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Sample records for mimosa scabrella benth

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  2. Two galactomannan preparations from seeds from Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga): Complexation with oxovanadium(IV/V) and cytotoxicity on HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia O; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Méndez-Sánchez, Stelia Carolina; Reicher, Fany; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M

    2009-05-01

    Two galactomannans, GALMAN-A and GALMAN-B, were isolated from seeds of Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga), with deactivation and exposure to native enzymes, respectively. They were treated with oxovanadium(IV) and oxovanadium(V), designated (VO(2+)/VO(3+)) to form GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) complexes, respectively. The potentiometric studies provided the binding constants for the complexes and the resulting complexed species were a function of pH. (51)V NMR spectra of GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) at pH 7.8 and at 30 degrees C indicated the occurrence of two types of complexes formed by oxovanadium ions and galactomannans. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) caused loss of HeLa cells viability at concentrations of 50-200microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited low toxicity for 24h, although GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) was extremely toxic, since 50microg/mL was sufficient to decrease HeLa cell viability after 48h by 60%. GALMAN-A gave rise to a slight increase in cell proliferation after 48h at 100microg/mL, whereas GALMAN-B promoted a slight decrease at concentrations of 50-100microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited a significant decrease in cell proliferation after 48h, each reaching 60% inhibition at 5-10microg/mL. The complexes which caused this effect were at concentrations 10 times lower than the uncomplexed polymers.

  3. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  4. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  5. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Podadera, Diego S; Engel, Vera L; Parrotta, John A; Machado, Deivid L; Sato, Luciane M; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  6. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Podadera, Diego S; Engel, Vera L; Parrotta, John A; Machado, Deivid L; Sato, Luciane M; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings. PMID:26105971

  7. Xanthan and galactomannan (from M. scabrella) matrix tablets for oral controlled delivery of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, C W; Andreazza, I F; Ganter, J L M S; Ferrero, C; Bresolin, T M B

    2005-05-30

    Directly compressed theophylline tablets, containing commercial xanthan (X) (Keltrol) and a highly hydrophilic galactomannan (G) from the seeds of Mimosa scabrella (a brazilian leguminous tree called bracatinga) as release-controlling agents, were obtained. Gums were used at 4, 8, 12.5 and 25% (w/w), either alone or in mixture (X:G 1:1). During galactomannan extraction process, the biopolymer was dried in a scale up, by vacuum oven (VO) or spray dryer (SD). The in vitro drug release was evaluated at different time intervals during 8 h using apparatus 1 (USP 26) at 100 rpm. The pH of the dissolution medium (1.4) was changed to 4.0 and 6.8 after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Tablets containing G(SD) resulted in more uniform drug release than G(VO) ones, due to their smaller particle size. The drug release decreased with the increase of polymer concentration and all formulations at 25% w/w of gums showed excessive sustained release effect. The matrices made with alone X showed higher drug retention for all concentrations, compared with G matrices that released the drug too fast. The XG matrices were able to produce near zero-order drug release. The XG(SD) 8% tablets provided the required release rate (about 90% at the end of 8 h), with zero-order release kinetics. Tablets containing G(VO) in low concentration showed a complete erosion, while the others demonstrated fast hydration and swelling in contact with the dissolution medium. The release mechanism was a combination of diffusion and relaxation. The relative importance of these two processes varied with matrix composition. The XG(SD) 8% matrix showed higher contribution of polymer relaxation.

  8. Mimosa pudica, Dionaea muscipula and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    De Luccia, Thiago Paes de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Some studies showed that anesthetics reduce the response of physical stimuli in Mimosa pudica and in Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), peculiar plants that have the ability to respond to touch stimuli. In this research we tested the effects of ketamine, lidocaine, diethyl ether, and amlodipine on the movements of Mimosa pudica and Venus Flytrap. With a literature review, we tried to bring elements to theorize about the interaction of these substances with these plants. The angular displacement in Mimosa´s petiole and in Dionaea leaves is what was measured to compare the drugs group with control groups.

  9. Mimosa pudica, Dionaea muscipula and anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    De Luccia, Thiago Paes de Barros

    2012-01-01

    Some studies showed that anesthetics reduce the response of physical stimuli in Mimosa pudica and in Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), peculiar plants that have the ability to respond to touch stimuli. In this research we tested the effects of ketamine, lidocaine, diethyl ether, and amlodipine on the movements of Mimosa pudica and Venus Flytrap. With a literature review, we tried to bring elements to theorize about the interaction of these substances with these plants. The angular displacement in Mimosa´s petiole and in Dionaea leaves is what was measured to compare the drugs group with control groups. PMID:22899087

  10. Ultrasound stimulated release of mimosa medicine from cellulose hydrogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huixin; Tovar-Carrillo, Karla; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) drug release system using cellulose based hydrogel films was developed as triggered to mimosa. Here, the mimosa, a fascinating drug to cure injured skin, was employed as the loading drug in cellulose hydrogel films prepared with phase inversion method. The mimosa hydrogels were fabricated from dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl solution in the presence of mimosa, when the solution was exposed to ethanol vapor. The US triggered release of the mimosa from the hydrogel matrix was carried out under following conditions of US powers (0-30W) and frequencies (23, 43 and 96kHz) for different mimosa hydrogel matrix from 0.5wt% to 2wt% cellulose solution. To release the drug by US trigger from the matrix, the better medicine release was observed in the matrix prepared from the 0.5wt% cellulose solution when the 43kHz US was exposed to the aqueous solution with the hydrogel matrix. The release efficiency increased with the increase of the US power from 5 to 30W at 43kHz. Viscoelasticity of the hydrogel matrix showed that the hydrogel became somewhat rigid after the US exposure. FT-IR analysis of the mimosa hydrogel matrixes showed that during the US exposure, hydrogen bonds in the structure of mimosa-water and mimosa-cellulose were broken. This suggested that the enhancement of the mimosa release was caused by the US exposure.

  11. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  12. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  13. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory. PMID:27065905

  14. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Sehgal, Sakshi; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) also referred to as touch me not, live and die, shame plant and humble plant is a prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America and Australia, also found in India heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched and cooled. These unique bending movements have earned it a status of ‘curiosity plant’. It appears to be a promising herbal candidate to undergo further exploration as evident from its pharmacological profile. It majorly possesses antibacterial, antivenom, antifertility, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and various other pharmacological activities. The herb has been used traditionally for ages, in the treatment of urogenital disorders, piles, dysentery, sinus, and also applied on wounds. This work is an attempt to explore and compile the different pharmacognostic aspects of the action plant M. pudica reported till date. PMID:23055637

  15. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Chicas-Mosier, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory. PMID:27065905

  16. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  17. Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-01-01

    Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed. PMID:20855975

  18. Memory elements in the electrical network of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tuckett, Clayton; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The fourth basic circuit element, a memristor, is a resistor with memory that was postulated by Chua in 1971. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Mimosa pudica by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Mimosa pudica is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25482796

  19. Memory elements in the electrical network of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tuckett, Clayton; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The fourth basic circuit element, a memristor, is a resistor with memory that was postulated by Chua in 1971. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Mimosa pudica by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Mimosa pudica is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of phyto fabricated silver nanoparticles using Mukia scabrella (Musumusukkai) against drug resistance nosocomial gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Prabakar, Kandasamy; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Mohamed Rabeek, Siyed Ibrahim; Muthuselvam, Manickam; Devarajan, Naresh; Arjunan, Annavi; Karthick, Rajamanickam; Suresh, Micky Maray; Wembonyama, John Pote

    2013-04-01

    Given the fact in the limitation of the therapeutic options for emerging multidrug resistance gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) of respiratory tract infections, the present study was focused on green synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Mukia scabrella. An obvious color change to brown color and surface plasmon resonance by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) indicated a well observable peak at 440 nm confirming the synthesis of AgNPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicates protein as possible capping agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy results showed major signal for elemental silver. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of metallic silver nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study showed the nanoparticles in the size range of 18-21 nm with spherical shape. Zeta potential analysis showed -21.7 mV characteristic for stable AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against MDR-GNB nosocomial pathogens of Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from the current study suggested that M. scabrella material could be exploited for the fabrication of AgNPs with potential therapeutic applications in nanomedicine especially for nosocomial bacterial infections.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of phyto fabricated silver nanoparticles using Mukia scabrella (Musumusukkai) against drug resistance nosocomial gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Prabakar, Kandasamy; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Mohamed Rabeek, Siyed Ibrahim; Muthuselvam, Manickam; Devarajan, Naresh; Arjunan, Annavi; Karthick, Rajamanickam; Suresh, Micky Maray; Wembonyama, John Pote

    2013-04-01

    Given the fact in the limitation of the therapeutic options for emerging multidrug resistance gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) of respiratory tract infections, the present study was focused on green synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Mukia scabrella. An obvious color change to brown color and surface plasmon resonance by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) indicated a well observable peak at 440 nm confirming the synthesis of AgNPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicates protein as possible capping agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy results showed major signal for elemental silver. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of metallic silver nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study showed the nanoparticles in the size range of 18-21 nm with spherical shape. Zeta potential analysis showed -21.7 mV characteristic for stable AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against MDR-GNB nosocomial pathogens of Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from the current study suggested that M. scabrella material could be exploited for the fabrication of AgNPs with potential therapeutic applications in nanomedicine especially for nosocomial bacterial infections. PMID:23334182

  2. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  3. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  4. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F.; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Methods Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Key Results Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the ‘Old World’ Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. Conclusions The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the ‘local’ Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial. PMID:23712450

  5. Endemic Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" within semiarid communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Dhillion, Shivcharn S

    2003-06-01

    This paper explores if Mimosa species (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) can serve as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and nutrient "resource islands" in six plant communities in the semiarid valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico. Spatial heterogeneity related to the occurrence of Mimosa species results in temporal differences in AM-fungal spore numbers and soil nutrients. A higher number of AM-fungal spores were found in the soil below the canopies of six endemic Mimosa species than in the soil from non-vegetated areas. For four species, Mimosa adenantheroides, Mimosa calcicola, Mimosa luisana and Mimosa polyantha, the soil below their canopies had more AM-fungal spores than the soil in non-vegetated areas during the wet season than during the dry season. Two species, Mimosa lacerata and Mimosa texana var. filipes, however, had more spores under their canopies during the dry season than during the wet season. Although physical differences are present within and between sites, in general the soil below the canopies of Mimosa species had significantly higher nutrient levels than the soil from non-vegetated areas. Mimosa species thus form "resource islands" that are not only rich in nutrients but also in mycorrhizal propagules. Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" by directly affecting AM-fungal spore dynamics and/or by serving as spore-traps. A range of plants associated with Mimosa species may benefit from the higher number of AM propagules. We believe that the use of Mimosa resource islands as an option for biodiversity conservation and for land restoration ought to be considered in the Valley.

  6. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  7. Antidermatophytic Activity of Pogostemon parviflorus Benth

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Sadhu Deokule, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    In the developing countries of tropical regions, mycotic infections are common cause of skin diseases.The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases including mycotic infections is an age-old practice in many parts of the world. The drugs used against dermatophytosis have several side effects, but limited efficacy. There is therefore a distinct need for discovery of new, safer and more effective antifungal agents. Medicinal plants used in traditional folk medicine may help us to overcome the growing problem of resistance to antifungal drugs and also their relative toxicity. In this study, in vitro antifungal activity of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf extracts were evaluated against three different genera of dermatophytes including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, using the agar dilution method. Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. belongs to Labiatae family. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf inhibited the growth of tested dermatophytes at different concentrations. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf completely prevented the growth of tested dermatophytic species, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 2.5-10 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of this plant were also in the range of 2.5-10 mg/mL. Results of phytochemical screening tests indicated that the leaf of Pogostemon parviflorus contained saponins, reducing sugars, tannins, phenols and proteins, but it did not have any glycosides, anthraquinones, alkaloids or flavonoids. Results of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) studies indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaves included triterpenes, as 10 and 14 peaks of ultra violet (UV) absorption were observed in 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. Hence, triterpenes may be responsible for antidermatophytic activity of this plant. PMID:24363738

  8. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently.

  9. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  10. [Effect produced by the alkaloid fraction of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite) on the peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig ileum].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L; Martínez, M

    1990-01-01

    An alkaloidal fraction was obtained from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (tepescohuite) trunk bark. The product contained mainly an indolealkylamine and three minor alkaloids. This fraction inhibited the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum in vitro.

  11. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of constituents from Millettia pachycarpa Benth.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haoyu; Fu, Afu; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Guangcheng; Tang, Minghai; Li, Shucai; He, Shichao; Zhong, Shijie; Lai, Huijun; Yang, Jianhong; Xiang, Minli; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of constituents from the seeds of Millettia pachycarpa Benth. Fourteen compounds (1-14) including one novel chalcone (10) were isolated as active principles from Chinese herbal medicine M. pachycarpa Benth. Their structures were identified by using spectroscopic methods. All isolates were then evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against several cancer cell lines (HepG2, C26, LL2 and B16) with cisplatin as a positive control. And their apoptosis-inducing effects were tested against HeLa-C3 cells with taxol as a positive control. Both studies showed that compounds 1, 2, 7 and 10 demonstrated significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects against cancer cells. Moreover, in the apoptosis assay the novel chalcone (10) showed strong apoptosis inducing effects at a concentration of 2μM within 36h. It was found to be the most potent apoptotic inducer of the compounds isolated from M. pachycarpa Benth. PMID:22902267

  12. An Analysis of Mimosa pudica Leaves Movement by Using LoggerPro Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugito; Susilo; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    The unique phenomena of Mimosa pudica are the closing and opening movements of its leaves when they got a stimulus. By using certain software, these movements can be drawn into graphic that can be analysed. The LoggerPro provides facilities needed to analyse recorded videos of the plant's reaction to stimulus. Then, through the resulted graph, analysis of some variables can be carried out. The result showed that the plant's movement fits an equation of y = mx + c.

  13. Mimosa-inspired design of a flexible pressure sensor with touch sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Gong, Shu; Ma, Zheng; Yap, Lim Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-04-24

    A bio-inspired flexible pressure sensor is generated with high sensitivity (50.17 kPa(-1)), quick responding time (<20 ms), and durable stability (negligible loading-unloading signal changes over 10 000 cycles). Notably, the key resource of surface microstructures upon sensor substrates results from the direct molding of natural mimosa leaves, presenting a simple, environment-friendly and easy scale-up fabrication process for these flexible pressure sensors.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa pudica Isolated in French Guiana (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Mornico, Damien; Melkonian, Rémy; Klonowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium mesoamericanum STM3625 is a Mimosa pudica symbiont isolated in French Guiana. This strain serves as a model bacterium for comparison of adaptation to mutualism (symbiotic traits, bacterial genetic programs for plant infection) between alpha and beta rhizobial symbionts of Mimosa pudica. PMID:23405314

  15. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  16. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  17. Proof that Burkholderia strains form effective symbioses with legumes: a study of novel Mimosa-nodulating strains from South America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2005-11-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other beta-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known beta-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes.

  18. Fruits of Mimosa foliolosa (Fabales: Fabaceae) as sleeping shelter for Megachile (Pseudocentron) botucatuna (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G W; Ferrari, R R

    2012-12-01

    Several plant parts or organs are often used by insects for aggregation and even as resting areas. We first report the use of fruits of the legume Mimosa foliolosa pachycarpa as a night shelter for Megachile (Pseudocentron) botucana Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Serra do Cipó, southeastern Brazil. Only a single bee was found per fruit, in 86 fruits out of 1,003 fruits opened. The present findings augmented the occurrence of the phenomenon among bees, which is new to the harsh mountaintop environments in the Brazilian rupestrian fields. PMID:23949678

  19. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora bark extracts on WI38 and KB human cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Nicasio, P; Alonso-Cortés, D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of three extracts from barks of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd) Poir, Leguminosae, on the growth rate of two human cell lines were investigated. The plant material was extracted with petroleum ether, ethylacetate and butanol, and the obtained products were evaluated in their ability to modify growth of WI38 normal embryonic fibroblasts, and KB cells from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma in tissue culture conditions. The ethylacetate and butanol extracts produced growth rate inhibition with a different pattern depending on the cell line studied; in contrast, the petroleum ether extract markedly increased proliferation of the same cells in vitro.

  20. [Pharmacological properties in vitro of various extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite)].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biological effects of polar extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. trunk bark (tepescohuite) were studied. Ethyl acetate extract, with a high tannin content, inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. Alkaloids were particularly abundant in the butanol extract and this product strongly inhibited the intestinal peristalsis and produced contraction of uterine and gastric strips of rat and guinea pig. Saponins were detected in butanol and methanol extracts producing hemolysis. The screenings performed showed the diversity of bioactive compounds present in this plant product.

  1. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  2. Neutralizing effects of Mimosa tenuiflora extracts against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; de Souza Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  3. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Schöngart, Jochen; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Wittmann, Florian; Junk, Wolfgang J; Worbes, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) is a dominant legume tree species occurring at low elevations of nutrient-poor black-water (igapó) and nutrient-rich white-water floodplain forests (várzea) of Amazonia. As a consequence of the annual long-term flooding this species forms distinct annual tree rings allowing dendrochronological analyses. From both floodplain types in Central Amazonia we sampled cores from 20 large canopy trees growing at identical elevations with a flood-height up to 7 m. We determined tree age, wood density (WD) and mean radial increment (MRI) and synchronized ring-width patterns of single trees to construct tree-ring chronologies for every study site. Maximum tree age found in the igapó was more than 500 years, contrary to the várzea with ages not older than 200 years. MRI and WD were significantly lower in the igapó (MRI=1.52+/-0.38 mm year(-1), WD=0.39+/-0.05 g cm(-3)) than in the várzea (MRI=2.66+/-0.67 mm year(-1), WD=0.45+/-0.03 g cm(-3)). In both floodplain forests we developed tree-ring chronologies comprising the period 1857-2003 (n=7 trees) in the várzea and 1606-2003 (n=13 trees) in the igapó. The ring-width in both floodplain forests was significantly correlated with the length of the terrestrial phase (vegetation period) derived from the daily recorded water level in the port of Manaus since 1903. In both chronologies we found increased wood growth during El Niño events causing negative precipitation anomalies and a lower water discharge in Amazonian rivers, which leads to an extension of the terrestrial phase. The climate signal of La Niña was not evident in the dendroclimatic proxies.

  4. Use and management of mimosa species in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, a tropical semi-arid region in Mexico (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L; Dhillion, S S

    2004-12-01

    We report on the use of 15 Mimosa species within the Tehucán-Cuicatlán Valley, south-central Mexico. Seven of these species are endemic to Mexico, and four species and one variety are endemic to the Valley. We reviewed historical, ethnobotanical and floristic manuscripts, and conducted field studies. Several herbaria were consulted, as well as the BADEPLAM data base. Field work in the Valley has been done from 1994 to date. Most of the Mimosa species occur in the arid tropical scrub and the tropical deciduous forest, which are considered the most endangered vegetation types of the Valley. Our findings show that Mimosa species are used as fodder (45%), fuel (31%), living fences (14%) and construction material (7%). Only one species is used as medicine. Mimosa species are "multipurpose" shrubs/trees of the agrosilvopastoral system of this region.

  5. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-sen; Pang, Nan-nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-ping; Ding, Jian-bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  6. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-Sen; Pang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ding, Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  7. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol.

  8. A new fatty aldol ester from the aerial part of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae).

    PubMed

    Nana, Frederic; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Keumedjio, Felix; Kuete, Victor; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu

    2012-01-01

    A new aldol ester named 17-O-triacontanoylheptadecanal (1) was isolated from the aerial part of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae) together with eight known compounds identified as β-sitosterol (2), α-amyrine (3), lupeol (4), 4'-O-methylepinumisoflavone (5), alpinumisoflavone (6), betulinic acid (7), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (8) and epirobinetinidol (9). The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectrometry data as well as by comparing the data reported in the literatures. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extract and compounds 1 and 9 were investigated against seven microbial species. The natural products showed moderate activities compared to that of the crude extract.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Mimosa Pudica Leaves Shaped α-Iron Oxide Nanostructures for Ethanol Chemical Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Kumar, R; Umar, Ahmad; Abaker, M; Hwang, S W; Baskoutas, S

    2016-03-01

    Herein, the synthesis of mimosa pudica leaves shaped a-iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures is reported through simple and facile hydrothermal process. The prepared α-Fe2O3 nanostructures were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties through a variety of characterization techniques such as FESEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed characterizations revealed the well-crystallinity and dense growth of mimosa pudica leaf shaped α-Fe2O3 nanostructures. Further, the prepared nanomaterials were used as efficient electron mediator to fabricate sensitive ethanol chemical sensor. The fabricated sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of -30.37 μAmM(-1) cm(-2) and low detection limit of -0.62 μM. The observed linear dynamic range (LDR) was in the range from 10 μM-0.625 μM.

  10. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  11. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    DOE PAGES

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together withmore » sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  12. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Mimosa asperata - nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Parker, Matthew; Van Berkum, Peter; Tian, Rui; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-10-16

    Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together with sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  13. Nutritional potential of biochemical components in Galactia longifolia Benth. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Thangadurai, D; Viswanathan, M B; Ramesh, N

    2001-04-01

    Seeds of Galactia longifolia Benth. (Fabaceae), locally known as Kaattukollu in Tamil language, used as food by Malayali tribals in the Kolli hills of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu in South India were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 25.56%, 6.18%, 5.12% and 56.15%, respectively. The caloric value of 100 g dry matter of seed material is 1,601 KJ. The essential amino acids, tryptophan, leucine + isoleucine, arginine and threonine are present relatively in large quantities. The unsaturated fatty acids constitute more than 60%. The seeds are very rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA, hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid is present in minute quantities. The seed meal is consumed after eliminating all the antinutritional factors using the conventional method of soaking seeds in water, boiling with water and decanting for four times by Malayali tribals.

  14. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites. PMID:26991277

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites.

  17. State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.).

    PubMed

    Simon, Franz W; Hodson, Christina N; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2016-09-01

    Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily when disturbed) is affected by an individual's energy state and the quality of the current environment and also repeatedly tested the behavior of individuals from two seed sources to determine whether individuals exhibit a "personality" (i.e., behavioral syndrome). We found that when individuals are in a low-energy state, they adopt a riskier light-foraging strategy, opening leaflets faster, and not closing leaflets as often in response to a disturbance. However, when plants are in a high-energy state, they exhibit a plastic light-foraging strategy dependent on environment quality. Although we found no evidence that individuals exhibit behavioral syndromes, we found that individuals from different seed sources consistently behave differently from each other. Our results suggest that plants are capable of making state-dependent decisions and that plant decision making is complex, depending on the interplay between internal and external factors. PMID:27648244

  18. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed.

  19. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  20. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Remy; James, Euan; Young, Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Copeland, A; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, James; Riley, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  1. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815T, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Lionel; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Caroline, Bournaud; Booth, Kristina; Vriezen, Jan A.C.; Melkonian, Rémy; James, Euan K.; Young, J. Peter W.; Bena, Gilles; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Copeland, Alex; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Bristow, Jim; Riley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp). PMID:25197461

  2. Burkholderia symbiotica sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. native to north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Bontemps, Cyril; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Four strains, designated JPY-345(T), JPY-347, JPY-366 and JPY-581, were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of two species of Mimosa, Mimosa cordistipula and Mimosa misera, that are native to North East Brazil, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. All four strains grew at 15-43 °C (optimum 35 °C), at pH 4-7 (optimum pH 5) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 % NaCl). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JPY-345(T) showed 97.3 % sequence similarity to the closest related species Burkholderia soli GP25-8(T), 97.3 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia caryophylli ATCC25418(T) and 97.1 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia kururiensis KP23(T). The predominant fatty acids of the strains were C(18 : 1)ω7c (36.1 %), C(16 : 0) (19.8 %) and summed feature 3, comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c (11.5 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content of the strains was 64.2-65.7 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. DNA-DNA hybridizations between the novel strain and recognized species of the genus Burkholderia yielded relatedness values of <51.8 %. On the basis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarities and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the four strains represent a novel species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia symbiotica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JPY-345(T) (= LMG 26032(T) = BCRC 80258(T) = KCTC 23309(T)).

  3. A Mathematical Model on Water Redistribution Mechanism of the Seismonastic Movement of Mimosa Pudica

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, K.W.; Ye, Z.W.; Chye, M.L.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model based on the water redistribution mechanism is proposed to predict the volumetric strain of motor cells in Mimosa pudica during the seismonastic movement. The model describes the water and ion movements following the opening of ion channels triggered by stimulation. The cellular strain is related to the angular velocity of the plant movement, and both their predictions are in good agreement with experimental data, thus validating the water redistribution mechanism. The results reveal that an increase in ion diffusivity across the cell membrane of <15-fold is sufficient to produce the observed seismonastic movement. PMID:23823246

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Stable Transformation Method for the Sensitive Plant Mimosa pudica

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tomomi; Sumikawa, Naomi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has long attracted the interest of researchers due to its spectacular leaf movements in response to touch or other external stimuli. Although various aspects of this seismonastic movement have been elucidated by histological, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, the lack of reverse genetic tools has hampered the investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an efficient genetic transformation method for M. pudica mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agrobacterium). We found that the cotyledonary node explant is suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because of its high frequency of shoot formation, which was most efficiently induced on medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Transformation efficiency of cotyledonary node cells was improved from almost 0 to 30.8 positive signals arising from the intron-sGFP reporter gene by using Agrobacterium carrying a super-binary vector pSB111 and stabilizing the pH of the co-cultivation medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer. Furthermore, treatment of the explants with the detergent Silwet L-77 prior to co-cultivation led to a two-fold increase in the number of transformed shoot buds. Rooting of the regenerated shoots was efficiently induced by cultivation on irrigated vermiculite. The entire procedure for generating transgenic plants achieved a transformation frequency of 18.8%, which is comparable to frequencies obtained for other recalcitrant legumes, such as soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum). The transgene was stably integrated into the host genome and was inherited across generations, without affecting the seismonastic or nyctinastic movements of the plants. This transformation method thus provides an effective genetic tool for studying genes involved in M. pudica movements. PMID:24533121

  5. Uptake and metabolic effects of salicylic acid on the pulvinar motor cells of Mimosa pudica L.

    PubMed

    Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) uptake by the pulvinar tissues of Mimosa pudica L. pulvini was shown to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing with acidity of the assay medium. This uptake was performed according to a unique affinity system (K(m) = 5.9 mM, V(m) = 526 pmol mgDW(-1)) in the concentration range of 0.1-5 mM. The uptake rate increased with increasing temperature (5-35 °C) and was inhibited following treatment with sodium azide (NaN3) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of an active component. Treatment with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) did not modify the uptake, indicating that external thiol groups were not necessary. KCl, which induced membrane depolarization had no significant effect, and fusicoccin (FC), which hyperpolarized cell membrane, stimulated the uptake, suggesting that the pH component of the proton motive force was likely a driving force. These data suggest that the SA uptake by the pulvinar tissues may be driven by two components: an ion-trap mechanism playing a pivotal role and a putative carrier-mediated mechanism. Unlike other benzoic acid derivatives acting as classical respiration inhibitors (NaN3 and KCN), SA modified the pulvinar cell metabolism by increasing the respiration rate similar to CCCP and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Furthermore, SA inhibited the osmoregulated seismonastic reaction in a pH dependent manner and induced characteristic damage to the ultrastructural features of the pulvinar motor cells, particularly at the mitochondrial level.

  6. An antibacterial and antifungal phenylpropanoid from Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. et Hook.

    PubMed

    Laouer, Hocine; Meriem, El Kolli; Prado, Soizic; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. et Hook. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS, and the main component was isolated and identified as nothoapiole. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of this compound and of the total oil were investigated against Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa, E. coli), Gram-positive (E. faecalis, S. aureus, S. epidermitis, S. saprophyticus, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis) bacteria and on one strain of fungus (C. tropicalis).

  7. Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides with interesterification from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Yang, Zhuo; Jia, Qi; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2013-10-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (1-2), along with seven known ones (3-9), were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 failed to separated, because they can easily transform into each other by acyl migrant reaction. In this paper, the interesterification mechanism was discussed firstly and the rule can be used in the similar structure elucidation in future.

  8. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl and N,N-dimethyltryptamine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mimosa tenuiflora is a shrub/tree found in northeastern Brazil sometimes eaten by livestock and believed to be responsible for malformations observed in many animals from that region. The teratogenic compounds in M. tenuif lora are not known. This study used pregnant rats fed M. tenuif lora and comp...

  9. Burkholderia diazotrophica sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Bontemps, Cyril; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Gross, Eduardo; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; James, Euan K; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Five strains, JPY461(T), JPY359, JPY389, DPU-3 and STM4206 were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of Mimosa spp. and their taxonomic positions were investigated using a polyphasic approach. All five strains grew at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-37 °C), at pH 4.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 0 % (w/v)]. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, a representative strain (JPY461(T)) showed 97.2 % sequence similarity to the closest related species Burkholderia acidipaludis SA33(T), a similarity of 97.2 % to Burkholderia terrae KMY02(T), 97.1 % to Burkholderia phymatum STM815(T) and 97.1 % to Burkholderia hospita LMG 20598(T). The predominant fatty acids of the five novel strains were summed feature 2 (comprising C(16 : 1) iso I and/or C(14 : 0) 3-OH), summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c), C(16 : 0) , C(16 : 0) 3-OH, C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1)ω7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content of the strains was 63.0-65.0 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified aminolipid and several unidentified phospholipids. The DNA-DNA relatedness of the novel strain with respect to recognized species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 54 %. On the basis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the five strains represent a novel species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia diazotrophica sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain, JPY461(T) ( = LMG 26031(T) = BCRC 80259(T) = KCTC 23308(T)).

  10. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  11. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  12. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  13. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glaburata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have higher levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa. Higher RUP can result in more efficient utilization of nitrogen by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmen...

  14. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in

  15. Mimosa pudica (L.) assisted green synthesis and photoluminescence studies of Y2O3:Mg2+ nanophosphor for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalaiah, KN; Venkataravanappa, M.; Nagabhushana, H.; Basavaraj, R. B.

