical scavenging activity were determined colorimetrically. Specific polyphenols were quantified by RP-HPLC analysis. Preliminary cytotoxicity was tested using brine shrimp lethality assay while antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and Hep-G2 cell lines was determined by MTT and SRB protocols respectively. Antileishmanial potential was assessed via MTT colorimetric method. To investigate antidiabetic prospect, α-amylase inhibition assay was adopted whereas disc diffusion method was used to detect likely protein kinase inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among fifteen different extracts, maximum total phenolic content (10.75 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg DW), total reducing power (23.90 ± 0.70 μg AAE/mg DW) and total antioxidant capacity (11.30 ± 0.80 μg AAE/mg DW) were exhibited by methanol extract with superlative percent extract recovery (17.50 ± 0.80% w/w). Chloroform-methanol extract demonstrated maximum flavonoid content (4.10 ± 0.40 μg QE/mg DW) and ethanol extract exhibited greatest radical scavenging activity (IC50 14.40 ± 0.20 μg/ml). RP-HPLC based quantification confirmed polyphenols such as pyrocatechol, gallic acid, resorcinol, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumarin, sinapinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol. The brine shrimp lethality assay ranked 78.60% extracts as cytotoxic (LC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml) whereas significant THP-1 inhibition was shown by methanol-acetone extract (IC50 4.70 ± 0.43 μg/ml). The antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 hepatoma cancer cell line was demonstrated by n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol-distilled water (IC50 8.65-8.95 μg/ml) extracts. Methanol extract displayed prominent protein kinase inhibitory activity (MIC 12.5 μg/disc) while n-hexane extract revealed remarkable antileishmanial activity (IC50 4.69 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The antidiabetic potential was confirmed by n-hexane extract (44.70 ± 0.30% α-amylase inhibition at 200 μg/ml concentration) while a moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities were unveiled. The variation in biological spectrum resulted due to use of multiple solvent systems for extraction. We also deduce that the valuable information gathered can be utilized for discovery of anticancer, antileishmanial, antioxidant and antidiabetic bioactive lead candidates.

  1. Anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Su, Zu-Qing; Chen, Hai-Ming; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Chen, Jian-Nan; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (ERP). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema. Results indicated that oral administration of ERP (120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, inhibited carrageenan-induced neutrophils recruitment, and reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, ERP (480 mg/kg) abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that ERP decreased the level of MPO and MDA, increased the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE₂ and NO, and suppressed the activities of COX-2 and iNOS. This work demonstrates that ERP has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin in inflammatory diseases.

  2. Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Ajuga remota B. (Local name, Armagusa) is used in the treatment of hypertension. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota in mice after acute oral administration. Methods Adult mice were administered orally either aqueous (250 mg/kg, AA250; 500 mg/kg, AA500 and 1000 mg/kg, AA1000) or 80% methanol (250 mg/kg, AM250; 500 mg/kg, AM500 and 750 mg/kg, AM750) extract. Urine output and electrolyte contents were then quantified up to 5 h and compared with those administered with furosemide 10 mg/kg (F10) and distilled water (CON). Results The larger dose of 80% methanol extract produced significant diuresis (p < 0.01), while the aqueous extract had shown diuresis both at the middle (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.01) doses by the end of the fifth hour compared to CON mice. Regarding electrolyte excretion, larger doses of both extracts had increased natriuresis (p < 0.001 for AA1000 and p < 0.01 for AM1000), while the effect on kaliuresis were smaller when compared with the standard, suggesting the plant could possibly have a potassium-sparing effect. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides, which might account for the diuretic activity. Conclusions The results indicate that the plant is endowed with significant diuretic activity at various doses, providing evidence for its folkloric use. The major components like flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and alkaloids found in the plant might have contributed to the observed diuretic activity. PMID:24720845

  3. Inhibitory effects of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum (Benth) seeds against insect-pests' digestive proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Fabiola P S; Pedroso, Vanessa M A; Araujo, Jonalson N; França, Anderson F J; Rabêlo, Luciana M A; Migliolo, Ludovico; Kiyota, Sumika; Santos, Elizeu A; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Adeliana S

    2013-02-01

    Pithecellobium dumosum is a tree belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily that presents various previously characterized Kunitz-type inhibitors. The present study provides a novel Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor isoform purified from P. dumosum seeds. Purification procedure was performed by TCA precipitation followed by a trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and a further reversed-phase HPLC. Purified inhibitor (PdKI-4) showed enhanced inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, PdKI-4 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against serine proteases from the coleopterans Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, and the lepidopterans Alabama argillacea and Telchin licus. However, PdKI-4 was unable to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, pineapple bromelain and Carica papaya papain. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI-4 consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of 21 kDa. Kinetic studies demonstrated that PdKI-4 is probably a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 5.7 × 10(-10) M for bovine trypsin. PdKI-4 also showed higher stability over a wide range of temperature (37-100 °C) and pH (2-12). N-termini sequence was obtained by Edman degradation showing higher identity with other Mimosoideae subfamily Kunitz-type inhibitor members. In summary, data here reported indicate the biotechnological potential of PdKI-4 for development of products against insect-pests.

  4. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed.

  5. [Effect of Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae) and Newbouldia leavis P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) on sickling of red blood cells].

    PubMed

    Joppa, K M; Vovor, A; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the In vitro anti-sickling activity of two plants widely used for treatment of sickle cell disease in Togo, i.e., Morinda lucida et Newbouldia leavis. A concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of sickling was observed after incubation of red blood cells with plant extracts and 2% sodium metabisulfite as compared to incubation with 0.9% NaCl. On samples with a SS blood genotype the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida was 17.30% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 92.31% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. On samples with an AS blood genotype, the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida 48.10% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 99.34% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. Using Newbouldia leavis the inhibition rates at concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml were 15.66% and 90.42% respectively on samples with a SS blood genotype and 64.03% and 99.02% respectively on samples with an AS blood genotype. The study protocol appeared to be adequate for both SS and AS blood genotypes since the Pearson correlation coefficient between rates measured on the two types of samples was 0.92 for Newuboulida and 0.89 for Morinda. These findings show that these two plants have clear-cut in vitro anti-sickling activity and support their use in traditional medicine.

  6. Erysothrine, an alkaloid extracted from flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth: evaluating its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Santos Rosa, Daiane; Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; Anderson de Souza, Maicon; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Ferreira dos Santos, Wagner; Soares Pereira, Ana Maria; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we isolated the alkaloid erysothrine from the hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from E. mulungu and screened for its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic actions based on neuroethological and neurochemical experiments. Our results showed that the administration of erysothrine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, PTZ, NMDA and most remarkably, kainic acid. Also, erysothrine induced an increase in the number of entries but not in the time spent in the open arms of the EPM. However, we did not notice any alterations in the light-dark choice or in the open-field tests. In preliminary neurochemistry tests, we also showed that erysothrine (0.001-10 μg/mL) did not alter the GABA or glutamate synaptossomal uptake and binding. Altogether, our results describe an alkaloid with anticonvulsant activity and mild anxiolytic activity that might be considered well tolerated as it does not alter the general behavior of the animals in the used doses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  8. Physiological and biochemical changes attenuate the effects of drought on the Cerrado species Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Evandro Alves; Silva, Maria das Graças; Moro, Camila Fernandes; Laura, Valdemir Antônio

    2017-06-01

    Drought is considered the main abiotic stress because it influences the distribution of plant species and limits the productivity of ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought on physiological and biochemical parameters during the initial development of Vatairea macrocarpa, a native cerrado species. Plants were subjected to daily watering (control); suppression of watering during 90 days with field capacity (fc) 50% and 25% and then followed by rewatering. Relative leaf water content (RWC), gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments content, carbohydrate and amino acids content, antioxidant activities and growth were recorded. The RWC decreased according to the soil water restriction, causing reduction in stomatal conductance and decrease of 76.4% in net photosynthesis in plants submitted to 25% fc. Water restriction decreased the chlorophyll content, however increased carotenoid content and also improved the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, high levels of sugars (sucrose, raffinose) and amino acids (proline, tryptophan, valine, glutamine and GABA) were detected in drought stressed plants, contributing to osmoregulation and as sources of carbon and nitrogen after rehydration. Decreases in carbon assimilation promoted a reduction of the leaf area, however an increase in the root surface area was observed. After rewatering, the analized parameters became similar to the control plants indicating that the severe water stress did not impair the survival of young plants. Instead, adjustments were made to protect them against drought such as the maintenance of the assimilatory metabolism at minimal levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced.

  10. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg(-1) of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg(-1) of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  12. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition.

  13. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  14. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  15. Sub-chronic Administration of Methanolic Whole Fruit Extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Benth.) Roberty Induces Mild Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola Sinbad; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Adetutu, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat) was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST]) in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg) pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05) decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05) in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s) which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. SUMMARY Methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora demonstrate dose dependent mild toxicity on vital organs (Heart and liver) and anti-oxidant enzymes. The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora may contain Phyto-toxic substance (s) which may be hepatotoxic, Cardio-toxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. PMID:27013788

  16. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. PMID:23365565

  17. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Preliminary Results for Validity of TEOAEs Implemented on Mimosa Acoustics T2K Measurement System v3.1.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Frequency (kHz) L s ( dB S P L r m s/ 23 .4 H z) Click Dau chirp Shera chirp Figure 1. Comparison of spectra for the click...found. PAGE 5 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 p s ( 20 m P a pe ak ) Click 53 dB SPL, 1-5 kHz -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 p s ( 20 m P a pe ak...Dau chirp 53 dB SPL, 1-5 kHz -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -5 0 5 Stimulus duration (ms) p s ( 20 m P a pe ak )

  19. Stimulus-Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions: Validity and Reliability of SFOAES Implemented on Mimosa Acoustics SFOAE Measurement System V2.1.18

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    participant with a cochlear implant . 9 The low/no SFOAEs for Participant 1033 accounts only for a maximum of 3.3% of the data loss at each frequency... cochlear implants , on-frequency SFOAE noise/distortion is higher and not predictable from off-frequency adjacent bands (Schairer, Fitzpatrick...Participant 1028: profound sensorineural hearing loss in right ear ( cochlear implant in right ear, also hearing-impaired in left ear). • Participant 1029

  20. Soil phosphorus and water effects on growth, nutrient and carbohydrate concentrations, d13C, and nodulation of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durz.) on a highly weathered soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth and physiological performance of multipurpose tree species can be severely constrained by nutrient shortages such as of phosphorus (P) in highly-weathered soils. Limitations to plant growth are accentuated by seasonal dry periods. We examined P fertilization and irrigation effects on growth...

  1. Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18%). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p < 0.05 level. The result indicated that the essential oil of C. aromaticus and the isolated constituent have a potential for use in control of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  2. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    PubMed

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock.

  3. Comparison of active constituents, acute toxicity, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Porana sinensis Hemsl., Erycibe obtusifolia Benth. and Erycibe schmidtii Craib.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyong; Liao, Liping; Zhang, Zijia; Wu, Lihong; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-11-25

    Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii, which belong to the same genus as Erycibe, are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Porana sinensis has become a widely used substitute for Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii as they have declined in the wild. In the present work, the content of the main active components, the acute toxicity, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Porana sinensis, Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii were compared, and the mechanisms of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were discussed. A quantitative HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method was first developed to compare the content of the main active components (scopoletin, scopolin and chlorogenic acid). The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants were compared using the models of xylene-induced ear edema, formalin-induced inflammation, carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced nociception. The acute toxicity of the 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants was studied. The assay suggested a large content of scopoletin, scopolin and chlorogenic acid in the three plants. The 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants were almost non-toxic at the dose of 5g/kg and all of them showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the tests of xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation test, the synthesis of PGE2 was significantly inhibited by all the extracts. They significantly inhibited the number of contortions induced by acetic acid and the second phase of the formalin-induced licking response. Naloxone was not able to reverse the analgesic effect of these extracts. The study identifies the similarity of the three plants in their main active components as well as acute toxicity, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. It supports the use of Porana sinensis as a suitable substitute, but further studies are needed to confirm this. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  5. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Laís Bérgamo; Ruas, Eduardo A; Rodrigues, Luana A; Ruas, Claudete F; Ruas, Paulo M