    2016-09-01

    For the first time green route method was used to synthesize pure and Mg2+(1-11 mol %) doped Y2O3 nanophosphors by using Mimosa pudica leaves extract as a fuel. The final product was well characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL).The PXRD result shows the formation of single phase, cubic structure of Y2O3 with crystallite sizes ∼25 nm. The SEM results showed porous and agglomerated structures, TEM images showed the crystallite size of the material and was found to be around ∼ 25 nm. PL emission spectra show the blue light emission under the excitation wavelength of 315 nm. The emission peaks of Mg2+were observed at 428 nm, 515 nm and 600 nm corresponding to the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6Hi7/2 (violet), 4F9/2 → 6Hi5/2 (blue), 4F9/2 → 6HJ3/2 (yellow) respectively. The estimated CIE chromaticity co-ordinate was very close to the national television standard committee value of blue emission. CCT was found to be ∼ 6891 K as a result the present phosphor was potential to be used for warm white light emitting display applications.

  16. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Rabi A.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Maron, Max J.; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L.; Long, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl− compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K+ and Cl− in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  17. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  18. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  19. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of volatile oils from Hyptis martiusii Benth.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Edigênia C C; Silveira, Edilberto R; Lima, Mary Anne S; Neto, Manoel Andrade; de Andrade, Israel L; Lima, Marcos Aurélio A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Mesquita, Antonio Lindemberg M

    2003-06-18

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Hyptis martiusii Benth were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds representing 93.2% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; Delta-3-carene (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (24.27%), beta-caryophyllene (6.15%), and bicyclogermacrene (6.32%) were found as the major components. In the essential oil of inflorescences 27 compounds representing 87.7% of the oil were identified. The major components were Delta-3-carene (13.5%), alpha-pinene (5.78%), beta-caryophyllene (6.59%), viridiflorene (8.25%), and germacrene B (5.21%). The essential oil of leaves and 1,8-cineole showed pronounced insecticidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae and Bemisia argentifolii, the vectors of dengue fever and white fly fruit plague, respectively. PMID:12797740

  20. Derris scandens Benth extract potentiates radioresistance of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hematulin, Arunee; Meethang, Sutiwan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Sagan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbal products as radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, adverse effects related to the use of herbal medicine on radiotherapy are not well characterized. The present study concerns the impact of Derris scandens Benth extract on the radiosensitivity of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells. Pretreatment with D. scandens extract prior to gamma irradiation significantly increased clonogenic survival and decreased the proportion of radiation-induced abnormal nuclei of Hep-2 cells. Furthermore, the extract was found to enhance radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, induce Akt activation, and increase motility of Hep-2 cells. The study thus indicated that D. scandens extract potentiates radioresistance of Hep-2 cells, further demonstrating the importance of cellular background for the adverse effect of D. scandens extract on radiation response in a laryngeal cancer cell line. PMID:22799321

  1. Protective effect of Mimosa pudica L. in an L-arginine model of acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-07-01

    Mimosa pudica is used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders such as inflammatory conditions, diarrhoea, insomnia, alopecia, urogenital infections and wounds. The present study investigated the effect of M. pudica extract (MPE) on L-arginine-induced acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats. The ethanolic extract of M. pudica leaves was studied for the presence of quercetin and gallic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Four groups were employed-normal control rats, L-arginine control rats (two intraperitoneal [i.p.] injections of 2 g/kg at an interval of 1 h), MPE-treated rats (400 mg/kg orally) and melatonin-treated rats (positive control 10 mg/kg i.p.), which were further divided into subgroups according to time points (24 h, 3 days and 14 days). Serum amylase, lipase, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, protein, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), thiobarbituric reactive substances, glutathione, nitrite/nitrate, collagen content and histopathological examination were carried out. MPE significantly improved acute necrotising pancreatitis by modulating diagnostic markers of pancreatitis such as serum lipase and pancreatic amylase, inflammation (TNF-α), and oxidative and nitrosative stress. Moreover, MPE administration induced regenerative changes in the pancreas evidenced by increased levels of pancreatic proteins, nucleic acid content and histopathology report. In addition, MPE improved TGF-β1 and collagen levels thereby preventing fibrosis. The current investigation indicates the novel role of MPE in reducing the severity of acute necrotising pancreatitis by plausible mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity and by promoting repair and regeneration of the pancreas. PMID:27164910

  2. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae), jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Rosalva; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; García-Moya, Edmundo; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Montaño, Noé Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu) P. laevigata, Site 2 (González) M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón) with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3) had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2). Soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus-Olsen (P) and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI) created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems.

  3. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  4. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Methods Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. Conclusions It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass

  5. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mariluze P; Andrade, Cassya M F; Silva, Kelle O; de Souza, Erika P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  6. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mariluze P; Andrade, Cassya M F; Silva, Kelle O; de Souza, Erika P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  7. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mariluze P.; Andrade, Cassya M. F.; Silva, Kelle O.; de Souza, Erika P.; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.; Napimoga, Marcelo H.; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T.

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as “jurema preta” in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane—H, DCM—D, EtOAc—E and BuOH—B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4’-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100–200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50–200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin

  8. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Kwofie, Kofi D.; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M.; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Anyan, William K.; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A.; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  9. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed

    Kwofie, Kofi D; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Suzuki-Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals.

  10. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations.

  11. Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).

    PubMed

    Romero J, Carlos A; Yépez V, Byron D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90μm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90μm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying.

  12. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  13. Chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels leaf oil from ivory coast.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Zana Adama; Boti, Jean Brice; Attioua, Koffi Barthelemy; Ahibo, Antoine Coffy; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of 48 leaf oil samples isolated from individual plants of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels harvested in four Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID (determination of retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The main components identified were β-pinene (traces-59.1%), sabinene (traces-54.2%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.3-39.3%), linalool (0.1-38.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.1-33.2%), germacrene D (0.0-33.1%), α-pinene (0.1-32.3%), and germacrene B (0-21.2%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The oil composition of the major group (GroupI, 33 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene and linalool. The oils of Group II (eight samples) contained mainly β-pinene and α-pinene, while those of Group III (seven samples) were dominated by sabinene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. Moreover, the compositions of the Ivoirian C. patens leaf oils differed from those of Nigerian and Cameroonian origins.

  14. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  15. Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Dinesh S; Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta erecta Benth. (Family: Lamiaceae) from Uttarakhand, India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified representing 94.6% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (74.0%) constituted the major proportion of the oil, dominated by isoiridomyrmecin (70.6%) as a single major constituent. Other significant constituents were caryophyllene oxide (9.6%), β-Bourbonene (2.0%), humulene epoxide II (1.7%) and linalool (1.0%). The in vitro antioxidant activity (AOA) was assessed using β-Carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oil was found to exhibit AOA by inhibiting β-Carotene bleaching (54.6 ± 2.52%) and by scavenging DPPH free radical (IC(50) = 0.74 ± 0.12 mg mL(-1)). The AOA of the essential oil of N. erecta and its major compound isoiridomyrmecin has not been reported so far.

  16. Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4aα, 7α, and 7aα-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants.

  17. Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4aα, 7α, and 7aα-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

  18. Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Dinesh S; Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Mathela, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta erecta Benth. (Family: Lamiaceae) from Uttarakhand, India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified representing 94.6% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (74.0%) constituted the major proportion of the oil, dominated by isoiridomyrmecin (70.6%) as a single major constituent. Other significant constituents were caryophyllene oxide (9.6%), β-Bourbonene (2.0%), humulene epoxide II (1.7%) and linalool (1.0%). The in vitro antioxidant activity (AOA) was assessed using β-Carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oil was found to exhibit AOA by inhibiting β-Carotene bleaching (54.6 ± 2.52%) and by scavenging DPPH free radical (IC(50) = 0.74 ± 0.12 mg mL(-1)). The AOA of the essential oil of N. erecta and its major compound isoiridomyrmecin has not been reported so far. PMID:21756190

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues of variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, M.A. )

    1990-06-01

    Mature, variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. contained stachyose and other raffinose series sugars in both green, photosynthetic and white, nonphotosynthetic tissues. However, unlike the green tissues, white tissues had no detectable level of galactinol synthase activity and a low level of sucrose phosphate synthase indicating that stachyose and possibly sucrose present in white tissues may have originated in green tissues. Uptake of exogenously supplied ({sup 14}C)stachyose or ({sup 14}C)sucrose into either tissue type showed conventional kinetic profiles indicating combined operation of liner first-order and saturable systems. Autoradiographs of white discs showed no detectable minor vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)stachyose, but some degree of vein labeling with ({sup 14}C)sucrose. Autoradiographs of green discs showed substantial vein loading with either sugar. In both tissues, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid had no effect on the linear component of sucrose or stachyose uptake but inhibited the saturable component. Both tissues contained high levels of invertase, sucrose synthase and {alpha}-galactosidase and extensively metabolized exogenously supplied {sup 14}C-sugars. In green tissues, label from exogenous sugars was recovered as raffinose-series sugars. In white tissues, exogenous sugars were hydrolyzed and converted to amino acids and organic acids. The results indicate that variegated Coleus leaves may be useful for studies on both phloem loading and phloem unloading processes in stachyose-transporting species.

  20. Characterization and biotechnological application of an acid alpha-galactosidase from Tachigali multijuga Benth. seeds.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Lílian da Silva; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; Callegari, Carina Marin; Reis, Angélica Pataro; Barbosa, Daianny Silveira; Borges, Eduardo Euclydes de Lima; Moreira, Maurilio Alves; de Rezende, Sebastião Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Tachigali multijuga Benth. seeds were found to contain protein (364 mg g(-1)dwt), lipids (24 mg g(-1)dwt), ash (35 mg g(-1)dwt), and carbohydrates (577 mg g(-1)dwt). Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose concentrations were 8.3, 3.0, and 11.6 mg g(-1)dwt, respectively. alpha-Galactosidase activity increased during seed germination and reached a maximum level at 108 h after seed imbibition. The alpha-galactosidase purified from germinating seeds had an M(r) of 38,000 and maximal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C, but lost 79% of its activity after 30 min at 50 degrees C. The activation energy (E(a)) values for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-galactopyranoside (pNPGal) and raffinose were 13.86 and 4.75 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The K(m) values for pNPGal, melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose were 0.45, 5.37, 39.62 and 48.80 mM, respectively. The enzyme was sensitive to inhibition by HgCl(2), SDS, AgNO(3), CuSO(4), and melibiose. d-Galactose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i)=2.74 mM). In addition to its ability to hydrolyze raffinose and stachyose, the enzyme also hydrolyzed galactomannan.

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Tissues of Variegated Leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. 1

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Monica A.

    1990-01-01

    Mature, variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth. contained stachyose and other raffinose series sugars in both green, photosynthetic and white, nonphotosynthetic tissues. However, unlike the green tissues, white tissues had no detectable level of galactinol synthase activity and a low level of sucrose phosphate synthase indicating that stachyose and possibly sucrose present in white tissues may have originated in green tissues. Uptake of exogenously supplied [14C]stachyose or [14C]sucrose into either tissue type showed conventional kinetic profiles indicating combined operation of linear first-order and saturable systems. Autoradiographs of white discs showed no detectable minor vein labelling with [14C]stachyose, but some degree of vein labeling with [14C]sucrose. Autoradiographs of green discs showed substantial vein loading with either sugar. In both tissues, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid had no effect on the linear component of sucrose or stachyose uptake but inhibited the saturable component. Both tissues contained high levels of invertase, sucrose synthase and α-galactosidase and extensively metabolized exogenously supplied 14C-sugars. In green tissues, label from exogenous sugars was recovered as raffinose-series sugars. In white tissues, exogenous sugars were hydrolysed and converted to amino acids and organic acids. The results indicate that variegated Coleus leaves may be useful for studies on both phloem loading and phloem unloading processes in stachyose-transporting species. Images Figure 4 PMID:16667512

  2. Evaluation of the anti-pyretic potential of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth standardized extract.

    PubMed

    Yam, M F; Ang, L F; Basir, R; Salman, I M; Ameer, O Z; Asmawi, M Z

    2009-02-01

    The anti-pyretic activity of a standardized methanol/water (50/50) extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (SEOS) was investigated for its effect on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The SEOS showed no effect on normal body temperature. Doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of SEOS significantly reduced the yeast-induced elevation in body temperature. This effect persisted up to 4 h following the administration of the extract. The anti-pyretic effect of SEOS was comparable with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen in U.S) (150 mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. HPLC study revealed that rosmarinic acid, sinensetin, eupatorin and tetramethoxyflavone were present in SEOS in the amounts of 7.58%, 0.2%, 0.34% and 0.24% respectively. The LD(50) of the extract in rats was higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the present study ascertained that SEOS possesses a significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:19127348

  3. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth. from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth., collected in Lebanon in the Horsh Ehden reserve, yielded 0.13% (w/w) of essential oil. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy analysis enabled the identification of 75 compounds representing 96.8% of the total oil. The most abundant compounds were spathulenol (15.1%), hexadecanoic acid (14%), δ-cadinene (5.5%) and α-copaene (4.5%). On the whole, the oil was constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes (45.9%), among which sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (27.6%) slightly prevailed over oxygenated sesquiterpenes (18.3%).

  4. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth. from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth., collected in Lebanon in the Horsh Ehden reserve, yielded 0.13% (w/w) of essential oil. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy analysis enabled the identification of 75 compounds representing 96.8% of the total oil. The most abundant compounds were spathulenol (15.1%), hexadecanoic acid (14%), δ-cadinene (5.5%) and α-copaene (4.5%). On the whole, the oil was constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes (45.9%), among which sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (27.6%) slightly prevailed over oxygenated sesquiterpenes (18.3%). PMID:23772712

  5. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters, in particular, can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO su...

  6. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-01-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  7. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    PubMed

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  8. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    PubMed

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  9. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Oliveira, Alisson Rodrigo da Silva; Araújo, Alice Valença; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ferreira, Fabiano; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control), pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model) or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated) was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups), as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA). EOHM (400 mg/kg) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%), reduced levels of MDA (72.5%) and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8%) in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:24454726

  10. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. PMID:26916976

  11. Patchouli alcohol: in vitro direct anti-influenza virus sesquiterpene in Pogostemon cablin Benth.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Ichino, Chikara; Kawamura, Yuka; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Noriko; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    During the screening of anti-influenza virus substances from traditional herbal medicines, the methanol extract from the leaves of Pogostemon cablin Benth. showed potent in vitro antiviral activity (99.8% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μg/mL) against influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The anti-influenza virus principle was isolated from the hexane-soluble fraction, through solvent fractionation, repeated silica gel column chromatography, and reversed-phase HPLC. The major active principle was a volatile substance that was identified as a sesquiterpene, patchouli alcohol (1), on the basis of its spectral analyses. When anti-influenza virus activity against A/PR/8/34 was evaluated by the plaque forming assay, patchouli alcohol reduced the number of plaques by 75% at 2 μg/mL and 89% at 10 μg/mL. Patchouli alcohol showed dose-dependent anti-influenza virus activity, and its IC(50) value was estimated to be 2.635 μM. Although 11 different sesquiterpenes were tested for antiviral activity against influenza virus A/PR/8/34, no or negligible activity was observed except for patchouli alcohol. Patchouli alcohol did not show anti-influenza virus activity against A/Guizhou/54/89 (H3N2), but showed weak activity against B/Ibaraki/2/85 (IC(50) = 40.82 μM). Patchouli alcohol did not show inhibitory activity against influenza virus neuraminidase.

  12. Micromorphology of the Labellum and Floral Spur of Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Gross vegetative and floral morphology, as well as modern molecular techniques, indicate that Cryptocentrum Benth. and Sepalosaccus Schltr. are related to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. However, they differ from Maxillaria in their possession of floral spurs and, in this respect, are atypical of Maxillariinae. The labellar micromorphology of Maxillaria, unlike that of the other two genera, has been extensively studied. In the present report, the labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus is compared with that of Maxillaria and, for the first time, the micromorphology of the floral spur as found in Maxillariinae is described. Methods Labella and dissected floral spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Key Results In each case, the labellum consists of a papillose mid-lobe (epichile), a cymbiform region (hypochile) and, proximally, a spur, which is pronounced in Cryptocentrum but short and blunt in Sepalosaccus. The inner epidermal surface of the spur of Cryptocentrum is glabrous or pubescent, and the bicellular hairs, where present, are unlike any hitherto described for Maxillariinae. Similar but unicellular hairs also occur in the floral spur of Sepalosaccus, whereas the glabrous epidermis lining the spur of C. peruvianum contains putative nectar pores. Conclusions The labellar micromorphology of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus generally resembles that of Maxillaria. The floral spur of Cryptocentrum displays two types of organization in that the epidermal lining may be glabrous (possibly with nectar pores) or pubescent. This may have taxonomic significance and perhaps reflects physiological differences relating to nectar secretion. The trichomes found within the spurs of Cryptocentrum and Sepalosaccus more closely resemble the hairs of certain unrelated, nectariferous orchid taxa than those found in the largely nectarless genus Maxillaria, and this further

  13. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hélio B; Silva, Francilene V; Passos, Flávia Franceli B; Bezerra, Roosevelt D S; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae--Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52%, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:21526272

  15. [Investigation of determining strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by flame atomic absorption spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Rao, Zhi-Jun; Guan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Ming

    2010-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to establish the method of determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by means of air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectra, and also provide reference for the determination of the strontium in other traditional Chinese medicine. M. Nitida Benthvarhirsutissima Z. Wei. was taken as the object. The authors used nitric-perchloric acid as digestion solution to digest samples by microwave which was controlled by pressure, and used EDTA-2Na as the releasing agent to add in the samples for determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by FAAS. The results showed that the samples were entirely digested by microwave. The working curve was Y = 0.036 5x -0.001 1, r = 0.999 4, the range was 0-1.6 microg x mL(-1), the average recovery rate was 101.5% with RSD 2.04%, and the method detection limit was 0.008 2 microg x mL(-1) (n = 21). It is concluded that this method is simple and accurate. It has high sensitivity and can be effectively used for determining the strontium in this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:21322253

  16. Modulation of the Antibiotic Activity by Extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Fernando G.; Ferreira, Emerson O.; Lucena, Bruno F. F.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Lucetti, Daniel L.; Lucetti, Elaine C. P.; Silva, João Marcos F. L.; Santos, Francisco A. V.; Medeiros, Cássio R.; Oliveira, Gardênia M. M.; Colares, Aracélio V.; Costa, José G. M.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Silva, Júlio C. F.; Kerntopf, Marta R.; Figueiredo, Patrícia R. L.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between ethanol extracts of Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan, combined with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from humans. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The microdilution assay was performed to verify the interactions between the natural products and the antibiotics using a subinhibitory concentration. The activity of amikacin associated with the extract of Anadenanthera macrocarpa against EC 27 was enhanced, demonstrating an MIC reduction from 128 to 4 μg/mL. Among the β-lactams, no potentiation on its activity was observed, with exception to the antagonism of the natural products with ampicillin against S. aureus 358. PMID:23509756

  17. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  18. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila Benth. were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Antifungal activity of all plant extracts were characterized against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc. Anti-inflammatory assays were performed using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-g and cytotoxic activity was determined using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Results The overall result demonstrated that leaf and root extracts of all three varieties of L. pumila exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor compared to streptomycin used as positive control. Leaf and root extracts of all varieties significantly decreased NO release. However, the root extracts showed higher activity compared to the leaf extracts. Cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Chang cell lines were observed with all extracts. Conclusions These findings suggest the potential use of L. pumila Benth. as a natural medicine and indicated the possible application of this medicinal plant such anti inflammatory activity and cytotoxic agents. PMID:23347830

  19. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  20. Applying behavioral-ecological theory to plant defense: light-dependent movement in Mimosa pudica suggests a trade-off between predation risk and energetic reward.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Evelyn L; Dill, Lawrence M; Cahill, James F

    2011-03-01

    Many animal species tolerate different amounts of predation risk based on environmental conditions and the individual's own condition, often accepting greater risk when energetically stressed. We studied the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica to see whether it too accepts greater risk of predation when less light energy is available. This plant displays a defensive behavior of rapidly folding its leaves when stimulated by touch, thereby decreasing visibility to herbivores. Averting herbivory involves a trade-off because leaf closure results in a reduction in light foraging. We manipulated the light environment of individual M. pudica plants and recorded the time it took a plant to reopen its leaves following stimulation as a measure of tolerance of predation risk. As predicted by theory, avoidance behavior was sustained longer under high light conditions than under more light-limited conditions. These findings suggest this species balances the risk and reward of antiherbivore behavior in relation to current environmental conditions and that behavioral-ecological theory is a useful framework for understanding plant responses to predators.

  1. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Kumari, Santosh; Malik, Akhtar Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n = 2x = 24 (diploid). Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n = 4x = 48 (tetraploid) in addition to normal meiocytes (2n = 24) during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells) lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x) meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1). Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species. PMID:25544950

  2. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    PubMed

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  3. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production

    PubMed Central

    Nwokeleme, C. O.; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. PMID:26904664

  4. Anti-allodynic and neuroprotective effects of koumine, a Benth alkaloid, in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qian; Liu, Ming; Wu, Min-Xia; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jian; Huang, Hui-Hui; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve fibers associated with diabetes mellitus. Antidepressants and anticonvulsants are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment, but are often limited in effectiveness against the core clinical feature of pain. In the current study, we examined the potential effects of koumine, a Gelsemium elegans Benth alkaloid, using a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. Rats were administered intraperitoneally a single dose of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) to induce type 1 diabetes. Koumine was given at a dose range of 0.056-7 mg/kg subcutaneously for one week starting 3 weeks after streptozocin adminstration. Behavioral responses to mechanical stimuli were evaluated every day after streptozocin injection. At 4 weeks after streptozocin injection, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and morphological alternation of sciatic nerves were assessed by electron microscopy. Diabetic rats developed mechanical hyperalgesia within 3 weeks after streptozocin injection and exhibited reduced SNCV and impaired myelin/axonal structure. Koumine treatment of diabetic rats decreased neuropathic pain behavior as early as after the first administration. At a dose of 7 mg/kg, koumine was more effective than gabapentin (100 mg/kg), and decreased mechanical sensitivity threshold to a level comparable to healthy control. Repeated treatment of koumine significantly reduced the damage to axon and myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve and increased SNCV, without affecting body weight and blood glucose. These findings encourage the use of koumine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24790009

  5. Evaluation and decontamination of crude oil-polluted soils using Centrosema pubescen Benth and amendment-support options.

    PubMed

    Nwaichi, Eucharia O; Osuji, Leo C; Onyeike, Eugene N

    2011-04-01

    Growth performance and phytoremediation of soil of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria artificially-contaminated with crude oil (up to 100 mL/2 kg soil) using centrosema pubescen Benth was investigated for 12 weeks. The soil samples in which the plants were established were either un-amended, or amended with NPK, or UREA or chicken manure. The extents of removal of PAHs and BTEX were measured as well as the rates of growth of the plants. Gas Chromatographic analysis confirmed the degradation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons like BTEXs and PAHs with this technique. At the highest dose of crude, the contaminant concentrations were 43 mg/kg PAHs, 10 mg/kg BTEX, and 5,613 mg/kg O&G. The greatest percent removal of BTEX was observed at the highest contaminant dose, and with the manure amendment. Similar trends were observed with PAHs and although they were less marked, the trends with PAHs may have been more highly statistically significant. There was no measurable plant uptake of contaminants. Inhibition of plant growth (measured as leaf area, shoot length and production of dry weight) was proportional to the dose of crude oil, but the manure amendment was very effective at reducing the growth inhibition. Interestingly, manure amendment reduced the phytotoxicity significantly in this study. PMID:21598799

  6. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice. PMID:24151521

  7. Cytomictic anomalous male meiosis and 2n pollen grain formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Kumari, Santosh; Malik, Akhtar Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n = 2x = 24 (diploid). Interestingly we found 4.3-6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n = 4x = 48 (tetraploid) in addition to normal meiocytes (2n = 24) during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells) lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4-13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12-17% diploid (2x) meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1). Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species. PMID:25544950

  8. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  9. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. PMID:27295922

  10. Vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents against four stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Hymavathi, Atmakur; Devanand, Peta; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Sreelatha, Thonthula; Pathipati, Usha Rani; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2011-03-01

    The vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents was evaluated against four stored-product pests ( Callosobruchus chinensis L., Sitophilus oryzae L., Rhyzopertha dominica L., and Tribolium castaneum H.) using fumigation bioassays and compared to those of commonly used insecticides. The structures of all constituents of were characterized by spectroscopic analyses [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry]. The sensitivity of the test insect to compounds varied with exposure time, concentration, and insect species. Over 100% mortality after 24 h was achieved with the compounds osajin (2), scandinone (5), sphaerobioside (8), and genistein (9) against all of the test insects, while laxifolin (3) and lupalbigenin (4) showed 100% mortality after 72 h against T. csataneum and R. dominica . Scandenone (1), scandenin A (6), and scandenin (7) were less effective. Among the insects, C. chinensis , S. oryzae , and R. dominica were more susceptible to the treatments, whereas T. castaneum was less susceptible. The results of fumigation tests indicated that compounds from D. scandens whole plant extract are potential candidates to control stored-product pests. PMID:21314138

  11. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  12. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong Chang; Xu, Xu Dong; Zhi Liu, Xue; Sun, Gui Bo; Zhu, Yin Di; Dong, Xi; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hai Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xiao Bo

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (TFCC) against doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg) every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor) demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress. PMID:25784945

  13. Total Flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze Protect against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong Chang; Xu, Xu Dong; Zhi Liu, Xue; Sun, Gui Bo; Zhu, Yin Di; Dong, Xi; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hai Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xiao Bo

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin has cardiotoxic effects that limit its clinical benefit in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the total flavonoids from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze (TFCC) against doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity. Male rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (3 mg/kg) every 2 days for three injections. Heart samples were collected 2 weeks after the last DOX dose and then analyzed. DOX delayed body and heart growth and caused cardiac tissue injury, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. Similar experiments in H9C2 cardiomyocytes showed that doxorubicin reduced cell viability, increased ROS generation and DNA fragmentation, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced apoptotic cell death. However, TFCC pretreatment suppressed all of these adverse effects of doxorubicin. Signal transduction studies indicated that TFCC suppressed DOX-induced overexpression of p53 and phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Studies with LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT inhibitor) demonstrated that the mechanism of TFCC-induced cardioprotection also involves activation of PI3K/AKT. These findings indicated the potential clinical application of TFCC in preventing DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of geranylgeraniol and 6α,7β-dihydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester isolated from Pterodon pubescens Benth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pterodon pubescens Benth seeds are commercially available in the Brazilian medicinal plant street market. The crude alcoholic extracts of this plant are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-rheumatic preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of geranylgeraniol (C1) and 6α, 7β-dihydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester (C2) isolated from Pterodon pubescens Benth. to the antinociceptive activity of the crude extract. Results Compounds C1 and C2 demonstrated activity against writhing with intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) routes, capsaicin (i.p. and p.o.), glutamate (i.p.), and in the hot-plate (p.o.) tests, demonstrating their contribution to the antinociceptive activity of crude Pterodon pubescens Benth extracts. The observed activity of compounds C1 and C2 may be related to vanilloid receptors VR1, and/or glutamate peripheral receptors. In hot-plate model, the antinociceptive activity was maintained when naloxone chloride (opioid antagonist) was administered prior to treatment with compounds suggesting that C1 and C2 (p.o.) do not exert their antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate test via opioid receptors. The findings presented herein also suggest that compounds within the crude Pterodon pubescens Benth. extract may exert a synergistic interactive effect, since the crude extract (300 mg.kg-1) containing lower concentrations of compounds C1 (11.5%- 34.6 mg. kg-1) and C2 (1.5% - 4.7 mg.kg-1) gave statistically the same effect to the pure compounds when tested separately (C1 = C2 = 300 mg.kg-1) in writhing experimental model with p.o. administration. Further studies will be undertaken to establish more specifically the mechanisms of action for compounds C1 and C2. Possible synergistic interactions will be evaluated employing the Isobole method. Conclusion These results allowed us to establish a relationship between the popular use of Pterodon pubescens seeds for pain relief and the activity of

  15. Identification of evodiamine as the bioactive compound in evodia (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth.) fruit extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    PubMed

    Rebhun, John F; Roloff, Samantha J; Velliquette, Rodney A; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    The dried unripe fruit from Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., known as Wu zhu yu in China, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that evodia fruit extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, the activating phytochemical is evodiamine. Evodiamine was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  16. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  17. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  19. Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Properties of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Cat's Whiskers): Intervention in the Bcl-2-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil; Mariod, Abdelbasit Adam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Alkharfy, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, β-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC50 values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5 μg/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of β-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits. PMID:21234328

  20. Chemical Composition, Modulatory Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil the Hyptis martiusii Benth by Direct and Gaseous Contact

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Allan Demetrius Leite; Galvao Rodrigue, Fabiola Fernandes; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that species of the genus Hyptis, have promising antimicrobial and antifungal effects. Objectives: Identify of chemical constituents of essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii and evaluate its effect against bacterial strains by direct and gaseous contact. Materials and Methods: Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth using hydro-distillation, and its composition was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical analysis showed that there was a predominance of sesquiterpenes. The leaf essential oil was screened for its minimal inhibitory concentration and modulatory effect of aminoglycoside by the direct (MIC) and gaseous (MID) micro-dilution assays for various pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacteria (MIC < 512 μg/mL) except S. aureus (SA358) multidrug resistant (MRSA) by direct contact. Results: Twenty-four compounds representing 92.13% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; δ -3-carene (6.88%), 1, 8-cineole (7.01%), trans-caryophyllene (9.21%), Cariophyllene oxide (7.47%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.61%) were found as the major components. Modulatory aminoglycoside effect, by direct contact, was showed antagonistic relationship with antimicrobial activity. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of all of the tested bacteria in 50% and 25% of oil concentration and demonstrated synergistic interactions can be attributed to the constituting the oil compounds. Conclusions: These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:25237640

  1. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Fathy M; Fathy, Magda M; Salama, Maha M; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Saber, Fatema R; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested against three human cancer cell lines; MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma), CaCo (colonic adenocarcinoma) and one type of normal human cell line;10 FS (fibroblast cells). The SRE, (1), and (2) showed cytotoxic activity with IC₅₀ 13.6 ± 0.62, 7.2 ± 0.5, 14.8 ± 0.55 μg mL-1 against HEP2 respectively, 11.6 ± 0.47, 4 ± 0.36, 11.4 ± 0.45 μg mL-1 against CaCo, respectively, and 8.6 ± 0.29, 4.4 ± 0.25, and 7.8 ± 0.3 μg mL-1 against MCF7, respectively. Meanwhile, the (SRE) together with (1) and (2) exhibited low cytotoxicity against normal cell line 10 FS, with IC₅₀ 55.4 ± 1.4, 43 ± 0.8 and 50.1 ± 1.12 μg mL-1, respectively. The antiprofilerative activity of the tested compounds was evaluated. The cell cycle profile of cells treated with Sideroxylonal-B and Macrocarpal-A indicates possible S-phase specific effects. PMID:24986654

  2. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  3. Mesona Chinensis Benth extract prevents AGE formation and protein oxidation against fructose-induced protein glycation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesona chinensis Benth (Chinese Mesona), an economically significant agricultural plant, is the most widely consumed as an herbal beverage in Southeast Asia and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of Mesona chinensis (MC) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of fructose-mediated protein glycation. Methods The content of total polyphenolic compounds was measured by using Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the level of fructosamine, and the formation of amyloid cross β-structure. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results Our results revealed that the content of total polyphenolic compound in MC extract was 212.4 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract. MC extract (0.25-1.00 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescence AGEs in fructose-glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) during 4 weeks of study. Furthermore, MC extract also decreased the level of Nϵ-CML, fructosamine, and amyloid cross β-structure in fructose-glycated BSA. While the total thiol group was elevated and the protein carbonyl content was decreased in BSA incubated with fructose and MC extract. Conclusions The extract of MC inhibits fructose-mediated protein glycation and protein oxidation. This edible plant could be a natural rich source of antiglycation agent for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complication. PMID:24708679

  4. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-06-13

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  5. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines.