    2013-12-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20%) was higher than between these (22.80%). No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  6. Phytochemical analysis, biological evaluation and micromorphological study of Stachys alopecuros (L.) Benth. subsp. divulsa (Ten.) Grande endemic to central Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca Agostino; Petrelli, Dezemona; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Lucarini, Domenico; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo

    2013-10-01

    Stachys alopecuros subsp. divulsa (Lamiaceae), a perennial herb endemic to central Italy growing on mountain pastures, was investigated for the first time for the content of secondary metabolites, for the micromorphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes, and for the biological activity of the volatile oil, namely cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial. The plant showed the molecular pattern of iridoids, among which a new iridoid diglycoside (4'-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-teuhircoside) was detected, together with a sterol glucoside and a phenylethanoid glycoside. The essential oil from the flowering aerial parts was characterized by a high proportion of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.1%), with (E)-caryophyllene (33.2%) as the most abundant, while other main components were germacrene D (7.6%), α-humulene (6.4%) and the oxygenated cis-sesquisabinene hydrate (10.2%). Taken together, polar and apolar chemical profiles support the classification of the species within the section Betonica of the genus Stachys. Micromorphological study revealed three types of glandular hairs secreting different classes of compounds, with type A peltate hairs producing the bulk of the essential oil. MTT assay revealed the potential of the volatile oil in inhibiting A375, HCT116 and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells (IC₅₀ values below 20 μg/ml). © 2013.

  7. Anticonvulsant profile of the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart ex Benth (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae).

    PubMed

    Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the onset and maintenance of epileptic seizures involve alterations in inhibitory and/or excitatory neurotransmitter pathways. Thus, the prospecting of novel molecules from natural products that target both inhibition and excitation systems has deserved interest in the rational design of new anticonvulsants. We isolated the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu and evaluated the action of these compounds against chemically induced seizures in rats. Our results showed that the administration of different doses of (+)-erythravine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, and kainic acid at maximum of 80, 100, and 100%, respectively, whereas different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine inhibited seizures at a maximum of 100% when induced by bicuculline, NMDA, and kainic acid, and, to a lesser extent, PTZ (60%). The analysis of mean latency to seizure onset of nonprotected animals, for specific doses of alkaloids, showed that (+)-erythravine increased latencies to seizures induced by bicuculline. Although (+)-erythravine exhibited very weak anticonvulsant action against seizures induced by NMDA, this alkaloid increased the latency in this assay. The increase in latency to onset of seizures promoted by (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine reached a maximum of threefold in the bicuculline test. All animals were protected against death when treated with different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine in the tests using the four chemical convulsants. Identical results were obtained when using (+)-erythravine in the tests of bicuculline, NMDA, and PTZ, and, to a lesser extent, kainic acid. Therefore, these data validate the anticonvulsant properties of the tested alkaloids, which is of relevance in consideration of the ethnopharmacological/biotechnological potential of E. mulungu.

  8. Evaluation of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of 50% Ethanolic Standardized Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Elsnoussi Ali; Ang, Lee Fung; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus was tested for its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In vivo assays of the extract (containing 1.02%, 3.76%, and 3.03% of 3′hydroxy-5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, resp.) showed that it possessed an inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase in normal rats loaded with starch and sucrose. The results showed that 1000 mg/kg of the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the plasma glucose levels of the experimental animals in a manner resembling the effect of acarbose. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, only the group treated with 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma glucose levels after starch loading. Hence, α-glucosidase inhibition might be one of the mechanisms by which O. stamineus extract exerts its antidiabetic effect. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus can be considered as a potential agent for the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26649063

  9. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Laís Bérgamo; Ruas, Eduardo A.; Rodrigues, Luana A.; Ruas, Claudete F.; Ruas, Paulo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20%) was higher than between these (22.80%). No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability. PMID:24385857

  10. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  11. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  14. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae) as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Murakami, Fábio Seigi; Frensch, Gustavo; Marques, Francisco A.; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%), dried leaves—Spring (85.32%), flowers—Winter (78.76%) and fruits—Winter (80.97%). Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%), limonene (1.46% to 4.43%), α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%), and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%). The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus— Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL) and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL). PMID:26791641

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-parasite-host interaction for the control of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Gworgwor, Nuhu Adamu; Weber, Hans Christian

    2003-10-01

    Five Glomus species (G. intraradices, G. albidum, G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum, and G. etunicatum) were compared against a check [without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plus Striga] and control (without AM fungi or Striga) treatments for the control of Striga in a tolerant sorghum variety (War-wara bashi) in an experiment carried out in 12-cm-diameter clay pots. The experiment was carried out in a controlled growth chamber. G. mosseae significantly reduced the number of Striga emerging per plant, increased plant growth, shoot and total dry matter yield of sorghum, did not affect the root dry matter compared with the other AM fungi species, but had a comparable effect to the control treatment. All the AM fungi except G. mosseae, and also the Striga-infested treatment, increased the root:shoot ratio compared to the control treatment. The percent reduction (62%) of Striga emergence after G. mosseae inoculation resulted in about a 30% increase in total dry matter yield of sorghum over the control, while the total loss in dry matter yield of sorghum due to Striga infestation was 36%. Root colonization of sorghum by AM fungi was highest for G. mosseae (44%) followed by G. intraradices (24%) and G. albidum (23%) then G. fasciculatum (18%), with the lowest recorded for G. etunicatum (14%). No colonization of Striga roots was observed. The potential of AM fungi to reduce or to compensate for Striga infestation could be important for soil management, especially in the tropics, and for the reduction of Striga-resistant varieties of sorghum which are mycorrhiza-responsive.

  16. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells. PMID:27418367

  17. Structural confirmation, single X-ray crystallographic behavior, molecular docking and other physico-chemical properties of gerberinol, a natural dimethyl dicoumarol from Gerbera lanuginosa Benth. (Compositae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Das, Saktipada; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj; Sharma, Sakshi; Gupta, Vivek K.