  6. Ethanolic extract from Derris scandens Benth mediates radiosensitzation via two distinct modes of cell death in human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Hematulin, Arunee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Sagan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing of radioresponsiveness of tumors by using radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy. Recently, the ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Derris scandens Benth has been identified as a potent radiosensitizer of human colon cancer HT29 cells. However, cell death mechanisms underlying radiosensitization activity of D scandens extract have not been identified. Here, we show that treatment of HT-29 cells with D scandens extract in combination with gamma irradiation synergistically sensitizes HT-29 cells to cell lethality by apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Furthermore, the extract was found to decrease Erk1/2 activation. These findings suggest that D scandens extract mediates radiosensitization via at least two distinct modes of cell death and silences pro-survival signaling in HT-29 cells. PMID:24641423

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of Limonin, Two Indolequinazoline Alkaloids, and Four Quinolone Alkaloids in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by HPLC-DAD Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei-ting; Pan, Bi-yan; Liao, Qiong-feng; Yao, Mei-cun; Xu, Xin-jun; Wan, Jin-zhi; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhi-yong

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC-DAD (225 nm) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of limonin and six key alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, evocarpine, 1-methy-2-[(6Z,9Z)]-6,9-pentadecadienyl-4-(1H)-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine) in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, which has been widely used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column, and gradient elution was employed with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water. Contents of the analytes in 18 batches of samples were analyzed by ultrasonic extraction with ethanol and water mixture (80 : 20, v/v) followed by HPLC analysis. Separation of the seven analytes was achieved within 60 min with good linearity (r > 0.999). The RSD of both the intraday and interday precision was below 1.85%. The accuracy at different concentrations was within the range of 97.91 to 100.49%. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the seven constituents. This study indicated that the quality control of E. rutaecarpa could be simplified to the measurement of four constituents, and that limonin, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine should also be served as the chemical markers together with evodiamine for the quality control of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. PMID:23738236

  8. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  9. Phloem loading in Coleus blumei in the absence of carrier-mediated uptake of export sugar from the apoplast. [Coleus blumei Benth

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, R.; Gowan, E. )

    1990-11-01

    Phloem loading in Coleus blumei Benth. leaves cannot be explained by carrier-mediated transport of export sugar from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, the mechanism by which sucrose is thought to load in other species that have been studied in detail. Uptake profiles of the export sugars sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose into leaf discs were composed of two components, one saturable and other other not. Saturable (carrier-mediated) uptake of all three sugars was almost completely eliminated by the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS). However, when PCMBS was introduced by transpiration into mature leaves it did not prevent accumulation of {sup 14}C-photosynthate in minor veins or translocation of labeled photosynthate from green to nonchlorophyllous regions of the leaf following exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The efficacy of introducing inhibitor solutions in the transpiration stream was proven by observing saffranin O and calcofluor white movement in the minor veins and leaf apoplast. PCMBS introduced by transpiration completely inhibited phloem loading in tobacco leaves. Phloem loading in C. blumei was also studied in plasmolysis experiments. The carbohydrate content of leaves was lowered by keeping plants in the dark and then increased by exposing them to light. The solute level of intermediary cells increased in the light (phloem loading) in both PCMBS-treated and control tissues. A mechanism of symplastic phloem loading is proposed for species that translocate the raffinose series of oligosaccharides.

  10. Separation and purification of five phenylpropanoid glycosides from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by a macroporous resin column combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Li-Juan; Shao, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Five phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), forsythoside B, verbascoside, alyssonoside, isoverbascoside, and leucosceptoside B, were isolated and purified from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with macroporous resin (MR) column separation. In the present study, the two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (13:3:10, v/v/v) was used for HSCCC separation. A total of 27 mg of forsythoside B, 41 mg of verbascoside, 29 mg of alyssonoside, 23 mg of isoverbascoside, and 13 mg of leucosceptoside B with purities of 97.7, 99.2, 99.5, 99.3, and 97.3%, respectively, were obtained in a one-step separation within 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract. The recoveries of the five PhGs after MR-HSCCC separation were 74.5, 76.5, 72.5, 76.4, and 77.0%, respectively. The chemical structures of all five compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  12. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).

  13. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  14. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-11-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  15. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields. PMID:25985355

  16. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Rafael M.; Rabello, Marcelo M.; Araújo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Buzzo, Simone C.; Soares, Veronica C. G.; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition. PMID:22899963

  17. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content, anthocyanin, and color stability of isotonic model beverages colored with Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) anthocyanin powder.

    PubMed

    Estupiñan, D C; Schwartz, S J; Garzón, G A

    2011-01-01

    The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages.

  18. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  19. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-11-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25387391

  20. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25590708

  1. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics Content, Anthocyanin, and Color Stability of Isotonic Model Beverages Colored with Andes Berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) Anthocyanin Powder

    PubMed Central

    Estupiñan, D.C.; Schwartz, S.J.; Garzón, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages. PMID:21535712

  2. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  3. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  4. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  5. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  6. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  7. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  8. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals. PMID:23884129

  10. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-11-20

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  11. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  12. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  13. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  14. Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore (Asteraceae) is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy. Methods An 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholera (clinical isolate), and Streptococcus faecalis (clinical isolate). The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined. Results The ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol/HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg/kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt, and the total extract (LC50 = 37.49 μg/ml) and the aqueous (LC50 = 87.92 μg/ml), ethyl acetate (LC50 = 119.45 μg/ml) and dichloromethane fractions (88.79 μg/ml) showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Conclusion The results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) = 11.15 μg/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 μg/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50) = 73.78 μg/mL on W-2 and 21.85 μg/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50) <5 μM). Specicoside exhibited the highest activity on W-2 (IC(50) = 1.54 μM) followed by 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (IC(50) = 1.60 μM) and atranorin (IC(50) = 4.41 μM), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50) =53.84 μM). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50) > 30 μg/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50) = 9.37 μg/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

  16. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  17. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  18. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  19. 3,6-Dimethoxy-6″,6″-Dimethyl-(7,8,2″,3″)-Chromeneflavone, a Flavonoid Isolated from Lonchocarpus Araripensis Benth. (Fabaceae), Reduces Nociceptive Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jackson R G S; Silva, Juliane C; Guimarães, Amanda L; Oliveira, Ana P; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Júnior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Botelho, Marco Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. is largely distributed in the northeast region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'sucupira'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lonchocarpus have interesting pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of a flavone isolated from L. araripensis. The chemical examination resulted in the isolation of 3,6-dimethoxy-6″,6″-dimethyl-(7,8,2″,3″)-chromeneflavone (DDF). The structure of the compound was established by spectral analysis. Antinociceptive activity of DDF was evaluated by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin and hot plate tests. The rota rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. The results demonstrated that DDF was able to prevent acetic-acid-writhing-induced nociception (p < 0.001) in mice. Furthermore, DDF produced a significant reduction of the nociceptive behaviour at the early and late phases of paw licking in the formalin test. Also, DDF produced an inhibition of the nociceptive behaviour during a hot-plate test. No alteration in motor coordination was observed. These results confirm the hypothesis that DDF reduces the nociceptive behaviour in mice, probably through central mechanisms, but without compromising the motor coordination of animals.

  20. Chemically sulfated galactomannan from Dimorphandra gardneriana seed: characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, E; Sombra, V G; Richter, A R; Abreu, C M W S; Maciel, J S; Cunha, P L R; Ono, L; Sierakowski, M R; Feitosa, J P A; de Paula, R C M

    2014-01-30

    Dimorphandra gardneriana galactomannan (DG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the sulfation agent. The degree of substitution was 0.32, determined from the sulfur percentage. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by FTIR spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical SO stretching vibration at 1,259 cm(-1). NMR data showed that the sulfation occurred on primary hydroxyl groups. NMR and GPC data indicate degradation during reaction with elimination of galactose. At the maximum tested concentration of 1,000 μg/mL, unmodified DG polysaccharide did not show a statistically significant cytotoxicity in Vero cells by the MTT method. Therefore, the CC50>1,000 μg/mL obtained for the sulfated polysaccharides from D. gardneriana in Vero cells point to its lower cytotoxicity than the sulfated galactomannan from Mimosa scabrella.

  1. Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions.

  2. Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkaloid contents of the leaves and seeds of M. tenuiflora collected from northeastern Brazil were studied. Alkaloids were isolated by classical acid/base extraction procedures and by cation exchange solid phase extraction. The crude alkaloid fractions were then analysed by thin layer chromatogr...

  3. Characterization of indigenous rhizobia from caatinga

    PubMed Central

    Pires e Teixeira, Fernanda Cíntia; Borges, Wardsson Lustrino; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize rhizobial isolates from Cratylia mollis Mart. ex Benth, Calliandra depauperata Benth. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. by means of rhizobial colonies morphology and restriction analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene (16S rDNA-ARDRA). Nodules were collected in the field and from plants cultivated in a greenhouse experiment using Caatinga soil samples. Sixty seven isolates were described by morphological analysis. Forty seven representative isolates were used for ARDRA analysis using seven restriction enzymes. We observed high diversity of both slow and fast-growing rhizobia that formed three morpho-physiological clusters. A few fast-growing isolates formed a group of strains of the Bradyrhizobium type; however, most of them diverged from the B. japonicum and B. elkanii species. Cratylia mollis nodule isolates were the most diverse, while all Mimosa tenuiflora isolates displayed fast growth with no pH change and were clustered into groups bearing 100% similarity, according to ARDRA results. PMID:24031482

  4. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  5. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  6. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  7. A new prenylated isoflavone from Derris scandens Benth.

    PubMed

    Babu, Tatipaka Hari; Tiwari, Ashok K; Rao, Vidadala Rama Subba; Ali, Amtul Z; Rao, Janaswamy Madhusudana; Babu, Katragadda Suresh

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical study of the whole plant of Derris scandens (Leguminosae) has resulted in the isolation of a new isoflavone derivative, scandinone A (11), together with 11 known compounds (1-10, 12). Structural elucidations of these compounds were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectral analyses. The alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory activity of the isolates was also evaluated. PMID:20628945

  8. A benzil and isoflavone derivatives from Derris scandens Benth.

    PubMed

    Mahabusarakam, W; Deachathai, S; Phongpaichit, S; Jansakul, C; Taylor, W C

    2004-04-01

    A benzil derivative: scandione, 2',2"-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-4",5"-methylenedioxybenzil and two isoflavones: scandenal, 3'-formyl-4',5-dihydroxy-2",2"-dimethylchromeno-[6,7:5",6"]isoflavone and scanderone, 4',5-dihydroxy-3'-prenyl-2",2"-dimethylchromeno-[7,8:6",5"]isoflavone together with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the stem of D. scandens. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Radical scavenging, antibacterial and hypertensive activities of some of the compounds were investigated. PMID:15110702

  9. Yield Components and Nutritive Value of Black Locust and Mimosa in Arkansas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers need to provide alternative livestock feeds when herbaceous forages become limiting in summer. We determined foliar yield components and nutritive value (in vitro digestibility [IVDMD], total nonstructural carbohydrate [TNC], N, robinin, and mimosine) of transplanted Robinia pseudoacacia (b...

  10. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  11. Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts

    PubMed Central

    Farrapo, Nicole M; Silva, Gleidy AA; Costa, Karine N; Silva, Magali G; Cogo, José C; Belo, Cháriston A Dal; dos Santos, Márcio G; Groppo, Francisco C; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40μg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was analyzed by Student's t-test or repeated measures ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts. Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ± 6.2%) than EA (81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7%) > M (54 ±10%) against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be mediated by tannins. PMID:22331992

  12. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy.

  13. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  14. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Song, Xiaowei; Song, Junke; Pang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Ying; Lian, Wenwen; Liu, Ailin; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688) was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v.) of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C 0) values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ) values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L). J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688. PMID:26904400

  16. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  17. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

  18. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  19. [Antihypertensive action of Parkia biglobosa+ (Jacq) Benth seeds in the rat].

    PubMed

    Assane, M; Baba Moussa, R; Bassene, E; Sere, A

    1993-01-01

    Hundred white Wistar rats have been used to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of entire seeds and decorticated, fermented seeds of a soudanian plant, Parkia biglobosa. The arterial blood pressure was measured by using bloody method in anesthizied animals. The Pham Huu Chanh method was used to determine type plant's antihypertensive activity. According to the results obtained, in both preparations, adequate doses decrease arterial blood pressure, diastolic more than systolic, but the effect of fermented seeds was more important than the entire seeds. In the two cases, the decrease in blood pressure is greated in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects, and the hypotension induced was well correlated with a bradycardia.

  20. Phenolic contents and bioactivities of pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri (Benth.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Said, Ataa; Abuotabl, Elsayed A; Raoof, Gehan Fawzy Abdel; Huefner, Antje; Nada, Somaia A

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aimed to develop drugs from natural sources to overcome the side effects of many of synthetic drugs. Methanol extracts of both pericarp and seeds of Pleiogynium solandri were used to investigate antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects and to determine the chemical composition of the extract responsible for bioactivity. Materials and Methods: Methanol (70%) extracts of the seeds and pericarps of P. solandri were prepared. Hot plate method was used to test analgesic activity, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation method was used to test anti-inflammatory activity, and colorimetric methods were used to test antioxidant, hepatoprotective (by determination of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities), and renal function protective effects (by measuring uric acid and creatinine levels). Chromatographic methods and means of 1H-NMR, 13C –NMR, and UV spectra were used for isolation and identification of the responsible compounds. Results: In this study for the first time, four phenolic compounds were isolated from the pericarp of P. solandri which were identified as catechin, quercetin, quercetrin and rutin. Methanolic extract of both seeds and pericarp of P. solandri showed strong antioxidant effect, hepatoprotective, renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, seed extract had lower effect than pericarp in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion This study showed that methanol extract of pericarp of P. solandri is more powerful than that of the seed regarding its antioxidant, hepato-protective; renal function protective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The phenolic compounds isolated from the methanol extract of pericarp were responsible for bioactivity. PMID:25810891

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Dioclea rostrata Benth seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Benevides, Raquel G.; Oliveira, Taiana Maia de; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Freire, Valder Nogueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2006-02-01

    D. rostrata lectin was crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222 and diffracted to 1.87 Å resolution. Lectins from the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) are highly similar proteins that promote various biological activities with distinctly differing potencies. The structural basis for this experimental data is not yet fully understood. Dioclea rostrata lectin was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.51, b = 88.22, c = 87.76 Å. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 47.9%. A complete data set was collected at 1.87 Å resolution.

  2. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.

  3. Antimalarial and cytotoxic properties of Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss and Turraea vogelii Hook F. Ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Ogbole, Omonike O; Saka, Yusuf A; Fasinu, Pius S; Fadare, Adenike A; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O

    2016-04-01

    Malaria, caused by plasmodium parasite, is at the moment the highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Recently, there is increasing efforts to develop more potent antimalarials from plant sources that will have little or no adverse effects. This study is aimed at investigating the in vivo mice antimalarial and in vitro antiplasmodial effects of two Meliaceae plants commonly used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as part of recipe for treating malaria infection: Chukrasia tabularis and Turraea vogelii. Hot water decoction and methanol extract of both plants were evaluated for their antimalarial activity in vivo using the mice model assay and in vitro using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The extracts were also assessed for toxicity with brine shrimp lethality assay and in mammalian cell lines using the neural red assay. The in vivo mice model antimalarial study showed that the methanol extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis exhibited the highest % chemosuppression (83.65 ± 0.66) at the highest dosage administered (800 mg/kg) when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a % suppression of 90.36 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05). The in vitro antiplasmodial study indicated that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. tabularis displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strain (IC50 of 10.739 μg/mL) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strain. Chloroquine and artemisinin had <0.163 and <0.0264, respectively. PMID:26911147

  4. Analyses of the leaf, fruit and seed of Thaumatococcus daniefii (Benth.): exploring potential uses.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Oluwadamisi, Adetayo Y; Popoola, Samuel T; David, Bolaji J; Epelle, Tamunotonyesia

    2014-06-01

    Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatannin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus. PMID:26035959

  5. Phenotype-specific apoptosis induced by three new triterpenoid saponins from Albizia glaberrima (Schumach. & Thonn.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Azouaou, Sarah Ali; Simo, Line; Antheaume, Cyril; Guillaume, Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Muller, Christian Dominique; Lobstein, Annelise

    2016-03-01

    As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia glaberrima led to the isolation of three new oleanane-type saponins, named glaberrimosides A-C (1-3). Their structures were established by direct interpretation of their spectral data, mainly HRESIMS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C NMR, and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) as 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (2), and 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid (3). The pro-apoptotic effect of the three saponins was evaluated on three human cell lines (pancreatic carcinoma AsPC-1, hematopoietic monocytic THP-1, and human fibroblast cell line BJ). Saponins 1-3 specifically induced apoptosis of pancreatic carcinoma cell (AsPC-1) in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, there were inactive on monocytic (THP-1) and normal human fibroblast (BJ) cell lines. PMID:26709041

  6. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Song, Xiaowei; Song, Junke; Pang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Ying; Lian, Wenwen; Liu, Ailin; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688) was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v.) of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C0) values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–t) values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L). J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688. PMID:26904400

  7. Antidiarrheal activity of 19-deoxyicetexone isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Hernández-Munive, Abigail; Mendoza-Martínez, Angel; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA)- and prostaglandin (PGE₂)-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS), as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis), infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE₂-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats' ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this. PMID:23896615

  8. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth

    PubMed Central

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  9. Technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) Benth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakshapal; Divya, S; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. The rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. The rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Treatment with bioinoculants (except Trichoderma harzianum) substantially improved the root and shoot biomass of nursery raised rooted cuttings particularly in treatments containing Azotobacter chroococcum (150 and 91.67%, respectively), Glomus intraradices (117 and 91.67%, respectively) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (117 and 83%, respectively). The transplanted rooted plants in pots, over two harvests, yielded higher shoot biomass when rooting medium contained A. chroococcum (147%), G. intraradices (139%) and P. fluorescencs (139%). Although the treatments did not affect the content of essential oil, the quality of essential oil as measured by the content of patchouli alcohol improved with Glomus aggregatum (18%). Similar trends were observed in field trials with significantly higher biomass yield achieved with A. chroococcum (51%), G. intraradices (46%) and P. fluorescencs (17%) compared to control (un-inoculated) plots. Increased in herb yield was found to be related with increased nutrient uptake. The population of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere was observed to be considerably higher in plots receiving vermicompost enriched with bioinoculants. This technology can be a successful way of delivering sufficient propagules of bioinoculants along with vermicompost especially in organic fields.

  10. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy. PMID:27536194

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Nepeta graciliflora Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C; Sharma, Rabia; Dhyani, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Nepeta graciliflora was analysed, for the first time, by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 27 compounds were identified, constituting over 91.44% of oil composition. The oil was strongly characterised by sesquiterpenes (86.72%), with β-sesquiphellandrene (28.75%), caryophyllene oxide (12.15%), α-bisabolol (8.97%), α-bergamotene (8.51%), β-bisabolene (6.33%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.34%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil was determined against four micro-organisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. The oil exhibited good activity against all tested organisms.

  12. Forensic identification of Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Eurlings, Marcel C M; Lens, Frederic; Pakusza, Csilla; Peelen, Tamara; Wieringa, Jan J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We therefore evaluated the potential of molecular identification by searching for species-specific DNA polymorphisms. We found two species-specific indels in the rps16 intron region for R. serpentina. Our DNA barcoding method was tested for its specificity, reproducibility, sensitivity and stability. We included samples of various tissues and ages, which had been treated differently for preservation. DNA extractions were tested in a range of amplification settings and dilutions. Species-specific rps16 intron sequences were obtained from 79 herbarium accessions and one confiscated root, encompassing 39 different species. Our results demonstrate that molecular analysis provides new perspectives for forensic identification of Indian snakeroot.

  13. Analyses of the leaf, fruit and seed of Thaumatococcus daniefii (Benth.): exploring potential uses.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Oluwadamisi, Adetayo Y; Popoola, Samuel T; David, Bolaji J; Epelle, Tamunotonyesia

    2014-06-01

    Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatannin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus.

  14. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Nepeta graciliflora Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C; Sharma, Rabia; Dhyani, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Nepeta graciliflora was analysed, for the first time, by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 27 compounds were identified, constituting over 91.44% of oil composition. The oil was strongly characterised by sesquiterpenes (86.72%), with β-sesquiphellandrene (28.75%), caryophyllene oxide (12.15%), α-bisabolol (8.97%), α-bergamotene (8.51%), β-bisabolene (6.33%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.34%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil was determined against four micro-organisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. The oil exhibited good activity against all tested organisms. PMID:26140331

  15. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax. & Hoffman

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, David A.; Abioye, Emmanuel O.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Akinpelu, Oluseun F.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s) of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract. PMID:25688278

  16. Cotton by-products supplementation for steers grazing tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica [Buckl.] Benth.) rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of growing cattle fed COBY-processed CBP or a commercial supplement during winter and spring. In addition, forage utilization was also measured. Three treatments were evaluated: (1) control (CON), no supplement, (2) commercial supplement ...

  17. Essential oil composition of three accessions of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. cultivated at Palampur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra; Kaul, Vijay K; Megeji, Nima W; Singh, Virendra; Ahuja, Paramvir S

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of three accessions of Dracocephalum heterophyllum growing wild in high altitude locations in the cold desert regions of trans-Himalaya were collected and propagated under polyhouse conditions at IHBT Palampur to evaluate, compare their growth performance and essential oil composition. Three different chemotypes viz., citronellol-rose oxides type, citronellol type and citronellal-trans rose oxide type were identified. Samples of essential oils were distilled separately from leaves and inflorescence of all the three cultivated accessions and characterised by capillary GC and GC-MS techniques, which showed variation in the volatile constituents. In all the three accessions, citronellol was higher in the inflorescence oils as compared to leaf oils. Rose oxides, which are important high odour value cyclic monoterpene ethers were found in the essential oil samples of leaves as well as in the inflorescence of accession II, whereas these constituents were absent in the leaves of other two accessions. The essential oil from the inflorescence part of accession I was devoid of both cis and trans isomers of rose oxide, while accession III contained only one isomer of trans rose oxide. Under polyhouse conditions, seed germination was higher in accession III, whereas aerial biomass was higher in accession I. In comparison to other accessions, yield of volatile oil was higher in both leaf and inflorescence of accessions I, whereas accession II had higher oil yield from inflorescence. This is the first report of volatile oil composition of three accessions of D. heterophyllum cultivated at Palampur having potential as a new source of high valued essential oil for introduction in the perfumery industry.

  18. Elucidation of Underlying Mechanisms by Which Millettia macrophylla Benth Induces Its Estrogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Zingue, Stéphane; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Clyne, Colin; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    Millettia macrophylla is used traditionally to treat menopause related symptoms. This plant was shown to exhibit estrogenic effects in vitro on human embryonic kidney cells and in vivo on ovariectomized rats. The present study aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms by which M. macrophylla induced its estrogenic effects. To accomplish our goal, kidney Hek293T cells transiently transfected with estrogen alpha or beta receptor expression plasmids were cotreated with a pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and the dichloromethane or methanol soluble fractions of M. macrophylla. To follow up, we cotreated ovariectomized rats with both extracts and ICI 182,780 for 3 days in the classical uterotrophic assay. Animals were then sacrificed and the uterine wet weight, total protein levels in uteri, uterine, and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary gland were assessed. In vitro, the results suggested that the induction of the estrogenic activity by M. macrophylla is due to the binding of its secondary metabolites to ERα and ERβ. In vivo, the cotreatment of extracts and ICI 182,780 significantly abrogated the biological responses induced by the extracts alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the active principles of M. macrophylla induce their beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms by activating the ERs. PMID:27433539

  19. Elucidation of Underlying Mechanisms by Which Millettia macrophylla Benth Induces Its Estrogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zingue, Stéphane; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    Millettia macrophylla is used traditionally to treat menopause related symptoms. This plant was shown to exhibit estrogenic effects in vitro on human embryonic kidney cells and in vivo on ovariectomized rats. The present study aimed at elucidating underlying mechanisms by which M. macrophylla induced its estrogenic effects. To accomplish our goal, kidney Hek293T cells transiently transfected with estrogen alpha or beta receptor expression plasmids were cotreated with a pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and the dichloromethane or methanol soluble fractions of M. macrophylla. To follow up, we cotreated ovariectomized rats with both extracts and ICI 182,780 for 3 days in the classical uterotrophic assay. Animals were then sacrificed and the uterine wet weight, total protein levels in uteri, uterine, and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary gland were assessed. In vitro, the results suggested that the induction of the estrogenic activity by M. macrophylla is due to the binding of its secondary metabolites to ERα and ERβ. In vivo, the cotreatment of extracts and ICI 182,780 significantly abrogated the biological responses induced by the extracts alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the active principles of M. macrophylla induce their beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms by activating the ERs. PMID:27433539

  20. Photoassimilate-transport characteristics of nonchlorophyllous and green tissue in variegated leaves of Coleus blumei Benth.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, L A; Wimmers, L E; Turgeon, R

    1988-07-01

    The nonchlorophyllous (albino) tissue of mature C. blumei leaves is a sink for photoassimilate. Transport from the green to the albino region of the same leaf was inhibited by cold and anoxia. When the green tissue of mature leaves was removed, the remaining albino portion imported labeled translocate from other mature leaves in the phloem. Photoassimilate unloading in the albino region of mature leaves was studied by quantitative autoradiography. The unloading was inhibited by cold but not by anoxia. No labeled photoassimilate could be detected in the free space of mature albino tissue by compartmental efflux analysis as phloem unloading proceeded in a N2 atmosphere, indicating that unloading, may occur by a symplastic pathway as it apparently does in sink leaves of other species. The minor veins of mature albino leaf tissue did not accumulate exogenous [(14)C]sucrose. Minor veins of green tissue in the same leaves accumulated [(14)C]sucrose but, in contrast to other species studied to date, this accumulation was insensitive to the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzensulfonic acid (PCMBS).In its capacity to import and unload photoassimilate, and in the inability, of the minor veins to accumulate exogenous sucrose, the albino region of the mature C. blumei lamina differs from mature albino tobacco leaves and darkened mature leaves of other species. This, together with evidence indicating that phloem loading in C. blumei and other species may occur by different routes and with different sensitivity to PCMBS, indicates that the mechanism of transfer of photoassimilates between veins and surrounding tissues, and the mechanism of the sink-source transition, may not be the same in the leaves of all species. It is speculated that the unusual properties of the C. blumei leaf may be a consequence of the presence, in the minor veins, of "intermediary cells", large companion cells connected to the bundle sheath by abundant plasmodesmata. PMID:24221622

  1. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  2. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  3. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  4. Microbial community biogeographic patterns in the rhizosphere of two Brazilian semi-arid leguminous trees.

    PubMed

    Lançoni, Milena Duarte; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2013-07-01

    Arid environments are regular and well distributed over all continents and display drought characteristics whether full-time or seasonal. This study aims to characterize how the microbial communities of the rhizosphere of two leguminous trees from the Brazilian semi-arid biome the Caatinga are geographically and seasonally shaped, as well as the factors driving this variation. With that purpose, the soil rhizosphere from two leguminous trees (Mimosa tenuiflora and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke) were sampled in two different seasons: rainy and drought at five different sites. Assessment of bacterial and archaeal communities occurred by T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and archaeal amoA genes. By these means, it was observed that the seasons (wet and dry periods) are the factors that most influence the composition of the microbial community from both analyzed plants, except for the results obtained from the CCA applied to Archaeas. Furthermore, soil physical-chemical factors also had a significant influence on the community and indicated a geographical pattern of the bacterial community. It was not possible to observe significant modifications in the composition in relation to the plant species. We have seen that soil characteristics and rainfall were the factors that most influenced the microbial composition. Also, the bacterial community had a significant correlation with soil characteristics that indicates that these rhizosphere communities might be selected by environmental characteristics. Furthermore, the data suggest that climate plays a key role in structuring the microbial community of this biome. PMID:23435935

  5. 76 FR 52541 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm. In addition, nursery stock, logs, green lumber... (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (katsura...), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Cercidiphyllum...

  6. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. PMID:23365565

  7. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications.

  8. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sapna N; Mengi, Sushma; Vaidya, Rama; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2010-07-01

    As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR) drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD) - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group) - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective.Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g) and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g) compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001). Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g) of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001). In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out. PMID:21547049

  9. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  10. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications. PMID:26777484

  11. Cardioprotective effect of root extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (Royle Ex Benth) against isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Kumari, Santosh; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Mehra, Raj; Narang, Rajiv; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2013-09-01

    Normal rats pre-treated with P. kurroa (200 mg/kg) alone did not showed significant change, however, isoproterenol (ISP) administration resulted in hemodynamic and left ventricular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. Such cardiac dysfunction was significantly prevented by P. kurroa root extract pre-treatment. Pre-treatment significantly attenuated the ISP-induced oxidative stress by restoring myocardial superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes except reduced glutathione content. P. kurroa pre-treatment markedly attenuated the ISP-induced rise in lipid peroxidation, thereby prevented leakage of myocyte creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The results suggest that P. kurroa root extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-peroxidative, and myocardial preservative properties. PMID:24377128

  12. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:26408136

  13. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  14. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract. PMID:24455701

  15. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  16. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  17. Isolation, characterization and chemobiological quantification of alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and free radical scavenging constituents from Derris scandens Benth.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sridhar A; Srinivas, Pullela V; Tiwari, Ashok K; Vanka, Uma Maheswara S; Rao, Rama V Subba; Dasari, Krishna R; Rao, Madhusudana J

    2007-08-15

    The hexane and chloroform extracts of Derris scandens have displayed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and moderate free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemical investigation of the active extracts led to the isolation of three new prenylated isoflavones, isoscandinone, scandenin A and scandenin B in addition to scandenone, scandinone and 4', 5', 7-trihydroxybiprenylisoflavone as the main constituents, having alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and free radical scavenging properties. A reversed-phase HPLC method is developed to quantify these active principles in the plant material, which can serve as an effective quality control method for standardization of D. scandens. PMID:17537687

  18. Nodule Ultrastructure and Initial Growth of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul Plants Infected with Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, E.; CORDEIRO, L.; CAETANO, F. H.

    2002-01-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (Leguminosae‐Mimosoideae) were analysed, as was plant growth. To ensure that nodules developed, seedlings were inoculated with a mixture of six strains of rhizobia. Nodules were produced that differed in appearance—and probably also effectiveness—but their structure was similar and they showed characteristics typical of indeterminate nodules, such as persistent meristematic tissue and a gradient of cells at different stages of development. Many starch grains were present in inner cortex cells and interstitial cells of infected tissue. Infected cells were densely packed with bacteroids, which contained many poly‐β‐hydroxybutyrate granules. The high incidence of these granules, together with high levels of starch accumulation in interstitial cells, suggested low N2‐fixation efficiency of the rhizobia isolates used for inoculation. In the symbiosomes of early‐senescent infected cells, reticulum‐like structures, small vesicles and a fibrillar material were observed; these may be related to bacteroid degradation. In the cytoplasm of late‐senescent infected cells, many vesicles and membrane‐like structures were observed, probably associated with membrane degradation of bacteroids and peribacteroids. The total biomass of plants inoculated with rhizobia was low and their xylopodia and shoots had low levels of N compared with non‐inoculated plants fertilized with ammonium nitrate. However, inoculated plants did not show N‐deficiency symptoms and grew better than non‐inoculated plants without N fertilization. These growth results, together with ultrastructural observations of nodules, suggest that nitrogen fixation of rhizobia isolates associated with Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata roots is poor. PMID:12197515

  19. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A.O.; Onyuka, Enos A.; Scholes, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha−1 were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha−1 with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas. PMID:26089591

  20. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  1. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  2. Sub-chronic Administration of Methanolic Whole Fruit Extract of Lagenaria breviflora (Benth.) Roberty Induces Mild Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola Sinbad; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Adetutu, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat) was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST]) in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg) pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05) decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05) in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s) which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. SUMMARY Methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora demonstrate dose dependent mild toxicity on vital organs (Heart and liver) and anti-oxidant enzymes. The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora may contain Phyto-toxic substance (s) which may be hepatotoxic, Cardio-toxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution. PMID:27013788

  3. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1–8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced. PMID:26039483

  4. Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Harpal; Negi, Arvind Singh; Saxena, Gauri; Rahman, Laiq-Ur; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers a potential production system for iridoid glycosides. In present study we have investigated the effects of various nutrient medium formulations viz B5, MS, WP and NN, and sucrose concentrations (1-8%) on the biomass and glycoside production of selected clone (14-P) of P. kurroa hairy root. Full strength B5 medium was found to be most suitable for maximum biomass yield on the 40th day of culture (GI = 32.72 ± 0.44) followed by the NN medium of the same strength (GI = 22.9 ± 0.43). Secondary metabolite production was 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in half strength B5 medium respectively in comparison to MS medium. Maximum biomass accumulation along with the maximum picroliv content was achieved with 4% sucrose concentration in basal medium. RT vitamin and Thiamine-HCl effected the growth and secondary metabolite production of hairy roots growing on MS medium but did not show any effect on other media. The pH of the medium played significant role in growth and secondary metabolite production and was found to be highest at pH 6.0 while lowest at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. To enhance the production of biomass and Picroliv 5 liter working capacity bioreactor was used, 27-fold (324 g FW) higher growth was observed in bioreactor than shake flask and secondary metabolite production was similarly enhanced. PMID:26039483

  5. Inhibitory effects of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Pithecellobium dumosum (Benth) seeds against insect-pests' digestive proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Fabiola P S; Pedroso, Vanessa M A; Araujo, Jonalson N; França, Anderson F J; Rabêlo, Luciana M A; Migliolo, Ludovico; Kiyota, Sumika; Santos, Elizeu A; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Adeliana S

    2013-02-01

    Pithecellobium dumosum is a tree belonging to the Mimosoideae subfamily that presents various previously characterized Kunitz-type inhibitors. The present study provides a novel Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor isoform purified from P. dumosum seeds. Purification procedure was performed by TCA precipitation followed by a trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and a further reversed-phase HPLC. Purified inhibitor (PdKI-4) showed enhanced inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, PdKI-4 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against serine proteases from the coleopterans Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, and the lepidopterans Alabama argillacea and Telchin licus. However, PdKI-4 was unable to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, pineapple bromelain and Carica papaya papain. SDS-PAGE showed that PdKI-4 consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of 21 kDa. Kinetic studies demonstrated that PdKI-4 is probably a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 5.7 × 10(-10) M for bovine trypsin. PdKI-4 also showed higher stability over a wide range of temperature (37-100 °C) and pH (2-12). N-termini sequence was obtained by Edman degradation showing higher identity with other Mimosoideae subfamily Kunitz-type inhibitor members. In summary, data here reported indicate the biotechnological potential of PdKI-4 for development of products against insect-pests.

  6. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed.

  7. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  8. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results.

  9. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  10. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  11. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-01-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials. PMID:24402150

  12. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  13. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  14. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25681143

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels.

  16. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  17. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells. PMID:27418367

  18. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    PubMed

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds.

  19. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  20. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    PubMed

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock.

  1. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  2. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  3. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  4. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  5. Influence of Inoculation with the Endomycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride on Morphological and Physiological Growth Parameters of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz.

    PubMed

    Kaushish, Sunita; Kumar, Aditya; Aggarwal, Ashok; Parkash, Vipin

    2012-06-01

    Two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis either alone or in combination with Trichoderma viride showed the dependence of Rauwolfia serpentina on endomycorrhizal fungi. After 60 days, G. mosseae singly or in combination with Trichoderma viride showed enhanced height increment compared to control plants. Maximum phosphorus content was shown by plants treated with G. mosseae plus T. viride (0.444 ± 2.62) in roots and (0.437 ± 4.71) in shoots. Phosphorus content in roots was more than that in shoots. Chlorophyll content and stomatal conductivity also showed similar trend. PMID:23729899

  6. Isolation of C-glycosylflavonoids with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from Passiflora bogotensis Benth by gradient high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Costa, Geison Modesti; Cárdenas, Paola Andrea; Gazola, Andressa Córneo; Aragón, Diana Marcela; Castellanos, Leonardo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we applied a gradient High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) method that allowed, by direct injection of an aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Passiflora bogotensis, the successful isolation of six flavonoids in a single run, with purity of each compound higher than 81%. This separation enabled the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, apigenin-6-C-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) and luteolin-6-C-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), and four known ones, isovitexin (1), isoorientin (3), isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (5) and isoorientin-2″-O-rhamnoside (6). The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD, LC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and comparison with literature data. The inhibitory activities of all of these compounds were evaluated in vitro on α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae, and the IC50 was determinate. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of Passiflora bogotensis. PMID:25864011

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18%). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p < 0.05 level. The result indicated that the essential oil of C. aromaticus and the isolated constituent have a potential for use in control of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides. PMID:23933878

  8. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  9. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  10. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Laís Bérgamo; Ruas, Eduardo A; Rodrigues, Luana A; Ruas, Claudete F; Ruas, Paulo M

    2013-12-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20%) was higher than between these (22.80%). No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability. PMID:24385857

  11. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  12. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Laís Bérgamo; Ruas, Eduardo A; Rodrigues, Luana A; Ruas, Claudete F; Ruas, Paulo M

    2013-12-01

    Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20%) was higher than between these (22.80%). No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  13. Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae), Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Maiga, Ababacar; Malterud, Karl Egil; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2006-03-01

    The African flora contains numerous medicinal plants whose biological and chemical properties are incompletely known. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of plants are subject to intensive research. In the work described here, we have investigated the antioxidant activity of the plants Diospyros abyssinica (root bark), Lannea velutina (root bark and stem bark) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (seeds). Extracts of different polarity were assayed for radical scavenging activity, using the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and for inhibition of enzymatic lipid peroxidation mediated by soybean 15-lipoxygenase. All plants investigated showed activity, but there were large differences between plants and between extracts. In general, Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina were richer in antioxidants than Crossopteryx febrifuga. Lipophilic extracts were not active as radical scavengers, but did inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. Semipolar extracts (80% aqueous ethanol and methanol) of Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina showed the highest activity both as radical scavengers and lipoxygenase inhibitors, and also gave the highest extract yields. These plants therefore appear to be excellent sources of antioxidants. PMID:16213686

  14. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae) as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Murakami, Fábio Seigi; Frensch, Gustavo; Marques, Francisco A.; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%), dried leaves—Spring (85.32%), flowers—Winter (78.76%) and fruits—Winter (80.97%). Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%), limonene (1.46% to 4.43%), α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%), and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%). The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus— Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL) and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL). PMID:26791641

  15. Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18%). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p < 0.05 level. The result indicated that the essential oil of C. aromaticus and the isolated constituent have a potential for use in control of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  16. In-vitro and in-vivo validation of ethnopharmacological uses of methanol extract of Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodon rugosus is used in folk Pakistan traditional practices to cure ailments related to gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Present study was undertaken to validate these folkloric uses. Methods A crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Isodon rugosus (Ir.Cr.) was used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The plant extract was tested on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations for possible presence of spasmolytic activity. Moreover, isolated rabbit tracheal and aorta preparations were used to ascertain the relaxant effects of the extract. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Ir.Cr were also determined as well as its antioxidant activity. The in vivo antiemetic activity of the extract was evaluated by using the chick emesis model, while the analgesic and antipyretic activities were conducted on albino mice. Results The application of the crude extract of I. rugosus to isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exhibited relaxant effect (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). The Ir.Cr also relaxed K+(80 m M)-induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and shifted the Ca+2 concentration response curves towards right (0.01-0.3 mg/ml). Similarly, the extract, when applied to the isolated rabbit tracheal preparations relaxed the carbachol (1 M)- as well as K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in a concentration range of 0.01-1.0 mg/ml. Moreover, it also relaxed (0.01-3.0 mg/ml) the phenylephrine (1 M)- and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta preparations. The Ir.Cr (80 mg/kg) demonstrated antipyretic activity on pyrogen-induced pyrexia in rabbits as compared to aspirin as standard drug. The Ir.Cr also exhibited anti-oxidant as well as inhibitory effect on acetyl- and butyryl- cholinesterase and lipoxygenase (0.5 mg/ml). Conclusions The observed relaxant effect on isolated rabbit jejunum, trachea and aorta preparations caused by Ir.Cr is possibly to be mediated through Ca+2 channel blockade and therefore may provided scientific basis to validate the folkloric uses of the plant in the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The observed antioxidant activity as well as the lipoxygenase inhibitory activity may validate its traditional use in pain and inflammations. PMID:24559094

  17. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  18. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    PubMed

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds. PMID:23376783

  19. The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

  20. Health care applications based on mobile phone centric smart sensor network.

    PubMed

    Quero, J M; Tarrida, C L; Santana, J J; Ermolov, V; Jantunen, I; Laine, H; Eichholz, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the MIMOSA architecture and development platform to create Ambient Intelligence applications. MIMOSA achieves this objective by developing a personal mobile-device centric architecture and open technology platform where microsystem technology is the key enabling technology for their realization due to its low-cost, low power consumption, and small size. This paper focuses the demonstration activities carried out in the field of health care. MIMOSA project is a European level initiative involving 15 enterprises and research institutions and universities. PMID:18003461

  1. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation. PMID:26444299

  2. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  4. In situ ruminal kinetics of DM and NDF disappearance for the biomass forages Amur silvergrass and big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative strategies, such as grazing, could minimize economic risk associated with biomass production. Minimal research is available that describes the nutritive value of biomass forages, specifically Amur silvergrass (AS; Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth., proprietary clone Msanag). Four...

  5. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  6. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:23670312

  7. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative pre-harvest interventions have to be evaluated to prevent carcass contamination at the slaughter house. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodbo...

  8. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues contain the following articles: "Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School" (Azusa Uchihara); "A Successful Keypal Project Using Varied Technologies" (Jean L. Pacheco); "Promoting a Language-Proficient Society: What You Can Do" (Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Journal Reflections of a First-Year Teacher" (Sarah…

  9. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  10. Burkholderia phymatum Strains Capable of Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris Are Present in Moroccan Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, C.; Delgado, M. J.; Girard, L.; Ramírez-Trujillo, A.; Caballero-Mellado, J.; Bedmar, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, nodC, and nifH genes of four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Morocco soils were identified as Burkholderia phymatum. All four strains formed N2-fixing nodules on P. vulgaris and Mimosa, Acacia, and Prosopis species and reduced acetylene to ethylene when cultured ex planta. PMID:20472732

  11. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  12. From Pandora's Box: Hopelessness and Defeat in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The "new realism" that distinguishes some recent childrens' books such as "The Mimosa Tree,""The Bear's House," and "My Daddy Is a Policeman" portrays the important issues of human life from a one dimensional perspective. These books focus on the tragedies and problems of life without answering the child's philosophical questions regarding…

  13. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  14. Pulcherrimasaponin, from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima, as adjuvant for immunization in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bernadete Pereira da; Soares, Juliana Baptista Rocha Correa; Souza, Edilma Paraguai de; Palatnik, Marcos; Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik de; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-11

    A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)

  15. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, a perennial wild relative of soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistan...

  16. Volatile constituents of the leaves of Munnozia senecionidis from the Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Lara, Joel; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Carmona, Juan

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of Munnozia senecionidis Benth. (Asteraceae), obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, accounting for 93.9% of the oil. The most abundant components were caryophyllene oxide (19.9%), trans-nerolidol (12.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (9.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.8%).

  17. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The roots of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz has been used in native Indian medicine for treatment of various illnesses and has been mainly used to treat hypertension. Reserpine is potent substance which shared both central nervous system depressant and hypotensive actions. An UHPLC-UV meth...

  18. Stimulation of plant growth by (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitile applied as a foliar spray in vivo or as a medium amendment in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal, a co-product of oil extraction from meadowfoam seeds, increased the growth of greenhouse plants when added to the growing medium. 3-MPAN {(3-Methoxyphenyl)acetonitile} is a biologically-active glucosinolate degradation compound previously id...

  19. A Comparative Study of Three Cryopreservation Protocols for Effective Storage of In Vitro-Grown Mint (Mentha Spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints [Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth] were cryopreserved using the three standa...

  20. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  1. Memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  2. Experience teaches plants to learn faster and forget slower in environments where it matters.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Monica; Renton, Michael; Depczynski, Martial; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The nervous system of animals serves the acquisition, memorization and recollection of information. Like animals, plants also acquire a huge amount of information from their environment, yet their capacity to memorize and organize learned behavioral responses has not been demonstrated. In Mimosa pudica-the sensitive plant-the defensive leaf-folding behaviour in response to repeated physical disturbance exhibits clear habituation, suggesting some elementary form of learning. Applying the theory and the analytical methods usually employed in animal learning research, we show that leaf-folding habituation is more pronounced and persistent for plants growing in energetically costly environments. Astonishingly, Mimosa can display the learned response even when left undisturbed in a more favourable environment for a month. This relatively long-lasting learned behavioural change as a result of previous experience matches the persistence of habituation effects observed in many animals. PMID:24390479

  3. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  4. Inactivation of strongyloides stercoralis filariform larvae in vitro by six Jamaican plant extracts and three commercial anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Williams, L A; Lindo, J F; Terry, S I; Mansingh, A

    1990-12-01

    In vitro bioassay of (a) aqueous methanol extracts (AME) of the green leaves of mimosa (Mimosa pudica), love weed (Cuscuta americana), vervine (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis), chicken weed (Salvia serotina) and breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis); (b) methanol-water fraction (MWF) of breadfruit leaves, and (c) commercially available drugs albendazole, thiabendazole and levamisole were assayed for nematode inactivating potential, using filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Test larvae were obtained from a 10-day-old charcoal coproculture. Bioassays were conducted in Locke's solution, using 100 larvae in each of three replicates. Inactivation was recorded microscopically at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours, then every 24 hours up to 5 days' incubation. It50 (time for inactivation of 50% of larvae) values read: levamisole and mimosa extract less than 1 hour; love weed extract, approximately 2 hours; breadfruit (MWF), 9.5 hours; chicken weed, 20 hours; albendazole, 35 hours; breadfruit (AME), 49 hours; thiabendazole, 74 hours and vervine extract, 81.5 hours. It95 values followed a similar, trend, and were approximately double the It50 measures. A potential role for locally available natural products in the treatment of strongyloidiasis is highlighted.

  5. Effects of feed-supplementation and hide-spray application of two sources of tannins on enteric and hide bacteria of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Banuelos, Hector; Pinchak, William E; Min, Byeng R; Carstens, Gordon E; Anderson, Robin C; Tedeschi, Luis O; Krueger, Wimberley K; Krueger, Nathan A; Lancaster, Phillip A; Gomez, Robynne R

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria attached to the hide or shed in the feces of cattle at slaughter can contaminate carcasses intended to be processed for human consumption. Therefore, new pre-harvest interventions are needed to prevent the carriage and excretion of foodborne pathogens in cattle presented to the processing plant. The objectives of this study were to examine the antimicrobial effects of hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut and condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts on bacterial indicators of foodborne pathogens when applied as a hide-intervention and as a feed additive to feedlot cattle. Water (control) or solutions (3 % wt/vol) of chestnut- and mimosa-extract treatments were sprayed (25 mL) at the left costal side of each animal to a 1000 cm² area, divided in four equal quadrants. Hide-swabs samples obtained at pre-, 2-min, 8-h, and 24-h post-spray application were cultured to enumerate Escherichia coli/total coliforms and total aerobic plate counts. In a second experiment, diets supplemented without (controls) or with (1.5 % of diet dry matter) chestnut- or mimosa-extracts were fed during a 42-day experimental feeding period. Weekly fecal samples starting on day 0, and rumen fluid obtained on days 0, 7, 21 or 42 were cultured to enumerate E.coli/total coliforms and Campylobacter. Tannin spray application showed no effect of treatment or post-application-time (P > 0.05) on measured bacterial populations, averaging 1.7/1.8, 1.5/1.6 and 1.5/1.7 (log₁₀CFU/cm²) for E. coli/total coliforms, and 4.0, 3.4 and 4.2 (log₁₀CFU/cm²) in total aerobes for control, chestnut and mimosa treatments, respectively. Mean (± SEM) ruminal E. coli and total coliform concentrations (log(10) CFU/mL) were reduced (P < 0.01) in steers fed chestnut-tannins (3.6 and 3.8 ± 0.1) in comparison with the controls (4.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1). Fecal E. coli concentrations were affected by treatment (P< 0.01), showing the highest values (log₁₀ CFU/g) in fecal contents from mimosa-fed steers

  6. Volatile oil composition of Pogostemon heyneanus and comparison of its composition with patchouli oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Ramar; Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Padmashree, Kyathsandra Venkataramaiah; Rao, Ramachandra Raghavendra; Livingstone, Christus

    2010-12-01

    The volatile oil of the leaves of Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae) was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-six components representing 96.0% of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%). Comparison of the compositions of the oils of P. heyneanus and P. cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli oil) showed wide variation between them. Though 13 sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected in both oils, their concentrations in the oils differed widely. Acetophenone, benzoyl acetone and (E)-nerolidol present in the oil of P. heyneanus were not detected in patchouli oil.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  8. Burkholderia species are the most common and preferred nodulating symbionts of the Piptadenia group (tribe Mimoseae).

    PubMed

    Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sergio Miana; dos Santos, José Miguel Ferreira; Tisseyre, Pierre; Silva, Michele; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K; Prin, Yves; Moulin, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia legume symbionts (also called α-rhizobia) are ancient in origin and are the main nitrogen-fixing symbionts of species belonging to the large genus Mimosa in Brazil. We investigated the extent of the affinity between Burkholderia and species in the tribe Mimoseae by studying symbionts of the genera Piptadenia (P.), Parapiptadenia (Pp.), Pseudopiptadenia (Ps.), Pityrocarpa (Py.), Anadenanthera (A.) and Microlobius (Mi.), all of which are native to Brazil and are phylogenetically close to Mimosa, and which together with Mimosa comprise the "Piptadenia group". We characterized 196 strains sampled from 18 species from 17 locations in Brazil using two neutral markers and two symbiotic genes in order to assess their species affiliations and the evolution of their symbiosis genes. We found that Burkholderia are common and highly diversified symbionts of species in the Piptadenia group, comprising nine Burkholderia species, of which three are new ones and one was never reported as symbiotic (B. phenoliruptrix). However, α-rhizobia were also detected and were occasionally dominant on a few species. A strong sampling site effect on the rhizobial nature of symbionts was detected, with the symbiont pattern of the same legume species changing drastically from location to location, even switching from β to α-rhizobia. Coinoculation assays showed a strong affinity of all the Piptadenia group species towards Burkholderia genotypes, with the exception of Mi. foetidus. Phylogenetic analyses of neutral and symbiotic markers showed that symbiosis genes in Burkholderia from the Piptadenia group have evolved mainly through vertical transfer, but also by horizontal transfer in two species.

  9. Forecast, Measurement, and Modeling of an Unprecedented Polar Ozone Filament Event over Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Om Prakash; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart; Lefevre, Frank; Marchand, Marion; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In mid-March 2005 the northern lower stratospheric polar vortex experienced a severe stretching episode, bringing a large polar filament far south of Alaska toward Hawaii. This meridional intrusion of rare extent, coinciding with the polar vortex final warming and breakdown, was followed by a zonal stretching in the wake of the easterly propagating subtropical main flow. This caused polar air to remain over Hawaii for several days before diluting into the subtropics. After being successfully forecasted to pass over Hawaii by the high-resolution potential vorticity advection model Modele Isentrope du transport Meso-echelle de l'Ozone Stratospherique par Advection (MIMOSA), the filament was observed on isentropic surfaces between 415 K and 455 K (17-20 km) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory stratospheric ozone lidar measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, between 16 and 19 March 2005. It was materialized as a thin layer of enhanced ozone peaking at 1.6 ppmv in a region where the climatological values usually average 1.0 ppmv. These values were compared to those obtained by the three dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model MIMOSA-CHIM. Agreement between lidar and model was excellent, particularly in the similar appearance of the ozone peak near 435 K (18.5 km) on 16 March, and the persistence of this layer at higher isentropic levels for the following three days. Passive ozone, also modeled by MIMOSA-CHIM, was at about 3-4 ppmv inside the filament while above Hawaii. A detailed history of the modeled chemistry inside the filament suggests that the air mass was still polar ozone- depleted when passing over Hawaii. The filament quickly separated from the main vortex after its Hawaiian overpass. It never reconnected and, in less than 10 days, dispersed entirely in the subtropics.

  10. Burkholderia Species Are the Most Common and Preferred Nodulating Symbionts of the Piptadenia Group (Tribe Mimoseae)

    PubMed Central

    Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sergio Miana; dos Santos, José Miguel Ferreira; Tisseyre, Pierre; Silva, Michele; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K.; Prin, Yves; Moulin, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia legume symbionts (also called α-rhizobia) are ancient in origin and are the main nitrogen-fixing symbionts of species belonging to the large genus Mimosa in Brazil. We investigated the extent of the affinity between Burkholderia and species in the tribe Mimoseae by studying symbionts of the genera Piptadenia (P.), Parapiptadenia (Pp.), Pseudopiptadenia (Ps.), Pityrocarpa (Py.), Anadenanthera (A.) and Microlobius (Mi.), all of which are native to Brazil and are phylogenetically close to Mimosa, and which together with Mimosa comprise the “Piptadenia group”. We characterized 196 strains sampled from 18 species from 17 locations in Brazil using two neutral markers and two symbiotic genes in order to assess their species affiliations and the evolution of their symbiosis genes. We found that Burkholderia are common and highly diversified symbionts of species in the Piptadenia group, comprising nine Burkholderia species, of which three are new ones and one was never reported as symbiotic (B. phenoliruptrix). However, α-rhizobia were also detected and were occasionally dominant on a few species. A strong sampling site effect on the rhizobial nature of symbionts was detected, with the symbiont pattern of the same legume species changing drastically from location to location, even switching from β to α-rhizobia. Coinoculation assays showed a strong affinity of all the Piptadenia group species towards Burkholderia genotypes, with the exception of Mi. foetidus. Phylogenetic analyses of neutral and symbiotic markers showed that symbiosis genes in Burkholderia from the Piptadenia group have evolved mainly through vertical transfer, but also by horizontal transfer in two species. PMID:23691052

  11. MISTRAL & ASTRAL: two CMOS Pixel Sensor architectures suited to the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Bertolone, G.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fang, X.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Senyukov, S.; Specht, M.; Szelezniak, M.; Pham, H.; Valin, I.; Wang, T.; Winter, M.

    2014-01-01

    A detector, equipped with 50 μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS), is being designed for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. Two CPS flavours, MISTRAL and ASTRAL, are being developed at IPHC aiming to meet the requirements of the ITS upgrade. The first is derived from the MIMOSA28 sensor designed for the STAR-PXL detector. The second integrates a discriminator in each pixel to improve the readout speed and power consumption. This paper will describe in details the sensor development and show some preliminary test results.

  12. Tree planters notes. Volume 43, Number 3, Summer 1992. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, R.; Nisley, R.; Karrfalt, R.; Landis, T.; Lantz, C.

    1992-01-01

    Contents: survival and growth of planted alaska-cedar seedling in southeast southeast alaska; propagation of loblolly, slash, and longleaf pine from needle fascicles; moisture determination on seeds of honeylocust and mimosa; performance of himalayan blue pine in the northeastern united states; advantages of an effective weed control program for populus hybrids; pales weevil: a serious threat to longleaf pine production; costs and cost component trends of trends of hand and machine planting in the southern united states (1952 to 1990); comparison of a drill-type seeder and a vacuum-drum precision seeder in a virginia loblolly pine nursery; missoula technology and development center's nursery and reforestation programs.

  13. [Effect of the spatial and seasonal soil heterogeneity over arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore abundance in the semi-arid valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some species of Mimosa (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) create resource islands (RI), rich in soil organic matter and nutrients, as well as in arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungal (AMF) spores, in the semi-arid Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. The relevance of this fact is that arid and semi-arid regions are characterized by low fertility soils and scarce precipitation, limiting plant species growth and development; this explains why the presence of AM fungi may be advantageous for mycorrhizal desert plants. Fluctuations in AMF spore numbers could be related to environmental, seasonal and soil factors which affect AMF sporulation, in addition to the life history of the host plant. The aim of this study was to asses the impact of spatial (resource islands vs open areas, OA) and seasonal (wet season vs start of dry season vs dry season) soil heterogeneity in the distribution and abundance of AMF spores in four different study sites within the Valley. We registered AMF spores in the 120 soil samples examined. Significant differences in the number of AMF spores were reported in the soil below the canopy of Mimosa species (RI) comparing with OA (RI > OA), and between Mimosa RI themselves when comparing along a soil gradient within the RI (soil near the trunk > soil below the middle of the canopy > soil in the margin of the canopy > OA); however, there were no significant differences between the soil closest to the trunk vs middle, and margin 's OA. Finally, more spores were reported in the soil collected during the wet season than during the dry season (wet > start of dry > dry). Therefore, the distribution of AMF spores is affected by spatial and seasonal soil heterogeneity. This study points out the relevance of Mimosa RI as AMF spore reservoirs and the potential importance of AM fungi for plant species survivorship and establishment in semi-arid regions. AM fungi have recently been recognized as an important factor determining plant species diversity

  14. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    PubMed

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  15. Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the characterization of ferric tannates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Navarro, César

    2009-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy are use for the characterization and qualitative analysis of hydrolysable and condensed tannates. The two classes of tannates may be differentiated from the characteristic IR pattern. Mössbauer proof that a mixture of mono- and bis-type ferric tannate complexes, and an iron(II)-tannin complex are obtained from the interaction of hydrolysable tannins (tannic acid and chestnut tannin) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) with a ferric nitrate solution. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also obtained.