    2017-05-01

    The proposed structure of gerberinol (1), a naturally occurring dimethyl dicoumarol, has been conclusively established on the basis of its detailed spectral and single crystal X-ray analyses. The compound, C21H16O6, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with the following unit-cell parameters: a = 14.0884(14), b = 15.1746(15), c = 7.6392(8)Å, α = 90.00°, β = 98.949(4)°, γ = 90.00° and Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final R-value of 11.43 for 2377 observed reflections. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces, and molecular docking of this plant-derived natural molecule have also been performed. The equilibrium geometry of the title compound has been obtained and analyzed using DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) method. Molecular docking study of the molecule for predicting its possible biological activities revealed that the compound might be a potent antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and anticancer agent as evidenced from its excellent FF (full fitness) score for 1FUJ and 1ZX1 enzymes.

  18. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-01-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials. PMID:24402150

  19. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  20. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    PubMed

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds.

  1. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  2. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Salvia leriifolia Benth. against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    In the course of recent efforts to identify new potential antiproliferative active principles, Salvia leriifolia extracts and isolated constituents were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN), amelanotic melanoma (C32), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), lung large cell carcinoma (COR-L23), malignant melanoma (A375), lung carcinoma (A549), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7D12) cells. The hexane and CH(2) Cl(2) extracts showed the strongest cytotoxic activity against the C32 cell line with IC(50) values of 11.2 and 13.6 μg/ml, respectively, and the AcOEt extract was the most active extract against the COR-L23 cell line (IC(50) of 20.9 μg/ml). Buchariol, a sesquiterpene obtained by biofractionation of the CH(2) Cl(2) extract, exhibited a higher activity than the positive control vinblastine against the C32 and A549 cell lines (IC(50) values of 2.1 and 12.6 μM, resp.). Interesting results were also obtained for naringenin, a flavonoid isolated from the AcOEt extract, which exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity against the C32, LNCaP, and COR-L23 cell lines (IC(50) values of 2.2, 7.7, and 33.4 μM, resp.), compared to vinblastine (IC(50) values of 3.3, 32.2, 50.0 μM, resp.). None of the tested compounds affected the proliferation of skin fibroblasts (142BR), suggesting a selective activity against tumor cells.

  4. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  5. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  6. Selective in vitro and in silico butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of diterpenes and rosmarinic acid isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. and Salvia glutinosa L.

    PubMed

    Senol, F Sezer; Ślusarczyk, Sylwester; Matkowski, Adam; Pérez-Garrido, Alfonso; Girón-Rodríguez, Francisco; Cerón-Carrasco, José P; den-Haan, Helena; Peña-García, Jorge; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Domaradzki, Krzysztof; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2017-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibition is one of the most treatment strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) where metal accumulation is also strongly associated with pathology of the disease. In the current study, we assessed inhibitory effect against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and metal-chelating capacity of twelve diterpenes: arucadiol, miltirone, tanshinone IIa, 1-oxomiltirone, cryptotanshinone, 1,2-didehydromiltirone, 1,2-didehydrotanshinone IIa, 1β-hydroxycryptotanshinone, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, isotanshinone II, 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa, and rosmarinic acid, isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia and Salvia glutinosa. The compounds were tested at 10 μg/mL using ELISA microtiter assays against AChE and BChE. QSAR and molecular docking studies have been also performed on the active compounds. All of the compounds showed higher [e.g., IC50 = 1.12 ± 0.07 μg/mL for 1,2-didehydromiltirone, IC50 = 1.15 ± 0.07 μg/mL for cryptotanshinone, IC50 = 1.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL for arucadiol, etc.)] or closer [1,2-didehydrotanshinone IIa (IC50 = 5.98 ± 0.49 μg/mL) and 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa (IC50 = 5.71 ± 0.27 μg/mL)] inhibition against BChE as compared to that of galanthamine (IC50 = 12.56 ± 0.37 μg/mL), whereas only 15,16-dihydrotanshinone moderately inhibited AChE (65.17 ± 1.39%). 1,2-Didehydrotanshinone IIa (48.94 ± 0.26%) and 1(S)-hydroxytanshinone IIa (47.18 ± 5.10%) possessed the highest metal-chelation capacity. The present study affords an evidence for the fact that selective BChE inhibitors should be further investigated as promising candidate molecules for AD therapy.

  7. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-12-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  8. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in a natural rosewood population (Dalbergia nigra Vell. Allemão ex Benth.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Juchum, F S; Leal, J B; Santos, L M; Almeida, M P; Ahnert, D; Corrêa, R X

    2007-09-30

    Dalbergia nigra (rosewood) is a long-lived leguminous species, which is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Because of the high economic value of its wood, this species has been over-explored in recent years. Currently, rosewood is included in the IUCN Red List as vulnerable. We examined the genetic diversity of 87 specimens of D. nigra sampled from a continuous forest in the Veracel Reserve and Brazilwood Ecological Station, Porto Seguro, Bahia state, with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Grouping analyses were done using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. Using the 16 most informative primers, 112 markers were obtained; 39% (44 bands) were polymorphic. A genetic similarity matrix was made based on the polymorphic bands. The dispersion graph and dendrogram analyses showed three distinct sub-populations. The degree of polymorphism was high, near that of other populations of similar species; however, it was considered low for the conservation of this species.

  10. Potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth as anti-diabetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, we tested a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plants and its isolated bioactive compound with respect to their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Methods Bioactive flavonoid sinensetin was isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. The structure of this pure compound was determined on the NMR data and the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of isolated sinensetin and 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus were evaluated. Results In vitro studies of a 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and the isolated sinensetin compound showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase (IC50: 4.63 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50: 36.70 mg/ml and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively). Inhibition of these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for the management of type 2 diabetes via the control of glucose absorption. Conclusion Alpha-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition could the mechanisms through which the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus and sinensetin exert their antidiabetic activity, indicating that it could have potential use in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:23039079