  16. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    PubMed

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST. PMID:17331673

  17. Integrated, Step-Wise, Mass-Isotopomeric Flux Analysis of the TCA Cycle.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Yarborough, Orlando; Sereda, Sam; Shirihai, Orian; Cline, Gary W; Mason, Graeme; Kibbey, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Mass isotopomer multi-ordinate spectral analysis (MIMOSA) is a step-wise flux analysis platform to measure discrete glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolic rates. Importantly, direct citrate synthesis rates were obtained by deconvolving the mass spectra generated from [U-(13)C6]-D-glucose labeling for position-specific enrichments of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate, and citrate. Comprehensive steady-state and dynamic analyses of key metabolic rates (pyruvate dehydrogenase, β-oxidation, pyruvate carboxylase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and PEP/pyruvate cycling) were calculated from the position-specific transfer of (13)C from sequential precursors to their products. Important limitations of previous techniques were identified. In INS-1 cells, citrate synthase rates correlated with both insulin secretion and oxygen consumption. Pyruvate carboxylase rates were substantially lower than previously reported but showed the highest fold change in response to glucose stimulation. In conclusion, MIMOSA measures key metabolic rates from the precursor/product position-specific transfer of (13)C-label between metabolites and has broad applicability to any glucose-oxidizing cell. PMID:26411341

  18. Studies for a 10 μs, thin, high resolution CMOS pixel sensor for future vertex detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutsinas, G.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Baudot, J.; Bertolone, G.; Brogna, A.; Chon-Sen, N.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Degerli, Y.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Gelin, M.; Goffe, M.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Müntz, C.; Orsini, F.; Santos, C.; Schrader, C.; Specht, M.; Stroth, J.; Valin, I.; Wagner, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2011-06-01

    Future high energy physics (HEP) experiments require detectors with unprecedented performances for track and vertex reconstruction. These requirements call for high precision sensors, with low material budget and short integration time. The development of CMOS sensors for HEP applications was initiated at IPHC Strasbourg more than 10 years ago, motivated by the needs for vertex detectors at the International Linear Collider (ILC) [R. Turchetta et al, NIM A 458 (2001) 677]. Since then several other applications emerged. The first real scale digital CMOS sensor MIMOSA26 equips Flavour Tracker at RHIC, as well as for the microvertex detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. MIMOSA sensors may also offer attractive performances for the ALICE upgrade at LHC. This paper will demonstrate the substantial performance improvement of CMOS sensors based on a high resistivity epitaxial layer. First studies for integrating the sensors into a detector system will be addressed and finally the way to go to a 10 μs readout sensor will be discussed.

  19. The introduced tree Prosopis juliflora is a serious threat to native species of the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation.

    PubMed

    de Souza Nascimento, Clóvis Eduardo; Tabarelli, Marcelo; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Domingues; Leal, Inara Roberta; de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-05-15

    Despite its economic importance in the rural context, the Prosopis juliflora tree species has already invaded millions of hectares globally (particularly rangelands), threatening native biodiversity and rural sustainability. Here we examine seedling growth (leaf area, stem diameter, plant height) and seedling mortality across five native plant species of the Caatinga vegetation in response to competition with P. juliflora. Two sowing treatments with 10 replications were adopted within a factorial 2 × 5 randomized block design. Treatments consisted of P. juliflora seeds sowed with seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia microphylla, Erythrina velutina, Mimosa bimucronata and Mimosa tenuiflora (one single native species per treatment), while seeds of native species sowed without P. juliflora were adopted as controls. Overall, our results suggest that P. juliflora can reduce seedling growth by half and cause increased seedling mortality among woody plant species. Moreover, native species exhibit different levels of susceptibility to competition with P. juliflora, particularly in terms of plant growth. Such a superior competitive ability apparently permits P. juliflora to establish monospecific stands of adult trees, locally displacing native species or limiting their recruitment. The use of less sensitive species, such as C. ferrea and M. tenuiflora, to restore native vegetation before intensive colonization by P. juliflora should be investigated as an effective approach for avoiding its continuous spread across the Caatinga region.

  20. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180th day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180th day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180th day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

  1. Laser fluorometric analysis of plants for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, T.F.; Ward, F.N.; Erdman, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary test of biogeochemical exploration for locating uranium occurrences in the Marfa Basin, Texas, was conducted in 1978. Only 6 of 74 plant samples (mostly catclaw mimosa, Mimosa biuncifera) contained uranium in amounts above the detection limit (0.4 ppm in the ash) of the conventional fluorometric method. The samples were then analyzed using a Scintrex UA-3 uranium analyzer* * Use of trade names in this paper is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. - an instrument designed for direct analysis of uranium in water, and which can be conveniently used in a mobile field laboratory. The detection limit for uranium in plant ash (0.05 ppm) by this method is almost an order of magnitude lower than with the fluorometric conventional method. Only 1 of the 74 samples contained uranium below the detection limit of the new method. Accuracy and precision were determined to be satisfactory. Samples of plants growing on mineralized soils and nonmineralized soils show a 15-fold difference in uranium content; whereas the soils themselves (analyzed by delayed neutron activation analysis) show only a 4-fold difference. The method involves acid digestion of ashed tissue, extraction of uranium into ethyl acetate, destruction of the ethyl acetate, dissolution of the residue in 0.005% nitric acid, and measurement. ?? 1981.

  2. Integrated, Step-Wise, Mass-Isotopomeric Flux Analysis of the TCA Cycle.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Yarborough, Orlando; Sereda, Sam; Shirihai, Orian; Cline, Gary W; Mason, Graeme; Kibbey, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Mass isotopomer multi-ordinate spectral analysis (MIMOSA) is a step-wise flux analysis platform to measure discrete glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolic rates. Importantly, direct citrate synthesis rates were obtained by deconvolving the mass spectra generated from [U-(13)C6]-D-glucose labeling for position-specific enrichments of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate, and citrate. Comprehensive steady-state and dynamic analyses of key metabolic rates (pyruvate dehydrogenase, β-oxidation, pyruvate carboxylase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and PEP/pyruvate cycling) were calculated from the position-specific transfer of (13)C from sequential precursors to their products. Important limitations of previous techniques were identified. In INS-1 cells, citrate synthase rates correlated with both insulin secretion and oxygen consumption. Pyruvate carboxylase rates were substantially lower than previously reported but showed the highest fold change in response to glucose stimulation. In conclusion, MIMOSA measures key metabolic rates from the precursor/product position-specific transfer of (13)C-label between metabolites and has broad applicability to any glucose-oxidizing cell.

  3. A multiyear estimate of the effective pollen donor pool for Albizia julibrissin.

    PubMed

    Irwin, A J; Hamrick, J L; Godt, M J W; Smouse, P E

    2003-02-01

    Studies of pollen movement in plant populations are often limited to a single reproductive event, despite concerns about the adequacy of single-year measures for perennial organisms. In this study, we estimate the effective number of pollen donors per tree from a multiyear study of Albizia julibrissin Durazz (mimosa, Fabaceae), an outcrossing, insect-pollinated tree. We determined 40 seedling genotypes for each of 15 seed trees during 4 successive years. A molecular analysis of variance of the pollen gametes fertilizing the sampled seeds was used to partition variation in pollen pools among seed trees, among years, and within single tree-year collections. Using these variance components, we demonstrate significant male gametic variability among years for individual trees. However, results indicate that yearly variation in the 'global pollen pool', averaged over all 15 seed trees for these 4 years, is effectively zero. We estimate the effective number of pollen donors for a single mimosa tree (N(ep)) to be 2.87. Single season analyses yield N(ep) approximately 2.05, which is 40% less than the value of N(ep) estimated from 4 years of data. We discuss optimal sampling for future studies designed to estimate N(ep). Studies should include more trees, each sampled over at least a few years, with fewer seeds per tree per year than are needed for a traditional parentage study. PMID:12634826

  4. Measurements and simulations of MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) response to charged particles - a study towards a vertex detector at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczewski, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a project of an electron-positron (e+e-) linear collider with the centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are one of the proposed silicon pixel detector concepts for the ILC vertex detector (VTX). Basic characteristics of two MAPS pixel matrices MIMOSA-5 (17 μm pixel pitch) and MIMOSA-18 (10 μm pixel pitch) are studied and compared (pedestals, noises, calibration of the ADC-to-electron conversion gain, detector efficiency and charge collection properties). The e+e- collisions at the ILC will be accompanied by intense beamsstrahlung background of electrons and positrons hitting inner planes of the vertex detector. Tracks of this origin leave elongated clusters contrary to those of secondary hadrons. Cluster characteristics and orientation with respect to the pixels netting are studied for perpendicular and inclined tracks. Elongation and precision of determining the cluster orientation as a function of the angle of incidence were measured. A simple model of signal formation (based on charge diffusion) is proposed and tested using the collected data.

  5. Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Methods Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., Satureja aintabensis P.H. Davis, and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. ex Reich.) were collected in 2009 – 2010. Dried and crushed plant samples were subjected to sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order of increasing polarity. A broth microdilution method was employed to screen extracts against four mycobacterial strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results S. aintabensis, T. sibthorpii, and M. juliana were found to develop considerable activity against the four strains of M. tuberculosis with the minimal inhibitory concentrations value of 12.5-100 μg/ml. S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii extracts killed M. tuberculosis with the minimum bactericidal concentration value of 50–800 μg/ml. On the basis of these prominent antimycobacterial activity, we suggest that they could be a source of natural anti-tuberculosis agents. Conclusion S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii showed activity by killing Mycobacteria strains. The major phenolic compound was rosmarinic for T. sibthorpii and S. aintabensis. Flavonoids might be “a modal” for the drug design. PMID:24359458

  6. Comparative anatomy of the nectary spur in selected species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Davies, Kevin L.; Kamińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To date, the structure of the nectary spur of Aeridinae has not been studied in detail, and data relating to the nectaries of ornithophilous orchids remain scarce. The present paper compares the structural organization of the floral nectary in a range of Aeridinae species, including both entomophilous and ornithophilous taxa. Methods Nectary spurs of Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. var. aurantiacum Pradhan, A. curvifolium (Lindl.) Schltr., A. garayi Christenson, Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J.J. Sm., Sedirea japonica (Rchb.f.) Garay & H.R. Sweet and Stereochilus dalatensis (Guillaumin) Garay were examined by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions The diverse anatomy of the nectary is described for a range of Aeridinae species. All species of Ascocentrum investigated displayed features characteristic of ornithophilous taxa. They have weakly zygomorphic, scentless, red or orange flowers, display diurnal anthesis, possess cryptic anther caps and produce nectar that is secluded in a relatively massive nectary spur. Unicellular, secretory hairs line the lumen at the middle part of the spur. Generally, however, with the exception of Papilionanthe vandarum, the nectary spurs of all entomophilous species studied here (Schoenorchis gemmata, Sedirea japonica, Stereochilus dalatensis) lack secretory trichomes. Moreover, collenchymatous secretory tissue, present only in the nectary spur of Asiatic Ascocentrum species, closely resembles that found in nectaries of certain Neotropical species that are hummingbird-pollinated and assigned to subtribes Maxillariinae Benth., Laeliinae Benth. and Oncidiinae Benth. This similarity in anatomical organization of the nectary, regardless of geographical distribution and phylogeny, indicates convergence. PMID:21183455

  7. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values. PMID:16452079

  8. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values.

  9. Millettia pachycarpa exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Xiang, Minli; Liu, Zhuowei; Li, Yanfang; Tang, Minghai; Li, Shucai; Yang, Jianhong; Tang, Huan; Chen, Kai; Long, Chaofeng; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids isolated from Millettia pachycarpa Benth. The seeds of M. pachycarpa Benth were extracted with ethanol and subjected to chromatographic separation for the isolation of bioactive compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was investigated by evaluating the inhibition ability of NO production, iNOS activity and iNOS protein expression induced by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro and the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in vivo. Molecular docking simulation was also employed to obtain the binding parameters in the binding pocket of iNOS. Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated from Chinese herbal medicine M. pachycarpa Benth. Among them, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) and deguelin (7) exhibited remarkable inhibitory rates of 66.5% and 57.7%, respectively, compared with that of 52.5% of indomethacin in LPS-induced macrophages cells. 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) with low toxicity (IC50 > 100 μm) exhibited better inhibitory effects to positive control of 1400W on iNOS activity at the concentration of 10 μm. Western blot assay revealed that 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) inhibited iNOS protein expression in RAW264.7 cells and molecular docking simulation showed that 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) fit well into the binding pocket of iNOS. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, our data revealed that the anti-inflammatory potential of 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) at 10 mg/kg showed comparable inhibitory ability to indomethacin at 5 h while a higher concentration of 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) at 50 mg/kg showed higher inhibitory activity than indomethacin, which was further confirmed by plasma levels of nitrite. The overall results suggest that 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (6) might be used as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:25004885

  10. Rotation Axes for Analysis of Gravity Effects on Plant Organs 1

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Charles J.

    1967-01-01

    Epinastic curvatures of branches of Coleus blumei Benth. and the growth pattern of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings on clinostats were used for bioassay of rotation methods for preventing growth responses to gravity. Tumbling a plant end over end was found to be just as effective as rotation about its horizontal axis. The results support the reliability of data from experiments in which an entire plant is rotated about a single horizontal line with only part or none of its immature tissues in horizontal orientation to gravity. Images PMID:16656585

  11. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658

  13. Toxicological study of plant extracts on termite and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Rahman, I; Gogoi, Inee; Dolui, A K; Handique, Ruma

    2005-04-01

    Toxic activity of leaf extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. were tested in the laboratory against tea termite, Odontotermes assamensis Holm. Both the tested extracts caused mortality of the termite. The highest toxic activity (100%) was found in the 2.0% chloroform extracts of P. hydropiper. The chloroform extract of P. hydropiper was explored for possible mammalian toxicological effects. The LD50 was 758.58 mg/kg in male albino mice. Subcutaneous injection of sub-lethal dose of extract into male mice once a week for 6 weeks failed to express any significant influence on WBC, RBC count and blood cholesterol.

  14. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seeds in the rabbits fed on a cholesterol-containing diet

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Movahedian, Ahmad; Jannesary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Lallemantia royleana (Benth. in Wall.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Iranian traditional and folklore medicine in the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. In the present study, whole seeds of the herb were prepared and evaluated for hypolipidemic activities using an animal model. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed normal diets or diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.5%) for 12 weeks to evoke hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, hypercholesterolemic animals were treated with different doses of whole seeds of Balangu (0, 5, 10, and 20%) for 12 weeks. Results: Results showed that the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride decreased in all groups treated with Balangu seeds p<0.05. Changes in the distribution of cholesterol in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found. LDL-C and HDL-C decreased significantly in all of the groups treated with whole seeds of the herb with respect to hypercholesterolemic group p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that L. royleana seeds decreased the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic animals but led to the increase of atherogenic index in all treated groups. PMID:26101750

  16. Phenolic content of some selected Lamiaceous Egyptian medicinal plants: antioxidant potential and ecological friend mosquito-larvicldal.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; El-Hela, Atef A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    Phenol compounds are naturally occurring biologically active compounds existing in all plants had received major medical concern so development in research focused on their extraction, identification and quantification have occurred over the last 25 years; they constitute an important source of antioxidants and were used to help human body to reduce oxidative damage. Mosquitos-borne diseases constitute one of the major health problems worldwide. Control strategies involving pinpointing natural ecological friend, cheap and safe mosquitocides, mainly larvicides to stop their life cycle. Quantitative estimation of total phenol, flavonoids, phenylethanoid and iridoid contents of sixteen selected Lamiaceous Egyptian plants for screening of their antioxidant and mosquito larvicidal effects was carried out. The results showed that the most suitable medicinal plants used as antioxidants were Lavendula dentata L., Thymus capitatus L. and Thymus bovei Benth., which contain adequate mixture of total phenol, flavonoid and phenylethanoid contents, with distinct larvicidal effect in a descending order was T. capitatus L., T. bovei Benth. and L. dentata L. by their adequate mixture of total phenol, flavonoid, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycoside content.

  17. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  18. Tropical upper troposphere and tropopause layer in situ measurement of H2O by the micro- SDLA balloon borne diode laser spectrometer: modelling interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durry, G.; Huret, N.; Freitas, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Longo, K.

    2006-12-01

    During the HIBISCUS European campaign in Bauru (Brazil, 22°S) in 2004, the micro-SDLA diode laser sensor was flown twice on February the 13th (SF2 flight) and the 24th (SF4 flight) from small size open stratospheric balloons operated by the CNES. In situ measurements of H2O, CH4 at high spatial resolution (a few meters) were obtained in the UT and in the TTL. Both flights took place in convective conditions. Layering in the TTL water vapour content is observed with values from 3 ppmv (typical of TTL) to high values of 6 ppmv. To investigate such layering we have used a combination of 3D trajectory calculations (Freitas et al., JGR, 2000) using the mesoscale model BRAMS outputs and Potential vorticity map obtained from the high- resolution PV-advection model MIMOSA (Hauchecorne et al., JGR, 2001). The mesoscale model BRAMS allows us to study processes associated with convective systems, whereas isentropic transport at global scale is investigated with MIMOSA. Backward 3D trajectories have been calculated every km for the two flights. It appears that a very strong uplifting from the ground to 16.5 km has occurred 80 hours before the SF4 flight. This uplifting is associated with a 3 ppmv water vapor layer whereas just above twice more water vapour is observed. This layer with high water vapor is associated with trajectories that skim over the top of the convective region. This leads us to discuss on the ability of convective system to inject water vapour in the TTL. For both flights we investigate also the impact of isentropic transport from extratropical region on TTL water vapour content. It appears that for the SF2 and SF4 flight using the PV maps from MIMOSA model we report filamentation in the TTL and in the UT respectively. This filamentation is associated in the UT with strong dehydration observed at 8-10 km for the SF4 flight and with high water vapour content in the TTL typical of mid- latitude region during SF2 flight.

  19. Glucoxylan-mediated green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their phyto-toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Iram, Fozia; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Athar, Muhammad M; Saeed, Muhammad Z; Yasmeen, Abida; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-04-15

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles having exceptional high stability is reported. The synthesis involves the use of glucoxylans isolated from seeds of Mimosa pudica and excludes the use of conventional reducing and capping agents. The average particle sizes were 40 and 6 nm for gold and silver, respectively. The size of gold particles obtained in this work is suitable for drug delivery as they are non-cytotoxic. In phyto-toxicity tests the gold and silver nanoparticles did not show any significant effect on germination of radish seeds, whereas in radish seedling root growth assay the two particles behaved differently. The silver nanoparticles exhibited a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on root length, whereas the gold nanoparticles had no significant effect in this test. The likely mechanism of these effects is discussed. PMID:24607156

  20. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  1. Glucoxylan-mediated green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their phyto-toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Iram, Fozia; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Athar, Muhammad M; Saeed, Muhammad Z; Yasmeen, Abida; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-04-15

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles having exceptional high stability is reported. The synthesis involves the use of glucoxylans isolated from seeds of Mimosa pudica and excludes the use of conventional reducing and capping agents. The average particle sizes were 40 and 6 nm for gold and silver, respectively. The size of gold particles obtained in this work is suitable for drug delivery as they are non-cytotoxic. In phyto-toxicity tests the gold and silver nanoparticles did not show any significant effect on germination of radish seeds, whereas in radish seedling root growth assay the two particles behaved differently. The silver nanoparticles exhibited a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on root length, whereas the gold nanoparticles had no significant effect in this test. The likely mechanism of these effects is discussed.

  2. Electrical signals and their physiological significance in plants.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Jörg; Lautner, Silke

    2007-03-01

    Electrical excitability and signalling, frequently associated with rapid responses to environmental stimuli, are well known in some algae and higher plants. The presence of electrical signals, such as action potentials (AP), in both animal and plant cells suggested that plant cells, too, make use of ion channels to transmit information over long distances. In the light of rapid progress in plant biology during the past decade, the assumption that electrical signals do not only trigger rapid leaf movements in 'sensitive' plants such as Mimosa pudica or Dionaea muscipula, but also physiological processes in ordinary plants proved to be correct. Summarizing recent progress in the field of electrical signalling in plants, the present review will focus on the generation and propagation of various electrical signals, their ways of transmission within the plant body and various physiological effects.

  3. Pollen viability of Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae) using different staining methods.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2012-12-01

    Polygala paniculata L. is a medicinal plant that grows in the Brazilian Atlantic coast, known as 'barba-de-São-João', 'barba-de-bode', 'vassourinha branca', and 'mimosa'. In this study, pollen viability was estimated by three different staining methods: 2% acetic orcein, 2% acetic carmine, and Alexander's stain. The young inflorescences of twenty accessions were collected and fixed in a solution of ethanol: acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours, then stored in ethanol 70% under refrigeration. Six slides per plant, two for each stain, were prepared by squashing, and 300 pollen grains per slide were analyzed. Pollen viability was high (> 70%) for most accessions of P. paniculata using the Alexander's stain, which proved the most adequate method to estimate pollen viability.

  4. Skin wound healing and phytomedicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Rafiee, Esmail; Mehrabian, Abolfath; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms.

  5. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  6. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Mimosinase from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Borthakur, Dulal

    2016-01-01

    Heterologous expression of eukaryotic genes in bacterial system is an important method in synthetic biology to characterize proteins. It is a widely used method, which can be sometimes quite challenging, as a number of factors that act along the path of expression of a transgene to mRNA, and mRNA to protein, can potentially affect the expression of a transgene in a heterologous system. Here, we describe a method for successful cloning and expression of mimosinase-encoding gene from Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) in E. coli as the heterologous host. Mimosinase is an important enzyme especially in the context of metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolite as it catalyzes the degradation of mimosine, which is a toxic secondary metabolite found in all Leucaena and Mimosa species. We also describe the methods used for characterization of the recombinant mimosinase. PMID:26843166

  7. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    PubMed

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value. PMID:26954309

  8. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  9. Phylogeny of the bodonid flagellates (Kinetoplastida) based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Dolezel, D; Jirků, M; Maslov, D A; Lukes, J

    2000-09-01

    The phylogeny of kinetoplastid flagellates was investigated by determining the sequences of the small-subunit (18S) rRNA from Bodo designis, Bodo saltans K, Bodo saltans P, Bodo sorokini, Bodo sp. (cf. uncinatus), Cruzella marina, Cryptobia helicis, Dimastigella mimosa and Parabodo nitrophilus and analysing these data together with several previously obtained sequences. The root of the kinetoplastid tree was tentatively determined to be attached to the branch of B. designis and/or Cruzella marina. Within this topology, the suborder Trypanosomatina appears as a late-emerging monophyletic group, while the suborder Bodonina is paraphyletic. Within the bodonid subtree, the branches of parasitic organisms were intermingled with free-living ones, implying multiple transitions to parasitism. The tree indicates that the genera Cryptobia and Bodo are artificial taxa. In addition, the separation of the fish cryptobias and Trypanoplasma borreli as different genera was not supported.

  10. Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soedarjo, Muchdar; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Borthakur, Dulal

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mimosine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was used for selection. The enzymes of the mimosine catabolic pathway were inducible and were present in the soluble fraction of the cell extract of induced cells. On the basis of a comparison of the growth rates of Rhizobium strains on general carbon and nitrogen sources versus mimosine, the toxin appears to be converted mostly to biomass and carbon dioxide. Most isolates able to grow on mimosine as a source of carbon and nitrogen are also able to utilize 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, a toxic intermediate of mimosine degradation in other organisms. PMID:16349454

  11. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

  12. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    PubMed

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value.

  13. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  14. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, A.; Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A. S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I.; Voutsinas, G.; Wagner, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2010-12-01

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) [1] have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) [2,3]. Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10 μm pitch device was found to be ˜1013 neq/cm2, while it was only 2×1012 neq/cm2 for a 20 μm pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10 14) n eq/cm 2. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15 μm thin, high resistivity ( ˜1 kΩ cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages ( <5 V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered ( 3×1013 neq/cm2), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS. Standing for minimum ionising particle.

  15. Co-occurrence of tannin and tannin-less vacuoles in sensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile; Lallemand, Magali; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Roblin, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Vacuoles of different types frequently coexist in the same plant cell, but the duality of the tannin/tannin-less vacuoles observed in Mimosa pudica L. is rare. In this plant, which is characterized by highly motile leaves, the development and original features of the double vacuolar compartment were detailed in primary pulvini from the young to the mature leaf stage. In young pulvini, the differentiation of tannin vacuoles first occurred in the epidermis and progressively spread toward the inner cortex. In motor cells of nonmotile pulvini, tannin deposits first lined the membranes of small vacuole profiles and then formed opaque clusters that joined together to form a large tannin vacuole (TV), the proportion of which in the cell was approximately 45%. At this stage, transparent vacuole profiles were rare and small, but as the parenchyma cells enlarged, these profiles coalesced to form a transparent vacuole with a convexity toward the larger-sized tannin vacuole. When leaf motility began to occur, the two vacuole types reached the same relative proportion (approximately 30%). Finally, in mature cells displaying maximum motility, the large transparent colloidal vacuole (CV) showed a relative proportion increasing to approximately 50%. At this stage, the proportion of the tannin vacuole, occurring in the vicinity of the nucleus, decreased to approximately 10%. The presence of the condensed type of tannins (proanthocyanidins) was proven by detecting their fluorescence under UV light and by specific chemical staining. This dual vacuolar profile was also observed in nonmotile parts of M. pudica (e.g., the petiole and the stem). Additional observations of leaflet pulvini showing more or less rapid movements showed that this double vacuolar structure was present in certain plants (Mimosa spegazzinii and Desmodium gyrans), but absent in others (Albizzia julibrissin, Biophytum sensitivum, and Cassia fasciculata). Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that a

  16. Co-occurrence of tannin and tannin-less vacuoles in sensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile; Lallemand, Magali; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Roblin, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Vacuoles of different types frequently coexist in the same plant cell, but the duality of the tannin/tannin-less vacuoles observed in Mimosa pudica L. is rare. In this plant, which is characterized by highly motile leaves, the development and original features of the double vacuolar compartment were detailed in primary pulvini from the young to the mature leaf stage. In young pulvini, the differentiation of tannin vacuoles first occurred in the epidermis and progressively spread toward the inner cortex. In motor cells of nonmotile pulvini, tannin deposits first lined the membranes of small vacuole profiles and then formed opaque clusters that joined together to form a large tannin vacuole (TV), the proportion of which in the cell was approximately 45%. At this stage, transparent vacuole profiles were rare and small, but as the parenchyma cells enlarged, these profiles coalesced to form a transparent vacuole with a convexity toward the larger-sized tannin vacuole. When leaf motility began to occur, the two vacuole types reached the same relative proportion (approximately 30%). Finally, in mature cells displaying maximum motility, the large transparent colloidal vacuole (CV) showed a relative proportion increasing to approximately 50%. At this stage, the proportion of the tannin vacuole, occurring in the vicinity of the nucleus, decreased to approximately 10%. The presence of the condensed type of tannins (proanthocyanidins) was proven by detecting their fluorescence under UV light and by specific chemical staining. This dual vacuolar profile was also observed in nonmotile parts of M. pudica (e.g., the petiole and the stem). Additional observations of leaflet pulvini showing more or less rapid movements showed that this double vacuolar structure was present in certain plants (Mimosa spegazzinii and Desmodium gyrans), but absent in others (Albizzia julibrissin, Biophytum sensitivum, and Cassia fasciculata). Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that a

  17. Effect of phosphoglycerate mutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency on symbiotic Burkholderia phymatum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2012-04-01

    Burkholderia phymatum STM815 is a β-rhizobial strain that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. Two Tn5-induced mutants of this strain, KM16-22 and KM51, failed to form root nodules on Mimosa pudica, but still caused root hair deformation, which is one of the early steps of rhizobial infection. Both mutants grew well in a complex medium. However, KM16-22 could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar and a metabolic intermediate such as pyruvate were provided, and KM51 also could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar was added. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to pgm, which encodes 2,3-biphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM), and fbp, which encodes fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Both enzymes are known to be involved in obligate steps in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzyme assays confirmed that KM16-22 and KM51 had indeed lost dPGM and FBPase activity, respectively, whilst the activities of these enzymes were expressed normally in both free-living bacteria and symbiotic bacteroids of the parental strain STM815. Both mutants recovered their enzyme activity after the introduction of wild-type pgm or fbp genes, were subsequently able to use carbohydrate as a carbon source, and were able to form root nodules on M. pudica and to fix nitrogen as efficiently as the parental strain. We conclude that the enzymes dPGM and FBPase are essential for the formation of a symbiosis with the host plant. PMID:22282515

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay. PMID:25920235

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity Comparison among Scropoliosides-Catalpol Derivatives with 6-O-Substituted Cinnamyl Moieties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Liuqiang; Ling, Shuang; Qian, Fei; Li, Yiming; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2015-11-03

    We have previously shown that scropolioside B has higher anti-inflammatory activity than catalpol does after the inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IL-1β expression, maturation, and secretion. Various scropoliosides were extracted, isolated, and purified from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. We then compared their anti-inflammatory activities against LPS-induced NF-κB activity, cytokines mRNA expression, IL-1β secretion, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. The inhibitory effects of the scropoliosides varied depending on whether the 6-O-substituted cinnamyl moiety was linked to C'' 2-OH, C''3-OH, or C''4-OH, and on the number of moieties linked, which is closely related to the enhancement of antiinflammatory activity. Among these compounds, scropolioside B had the strongest antiinflammatory effects.

  1. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin.

  2. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii. PMID:17202681

  3. Primary colonization and breakdown of igneous rocks by endemic, succulent elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor) of the deserts in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; Vierheilig, Horst; Salazar, Bernardo G; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2006-07-01

    Trees growing in rocks without soil are uncommon. In two arid regions in Baja California, Mexico, field surveys found large numbers of rock-colonizing elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor (Benth.) Coville ex Standl. (Mexican name: copalquin) growing in igneous rocks (granite and basalt) as primary colonizers without the benefit of soil or with a very small amount of soil generated by their own growth. Many adult trees broke large granite boulders and were capable of wedging, growing in, and colonizing rocks and cliffs made of ancient lava flows. This is the first record of a tree species, apart from the previously recorded cacti, capable of primary colonization of rocks and rock rubble in hot deserts. PMID:16583239

  4. Primary colonization and breakdown of igneous rocks by endemic, succulent elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor) of the deserts in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; Vierheilig, Horst; Salazar, Bernardo G; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2006-07-01

    Trees growing in rocks without soil are uncommon. In two arid regions in Baja California, Mexico, field surveys found large numbers of rock-colonizing elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor (Benth.) Coville ex Standl. (Mexican name: copalquin) growing in igneous rocks (granite and basalt) as primary colonizers without the benefit of soil or with a very small amount of soil generated by their own growth. Many adult trees broke large granite boulders and were capable of wedging, growing in, and colonizing rocks and cliffs made of ancient lava flows. This is the first record of a tree species, apart from the previously recorded cacti, capable of primary colonization of rocks and rock rubble in hot deserts.