  11. In-vitro and in-vivo validation of ethnopharmacological uses of methanol extract of Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodon rugosus is used in folk Pakistan traditional practices to cure ailments related to gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Present study was undertaken to validate these folkloric uses. Methods A crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Isodon rugosus (Ir.Cr.) was used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The plant extract was tested on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations for possible presence of spasmolytic activity. Moreover, isolated rabbit tracheal and aorta preparations were used to ascertain the relaxant effects of the extract. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Ir.Cr were also determined as well as its antioxidant activity. The in vivo antiemetic activity of the extract was evaluated by using the chick emesis model, while the analgesic and antipyretic activities were conducted on albino mice. Results The application of the crude extract of I. rugosus to isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exhibited relaxant effect (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). The Ir.Cr also relaxed K+(80 m M)-induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and shifted the Ca+2 concentration response curves towards right (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). Similarly, the extract, when applied to the isolated rabbit tracheal preparations relaxed the carbachol (1 M)- as well as K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in a concentration range of 0.01-1.0 mg/ml. Moreover, it also relaxed (0.01-3.0 mg/ml) the phenylephrine (1 M)- and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta preparations. The Ir.Cr (80 mg/kg) demonstrated antipyretic activity on pyrogen-induced pyrexia in rabbits as compared to aspirin as standard drug. The Ir.Cr also exhibited anti-oxidant as well as inhibitory effect on acetyl- and butyryl- cholinesterase and lipoxygenase (0.5 mg/ml). Conclusions The observed relaxant effect on isolated rabbit jejunum, trachea and aorta preparations caused by Ir.Cr is possibly to be mediated through Ca+2 channel blockade and therefore may provided scientific basis to validate the folkloric uses of the plant in the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The observed antioxidant activity as well as the lipoxygenase inhibitory activity may validate its traditional use in pain and inflammations. PMID:24559094

  12. Triterpenoid saponins from Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth and their inhibitory effect on the survival of high grade human brain tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Jihu, Dong; Antheaume, Cyril; Zeniou, Maria; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Guillaume, Dominique; Chneiwess, Hervé; Kilhoffer, Marie Claude; Lobstein, Annelise

    2015-03-02

    As part of our search of new bioactive triterpenoid saponins from Cameroonian Mimosaceae plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia lebbeck led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type saponins, named lebbeckosides A-B (1-2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. Compounds 1-2 were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the metabolism of high grade human brain tumor cells, the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell lines and the glioblastoma stem-like TG1 cells isolated from a patient tumor, and known to be particularly resistant to standard therapies. The isolated saponins showed significant cytotoxic activity against U-87 MG and TG1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 3.46 μM and 1.36 μM for 1, and 2.10 μM and 2.24 μM for 2, respectively.

  13. A biorefinery for efficient processing and utilization of spent pulp of Colombian Andes Berry (Rubus glaucus Benth.): Experimental, techno-economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated a model biorefinery for producing phenolic compounds extract, ethanol and xylitol from spent blackberry pulp (SBP). The biorefinery was investigated according to four potential scenarios including mass and heat integrations as well as cogeneration system for supplying part of the energy requirements in the biorefinery. The investigated SBP had 61.54% holocellulose; its total phenolic compounds was equivalent to 2700mg of gallic acid/100g SBP, its anthocyanins content was 126.41mg/kg of SBP and its total antioxidant activity was 174.8μmol TE/g of SBP. The economic analysis revealed that the level of integration in the biorefinery significantly affected the total production cost. The sale-to-total-production-cost ratio indicated that both, mass and heat integrations are of importance relevance. The cost of supplies (enzymes and reagents) had the most significant impact on the total production cost and accounted between 46.72 and 58.95% of the total cost of the biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health care applications based on mobile phone centric smart sensor network.

    PubMed

    Quero, J M; Tarrida, C L; Santana, J J; Ermolov, V; Jantunen, I; Laine, H; Eichholz, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the MIMOSA architecture and development platform to create Ambient Intelligence applications. MIMOSA achieves this objective by developing a personal mobile-device centric architecture and open technology platform where microsystem technology is the key enabling technology for their realization due to its low-cost, low power consumption, and small size. This paper focuses the demonstration activities carried out in the field of health care. MIMOSA project is a European level initiative involving 15 enterprises and research institutions and universities.

  15. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Section 1. Region O - California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    P. minor L. Snowline shinleaf - P. secunda L. Sidebells shinleaf - Railiardella pringlei Greene Raillardella OBL Ranunculus acris L. Tall buttercup ...FACW S.P. aiismifolius Geyer ex Benth. Dwarf buttercup FACW F. aZveolatus Carter Carter’s buttercup OBL R. aquatilis L. Water buttercup OBL DRA R...artensis L. Corn buttercup R. buZbosus L. Bulbous buttercup F. caifornicus Benth. California buttercup FAC DRA F. canus Benth. Hoary buttercup R

  16. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other article...

  17. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  18. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  19. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  20. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)).

  1. The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS.

  2. The Type 3 Protein Secretion System of Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strain LMG19424 Compromises Symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Maged M.; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

  3. Characterizing Specimens of Kudzu and Related Taxa with RAPD's

    Treesearch

    D.K. Jewett; C.J. Jiang; K.O. Britton; J.H. Sun; J. Tang

    2003-01-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and Almeidal is a perennial, semi-woody, climbing legume in the tribe Phaseoleae Benth., subtribe Glycininae Benth. (Maesen 1985, Maesen and Almeida 1988, Ward 1998). It is native to China, where an abundance of natural enemies (Pemberton 1988) and its cultivation...

  4. Molecular authentication and quality control using a high performance liquid chromatography technique of Fructus Evodiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Li, Shun Xiang; Cai, Guang Xian; Yue, Chun Hua; Wei, Li Jun; Zhang, Ping

    2008-02-01

    In present paper, the properties of molecular authentication combined with the fingerprints of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were validated by analyzing ten batches of Fructus Evodiae samples (the dried nearly ripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG or Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG). The results of this investigation show that the similarities of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were almost 100% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG, 97% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., and 96% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG. The percentage of identity between the two groups of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG and Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG is almost 96%, but the identity among the group of these three species is only 73%. The results show that Fructus Evodiae comes from three species respectively. The fingerprints of HPLC show that Fructus Evodiae revealed 20 major common peaks. And the three species have almost the same chemical constituents. ITS sequence fingerprint combining the fingerprint of HPLC can not only be developed to identify and distinguish the three species in detail, but also can be used for optimizing location where Fructus Evodiae has much higher bioactive constituents and yield.

  5. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  6. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation.

  7. Symmetry-based solution of a model for a combination of a risky investment and a riskless investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, P. G. L.; O'Hara, J. G.; Sinkala, W.

    2007-10-01

    Benth and Karlsen [F.E. Benth, K.H. Karlsen, A note on Merton's portfolio selection problem for the Schwartz mean-reversion model, Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23 (2005) 687-704] treated a problem of the optimisation of the selection of a portfolio based upon the Schwartz mean-reversion model. The resulting Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in 1+2 dimensions is quite nonlinear. The solution obtained by Benth and Karlsen was very ingenious. We provide a solution of the problem based on the application of the Lie theory of continuous groups to the partial differential equation and its associated boundary and terminal conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein flowers...

  9. Controlling exotic plants in your forest

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the impacts of exotic plants and suggests control and rehabilitation measures. Trees, shrubs, and vines addressed include silk tree or mimosa, Chinese and Japanese privet, kudzu, multiflora rose, Japanese honeysuckle, and Chinese wisteria.

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  11. In situ ruminal kinetics of DM and NDF disappearance for the biomass forages Amur silvergrass and big bluestem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative strategies, such as grazing, could minimize economic risk associated with biomass production. Minimal research is available that describes the nutritive value of biomass forages, specifically Amur silvergrass (AS; Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth., proprietary clone Msanag). Four...

  12. Antifungal activity of new compounds from Nepeta leucophylla and Nepeta clarkei.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, J; Mathela, C S

    1996-01-01

    Iridodial beta-monoenol acetate, isolated from the essential oil of Nepeta leucophylla Benth, and actinidine from N. clarkei Benth were screened for antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium citrinum, and Penicillium viridicatum, all known mycotoxin-producing taxa, and Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina, potential soybean pathogens. Iridodial beta-monoenol acetate was most effective against S. rolfsii, while actinidine was highly active against M. phaseolina. PMID:8593072

  13. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Goretti V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Mendes, Francisca N P; Albuquerque, Irineu L; dos Santos, Rogério N; Silva, Fábio O; Morais, Selene M

    2008-10-14

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%). This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  14. [Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Leython, Sirli; Jáuregui, Damelis

    2008-09-01

    Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC.) Bentk var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters.

  15. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  16. Statistical optimization and fabrication of a press coated pulsatile dosage form to treat nocturnal acid breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Bansal, Mayank

    2013-08-01

    Present work focuses on the use of mimosa seed gum to develop a drug delivery system making combined use of floating and pulsatile principles, for the chrono-prevention of nocturnal acid breakthrough. The desired aim was achieved by fabricating a floating delivery system bearing time - lagged coating of Mimosa pudica seed polymer for the programmed release of Famotidine. Response Surface Methodology was the statistical tool that was employed for experiment designing, mathematical model generation and optimization study. A 3(2) full factorial design was used in designing the experiment.% weight ratio of mimosa gum to hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose in the coating combination and the coating weight were the independent variables, whereas the lag time and the cumulative % drug release in 360 minutes were the observed responses. Results revealed that both the coating composition and the coating weight significantly affected the release of drug from the dosage form. The optimized formulation prepared according to the computer generated software, Design-Expert(®) deciphered response which were in close proximity with the experimental responses, thus confirming the robustness as well as accuracy of the predicted model for the utilization of natural polymer like mimosa seed gum for the chronotherapeutic treatment of nocturnal acid breakthrough.

  17. Isolation and characterization of yuremamine, a new phytoindole.

    PubMed

    Vepsäläinen, Jouko J; Auriola, Seppo; Tukiainen, Mikko; Ropponen, Nina; Callaway, J C

    2005-11-01

    Yuremamine was isolated and characterized from the stem bark of Mimosa tenuiflora. This plant is still used by indigenous peoples in North-eastern Brazil to make yurema, a psychoactive beverage that is used for medico-religious purpose ( jurema preta or vinho da jurema, in Portuguese). The characterization of this novel compound by NMR and mass spectrometry introduces a new class of phytoindoles.

  18. Mediation of rapid electrical, metabolic, transpirational, and photosynthetic changes by factors released from wounds. I. variation potentials and putative action potentials in intact plants

    Treesearch

    S.J. Barres; T.J.Sambeek Perry; Barbara G. Pickard

    1976-01-01

    Damaging representative plants from five angiosperm families by heating or crushing a small portion of a single leaf results in an electrical change which may spread throughout the shoot. In Mimosa similar changes have previously been identified as variation potentials.Except in one of the five plants, a variation...

  19. From Pandora's Box: Hopelessness and Defeat in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The "new realism" that distinguishes some recent childrens' books such as "The Mimosa Tree,""The Bear's House," and "My Daddy Is a Policeman" portrays the important issues of human life from a one dimensional perspective. These books focus on the tragedies and problems of life without answering the child's philosophical questions regarding…

  20. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  1. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  2. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative pre-harvest interventions have to be evaluated to prevent carcass contamination at the slaughter house. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodbo...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus UYMMa02A, a Novel Beta-Rhizobium Species

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, Andrés; Platero, Raúl; Romero, Valeria; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Cupriavidus UYMMa02A, a rhizobium strain isolated from root nodules of Mimosa magentea. The assembly has approximately 8.1 million bp with an average G+C of 64.1%. Symbiotic and metal-resistance genes were identified. The study of this genome will contribute to the understanding of rhizobial evolution. PMID:27834710

  4. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. Jennings Creek Watershed Dam Number 15 (Inventory Number TN 08705), Cumberland River Basin, near North Springs, Jackson County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    fomed opening regulated by a 24ŕ sliding headgate. The emergency spillway is on uncontrolled saddle type excavated in rock with* 16 foot base width...490 acres (0.766 mi2) B. Average Channel Slope 2% C. Average Land Slope 40% D. Hydrologic Soil Group 90% C (Dickson, Mimosa) E. Time of Concentration

  5. Burkholderia phymatum strains capable of nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris are present in Moroccan soils.

    PubMed

    Talbi, C; Delgado, M J; Girard, L; Ramírez-Trujillo, A; Caballero-Mellado, J; Bedmar, E J

    2010-07-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, nodC, and nifH genes of four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Morocco soils were identified as Burkholderia phymatum. All four strains formed N(2)-fixing nodules on P. vulgaris and Mimosa, Acacia, and Prosopis species and reduced acetylene to ethylene when cultured ex planta.