  5. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  6. Larsenianthus, a new Asian genus of Gingers (Zingiberaceae) with four species.

    PubMed

    Kress, W John; D Mood, John; Sabu, Mamiyil; Prince, Linda M; Dey, Santanu; Sanoj, E

    2010-01-01

    Larsenianthus W. J. Kress & Mood, gen. nov. is described with one new combination and three new species. Larsenianthus careyanus (Benth.) W. J. Kress & Mood, comb. nov., is widespread in India and present-day Bangladesh; Larsenianthus wardianus W. J. Kress, Thet Htun & Bordelon, sp. nov., is from upper Myanmar in Kachin State; Larsenianthus assamensis S. Dey, Mood, & S. Choudhury, sp. nov., is restricted to Assam, India; and Larsenianthus arunachalensis M. Sabu, Sanoj & T.Rajesh Kumar, sp. nov., has only been found in Arunachal Pradesh, India. A phylogenetic analysis using the plastid trnK intron and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data indicates that the four species of Larsenianthus form a monophyletic lineage that is sister to Hedychium, a geographically widespread genus of about 50 species in tribe Zingibereae of subfamily Zingiberoideae. A dichotomous key and three-locus DNA barcodes are provided as aids for the identification of the four species of Larsenianthus. PMID:22171166

  7. Antimicrobial flavonoids isolated from Indian medicinal plant Scutellaria oblonga inhibit biofilms formed by common food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narendran; Subramaniam, Shankar; Christena, Lowrence Rene; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram; Subramanian, Nagarajan Sai; Pemiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    2016-09-01

    Scutellaria oblonga Benth., a hitherto phytochemically unexplored Indian medicinal folklore plant was extracted with acetone and subjected to chromatography to yield nine flavonoids, for the first time from this plant. Antimicrobial assays were performed against 11 foodborne pathogens, and three molecules (Techtochrysin, Negletein and Quercitin-3-glucoside) depicted significant activity. These molecules were assessed for their rate of antibacterial action using time-kill curves which depicted complete inhibition of most of the bacteria within 12-16 h. The significant biofilm-reducing capability exhibited by these three molecules formed a significant finding of the current study. In most of the experiments, a 90-95% reduction in biofilms was observed. Thus, flavonoids as natural molecules from S. oblonga could be further researched to be used as potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. PMID:26508034

  8. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin. PMID:26909987

  9. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  10. Characterization of flavonoids in the ethomedicine Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix and its adulterant Millettiae Pulchrae Radix by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lan-Lan; Yi, Tao; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Li, Dian-Peng; Xie, Yang-Jiao; Qin, Shan-Ding; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2013-01-01

    Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix (FC, the root of Fordia cauliflora Hemsl) and Millettiae Pulchrae Radix [MP, the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth.) Kurz var. laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei], which go under the same local name of "Daluosan", have long been used in Southern China for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, dementia in children, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases. The same local name and similar functions always confuse users. To further utilize these two ethnodrugs and identify them unambiguously, an HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method was developed to separate and characterize the flavonoids in FC and MP. A total of 41 flavonoids were detected, of which six compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based on their tandem mass spectrometry data obtained in the positive ion detection mode. Nineteen of these characterized compounds are reported from these two plants for the first time. PMID:24352055

  11. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus. PMID:26250291

  12. Plant bioreactors - the taste of sweet success.

    PubMed

    Stoger, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Thaumatins are intensely sweet proteins (3000 times sweeter than the same weight of sucrose) that are found in the arils of the tropical perennial plant Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth and are produced commercially by aqueous extraction from the fruits. The proteins are widely used as sweeteners and flavor enhancers in the food industry, and the European Food Safety Association (EFSA) has recently confirmed that their use as feed additive (1 to 5 mg/kg complete feed) is safe for all animal species. Given the large market for sweeteners and flavor enhancers, thaumatins could become increasingly important in the food and feed additives sector. In this issue of Biotechnology Journal, a study examines the production of thaumatin in tobacco hairy root cultures.

  13. Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad S.; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation −0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc = −0.01; P = 0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

  14. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Coates, Brad S; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  15. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). Analyzing the asymmetry index (AI), revealed that Caesalpinia calycina Benth. had the most asymmetrical karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  16. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 μm process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyukov, S.; Baudot, J.; Besson, A.; Claus, G.; Cousin, L.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.

    2013-12-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the three innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS process were studied with the help of the first prototype chip MIMOSA 32. The beam tests performed with negative pions of 120 GeV/c at the CERN-SPS allowed to measure a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the non-irradiated chip in the range between 22 and 32 depending on the pixel design. The chip irradiated with the combined dose of 1 MRad and 1013neq /cm2 was observed to yield an SNR ranging between 11 and 23 for coolant temperatures varying from 15 °C to 30 °C. These SNR values were measured to result in particle detection efficiencies above 99.5% and 98% before and after irradiation, respectively. These satisfactory results allow to validate the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS process for the ALICE ITS upgrade.

  17. Variability of Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade (2004-2013): high resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2014-11-01

    A detailed analysis of the polar ozone loss processes during ten recent Antarctic winters is presented with high resolution Mimosa-Chim model simulations and high frequency polar vortex observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. Our model results for the Antarctic winters 2004-2013 show that chemical ozone loss starts in the edge region of the vortex at equivalent latitudes (EqLs) of 65-69° S in mid-June/July. The loss progresses with time at higher EqLs and intensifies during August-September over the range 400-600 K. The loss peaks in late September/early October, where all EqLs (65-83°) show similar loss and the maximum loss (>2 ppmv [parts per million by volume]) is found over a broad vertical range of 475-550 K. In the lower stratosphere, most winters show similar ozone loss and production rates. In general, at 500 K, the loss rates are about 2-3 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour) in July and 4-5 ppbv sh-1 in August/mid-September, while they drop rapidly to zero by late September. In the middle stratosphere, the loss rates are about 3-5 ppbv sh-1 in July-August and October at 675 K. It is found that the Antarctic ozone hole (June-September) is controlled by the halogen cycles at about 90-95% (ClO-ClO, BrO-ClO, and ClO-O) and the loss above 700 K is dominated by the NOx cycle at about 70-75%. On average, the Mimosa-Chim simulations show that the very cold winters of 2005 and 2006 exhibit a maximum loss of ~3.5 ppmv around 550 K or about 149-173 DU over 350-850 K and the warmer winters of 2004, 2010, and 2012 show a loss of ~2.6 ppmv around 475-500 K or 131-154 DU over 350-850 K. The winters of 2007, 2008, and 2011 were moderately cold and thus both ozone loss and peak loss altitudes are between these two ranges (3 ppmv around 500 K or 150 ± 10 DU). The modeled ozone loss values are in reasonably good agreement with those estimated from Aura MLS measurements, but the model underestimates the observed ClO, largely due

  18. Analysis of Isentropic Transport in the Lower Tropical Stratosphere from Laminae Observed in Shadoz Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, T.; Bencherif, H.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Begue, N.; Culot, A.

    2014-12-01

    The subtropical dynamical barrier located in the lower stratosphere on the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir (TSR), controls and limits exchanges between tropical and extratropical lower stratosphere. The geographical position of stations located near from the edge of the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir is interesting since they are regularly interested by air-mass filaments originated from TSR or mid-latitudes. During such filamentary events, profiles of chemical species are modified according to the origin and the height of the air mass. These perturbations called "laminae" are generally associated to quasi-horizontal transport events. Many SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) stations from all around the southern tropics were selected in order to study the variability of laminae. Profiles from ozonesondes were analyzed to detect laminae using a statistical standard deviation method from the climatology. Time series of laminae were investigated by a multilinear regression model in order to estimate the influence of several proxy on laminae variability from 1998 to 2013. Different forcings such as QBO, ENSO or IOD were applied. The first objective is to better quantify isentropic transport as function of the station location and the influence of the QBO on the laminae occurrences. Finally, cases studies were conducted from high-resolution advection model MIMOSA. These allow us to identify the air mass origin and to highlight privileged roads where meridional transport occurs between tropics and midlatitudes.

  19. Tannin fingerprinting in vegetable tanned leather by solid state NMR spectroscopy and comparison with leathers tanned by other processes.

    PubMed

    Romer, Frederik H; Underwood, Andrew P; Senekal, Nadine D; Bonnet, Susan L; Duer, Melinda J; Reid, David G; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2011-01-28

    Solid state ¹³C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources--mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara--are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan. Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers. These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents. Paramagnetic chromium (III) tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III) structures. Aluminium (III) and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The ²⁷Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  20. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  1. Self-organisation and motion in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenau, T. A.; Hesselberg, T.

    2014-03-01

    Self-organisation appeals to humans because difficult and repeated actions can be avoided through automation via bottom-up nonhierarchical processes. This is in contrast to the top-level controlled action strategy normally applied in automated products and in manufacturing. There are many situations where it is required that objects perform an action dependent on external stimuli. An example is automatic window blinds that open or closes in response to sunlight level. However, simpler and more robust designs could be made using the self-organising principles for movement found in many plants. Plants move to adapt to external conditions, e.g. sun-flower buds tracking the sun, touch-me-not Mimosa and Venus fly trap responding to mechanical stimuli by closing leaves to protect them and capture insects respectively. This paper describes 3 of the basic biomimetic principles used by plants to track the sun; i) light causing an inhibiting effect on the illuminated side causing it to bend, ii) light inducing a signal from the illuminated side that causes an action on the darker side and iii) light illuminating a number of sensing plates pointing upwards at an angle activate an expansion on the same side. A concept for mimicking the second principle is presented. It is a very simple and possible reliable self-organising structure that aligns a plate perpendicular to the source of illumination.

  2. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  3. Thermal analysis of some natural polysaccharide materials by isoconversional method.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Akbar, Jamshed; Ashraf, Chaudhary M; Masih, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    Isoconversional thermal analysis of some important polysaccharides from functional foods is reported. Various thermal parameters including apparent activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A) were worked out, and the fitness of data to different models describing the degradation kinetics of polysaccharides was studied. The polysaccharides from Mimosa pudica (MP), Plantago ovata (PO), Argyreia speciosa (AS), Acacia nilotica (AN), P. ovata husk (HK) and Acacia modesta (AM) exhibited multistep degradation while those from Astragalus gummifer (AG), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basicilicum (OB) degraded mainly in single step. Generally, the degradation was exothermal. The average Ea values as determined by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method were found to be in the range 132-187 kJ mol(-1). The mean comprehensive index of thermal stability (ITS) fell in the range 0.33-0.43. All the materials under investigation except those from SA and AS appear to be as stable as some of the important commercial materials used as pharmaceutical ingredients. Model-fitting analysis revealed that the major degradation step follows first-order kinetics.

  4. Isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.

    PubMed

    Franco, A R; Calheiros, C S C; Pacheco, C C; De Marco, P; Manaia, C M; Castro, P M L

    2005-11-01

    The culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. Relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Phragmites australis. Aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. To isolate bacteria able to degrade polyphenols used in the tannery industry, enrichments were conducted under different conditions. Bacterial cultures were enriched with individual polyphenols (tannins Tara, Quebracho, or Mimosa) or with an undefined mixture of tannins present in the tannery effluent as carbon source. Cultures enriched with the effluent or Tara tannin were able to degrade tannic acid. Six bacterial isolates purified from these mixed cultures were able to use tannic acid as a sole carbon source in axenic culture. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, these isolates were closely related to organisms belonging to the taxa Serratia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum, and Pseudomonas putida.

  5. Palmate-like pentafoliata1 encodes a novel Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the primary site for photosynthetic carbon fixation and the interface between plants and the environment, plant leaves play a key role in plant growth, biomass production and survival, and global carbon and oxygen cycles. Leaves can be simple with a single blade or compound with multiple units of blades known as leaflets. In a palmate-type compound leaf, leaflets are clustered at the tip of the leaf. In a pinnate-type compound leaf, on the other hand, leaflets are placed on a rachis in distance from each other. Higher orders of complexities such as bipinnate compound leaves of the “sensitive” plant, Mimosa pudica, also occur in nature. However, how different leaf morphologies are determined is still poorly understood. Medicago truncatula is a model legume closely related to alfalfa and soybean with trifoliate compound leaves. Recently, we have shown that Palmate-like Pentafoliata1 (PALM1) encodes a putative Cys(2) His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in M. truncatula. Here, we present our phylogenetic relationship analysis of PALM1 homologs from different species and demonstrate that PALM1 has transcriptional activity in the transactivation assay in yeast. PMID:20724826

  6. Functional congruence of rhizosphere microbial communities associated to leguminous tree from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Mendes, Rodrigo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2015-02-01

    Semiarid environments are characterized by the uneven spread of rain throughout the year. This leads to the establishment of a biota that can go through long periods without rain. In order to understand the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities across these contrasting seasons in Caatinga, we used the Ion Torrent platform to sequence the metagenome of the rhizosphere of a native leguminous plant (Mimosa tenuiflora). The annotation indicated that most abundant groups detected were the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the dominant functional groups were carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, and that in the wet season, the communities carried carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms.The major differences observed between seasons were higher abundance of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms in the rainy season, indicating that the populations present might be better adapted to a higher abundance of organic matter. Besides, no clear separation of samples was detected based on their taxonomic composition whereas the functional composition indicates that samples from the rain season are more related. Altogether, our results indicate that there is al arge functional stability in these communities mostly due to the selection of features that aid the biota to endure the dry season and blossom during rain. PMID:25870877

  7. Mycorrhizal perennials of the "matorral xerófilo" and the "selva baja caducifolia" communities in the semiarid Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Dhillion, Shivcharn S; Jiménez-González, Carolina

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the mycorrhizal status of perennial xeric plant species occurring in the "matorral xerófilo" (arid tropical scrub) and the ecotone of the "selva baja caducifolia" (tropical deciduous forest) communities in the semiarid valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, south-central Mexico. The perennial species examined are dominant/codominant elements within the "matorral xerófilo" and the "selva baja caducifolia", both endangered communities in the Biosphere Reserve Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Of the 50 sampled species, 45 were mycorrhizal. To our knowledge, we report arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) for the first time in 37 species, of which 21 are endemic to Mexico and nine are endemic to the Valley. We also report AM for the first time in three genera, Buddleja, Hechtia and Zornia, and in one plant family, Buddlejaceae. Beaucarnea gracilis, a threatened species, and Mimosa purpusii, a potentially rare species, are both mycorrhizal. This is the first study of the mycorrhizal status of plant species within the Valley.

  8. Fast nastic motion of plants and bioinspired structures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Dai, E; Han, X; Xie, S; Chao, E; Chen, Z

    2015-09-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements are still not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast-moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary studies on both the fundamental mechanisms of plants' fast movements and biomimetic structures for engineering applications, such as artificial muscles, multi-stable structures and bioinspired robots. PMID:26354828

  9. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  10. Tannin fingerprinting in vegetable tanned leather by solid state NMR spectroscopy and comparison with leathers tanned by other processes.

    PubMed

    Romer, Frederik H; Underwood, Andrew P; Senekal, Nadine D; Bonnet, Susan L; Duer, Melinda J; Reid, David G; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    Solid state ¹³C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources--mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara--are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan. Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers. These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents. Paramagnetic chromium (III) tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III) structures. Aluminium (III) and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The ²⁷Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance. PMID:21278677

  11. A CMOS pixel sensor prototype for the outer layers of linear collider vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Himmi, A.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) expresses a stringent requirement for high precision vertex detectors (VXD). CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have been considered as an option for the VXD of the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the detector concepts proposed for the ILC. MIMOSA-31 developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first CPS integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers of the VXD, adapted to an original concept minimizing the power consumption. It is composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation in order to reduce the temporal noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN). At the bottom of the pixel array, each column is terminated with a self-triggered analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC design was optimized for power saving at a sampling frequency of 6.25 MS/s. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. This paper presents the details of the prototype chip and its test results.

  12. The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Steyrl, H; Krenn, E

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols, obtained after distillation of various scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) leaves were assessed for their antimicrobial activity in a model food system. Both the essential oils and hydrosols were used at 1000 ppm in broccoli soup, previously inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (at 10(5) cfu g(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (at 10(4) cfu g(-1)). The results showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the broccoli soup by the essential oils of 'Sweet Mimosa', 'Mabel Grey', P. graveolens, 'Atomic Snowflake', 'Royal Oak', 'Attar of Roses' and a lesser effect by 'Chocolate Peppermint' and 'Clorinda'; the hydrosols, however, had a potentiating effect on the bacterial population in the food. Both extracts showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD). Antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes in the broccoli soup was generally very much reduced: only the essential oil of 'Mabel Grey' showed complete inhibition and virtually no reductions in colonies were seen with the other essential oils; the hydrosols again caused an increase in bacterial colonies. All the essential oils, bar Chocolate Peppermint showed complete inhibition of E. aerogenes in MRD, but the hydrosols showed no effect. The results strongly suggest that the residual hydrosols from distillation of these plant essential oils have no potential as antibacterial agents in foods, in contrast to most of the essential oils, which show potential against some micro-organisms, but only in some food systems. The problem of food component interference and its possible management is discussed.

  13. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  14. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  15. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  16. Pollen spectrum of honey of "uruçu" bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C A; Moreti, A C; Marchini, L C; Alves, R M; Oliveira, P C

    2001-02-01

    In spite of the importance of the "uruçu" bee as honey producer of excellent quality, as well, potential pollinator both in agricultural and natural ecosystems, mainly in North-eastern Brazil, just some information is found in literature about sources that such bees utilize to collect nectar and pollen. The identification of the plants visited by Melipona scutellaris was accomplished with base on the analysis of pollen types found in the honey samples collected every two months, from March 1997 to February 1998, in 15 colonies located in Catu, State of Bahia, Brazil (12 degrees 21'00"S, 38 degrees 22'40"W, 76 m of altitude). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pollen types were carried out determining the percentage and occurrence classes. Twenty-eight pollen types were found, being considered dominant pollen, the Eucalyptus spp. and Psidium sp. types and secondary pollen, Bauhinia sp., Caesalpinia sp. and Mimosa verrucata types. It was verified dominant pollen of Eucalyptus spp. in honeys produced in November/December 1997 and January/February 1998. The families Caesalpiniaceae (14%), Mimosaceae (25%) and Myrtaceae (56%) were the most represented in the pollen spectrum.

  17. Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

    We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

  18. Fine-scale study of a thick stratospheric ozone lamina at the edge of the southern subtropical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portafaix, Thierry; Morel, BéAtrice; Bencherif, Hassan; Baldy, Serge; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2003-03-01

    A large-scale transport event resulting in a thick ozone lamina originating from midlatitudes is observed in the tropical stratosphere over Reunion island (55°E, 21°S). This isentropic transport was detected from stratospheric balloon-borne ozone measurements that showed the occurrence of the lamina and was investigated using different tools based on Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv) analyses. An original software (DYBAL) using surface coordinate and the equivalent length of Epv contours as diagnostic tools in conjunction with high-resolution outputs from an Epv advection model MIMOSA allows us to specify the origin of the lamina. The results indicate that a broad layer of stratospheric air was isentropically advected from midlatitudes across the southern edge of tropical reservoir and reached Reunion island on 12 July 2000. In addition, Eliassen-Palm's flux vectors, calculated from ECMWF analysis, show that planetary wave activity was quite large during that time period, with wave-breaking occurring around 30 km, and could have driven that exchange. In contrast with analyses of filamentation events based on model and satellite data, the present study focuses on a fine-scale vertical survey from in situ measurements. The filament reported in this paper is characterized by a large vertical extension and is located around the maximum of ozone concentration in the tropical stratosphere (600 K). The analysis of such events, poorly documented in the tropics, could complement satellite studies and contribute to a better determination of the transport between the tropics and the midlatitudes.

  19. Functional congruence of rhizosphere microbial communities associated to leguminous tree from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Mendes, Rodrigo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2015-02-01

    Semiarid environments are characterized by the uneven spread of rain throughout the year. This leads to the establishment of a biota that can go through long periods without rain. In order to understand the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities across these contrasting seasons in Caatinga, we used the Ion Torrent platform to sequence the metagenome of the rhizosphere of a native leguminous plant (Mimosa tenuiflora). The annotation indicated that most abundant groups detected were the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the dominant functional groups were carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, and that in the wet season, the communities carried carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms.The major differences observed between seasons were higher abundance of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms in the rainy season, indicating that the populations present might be better adapted to a higher abundance of organic matter. Besides, no clear separation of samples was detected based on their taxonomic composition whereas the functional composition indicates that samples from the rain season are more related. Altogether, our results indicate that there is al arge functional stability in these communities mostly due to the selection of features that aid the biota to endure the dry season and blossom during rain.

  20. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  1. Thermal analysis of some natural polysaccharide materials by isoconversional method.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Akbar, Jamshed; Ashraf, Chaudhary M; Masih, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    Isoconversional thermal analysis of some important polysaccharides from functional foods is reported. Various thermal parameters including apparent activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A) were worked out, and the fitness of data to different models describing the degradation kinetics of polysaccharides was studied. The polysaccharides from Mimosa pudica (MP), Plantago ovata (PO), Argyreia speciosa (AS), Acacia nilotica (AN), P. ovata husk (HK) and Acacia modesta (AM) exhibited multistep degradation while those from Astragalus gummifer (AG), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basicilicum (OB) degraded mainly in single step. Generally, the degradation was exothermal. The average Ea values as determined by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method were found to be in the range 132-187 kJ mol(-1). The mean comprehensive index of thermal stability (ITS) fell in the range 0.33-0.43. All the materials under investigation except those from SA and AS appear to be as stable as some of the important commercial materials used as pharmaceutical ingredients. Model-fitting analysis revealed that the major degradation step follows first-order kinetics. PMID:23578630

  2. Direct electron imaging in electron microscopy with monolithic active pixel sensors.

    PubMed

    Deptuch, G; Besson, A; Rehak, P; Szelezniak, M; Wall, J; Winter, M; Zhu, Y

    2007-08-01

    A new imaging device for dynamic electron microscopy is in great demand. The detector should provide the experimenter with images having sufficient spatial resolution at high speed. Immunity to radiation damage, accumulated during exposures, is critical. Photographic film, a traditional medium, is not adequate for studies that require large volumes of data or rapid recording and charge coupled device (CCD) cameras have limited resolution, due to phosphor screen coupling. CCD chips are not suitable for direct recording due to their extreme sensitivity to radiation damage. This paper discusses characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tested devices were two versions of the MIMOSA V (MV) chip. This 1M pixel device features pixel size of 17 x 17 microm(2) and was designed in a 0.6 microm CMOS process. The active layer for detection is a thin (less than 20 microm) epitaxial layer, limiting the broadening of the electron beam. The first version of the detector was a standard imager with electronics, passivation and interconnection layers on top of the active region; the second one was bottom-thinned, reaching the epitaxial layer from the bottom. The electron energies used range from a few keV to 30 keV for SEM and from 40 to 400 keV for TEM. Deterioration of the image resolution due to backscattering was quantified for different energies and both detector versions. PMID:17346890

  3. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    PubMed Central

    Almazán-Núñez, R. Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Arizmendi, María del Coro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  4. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); a “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.

  5. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    DOE PAGES

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); amore » “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.« less

  6. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 2: An electrospray mass spectrometry investigation into the chemical composition of sulfited quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Bonnet, Susan L; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-06-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are natural plant-derived polymers used in leather tanning, wood adhesives, water purification, and mud additives for oil drilling. Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood and mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) bark extracts are the major industrial sources of PACs. These commercial extracts are often sulfited via treatment with sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce their viscosity and increase their solubility in water. An ESI-MS investigation into the molecular composition of sulfited (cold-water-soluble) quebracho heartwood extract indicates that sulfitation of the PACs occurs via S(N)2 attack of a sulfite ion at both C-2 and C-4 of the constituent flavan-3-ol monomer extender units. Attack at C-2 leads to the opening of the pyran ring. This releases an additional electron-donating phenolic hydroxy group on the A-ring and renders the extract more nucleophilic and suitable for the manufacturing of adhesives. Attack at C-4 leads to interflavanyl bond fission and decrease of the PAC oligomer chain length. The introduction of sulfonic acid moieties at C-2 or C-4 increases the polarity and water solubility of the hot water soluble (unsulfited) extract and transforms it into a cold-water-soluble extract. PMID:22513010

  7. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  8. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Nyasani, Eunice K.; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A.; Markin, Vladislav S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  9. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  10. Fast nastic motion of plants and bioinspired structures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Dai, E; Han, X; Xie, S; Chao, E; Chen, Z

    2015-09-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements are still not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast-moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary studies on both the fundamental mechanisms of plants' fast movements and biomimetic structures for engineering applications, such as artificial muscles, multi-stable structures and bioinspired robots.

  11. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period. PMID:26628236

  12. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  13. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  14. A review of poisonous plants that cause reproductive failure and malformations in the ruminants of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a report on toxic plants causing reproductive problems in ruminants in Brazil. Aspidosperma pyrifolium causes abortion or stillbirth in goats, as well as most likely in sheep and cattle, in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil. Intoxications by Ateleia glazioveana, Tetrapterys acutifolia and T. multiglandulosa result in abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle and sheep, and the same signs have been experimentally observed in goats. These three plants can also cause cardiac fibrosis and a nervous disease with spongiosis of the central nervous system. Other plants known to cause abortion include Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. gummiferum, Stryphnodendron coriaceum, S. obovatum and S. fissuratum. These plants can also cause digestive signs and photosensitization. Abortions have been reported in animals intoxicated by nitrates and nitrites as well. Infertility, abortions and the birth of weak offspring have been reported in animals intoxicated by plants containing swainsonine, including Ipomoea spp., Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia. Trifolium subterraneum causes estrogenism in cattle. Mimosa tenuiflora and, most likely, M. ophthalmocentra cause malformations and embryonic mortality in goats, sheep and cattle in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil.

  15. Mimosine Content of Leucaena leucocephala and the Sensitivity of Rhizobium to Mimosine.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A; Vittal Rai, P

    1985-01-01

    Mimosine was qualitatively and quantitatively estimated from the different parts of Leucaena leucocephala strains K-8 and K-67. The amount of mimosine as percentage of dry weight in the two strains were, respectively, as follows: seeds, 6.82, 9.98; old leaves, 1.5, 1.33; young leaves, 2.85, 3.33; main root, 1.13, 1.02; lateral roots, 1.46, 1.17; stems, 0.73, 0.33. Rhizobium isolates from L. leucocephala (UAS-Ll-8, UAS-Ll-67), Mimosa pudica (UAS-Mp) and Prosopis juliflora (UAS-Pj) formed an effective (nod(+) fix(+)) association with Leucaena, while an isolate from Crotalaria sp. (UAS-Cr) proved to be ineffective (nod(+) fix(-)). All isolates performed better than reference strain TAL-82. Strain UAS-Pj gave optimum nodulation and plant growth characteristics. The effect of mimosine on the vegetative Rhizobium cultures was studied by the lawn method of growing rhizobia, using 2.5 to 15 mg·ml(-1) mimosine. All the effective strains were stimulated by mimosine up to 7.5 mg·ml(-1)strains. UAS-Ll-8 and UAS-Ll-67 were stimulated up to 15 mg·ml(-1) of mimosine. The ineffective strain UAS-Cr was inhibited at all the concentrations of mimosine tried.

  16. Characteristics of a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) population in Trans Pecos, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerson, B.K.; Harveson, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ringtails (Bassariscus astutus) few studies have been conducted to assess population characteristics. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) habitat selection, (2) home range, (3) denning characteristics, and (4) food habits of ringtails in the Trans Pecos region of west Texas. Seventeen ringtails were captured between November 1999 and January 2001 using Havahart live box traps. Second- and third-order habitat selection was determined for a ringtail population using range sites, slope, elevation, and vegetation communities. Diets were determined from volumetric scat analysis. The mean summer and winter range sizes (100% Minimum Convex Polygon [MCP]) for ringtails (n = 5) were 0.28 ?? 0.163 km2 and 0.63 ?? 0.219 km2, respectively. Overlap between ringtail ranges averaged 33.3%. Ringtails preferred catclaw (Mimosa biuncifera), persimmon (Diospyros texana), oak (Quercus sp.) bottom and catclaw/goldeneye (Viguiera stenoloba), sideoats (Bouteloua curtipendula) slope communities. Rock dens were used exclusively by ringtails, with 80.6% of dens found on slopes between 30-60%. Plant (seeds and miscellaneous vegetation) and animal material were found in 74.6 and 86.6% of scats, respectively. Findings suggest that ringtails in Trans Pecos, Texas, are an important component of the ecosystem and that management practices should conserve canyon habitats and adjacent slopes for ringtails.

  17. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  18. New families of carbon gels based on natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Carbon gels are versatile materials which can be used for many applications. They are extremely expensive, because generally prepared from resorcinol - formaldehyde (RF) resins first gelled and next dried with supercritical carbon dioxide. In the present work, resorcinol has been substituted partly or completely by tannins, a family of molecules extracted from mimosa tree barks. Tannins are natural, non-toxic products, typically thirty times cheaper than resorcinol. Their chemical resemblance with the latter makes them be often called natural resorcinol. Using tannins not only substantially decreases the cost but also allows preparing materials in a much wider range of pHs than that usually employed for RF gels. Consequently the main pore size and the fraction of given families of pores, controlling the carbon gels' properties, are tuned in an easier way, and a much wider range of pore structures is obtained. Finally, two alternative ways of drying are suggested for further decreasing the cost: freeze-drying and supercritical drying in acetone. Both are shown to lead, in some conditions described below, to materials having similar characteristics to those of expensive RF carbon aerogels previously dried in supercritical CO2.

  19. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  20. Hydrological and ecological impacts of dams on the Kafue Flats floodplain system, southern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumba, M.; Thompson, J. R.