  6. Burkholderia phymatum Strains Capable of Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris Are Present in Moroccan Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, C.; Delgado, M. J.; Girard, L.; Ramírez-Trujillo, A.; Caballero-Mellado, J.; Bedmar, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, nodC, and nifH genes of four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Morocco soils were identified as Burkholderia phymatum. All four strains formed N2-fixing nodules on P. vulgaris and Mimosa, Acacia, and Prosopis species and reduced acetylene to ethylene when cultured ex planta. PMID:20472732

  7. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  8. Burkholderia species associated with legumes of Chiapas, Mexico, exhibit stress tolerance and growth in aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    de León-Martínez, José A; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo

    2017-08-29

    Leguminous plants have received special interest for the diversity of β-proteobacteria in their nodules and are promising candidates for biotechnological applications. In this study, 15 bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules of the following legumes: Indigofera thibaudiana, Mimosa diplotricha, Mimosa albida, Mimosa pigra, and Mimosa pudica, collected in 9 areas of Chiapas, Mexico. The strains were grouped into four profiles of genomic fingerprints through BOX-PCR and identified based on their morphology, API 20NE biochemical tests, sequencing of the 16S rRNA, nifH and nodC genes as bacteria of the Burkholderia genus, genetically related to Burkholderia phenoliruptrix, Burkholderia phymatum, Burkholderia sabiae, and Burkholderia tuberum. The Burkholderia strains were grown under stress conditions with 4% NaCl, 45°C, and benzene presence at 0.1% as the sole carbon source. This is the first report on the isolation of these nodulating species of the Burkholderia genus in legumes in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Lajjalu treatment of uterine prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Shivanandaiah, T. M.; Indudhar, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Mimosa pudica was found useful in cases of uterine prolapse with bleeding, consistent with my experience of working with the condition for more than 45 years, and treating hundreds of such cases of uterine prolapse. Hysterectomy has been avoided up to this date, and is not now expected to be recommended. PMID:21836800

  10. From Pandora's Box: Hopelessness and Defeat in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The "new realism" that distinguishes some recent childrens' books such as "The Mimosa Tree,""The Bear's House," and "My Daddy Is a Policeman" portrays the important issues of human life from a one dimensional perspective. These books focus on the tragedies and problems of life without answering the child's philosophical questions regarding…

  11. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maša; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2012-07-01

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins.

  12. Pulcherrimasaponin, from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima, as adjuvant for immunization in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bernadete Pereira da; Soares, Juliana Baptista Rocha Correa; Souza, Edilma Paraguai de; Palatnik, Marcos; Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik de; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-11

    A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)

  13. Stimulation of plant growth by (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitile applied as a foliar spray in vivo or as a medium amendment in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal, a co-product of oil extraction from meadowfoam seeds, increased the growth of greenhouse plants when added to the growing medium. 3-MPAN {(3-Methoxyphenyl)acetonitile} is a biologically-active glucosinolate degradation compound previously id...

  14. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Victoria, Australia, shows that the bank- destabilizing effects of surcharge due to silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) are minimal. Field observations...Wind-throw loads on trees were deliberately eliminated from this study. Vegetation: Silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) Soil Properties: N/A...facultative phreatophytes (including Cathorium umbellatum (Vahl.) Kosterm. and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth) and tended to rely more heavily

  15. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, on Pedicularis bracteosa

    Treesearch

    P. J. Zambino; B. A. Richardson; G. I. McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. was thought to utilize only Ribes spp. (Grossulariaceae) as telial hosts in North America. During 2004, Pedicularis racemosa Dougl. ex Benth. and Castilleja miniata Dougl. (Orobanchaceae) were proven as natural telial hosts at a subalpine site (48...

  16. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The roots of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz has been used in native Indian medicine for treatment of various illnesses and has been mainly used to treat hypertension. Reserpine is potent substance which shared both central nervous system depressant and hypotensive actions. An UHPLC-UV meth...

  17. Assisted recovery of degraded tropical lands: plantation forests and ecosystem stability

    Treesearch

    John A. Parrotta

    1993-01-01

    Plantations of multipurpose tree species can play a critical role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. The present study, conducted at a coastal pasture site in Puerto Rico, compares 4.5-year-old plantation stands of Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. plantation stands and adjacent control...

  18. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  19. Angelique : Dicorynia guianensis Amsh.

    Treesearch

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    Angelique has for many years been incorrectly identified with the botanical name Dicorynia paraensis Benth. It differs from this species and from other described species of Dicorynia in the structure of the flowers and its restricted range of growth. Presently known as Dicorynia guianensis, angelique occurs only in French Guiana and Surinam. Dicorynia paraensis occurs...

  20. The role of plantation forests in rehabilitating degraded tropical ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John A. Parrotta

    1992-01-01

    Plantations of multi-purpose tree species can play an important role in restoring productivity, ecosyste~ 2n stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. The present study, conducted at a degraded coastal pasture site in Puerto Rico, compares 4.5-year-old Aibizia lebbek (L.) Benth. plantation stands and adjacent control areas with respect to biomass...

  1. A Comparative Study of Three Cryopreservation Protocols for Effective Storage of In Vitro-Grown Mint (Mentha Spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints [Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth] were cryopreserved using the three standa...

  2. Nutrient disorders of 'Evolution' mealy-cup sage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To produce popular floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea (Benth.)), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize disorders. Diagnostic criteria of nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage are absent from the literature. Theref...

  3. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  4. Genetic variability of cultivated rhizoma peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a vegetatively propagated tropical legume that combines high forage nutritive value and long-term persistence under a wide range of grazing and harvested hay systems. The objectives of this study were to measure the genetic relatedness amo...

  5. Germplasm evaluation of Rhizoma peanut for growth and forage potential.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a warm-season perennial forage legume, adapted to southern USA. It has similar dry matter (DM) and nutritive value to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Recent studies indicated that rhizoma peanut can be grown further north (zone '8b) than previously suggest...