    Developmental changes in river basins in Africa have become a reality. Many wetland ecosystems have been impacted by dams and other hydrological interventions resulting in both foreseen and unexpected consequences. The Kafue Flats in southern Zambia is an extensive floodplain system that lies within the middle Kafue river basin. The floodplain is about 255 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of approximately 6,500 km 2. It is currently sandwiched between two large dams which are approximately 270 km apart. These dams have completely altered the hydrological regime of the system. Backwater from the downstream dam and releases from upstream have created a permanently flooded area within the floodplain that was not present in the past. Elsewhere, flooding has been reduced. The ecological consequences of these changes for the floodplain, which hosts two national parks (both Ramsar sites), have been extensive. Hydrological and vegetation changes have impacted the habitat for important wildlife communities including the endemic antelope, Kobus leche kafuensis. The most dramatic change in vegetation is associated with the colonisation of parts of the floodplain by the invasive alien plant, Mimosa pigra. This paper discusses these changes and their potential consequences.

  1. Fast nastic motion of plants and bioinspired structures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Q.; Dai, E.; Han, X.; Xie, S.; Chao, E.; Chen, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements are still not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast-moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary studies on both the fundamental mechanisms of plants' fast movements and biomimetic structures for engineering applications, such as artificial muscles, multi-stable structures and bioinspired robots. PMID:26354828

  2. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  3. Drought Stress Response of Dry Forest Trees of the Brazilian Caatinga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, R.; Worbes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Martin Worbes and Romulo Menezes In the frame of the "Tropi-Dry" network we studied drought response strategies of six tree species in a Caatinga forest at the Fazenda Tamandua near Patos in Paraiba, NE Brazil. We selected the tree species as representatives of the different phenological ecotypes: evergreen, deciduous and stem succulent. The deciduous group comprised N-fixing as well as non N-fixing Leguminosae. Over an entire vegetation period (dry and wet-season) we monitored their phenological behaviour, photosynthesis rates, stomata conductance and water potential, measured if leaves were present and we estimated seasonal variations in stable carbon and N15 content of the leaves. The major results are: Evergreen species (e.g. Capparis) may compensate low carbon-fixing rates in the wet season with a much longer vegetation period as the deciduous species. Stem succulents (Jatropha) do not fulfill the expectations of being high productive species under drought stress conditions, while the N-fixing Mimosa performed in particular at the end and the beginning of the dry period better than the rest of the investigated species. In general the results may help to understand different strategies of tree species in respect to extended dry periods of at least six months as in our study area and their role in carbon sequestration of tropical dry forests. The variety of observed strategies may contribute to the resilience of the ecosystem tropical dry forests.

  4. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  5. A phyto-sociological analysis of the distribution of riverine tsetse flies in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, J; Guerrini, L; Cesar, J; de la Rocque, S; Cuisance, D

    2005-12-01

    In Burkina Faso, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and G. tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the main cyclic vectors of trypanosomiasis. The vegetation type along river banks is an important factor determining the distribution and abundance of these tsetse. The following work investigated the relation between the plant species present (including the disturbance level) and tsetse distribution and abundance, using three ecotypes, described by P.C. Morel in 1978. These were the Guinean, Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forests. In the Mouhoun River basin, these three ecotypes are found successively from upstream to downstream. Berlinia grandiflora, Syzygium guineense and Cola laurifolia and finally Acacia seyal and Mitragyna inermis were the best indicators for the Guinean, Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forest ecotypes, respectively, as suggested by Morel. However, other species such as Pterocarpus santalinoides and Mimosa pigra were not ecotype specific. Trap catches confirmed that G. palpalis and G. tachinoides are predominant in Guinean and Sudanese gallery forests, respectively, and that both species are well represented in the Sudano-Guinean ecotype. Tsetse densities dropped significantly in disturbed Sudano-Guinean and Sudanese gallery forest sites. However, this was not the case for both species in Guinean or for G. tachinoides in half-disturbed Sudanese gallery forest sites, confirming their high resilience to human-made changes. The importance of a detailed consideration of riverine ecotypes when predicting tsetse densities is discussed.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. S., Uma Suganya; Govindaraju, K.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G0/G1 to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  7. Diversity patterns of Rhizobiaceae communities inhabiting soils, root surfaces and nodules reveal a strong selection of rhizobial partners by legumes.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Sánchez, Fabiola; Rivera, Javier; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Current knowledge about rhizobial diversity patterns in non-nodule habitats is scarce, limiting our understanding of basic aspects of rhizobial ecology like competitiveness for nodule occupancy and host effects on community structure. We used a combination of cultivation-dependent and independent approaches to analyse alpha and beta diversity patterns of Rhizobiaceae communities from a conserved seasonally dry tropical forest site in central Mexico and two nearby agricultural fields. Lineage-specific recA amplicon libraries were generated from soil DNA and their sequences compared with those from root surface and nodule isolates recovered in trapping experiments from two native Acacia species and two Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars. Rarefaction analyses revealed that Rhizobiaceae diversity in soils is larger than on root surfaces, and smallest in nodules. A 'rare biosphere'-like distribution of species was found in the three habitats. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that the plant genus exerted a stronger influence than the land-usage regime on the diversity of rhizobia associated with hosts. Rhizobium etli was the dominant Rhizobiaceae found in the soil libraries. It dominated nodulation of Acacia spp. and predominately harboured symbiovar mimosae-like nodC genes. A novel Rhizobium lineage (Rsp1) dominated bean nodulation. Specialist and generalist genotypes for host nodulation were detected in both species. PMID:26395550

  8. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  9. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days. PMID:18206775

  10. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A 2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Chinnappan, Sasikala; Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory.

  11. Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Farhad; Batooli, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth. subsp. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of E. loxophleba was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil were found to be 1,8-cineole (39.4%), methyl amyl acetate (19.8%) and aromadendrene (10%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different test systems namely DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid. In the DPPH system, the highest radical-scavenging activity was shown by the polar subfraction of the methanol extract (15.2 ± 1.7 µg mL⁻¹). Also, in the second case, the inhibition capacity (%) of the polar subfraction (94.1 ± 1.3) was found to be stronger. In addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the polar subfraction (273.0 ± 2.6 µg mg⁻¹) and nonpolar subfraction (146.3 ± 2.5 µg mg⁻¹) were determined.

  12. Choice of Rotation Rate for the Horizontal Clinostat 1

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    A series of nine rates of rotation of the clinostat were tested to determine optimal and acceptable conditions for simulating weightlessness in plants. Young seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed roots and coleoptiles of equal lengths and with the same orientation angles over a range of rotation rates from 0.25 to 480 minutes per revolution. Rates from 0.25 to 3 minutes per revolution provided for maximal epinastic curvatures of leaves and branches of Coleus blumei Benth. except for a reduced mean curvature of branches at 0.25 minute per revolution, due probably to physical disturbances in their growth. Smaller epinastic curvatures developed in both leaves and branches rotated at 15 minutes per revolution or more slowly. Indoleacetic acid-2-14C was used for measurements of extractable radioactivity in determining the reason for smaller curvatures of Coleus branches and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves at the rotation rate of 60 minutes per revolution than at 1 minute per revolution. The cause was determined to be movement of some auxin from the upper into the lower side of a plagiotropic leaf or branch under the transient influence of gravity during rotation on the slower clinostat. A rotation period of 1 to 3 minutes was found to be acceptable for most plants. PMID:16657466

  13. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  14. Characterization of Rhynchosia yellow mosaic Yucatan virus, a new recombinant begomovirus associated with two fabaceous weeds in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zepeda, C; Brown, J K; Moreno-Valenzuela, O A; Argüello-Astorga, G; Idris, A M; Carnevali, G; Rivera-Bustamante, R F

    2010-10-01

    Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) plants exhibiting bright golden mosaic symptoms were previously associated with begomovirus infection in Yucatan, México [1]. To characterize the begomovirus infecting these plants, the complete bipartite genome was cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons indicated that the virus was distinct from all other begomoviruses known to date, including those previously identified from symptomatic R. minima, and the name Rhynchosia yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (RhYMYuV) is proposed. Pairwise comparisons indicated that RhYMYuV DNA-A [2,597 nt, (EU021216)] and DNA-B [2,542 nt, (FJ792608)] components shared the highest nt sequence identity with Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV), 87% for component A and 71% for component B. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both components of RhYMYuV are most closely related to other New World begomoviruses, having as closest relatives immediate outliers to the major Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade. Recombination analysis of the RhYMYuV genome indicated that the DNA-A component has arisen through intermolecular recombination. R. minima plants inoculated with the monomeric clones developed a bright yellow mosaic similar to symptoms observed in naturally infected plants, confirming that the clones were infectious. Nicotiana benthamiana plants biolistically inoculated with monomeric clones developed curling and chlorosis in the newly emerging leaves. RhYMYuV was also detected in symptomatic Desmodium sect. Scorpiurus Benth. (Fabaceae) that were collected near the RhYMYuV-infected plants.

  15. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated. PMID:23569962

  16. The cellular protective effects of rosmarinic acid: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most common household herbs, used as spices in a variety of foods, and employed in traditional medicine for its healing properties. Rosemary is a rich source of active antioxidant constituents such as phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid are the most important bioactive constituents. Rosmarinic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and is widely identified in different plant species. Chemical structure of rosmarinic acid contains two phenolic rings: one of them is derived from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Its large-scale production is obtained from plant cell cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. It is easily absorbed through gastrointestinal tract as well as the skin. Rosmarinic acid is one of the most important and well known natural antioxidant compounds, which possesses neuroprotective effects in different models of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, as well as chemicalinduced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, in present review, we aim to discuss about chemistry, sources, biotechnological production and neuroprotective actions of rosmarinic acid with emphasis on its possible molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. PMID:25578431

  17. Direct proof by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance of semi-purified extract and isolation of ent-Catechin from leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. is native to Australia and acclimatized to Southern Brazil. Its aromatic leaves are used for ornamental purposes and have great potential for essential oil production, although reports of its use in folk medicine are few. Objective: This study evaluated the composition of E. cinerea leaves using the solid state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isolation of the compound from the semipurified extract (SE). Materials and Methods: The SE of E. cinerea leaves was evaluated in the solid state by 13C-NMR spectrum, and the SE was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column, followed by high-speed counter-current chromatography to isolate the compound. The SE was analyzed by 13C-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight spectra. Results: Flavan-3-ol units were present, suggesting the presence of proanthocyanidins as well as a gallic acid unit. The uncommon ent-catechin was isolated. Conclusion: The presence of ent-catechin is reported for the first time in this genus and species. PMID:25210302

  18. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  19. Development of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility, its inheritance, and potential use in hybrid pigeonpea breeding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Kul B; Ravikoti, V Kumar; Dalvi, Vijay A; Pandey, Lalji B; Gaddikeri, Guruprasad

    2010-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a unique food legume because of its partial (20-30%) outcrossing nature, which provides an opportunity to breed commercial hybrids. To achieve this, it is essential to have a stable male-sterility system. This paper reports the selection of a cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system derived from an interspecific cross between a wild relative of pigeonpea (Cajanus sericeus Benth. ex. Bak.) and a cultivar. This male-sterility source was used to breed agronomically superior CMS lines in early (ICPA 2068), medium (ICPA 2032), and late (ICPA 2030) maturity durations. Twenty-three fertility restorers and 30 male-sterility maintainers were selected to develop genetically diverse hybrid combinations. Histological studies revealed that vacuolation of growing tetrads and persistence of tetrad wall were primary causes of the manifestation of male sterility. Genetic studies showed that 2 dominant genes, of which one had inhibitory gene action, controlled fertility restoration in the hybrids. The experimental hybrids such as TK 030003 and TK 030009 in early, ICPH 2307 and TK 030625 in medium, and TK 030861 and TK 030851 in late maturity groups exhibited 30-88% standard heterosis in multilocation trials.

  20. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in Lamionphlomis rotate and its herbal preparation by a simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wenjuan; Li, Maoxing; Chen, Yonglei; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2012-02-01

    Iridoid glycosides and flavanoids are two main effective components of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) kudo. However, there is no method for simultaneous analysis of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its pharmaceutical preparations. A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methylester and 8-deoxyshanzhiside) and three flavanoids (apigenin, quercetin and luteolin) in L. rotata. Operational variables, such as the voltage, buffer concentration and pH were optimized, the final optimum separation condition was 10 mM sodium tetraborate-20 mM NaH(2) PO(4) (pH 8.5)-15% (v/v) methanol, 238 nm UV detection, 18 kV applied voltage. The linearity and the recovery of the proposed method were very satisfactory (correlation coefficients were 0.9994-0.9998 and the recoveries were 94.5-108.8% for the analytes) and the method allowed analytes in real samples to be determined within 9 min. The proposed CZE method can be used for quality control of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its herbal preparation.

  1. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on zinc biogeochemistry in the rhizosphere of Lindenbergia philippensis growing in zinc-contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Kangwankraiphaisan, Thanchanok; Suntornvongsagul, Kallaya; Sihanonth, Prakitsin; Klysubun, Wantana; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with the roots of Lindenbergia philippensis (Cham.) Benth., sampled from a Zn-contaminated settling pond at a zinc smelter, significantly enhanced Zn accumulation (72,540 ± 5,092 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight) in rhizosphere sediment amended with 1,000 mg L⁻¹ of Zn sulfate solution compared to fungicide-treatments that suppressed AMF colonization. This can be explained by a significant proportion of Zn being found in rectangular crystals that were associated with the root mucilaginous sheath. Despite this, all treatments maintained the same Zn coordination geometry in both Zn oxidation state and the coordinated neighbouring atoms. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed a Zn(II) oxidation state as a core atom and associated with six oxygen atoms symmetrically arranged in an octahedral coordination and coordinated with sulfur. The results may indicate a role for AMF in enhancing Zn immobilization in the rhizosphere of indigenous plants that successfully colonize Zn mining and smelting disposal sites.

  2. Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) susceptibility to Cunila angustifolia essential oil.

    PubMed

    Do Prado, Geisa Percio; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Smaniotto, Lisonéia Fiorentini; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello; De Moura, Neusa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an insect that lives in poultry houses, and high infestations may cause economic losses to producers. The control of this insect is usually done with insecticides; however, many of these chemicals have no effect on lesser mealworm. Therefore, control alternatives are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cunila angustifolia (Benth) oil on larvae and adults of A. diaperinus. In vitro tests used larvae and adults of A. diaperinus distributed in petri dishes with 0, 1, 5, and 10% of oil in a single dose. In vivo tests were performed in poultry houses with five treatments: 0, 5, and 10% and chemical insecticide (cypermethrin) in a single application, and a group with 5% of oil applied twice 15 d apart. In vitro, oil bioactivity showed an efficacy of 100% both for larvae and adults, when tested at concentrations of 5 and 10%. A reduced number of larvae were observed using 1% of oil; however, it was not effective against adults as compared with the control group. In vivo, the oil effectiveness against lesser mealworm was verified by larva and adult reduction in all concentrations compared with control (0%) throughout the experiments, with better efficacy when used at 5% with two applications. Therefore, we concluded that the oil of C. angustifolia has larvicidal and insecticidal effect against A. diaperinus larvae and adults, in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24191374

  3. Survey of the genome of Pogostemon cablin provides insights into its evolutionary history and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Xiao, Hongtao; Deng, Cao; Xiong, Liang; Nie, Hu; Peng, Cheng

    2016-05-20

    Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has both essential oil value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here we report the first de novo assembled 1.15-Gb draft genome sequence for P. cablin from next-generation sequencing technology. Our assembly, with a misassembly rate of <4 bp per 100 kb, is ~73% of the predicted genome size (1.57 Gb). Analysis of whole-genome sequences identified 3,147,333 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 490,407 insertions and deletions, giving an estimated heterozygosity rate of 0.274%. A comprehensive annotation pipeline indicated that repetitive sequences make up 58.55% of the assemblies, and that there are estimated 45,020 genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the Phrymaceae and Lamiaceae family split ~62.80 Mya, and the divergence between patchouli and sesame occurred ~52.42 Mya, implying a potentially shared recent whole-genome duplication event. Analysis of gene homologs involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis showed that patchouli contains key genes involved in more sesquiterpenoid types and has more copies of genes for each sesquiterpenoid type than several other related plant species. The patchouli genome will facilitate future research on secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation as well as potential selective breeding of patchouli.

  4. The cellular protective effects of rosmarinic acid: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most common household herbs, used as spices in a variety of foods, and employed in traditional medicine for its healing properties. Rosemary is a rich source of active antioxidant constituents such as phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid are the most important bioactive constituents. Rosmarinic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and is widely identified in different plant species. Chemical structure of rosmarinic acid contains two phenolic rings: one of them is derived from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Its large-scale production is obtained from plant cell cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. It is easily absorbed through gastrointestinal tract as well as the skin. Rosmarinic acid is one of the most important and well known natural antioxidant compounds, which possesses neuroprotective effects in different models of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, as well as chemicalinduced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, in present review, we aim to discuss about chemistry, sources, biotechnological production and neuroprotective actions of rosmarinic acid with emphasis on its possible molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection.

  5. Analysis of E. rutaecarpa Alkaloids Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with Diagnostic Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenshen; Tian, Meng; Yuan, Lei; Deng, Haoyue; Wang, Lei; Li, Aizhu; Hou, Zhiguo; Li, Yubo

    2016-01-01

    Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Rutaceae) dried ripe fruit is used for dispelling colds, soothing liver, and analgesia. Pharmacological research has proved that alkaloids are the main active ingredients of E. rutaecarpa. This study aimed to rapidly classify and identify the alkaloids constituents of E. rutaecarpa by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with diagnostic fragments. Furthermore, the effects of the material base of E. rutaecarpa bioactive ingredients in vivo were examined such that the transitional components in the blood of rats intragastrically given E. rutaecarpa were analyzed and identified. In this study, the type of alcohol extraction of E. rutaecarpa and the corresponding blood sample were used for the analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS in positive ion mode. After reviewing much of the literature and collected information on the fragments, we obtained some diagnostic fragments of the alkaloids. Combining the diagnostic fragments with the technology of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, we identified the compounds of E. rutaecarpa and blood samples and compared the ion fragment information with that of the alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa. A total of 17 alkaloids components and 6 blood components were identified. The proposed method was rapid, accurate, and sensitive. Therefore, this technique can reliably and practically analyze the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:27446630

  6. Effects of inoculating Lachnum and Cadophora isolates on the growth of Vaccinium corymbosum.

    PubMed

    Bizabani, Christine; Dames, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The roots of ericaceous plants harbour a diversity of fungal taxa, which confer eco-physiological benefits to the host. Some of the fungi have been established to form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) associations and enhance plant growth in certain ericaceous genera. Although, Lachnum and Cadophora isolates have frequently been identified from the roots of this family, the status of their association and functional roles is still vague. The aims of this study were to identify Lachnum and Cadophora isolates; determine the root-fungal interactive structures formed in associations with Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) hosts and to examine inoculation effects of the fungal associates using several varieties of the blueberry. Lachnum and Cadophora were isolated and identified from Erica cerinthoides L. and Erica demmissa Klotzsch ex Benth using morphological and molecular techniques. Micropropagated blueberry varieties (Bluecrop, Elliott, Spartan, Chandler and Brightwell) were inoculated with respective fungi and plant growth evaluated. Both fungi colonised the roots and did not have any pathogenic effect. Lachnum isolate did not form any particular mycorrhizal structures whereas; Cadophora inoculated plants showed typical ericoid mycorrhizal coils. Inoculation with both fungi enhanced the shoot growth of Brightwell and Elliott varieties. However neutral effects were observed in the remaining varieties. In conclusion, Cadophora and Lachnum isolates have potential to promote growth of selected blueberry varieties. PMID:26640054

  7. Interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antilieshmania effects of some selected Egyptian plants and their phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; El-Hela, Atef A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-12-01

    Medicinal plants are the most potential resource of new therapeutic agents. They are diverse, largely productive, biologically active and chemically unique; among their constituents "polyphenol compounds group" one of the main determinant factors in evaluating the pharmacological potentials i.e. polyphenols display an array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, immunostimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic effects. Cancer is a dreadful human disease, increasing with changing life style, nutrition and global warming while current available anticancer drugs cause serious side effects in most instances. Several reports suggested the relationship between antioxidant, anticancer and antiparasitic effects; they suggested that they act indirectly through promoting host resistance, restabilizing body equilibrim and conditioning body tissues in addition to their direct effect on certain parasites involved in cancer etiology. This work was conducted for estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycoside and iridoid content of twenty-three selected Egyptian plants as well as screening of their anticancer, antioxidant and antileishmanial effects, the overall gained results for suggest that the most suitable medicinal plant used as anticancer and antioxidant is Petrea volubilis L. which contain adequate mixture of total phenolic compounds 88.7 mg% and flavonoids 50.80 mg% and also suggest that flavonoid compounds are the category of phenolic compounds possess significant antioxidant and anticancer effects while the antilieshamnia screening revealed that Thymus decussatus Benth. extract exhibited the highest effect due to the presence of flavonoids and iridoids in adequate combination where iridoid compounds 201 mg% and flavonoid content was 128 mg%. PMID:22435170

  8. Antiasthmatic Role of "Pentapala -04" a Herbal Formulation Against Ova Albumin and Aluminium HydroxideInduced LungDamage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Srinivasa; Jayaraaj, Indira A; Jayaraaj, R

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw.The effect of "Pentapala-04" on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of "ability of "Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species. PMID:22557168

  9. Evaluation of Clausena anisata essential oil from Cameroon for controlling food spoilage fungi and its potential use as an antiradical agent.

    PubMed

    Yaouba, Aoudou; Tatsadjieu, Léopold Ngoune; Dongmo, Pierre Michel Jazet; Etoa, François Xavier; Mbofung, Carl Moses Fontum; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Menut, Chantal

    2011-09-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine the chemical composition, antifungal and antiradical activities of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. F. ex Benth (from Cameroon) against Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oil while the antiradical activity of the essential oil was studied by the DPPH (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl) method. The main components obtained were E-ocimenone (15.1%), Z-ocimenone (11.5%), gamma-terpinene (11.4%) and germacrene D (10.9%). After 10 days of incubation on essential oil supplemented medium, the growth of A. flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme were totally inhibited by 4, 5, 5 and 5 mg/mL of C. anisata essential oil, respectively. The antiradical activity of C. anisata essential oil (SC50 = 5.1 g/L) was less than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), which was used as the reference compound (SC50 = 0.007 g/L). Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting C. anisata essential oil to fight strains of A. flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products. PMID:21941917

  10. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. PMID:26773895

  11. Ex Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of 'Dispelling-Wind' Chinese Medicine Herb-Drugs on Intestinal Absorption of Chlorogenic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lixiang; Shi, Jun; Xu, Weitong; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Jianying; Deng, Wenji

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the additive or synergistic effects and mechanism of intestinal absorption of extracts from two commonly used 'dispelling-wind' TCM botanical drugs [roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav. (RAD) and Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (RSD)] using chlorogenic acid as a marker substance. Ex vivo everted intestinal sac and in situ single pass perfusion methods using rats were employed to investigate the effects of two TCM botanical drugs extracts on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. Both the extracts of RAD and RSD showed synergistic properties on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. The verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) and intestinal dysbacteriosis model induced by norfloxacin increased the P(app) and K(a) of intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. These synergistic effects on intestinal absorption in a rat model can be correlated with the inhibition of P-gp and regulation of gut microbiota. This experimental approach has helped to better understand changes in the absorption of chlorogenic acid under different conditions.

  12. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2008-04-10

    Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark. The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations.

  13. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    A new UHPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of seven alkaloids [ajmaline (1), yohimbine (2), corynanthine (3), ajmalicine (4), serpentine (5), serpentinine (6), and reserpine (7)] from the root samples of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.05% formic acid. The seven compounds were completely separated within 8 min at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min with a 2-μL injection volume. The method is validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, limits of detection (LOD), and limits of quantification (LOQ). Seven plant samples and 21 dietary supplements claiming to contain Rauwolfia roots were analyzed and content of total alkaloids (1-7) varied, namely, 1.57-12.1 mg/g dry plant material and 0.0-4.5 mg/day, respectively. The results indicated that commercial products are of variable quality. The developed analytical method is simple, economic, fast, and suitable for quality control analysis of Rauwolfia samples and commercial products. The UHPLC-QToF-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the confirmation and characterization of alkaloids from plant samples. This method involved the detection of [M + H](+) or M(+) ions in the positive mode.

  14. [Chemoprophylactic activity on Schistosomiasis mansoni of soaps containing essential oil from the fruits of Pterodon pubescens].

    PubMed

    Katz, N; dos Santos Filho, D; Sarti, S J; Mendes, N M; Rocha Filho, P A; Araujo, N

    1993-01-01

    The chemoprophylactic action of the essential oil of the fruit of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae), incorporated in different soap formulations, was studied in experimental schistosomiasis. The formulations were used locally on the tails of mice which were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae immediately, 24, 72 or 168 hours later by the method of tail immersion. Protection was evaluated 45 days after exposure when the mice were sacrificed and the worms collected by perfusion. The results showed levels of protection varying from 0.0 to 100% depending on the formulation used. A methodology that allowed the evaluation of soap protection of mice exposed to natural infection in snail infested streams on the outskirts of Belo Horizonte, MG, was also developed. Promising results were obtained in that protection of between 57.5 and 31.1% was observed in field trials when soap was applied to the animals 24 and 48 hours earlier. Preliminary studies evaluating irritation and toxicity were favorable and showed that this new prophylactic weapon could contribute to the control of schistosomiasis.

  15. A comparative study of three cryopreservation protocols for effective storage of in vitro-grown mint (Mentha Spp.).

    PubMed

    Uchendu, Esther E; Reed, Barbara M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints [Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth] were cryopreserved using three protocols: controlled rate cooling (CC), encapsulation dehydration (ED) and PVS2 vitrification (VIT). Regrowth of mint species following controlled rate cooling (93 percent) was significantly (P < 0.0001) better than encapsulation dehydration (71 percent) and vitrification (73 percent). All four genotypes responded well to the controlled rate cooling protocol but there was some variability with the other two protocols. Genotype specific response to the individual protocols showed that there were significant differences in the recovery of Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata and M. australis with CC > VIT > ED. There were also significant differences in the recovery of M. cunninghamii and M. canadensis, with CC and ED significantly better than VIT. Regrowth of the shoot tips of these mints ranged from 60 percent to 95 percent for all but one treatment. The overall results of this study compare favorably to other techniques. These improved results may be due to a combination of favorable growth conditions, cold acclimation and recovery medium. Controlled rate cooling was the most successful technique for the storage of these diverse mint genotypes; however recovery of shoot tips from VIT and ED was high and these techniques could also be used for cryogenic storage of mint germplasm.

  16. Survey of the genome of Pogostemon cablin provides insights into its evolutionary history and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang; Xiao, Hongtao; Deng, Cao; Xiong, Liang; Nie, Hu; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has both essential oil value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here we report the first de novo assembled 1.15-Gb draft genome sequence for P. cablin from next-generation sequencing technology. Our assembly, with a misassembly rate of <4 bp per 100 kb, is ~73% of the predicted genome size (1.57 Gb). Analysis of whole-genome sequences identified 3,147,333 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 490,407 insertions and deletions, giving an estimated heterozygosity rate of 0.274%. A comprehensive annotation pipeline indicated that repetitive sequences make up 58.55% of the assemblies, and that there are estimated 45,020 genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the Phrymaceae and Lamiaceae family split ~62.80 Mya, and the divergence between patchouli and sesame occurred ~52.42 Mya, implying a potentially shared recent whole-genome duplication event. Analysis of gene homologs involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis showed that patchouli contains key genes involved in more sesquiterpenoid types and has more copies of genes for each sesquiterpenoid type than several other related plant species. The patchouli genome will facilitate future research on secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation as well as potential selective breeding of patchouli. PMID:27198881

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of ten genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurrooa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harsharan; Gahlan, Parul; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-02-25

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an economically important medicinal plant known to yield picrosides which have high medicinal value. Picroside I and picroside II are major picrosides associated with various bioactivities. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the picrosides biosynthesis pathway in different tissues of the plant in relation to the picrosides content. Eight full-length cDNA sequences namely, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (2.317 kb), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (1.767 kb), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase (1.674 kb), 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (1.701 kb), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (1.545 kb), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (2.241 kb), isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (987 bp) and geranyl diphosphate synthase (1.434 kb), were cloned to full-length followed by expression analysis of ten genes vis-à-vis picrosides content analysis. There is maximum accumulation of picrosides in leaf tissue followed by the rhizome and root, and a similar pattern of expression was found in all the ten genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the picrosides biosynthesis. Picrosides accumulation was enhanced by application of hydrogen peroxide and abscisic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatment decreased the content.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  19. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  20. Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A H; Jabeen, Q; Ghayur, M N; Janbaz, K H; Akhtar, M S

    2005-04-01

    This study describes the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous-methanolic extract of Carum copticum Benth. seeds (CSE) to rationalize some of its traditional uses. CSE (3-100 mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta and jejunum preparations, CSE (0.1-3.0 mg/ml) caused an inhibitory effect on the K+-induced contractions. The calcium channel blocking (CCB) effect was confirmed when CSE shifted the Ca2+ dose-response curves (DRCs) to right similar to verapamil. In isolated guinea-pig tracheal preparations, it caused inhibition of carbachol and K+-induced bronchoconstriction at 0.1-1.0 mg/ml as well as shifted the dose-response curves (DRCs) of carbachol and histamine to the right with suppression of maximum response suggestive of non-specific bronchodilator effect mediated possibly through CCB. Pretreatment of rats with CSE (500 mg/kg orally for 2 days at 12 h intervals) prevented paracetamol (640 mg/kg) and CCl4 (150 ml/kg)-induced rise in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferases (AST and ALT). The same dose of CSE was able to prevent the CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice confirming its hepatoprotectivity. These results indicate the presence of calcium antagonist(s) in Carum copticum seeds and thus provides sound mechanistic basis for some of their folkloric uses.

  1. Extraction of rotenone from Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis by pressurized liquid extraction compared with maceration.