  6. Establishment, agronomic characteristics, and dry matter yield of rhizoma peanut genotypes in cool environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) has potential to provide high quality forage during summer months; however establishment of the stand is slow and cold tolerance is limited. During the three growing seasons from 2006 to 2008, a randomized complete block design experiment was conducted at fo...

  7. Annual and perennial peanut forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut hay can be a valuable feed for livestock in the Southeast. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) cultivars have been developed and are grown on limited acres in Georgia and Florida. The cost and time for establishment of this vegetatively propagated crop can be prohibitive to some grow...

  8. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  9. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip

    Treesearch

    Lee E. Hughes

    2001-01-01

    Four listed plants on the Arizona Strip are being monitored for various population characteristics. Pediocactus sileri Engelm. L. Benson and P. bradyi L. Benson have been monitored since 1985-86, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren since 1989, and Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. jonesii Welsh & Atwood since 1993. The two pediocactus species were monitored in plots...

  10. An analytical model of memristors in plants.

    PubMed

    Markin, Vladislav S; Volkov, Alexander G; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The memristor, a resistor with memory, was postulated by Chua in 1971 and the first solid-state memristor was built in 2008. Recently, we found memristors in vivo in plants. Here we propose a simple analytical model of 2 types of memristors that can be found within plants. The electrostimulation of plants by bipolar periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica with fingerprints of memristors. Memristive properties of the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica are linked to the properties of voltage gated K(+) ion channels. The potassium channel blocker TEACl transform plant memristors to conventional resistors. The analytical model of a memristor with a capacitor connected in parallel exhibits different characteristic behavior at low and high frequency of applied voltage, which is the same as experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in vivo.

  11. Experience teaches plants to learn faster and forget slower in environments where it matters.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Monica; Renton, Michael; Depczynski, Martial; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The nervous system of animals serves the acquisition, memorization and recollection of information. Like animals, plants also acquire a huge amount of information from their environment, yet their capacity to memorize and organize learned behavioral responses has not been demonstrated. In Mimosa pudica-the sensitive plant-the defensive leaf-folding behaviour in response to repeated physical disturbance exhibits clear habituation, suggesting some elementary form of learning. Applying the theory and the analytical methods usually employed in animal learning research, we show that leaf-folding habituation is more pronounced and persistent for plants growing in energetically costly environments. Astonishingly, Mimosa can display the learned response even when left undisturbed in a more favourable environment for a month. This relatively long-lasting learned behavioural change as a result of previous experience matches the persistence of habituation effects observed in many animals.

  12. Memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  13. An analytical model of memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Markin, Vladislav S; Volkov, Alexander G; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The memristor, a resistor with memory, was postulated by Chua in 1971 and the first solid-state memristor was built in 2008. Recently, we found memristors in vivo in plants. Here we propose a simple analytical model of 2 types of memristors that can be found within plants. The electrostimulation of plants by bipolar periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica with fingerprints of memristors. Memristive properties of the Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica are linked to the properties of voltage gated K+ ion channels. The potassium channel blocker TEACl transform plant memristors to conventional resistors. The analytical model of a memristor with a capacitor connected in parallel exhibits different characteristic behavior at low and high frequency of applied voltage, which is the same as experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in vivo. PMID:25482769

  14. Memristors in plants.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks.

  15. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-08-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3-6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A preliminary pachytene analysis of two species of Arachis L.

    PubMed

    Jahnavi, M R; Murty, U R

    1985-05-01

    The morphology of pachytene chromosomes was studied in A. glabrata Benth. and A. pusilla Benth. belonging respectively to the sections Rhizomatosae and Triseminale. These two species can not be crossed with the cultivated groundnut A. hypogaea L. All 20 chromosomes of A. glabrata could be identified individually and further classified into 5 basic types. The features that enabled the identification of chromosomes were: total length, arm ratios, nucleolus attachment and position and extent of heterochromatin. A simple key has been proposed for classifying different chromosomes to facilitate their easy identification. The genomes of A. glabrata did not resemble those of A. hypogaea except for the presence of an 'A' chromosome, 2 euchromosomes and 2 nucleolus organisers. A. glabrata did not appear to be an amphidiploid but rather an allopolyploid hybrid. The genome of A. pusilla contained chromosomes unlike those of any other species of section Arachis. It was concluded that both these species are quite unrelated to other species of the section Arachis.

  17. Molecular Role of EGFR-MAPK Pathway in Patchouli Alcohol-Induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Lu, ChengHua; Xu, ZhenYu; Qiu, HongFu; Wang, JingWen; Zhu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy is still the main effective treatment for cancer. Herb prescriptions containing Pogostemon cablin Benth (also known as “Guang-Huo-Xiang”) have been widely used in Chinese medicine today. In our research, we found that patchouli alcohol, a compound isolated from the oil of Pogostemon cablin Benth, exerted antitumor ability against human lung cancer A549 cells ability both in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL cover glass staining provided the visual evidence of apoptosis. Caspase activity measurement showed that patchouli alcohol activated caspase 9 and caspase 3 of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Consistently, patchouli alcohol inhibited the xenograft tumor in vivo. Further investigation of the underlying molecular mechanism showed that MAPK and EGFR pathway might contribute to the antitumor effect of patchouli alcohol. Our study proved that patchouli alcohol might be able to serve as a novel antitumor compound in the clinical treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27830146

  18. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  19. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Extracts Prepared in our Lab Mimosa seed 4+ 0 + 0 + Mango seed 0 0 1+ 3+ + Sunflower seed 2+ 0 0 + 0 Avocado seed 1+ 3+ 3+ 1+ NT Persimmon seed 4...M. indica extract was prepared from the dried seeds of commercially purchased mangoes. The seeds were pulverized in a CRC micromill and extracted ...panel of 14 lectins and extracts demonstrating lectin-like activity led to the development of a rapid agglu- tination slide test for the

  20. Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Mimosa pudica ) or the Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nuci- fera). A smaller plant size would facilitate the complete cov- erage of the thermogenic zones...minute intervals. This would give a sensitivity better than 100 nG per point using the atomic magnetometer (described in Sec. III), which is more than...bidirectional ionic currents in the model may instead be dis- tributed in a more complex geometry than the two parallel wire model used in this