    PubMed

    Sae-Yun, Attawadee; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Itharat, Arunporn; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2006-09-01

    The extraction of active compounds from plants is one of the most critical steps in the commercial development of natural products for medicinal, herbicidal or pesticidal use. The focus of this study was to compare conventional maceration and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) techniques for the efficient extraction of rotenone from the stem and root of Derris elliptica Benth and Derris malaccensis Prain. The effects of experimental variables, such as solvent, temperature and pressure, on PLE efficiency have been studied. Chloroform was determined to be a good extraction solvent (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w) compared to commonly used solvent, 95% ethanol (rotenone content 15.0%, w/w). The optimal conditions for PLE were 50 degrees C and 2000 psi. PLE showed higher extraction efficiency (rotenone content 46.1%, w/w) as compared with conventional maceration method (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w). The order of rotenone content found in crude extract obtained by optimized method from the highest to the lowest was root (46.1%, w/w) and stem (9.4%, w/w) of D. elliptica and stem of D. malaccensis (5.2%, w/w), respectively. Moreover, the results from this study indicated that PLE was considerably less time and solvent consuming (30 min, 3 ml/g of dried sample) than the conventional maceration techniques (72 h, 10 ml/g of dried sample). PMID:16787651

  2. Development and evaluation of granule and emulsifiable concentrate formulations containing Derris elliptica extract for crop pest control.

    PubMed

    Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn; Sae-Yun, Attawadee; Petcharat, Jiraporn; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2009-12-01

    Derris elliptica Benth. extracts containing rotenone have long been used as natural insecticides, but time-consuming preparation processes and the short shelf life of the extract limit their use in pest control. In this study, stable water-dispersible granules and emulsifiable concentrate liquids containing Derris extract (equivalent to 5% w/w of rotenone) were developed with simple techniques. Accelerated degradation kinetics of rotenone in the Derris extract, and in both formulations, indicated that its degradation followed first-order kinetics. The predicted half-life (t(1/2)) and shelf life (t(90%)) at 30 degrees C of rotenone in Derris extract were 520 and 79 days, respectively. Derris granules and emulsifiable concentrate clearly prolong the stability of rotenone 8-fold (t(90%) = 633 days) and 1.4-fold (t(90%) = 110 days), respectively. The study of rotenone degradation after application onto plants indicated that both formulations would be effective for up to 3 days after spraying. Preliminary efficacy testing indicated that the Derris emulsifiable concentrate was clearly more effective than Derris water-dispersible granules in controlling Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PMID:19904939

  3. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  4. Eight new species of Cestrum (Solanaceae) from Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Alex K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract As part of the preparation of a taxonomic revision of Cestrum (Solanaceae) for Flora Mesoamericana eight hitherto undescribed species from Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Panama were identified. These eight new species are described and illustrated. Affinities of the species are discussed and Global Species Conservation Assessments presented.The new species are Cestrum amistadense A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Vulnerable) which most closely resembles Cestrum longiflorum Ruiz & Pav., Cestrum contrerasianum A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Vulnerable) which most closely resembles Cestrum formosum C.V.Morton, Cestrum darienense A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Near Threatened) which most closely resembles Cestrum morae Hunz., Cestrum gilliae A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Near Threatened) which most closely resembles Cestrum morae, Cestrum haberii A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Vulnerable) which most closely resembles Cestrum poasanum Donn.Sm., Cestrum knappiae A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Near Threatened) which most closely resembles Cestrum acuminatum Francey, Cestrum lentii A.K. Monro, sp. nov. (Near Threatened) which most closely resembles Cestrum johnniegentrianum D’Arcy and Cestrum talamancaense A.K. Monro (Least Concern) which most closely resembles Cestrum laxum Benth. PMID:22287930

  5. In vitro evaluation of silver nanoparticles cytotoxicity on Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and their antioxidant activity: Green approach for fabrication and application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Seqqat, Rachid; Benalcazar, Karen; Grijalva, Marcelo; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    In this article, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andean Mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.) leaf has been reported. Different analytical techniques including UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. The initial appearance of color change with the intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands around 440-455 in UV-visible spectra revealing the formation of AgNPs. The TEM image showed the AgNPs to be anisotropic, quasi-spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 12-50nm. On the other hand, XRD studies revealed the formation of face-centered cubic structure for AgNPs. The surface modified AgNPs showed no cytotoxicity at the concentration ranging from 0.01μM to 1.0μM on the Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and observed antioxidant efficacy >70% at the concentration 0.05mM/0.20mL against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that AgNPs could be used effectively in future drug delivery systems and other biomedical concerns.

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight. PMID:26819955

  7. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments.

  8. Leaching and utilization of nitrogen during a spring wheat catch crop succession.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Liedgens, Markus

    2009-01-01

    An experiment covering a 2-yr spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) catch crop succession was conducted in lysimeters to account for the losses of N due to leaching. We sought to relate these losses to the N uptake of the main crop and to integrate the estimated N loss and uptake into a balance. The non-winter hardy catch crops [yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)] as well as bare soil fallow were studied at low and high N input levels of 4 and 29 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. Catch crops allowed for an effective reduction of N leaching of 0.33 to 1.67 g N m(-2) yr(-1) compared to fallow. Reductions in N leaching were achieved mainly by avoiding the fallow period during autumn and winter while the catch crop species grown had little impact. During the spring wheat growing season, N leaching losses were highest after yellow mustard, the most effective catch crop for the entire crop succession. A balance of N indicated that the reductions in N leaching exerted by the catch crops did not result in a higher overall utilization of N by spring wheat. Thus, the efficacy shown by catch crops in reducing N leaching during growth is relatively lower when considering the entire crop succession. In addition, the N saved by growing catch crops does not increase N utilization by succeeding spring wheat. PMID:19465716

  9. Interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antilieshmania effects of some selected Egyptian plants and their phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; El-Hela, Atef A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-12-01

    Medicinal plants are the most potential resource of new therapeutic agents. They are diverse, largely productive, biologically active and chemically unique; among their constituents "polyphenol compounds group" one of the main determinant factors in evaluating the pharmacological potentials i.e. polyphenols display an array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, immunostimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic effects. Cancer is a dreadful human disease, increasing with changing life style, nutrition and global warming while current available anticancer drugs cause serious side effects in most instances. Several reports suggested the relationship between antioxidant, anticancer and antiparasitic effects; they suggested that they act indirectly through promoting host resistance, restabilizing body equilibrim and conditioning body tissues in addition to their direct effect on certain parasites involved in cancer etiology. This work was conducted for estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycoside and iridoid content of twenty-three selected Egyptian plants as well as screening of their anticancer, antioxidant and antileishmanial effects, the overall gained results for suggest that the most suitable medicinal plant used as anticancer and antioxidant is Petrea volubilis L. which contain adequate mixture of total phenolic compounds 88.7 mg% and flavonoids 50.80 mg% and also suggest that flavonoid compounds are the category of phenolic compounds possess significant antioxidant and anticancer effects while the antilieshamnia screening revealed that Thymus decussatus Benth. extract exhibited the highest effect due to the presence of flavonoids and iridoids in adequate combination where iridoid compounds 201 mg% and flavonoid content was 128 mg%.

  10. Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Extract of Erigeron multiradiatus Alleviated Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Inhibiting NF-KappaB and JNK Activations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Ren, Xuecong; Wang, Kaishun; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth. has been used in Tibet folk medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate antimyocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury effect of caffeoylquinic acids derivatives of E. multiradiatus (AE) in vivo and to explain underling mechanism. AE was prepared using the whole plant of E. multiradiatus and contents of 6 caffeoylquinic acids determined through HPLC analysis. Myocardial I/R was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 30 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in rats. AE administration (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) inhibited I/R-induced injury as indicated by decreasing myocardial infarct size, reducing of CK and LDH activities, and preventing ST-segment depression in dose-dependent manner. AE decreased cardiac tissue levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 and attenuated leukocytes infiltration. AE was further demonstrated to significantly inhibit I-κB degradation, nuclear translocation of p-65 and phosphorylation of JNK. Our results suggested that cardioprotective effect of AE could be due to suppressing myocardial inflammatory response and blocking NF-κB and JNK activation pathway. Thus, caffeoylquinic acids might be the active compounds in E. multiradiatus on myocardial ischemia and be a potential natural drug for treating myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27516722

  11. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  12. In vitro evaluation of silver nanoparticles cytotoxicity on Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and their antioxidant activity: Green approach for fabrication and application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Seqqat, Rachid; Benalcazar, Karen; Grijalva, Marcelo; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    In this article, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andean Mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.) leaf has been reported. Different analytical techniques including UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. The initial appearance of color change with the intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands around 440-455 in UV-visible spectra revealing the formation of AgNPs. The TEM image showed the AgNPs to be anisotropic, quasi-spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 12-50nm. On the other hand, XRD studies revealed the formation of face-centered cubic structure for AgNPs. The surface modified AgNPs showed no cytotoxicity at the concentration ranging from 0.01μM to 1.0μM on the Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and observed antioxidant efficacy >70% at the concentration 0.05mM/0.20mL against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that AgNPs could be used effectively in future drug delivery systems and other biomedical concerns. PMID:27010841

  13. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

  14. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A 2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Chinnappan, Sasikala; Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  15. The Role of Auxin and Gibberellin in Controlling Lignin Formation in Primary Phloem Fibers and in Xylem of Coleus blumei Stems

    PubMed Central

    Aloni, Roni; Tollier, Marie Thérèse; Monties, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that auxin (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) control the formation of lignin is confirmed for the primary phloem fibers and for the secondary xylem in the stem of Coleus blumel Benth. Indoleacetic acid alone, or a combination of high IAA/low GA3 (w/w), induced short phloem fibers with thick secondary walls, that contained lignin rich in syringyl units (high ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl). On the other hand, a combination of high GA3/low IAA (w/w), which promoted the differentiation of long phloem fibers with thin walls, decreased the relative content of the syringyl units (low syringyl/guaiacyl ratio). In the secondary xylem, these hormonal treatments yielded only slight changes in the noncondensed monomeric guaiacyl units, confirming the relative stability of the guaiacyl lignification pattern in this tissue. In the xylem, indoleacetic acid alone, or a combination of high IAA/low GA3 induced lignin poor in syringyl units (low syringyl/guaiacyl ratio). A combination of high GA3/low IAA promoted a relatively slight increase in syringyl yield, indicating greater responsiveness of the syringyl lignification pattern to growth regulators. The possible functional and technological significance of our results is discussed. PMID:16667911

  16. Phloem Loading in Coleus blumei in the Absence of Carrier-Mediated Uptake of Export Sugar from the Apoplast 1

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert; Gowan, Esther

    1990-01-01

    Phloem loading in Coleus blumei Benth. leaves cannot be explained by carrier-mediated transport of export sugar from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, the mechanism by which sucrose is thought to load in other species that have been studied in detail. Uptake profiles of the export sugars sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose into leaf discs were composed of two components, one saturable and the other not. Saturable (carrier-mediated) uptake of all three sugars was almost completely eliminated by the inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS). However, when PCMBS was introduced by transpiration into mature leaves it did not prevent accumulation of 14C-photosynthate in minor veins or translocation of labeled photosynthate from green to nonchlorophyllous regions of the leaf following exposure to 14CO2. The efficacy of introducing inhibitor solutions in the transpiration stream was proven by observing saffranin O and calcofluor white movement in the minor veins and leaf apoplast. PCMBS introduced by transpiration completely inhibited phloem loading in tobacco leaves. Phloem loading in C. blumei was also studied in plasmolysis experiments. The carbohydrate content of leaves was lowered by keeping plants in the dark and then increased by exposing them to light. The solute level of intermediary cells increased in the light (phloem loading) in both PCMBS-treated and control tissues. A mechanism of symplastic phloem loading is proposed for species that translocate the raffinose series of oligosaccharides. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667824

  17. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Root-Zone Salinity Alters Raffinose Oligosaccharide Metabolism and Transport in Coleus.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, G. A.; Wilson, C.; Madore, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of variegated coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) plants to a saline root-zone environment (60 mM NaCl:12 mM CaCl2) resulted in a significant decline in elongation growth rate over the 30-d experimental period. During the initial 5 to 10 d of exposure, mature source leaves showed strongly diminished rates of photosynthesis, which gradually recovered to close to the control rates by the end of the experiment. In green leaf tissues, starch levels showed the same transient decline and recovery pattern. Low starch levels were accompanied by the appearance of several novel carbohydrates, including high-molecular-weight raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 5 to 8, and an O-methylated inositol (OMI). New enzyme activities, including galactan:galactan galactosyltransferase, for the synthesis of high-DP RFOs and myo-inositol 6-O-methyltransferase for O-methylation of myo-inositol, were induced by salinity stress. Phloem-sap analysis showed that in the stressed condition substantially more sucrose than RFO was exported, as was the OMI. In white sink tissues these phloem sugars were used to synthesize high-DP RFOs but not OMIs. In sink tissues galactan:galactan galactosyltransferase but not myo-inositol 6-O-methyltransferase was induced by salinity stress. Models reflecting the changes in carbohydrate metabolism in source and sink tissues in response to salinity stress are presented. PMID:12223871

  19. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation.

  20. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments. PMID:23869994

  1. [Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds and nuts].

    PubMed

    Padilla, F C; Rincón, A M; Bou-Rached, L

    2008-09-01

    Foods from plant origin not only provide human diet with certain antioxidant vitamins (C, E and beta-carotene), but also a complex mixture of polyphenols, with antioxidant activity. Numerous studies have been focused on the protective and preventing effect of this antioxidant activity on certain degenerative illnesses such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurological diseases, cataracts and oxidative stress dysfunctions. The objective of this work was to evaluate total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds, nuts, or grains such as Theobroma cacao, Canpsiandra comosa Benth (chiga), Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench, Melicoccus bijugatus (genip). Total polyphenol content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity by the beta carotene/linoleate, reducing power, and the anti-radical activity methods. Results showed genip pericarp with the lowest polyphenol content (1.40 gGAE/100 g), and cacao beans with the highest (6.66 gGAE/100 g). Reducing power of cacao beans was also the highest and similar to the reducing power of 5.80 g ascorbic acid/100 g, followed by Campsiandra comosa. Moreover, Campsiandra comosa and cacao seeds presented an antioxidant activity comparable to that of the butylhydroxianisol, a synthetic antioxidant. The highest anti-radical activity was shown by Campsiandra comosa with an EC50 of 2.67 g/gDPPH. Total polyphenol content shows a good correlation with the antioxidant activity. Moreover, these seeds might have the same health beneficial effects attributed to other fruits and vegetables.

  2. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra S; de Jesus, Aline M; dos Anjos, Charlene S; da Silva, Thanany B; Santos, Alan D C; de Jesus, Jemmyson R; Andrade, Moacir S; Sampaio, Tais S; Gomes, Wesley F; Alves, Péricles B; Carvalho, Adriana A; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pinheiro, Maria L B; Prata, Ana Paula N; Blank, Arie F; Silva-Mann, Renata; Moraes, Valeria R S; Costa, Emmanoel V; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar L; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2012-09-01

    Plants are promising sources of new bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of nine plants found in Brazil. The species studied were: Annona pickelii Diels (Annonaceae), Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae), Guatteria blepharophylla Mart. (Annonaceae), Guatteria hispida (R. E. Fr.) Erkens & Maas (Annonaceae), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae), Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae), and Hyptis calida Mart. Ex Benth (Lamiaceae). Different types of extractions from several parts of plants resulted in 43 extracts. Their cytotoxicity was tested against HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promielocitic leukemia) human tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The active extracts were those obtained from G. blepharophylla, G. hispida, J. curcas, K. rugosa, and L. gracilis. In addition, seven compounds isolated from the active extracts were tested; among them, β-pinene found in G. hispida and one coumarin isolated from K. rugora showed weak cytotoxic activity. In summary, this manuscript contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of Brazilian plants as sources of new anticancer drugs.

  3. Effects of inoculating Lachnum and Cadophora isolates on the growth of Vaccinium corymbosum.

    PubMed

    Bizabani, Christine; Dames, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The roots of ericaceous plants harbour a diversity of fungal taxa, which confer eco-physiological benefits to the host. Some of the fungi have been established to form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) associations and enhance plant growth in certain ericaceous genera. Although, Lachnum and Cadophora isolates have frequently been identified from the roots of this family, the status of their association and functional roles is still vague. The aims of this study were to identify Lachnum and Cadophora isolates; determine the root-fungal interactive structures formed in associations with Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) hosts and to examine inoculation effects of the fungal associates using several varieties of the blueberry. Lachnum and Cadophora were isolated and identified from Erica cerinthoides L. and Erica demmissa Klotzsch ex Benth using morphological and molecular techniques. Micropropagated blueberry varieties (Bluecrop, Elliott, Spartan, Chandler and Brightwell) were inoculated with respective fungi and plant growth evaluated. Both fungi colonised the roots and did not have any pathogenic effect. Lachnum isolate did not form any particular mycorrhizal structures whereas; Cadophora inoculated plants showed typical ericoid mycorrhizal coils. Inoculation with both fungi enhanced the shoot growth of Brightwell and Elliott varieties. However neutral effects were observed in the remaining varieties. In conclusion, Cadophora and Lachnum isolates have potential to promote growth of selected blueberry varieties.

  4. The New World Gibbobruchus Pic (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae): description of a new species and phylogenetic insights into the evolution of host associations and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Manfio, Daiara; Jorge, Isaac R; Morse, Geoffrey E; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2016-04-18

    The seed beetle Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. is described from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Acre) and Ecuador (Napo), and is included in an updated key to the species of Gibbobruchus Pic. This new species and the recently described G. bergamini Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa are incorporated into a phylogenetic reanalysis of the genus and into a comparative analysis of host plant use and biogeography. Species groups previously proposed were supported and the evolutionary history in host plant-use shows Gibbobruchus conserved at tribe level, Cercideae (Caesalpinioideae), with coordination between biogeographic expansion and host genus shifts. Both species, Gibbobruchus tridentatus Manfio, Jorge & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. and G. bergamini, were placed within the group scurra (G. tridentatus (G. scurra (G. cavillator+G. bolivianus+G. bergamini))) and supported by one synapomorphy. Additionally, we update geographic distributions and host plant records. Two hosts, Bauhinia argentinensis Burkart and B. tarapotensis Benth. are recorded for the first time as hosts for the genus and for the subfamily.

  5. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment. PMID:26754253

  6. Phytochemical screening of five medicinal legumes and their evaluation for in vitro anti-tubercular activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. Komal; Devi Prasad, A. G.; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in the world. A new alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis is urgently required, due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim: There is currently considerable interest in developing potential drugs from medicinal plants for treating tuberculosis. To evaluate anti-tubercular activity in the leaves of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams., Humboldtia brunonis Wall., Indigofera cassioides Rottl.ex DC., Derris scandens Benth. and Ceasalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Materials and Methods: Non-polar and polar solvent extracts of leaves of these medicinal legumes were tested against M. tuberculosis H37RV and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar based proportion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, anthro-quinones, terpinods, flavonoids and phlabotanins. Crude leaf extracts of these plants have shown MIC value of 50 μg/ml as against the standard drug Isoniazid value of 0.025 μg/ml. Conclusion: Results showed that crude extracts of legume leaves screened exhibited potential anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis and further work is required to identify the active molecule of these legumes, to get a novel anti-tubercular drug. This is the maiden finding on anti-tubercular activity of these medicinal legumes. PMID:25364208

  7. Signal detection for Thai traditional medicine: examination of national pharmacovigilance data using reporting odds ratio and reported population attributable risk.

    PubMed

    Wechwithan, Sareeya; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; McNeil, Edward B; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2014-10-01

    Herbal containing medicine consumption has increased while the awareness of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was less than conventional medicine. Early detection of unexpected numbers of ADRs from herbal medicines' reports which are abnormal from the whole database needs quantification. Disproportionality analysis has been performed for signal detection by using reporting odds ratio (ROR) as measurement. The impact of having medicine as exposures in each ADR should be measured by using reported population attributable risks (RPAR). This study aimed to quantify the contribution of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) to ADR reports and to assess the association between TTMs and serious adverse drug reactions. Data were retrieved from the adverse drug reaction surveillance database, Thai-Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to 2013. Crude and adjusted RORs for each drug-ADR pair and RPARs were computed. TTM contributed only 0.001% of all serious ADRs reported. Out of 4208 TTM-ADR pairs were examined, three had the statistically significant RORs, namely Andrographis paniculata and anaphylactic shock (ROR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03, 5.21); green traditional medicine and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (ROR 13.04, 95% CI 5.4-31.51) and Derris scandens Benth and angioedema (ROR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-6.95). Their RPARs ranged from 0.05% to 0.16%. We conclude that TTMs need more intensive surveillance. PMID:24945744

  8. Identification and phytotoxicity of a new glucosinolate breakdown product from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Suphannika; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Hulting, Andrew G; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2014-07-30

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth.) is an oilseed crop grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Meadowfoam seed meal (MSM), a byproduct after oil extraction, contains 2-4% glucosinolate (glucolimnanthin). Activated MSM, produced by adding freshly ground myrosinase-active meadowfoam seeds to MSM, facilitates myrosinase-mediated formation of glucosinolate-derived degradation products with herbicidal activity. In the activated MSM, glucolimnanthin was converted into 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate ("isothiocyanate") within 24 h and was degraded by day three. 3-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile ("nitrile") persisted for at least 6 days. Methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPAA), a previously unknown metabolite of glucolimnanthin, appeared at day three. Its identity was confirmed by LC-UV and high resolution LC-MS/MS comparisons with a standard of MPAA. Isothiocyanate inhibited lettuce germination 8.5- and 14.4-fold more effectively than MPAA and nitrile, respectively. Activated MSM inhibited lettuce germination by 58% and growth by 72% compared with the control. Results of the study suggest that MSM has potential uses as a pre-emergence bioherbicide. PMID:24998843

  9. Colonization and Diversity of AM Fungi by Morphological Analysis on Medicinal Plants in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyuan; Jiang, Pan

    2015-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal distributions in the rhizosphere of 20 medicinal plants species in Zhangzhou, southeast China, were studied. The results showed 66 species of 8 genera of AM fungi were identified, of which 38 belonged to Glomus, 12 to Acaulospora, 9 to Scutellospora, 2 to Gigaspora, 2 to Funneliformis, 1 to Septoglomus, 1 to Rhizophagus, and 1 to Archaeospora. Glomus was the dominant genera and G. melanosporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, G. etunicatum, Funneliformis mosseae, and G. rubiforme were the prevalent species. The highest colonization (100%) was recorded in Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth. while the lowest (8.0%) was in Acorus tatarinowii Schott. The AM fungi spore density ranged from 270 to 2860 per 100 g soil (average 1005), and the species richness ranged from 3 to 14 (average 9.7) per soil sample. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.52 to 2 (average 1.45). In the present study, the colonization had a highly negative correlation with available K and electrical conductivity. Species richness correlated positively with electrical conductivity and organic matter. Shannon-Wiener index had a highly significant negative correlation with pH. This study provides a valuable germplasm and theoretical basis for AM fungal biotechnology on medicinal standardization planting. PMID:25688376

  10. Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Extract of Erigeron multiradiatus Alleviated Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Inhibiting NF-KappaB and JNK Activations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Xuecong; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Kaishun; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth. has been used in Tibet folk medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate antimyocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury effect of caffeoylquinic acids derivatives of E. multiradiatus (AE) in vivo and to explain underling mechanism. AE was prepared using the whole plant of E. multiradiatus and contents of 6 caffeoylquinic acids determined through HPLC analysis. Myocardial I/R was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 30 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in rats. AE administration (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) inhibited I/R-induced injury as indicated by decreasing myocardial infarct size, reducing of CK and LDH activities, and preventing ST-segment depression in dose-dependent manner. AE decreased cardiac tissue levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 and attenuated leukocytes infiltration. AE was further demonstrated to significantly inhibit I-κB degradation, nuclear translocation of p-65 and phosphorylation of JNK. Our results suggested that cardioprotective effect of AE could be due to suppressing myocardial inflammatory response and blocking NF-κB and JNK activation pathway. Thus, caffeoylquinic acids might be the active compounds in E. multiradiatus on myocardial ischemia and be a potential natural drug for treating myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27516722

  11. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola; Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Hafsatu, Babayi; Chinwe, Nwaeze Angela; Maryjane, Ezeonu Chidimma; Sunday, Igwe; Adanna, Ndukuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract (git). The extract (25, 50 and100 mg extract/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (24 - 92%) and piroxicam (81.81- 98.60%). Histopathology of the rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 25 mg/kg body weight extract showed mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the extract treated groups at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight and 200 mg misoprostol/kg body weight group showed no obvious lesions. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract (git). It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of painful inflammatory disorders. PMID:22468009

  12. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)<4 microg/ml), of A. hispidum, C. febrifuga, and F. agrestis (4

  13. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment.

  14. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes. PMID:9324004

  15. Water-use patterns of woody species in pineland and hammock communities of South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewe, Sharon M.; Sternberg, Leonel S.; Busch, David E.

    1999-01-01

    Rockland pine forests of south Florida dominated by Pinus elliottii var. densa characteristically have poor soil development in relation to neighboring hardwood hammocks. This has led to the hypothesis that Everglades hammock trees are more reliant on soil moisture derived from local precipitation whereas pineland plants must depend more on groundwater linked to broader regional hydrologic patterns. Because soil moisture sources are likely to vary more than groundwater sources, we hypothesized that hammock plants would exhibit correspondingly higher levels of dry season water stress. This was examined by measuring predawn water potentials, and by analyzing water uptake in representative hammock and pineland woody species using stable isotopes of plant water and that of potential sources during wet and dry seasons. Two species typical of each of the two communities were selected; a fifth species which was found in both communities, Lysiloma latisiliqua Benth., was also analyzed. Water content of soils in both communities decreased from wet to dry season. Consistent with our hypothesis, the change in predawn water potentials between the wet and dry season was less in pineland species than that of hammock species. Water potential changes in L. latisiliqua in both communities resembled that of hammock species more than pineland plants. Isotopic data showed that pineland species rely proportionately more on groundwater than hammock species. Nevertheless, unlike hammock species in the Florida Keys, mainland hammock species utilized a substantial amount of groundwater during the dry season.

  16. Survey of the genome of Pogostemon cablin provides insights into its evolutionary history and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Xiao, Hongtao; Deng, Cao; Xiong, Liang; Nie, Hu; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has both essential oil value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here we report the first de novo assembled 1.15-Gb draft genome sequence for P. cablin from next-generation sequencing technology. Our assembly, with a misassembly rate of <4 bp per 100 kb, is ~73% of the predicted genome size (1.57 Gb). Analysis of whole-genome sequences identified 3,147,333 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 490,407 insertions and deletions, giving an estimated heterozygosity rate of 0.274%. A comprehensive annotation pipeline indicated that repetitive sequences make up 58.55% of the assemblies, and that there are estimated 45,020 genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the Phrymaceae and Lamiaceae family split ~62.80 Mya, and the divergence between patchouli and sesame occurred ~52.42 Mya, implying a potentially shared recent whole-genome duplication event. Analysis of gene homologs involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis showed that patchouli contains key genes involved in more sesquiterpenoid types and has more copies of genes for each sesquiterpenoid type than several other related plant species. The patchouli genome will facilitate future research on secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation as well as potential selective breeding of patchouli. PMID:27198881

  17. [Association of Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae) with trees in the Brazilian Cerrado].

    PubMed

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus de S; Pinto, Míriam P; Costa, Shirley S; Nabout, João C; Rangel, Thiago F L V B; de Melo, Tatiana L; de Moura, Iona'i O

    2006-01-01

    Termites usually build nests differently shaped and characterized according to each species, to protect and keep society cohesion. Some species build nests in the ground, some prefer tree thunks or branches as support, whereas other dig galleries in the wood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of arboreal termites Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri and tree species that support the nest of this species, in a Cerrado sensu strictu of the Serra de Caldas Novas, GO. Data suggest a association relationship between C. Cyphergaster and the tree species Qualea grandiflora Mart., Annona crassiflora Mart., Caryocar brasiliense Camb. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth., shown by high Qui-squared values (chi2 = 214.986, gl. = 20, P < 0.001). This relationship may be found among other termites and tree species, including Cerrado biome, and may be due to several factors, such as natural competitors and predators, toxin production by other tree species or benefits between associated species (facultative mutualism or facilitation). PMID:17352068

  18. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola; Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Hafsatu, Babayi; Chinwe, Nwaeze Angela; Maryjane, Ezeonu Chidimma; Sunday, Igwe; Adanna, Ndukuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract (git). The extract (25, 50 and100 mg extract/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (24 - 92%) and piroxicam (81.81- 98.60%). Histopathology of the rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 25 mg/kg body weight extract showed mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the extract treated groups at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight and 200 mg misoprostol/kg body weight group showed no obvious lesions. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract (git). It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of painful inflammatory disorders.

  19. Genistein-inhibited cancer stem cell-like properties and reduced chemoresistance of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weifeng; Wan, Chunpeng; Luo, Qicong; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Genistein, the predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has exerted its anticarcinogenic effect in many different tumor types in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence in recent years has strongly indicated the existence of cancer stem cells in gastric cancer. Here, we showed that low doses of genistein (15 µM), extracted from Millettia nitida Benth var hirsutissima Z Wei, inhibit tumor cell self-renewal in two types of gastric cancer cells by colony formation assay and tumor sphere formation assay. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with genistein reduced its chemoresistance to 5-Fu (fluorouracil) and ciplatin. Further results indicated that the reduced chemoresistance may be associated with the inhibition of ABCG2 expression and ERK 1/2 activity. Furthermore, genistein reduced tumor mass in the xenograft model. Together, genistein inhibited gastric cancer stem cell-like properties and reduced its chemoresistance. Our results provide a further rationale and experimental basis for using the genistein to improve treatment of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:24573253

  20. Genistein-Inhibited Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Reduced Chemoresistance of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weifeng; Wan, Chunpeng; Luo, Qicong; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Genistein, the predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has exerted its anticarcinogenic effect in many different tumor types in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence in recent years has strongly indicated the existence of cancer stem cells in gastric cancer. Here, we showed that low doses of genistein (15 μM), extracted from Millettia nitida Benth var hirsutissima Z Wei, inhibit tumor cell self-renewal in two types of gastric cancer cells by colony formation assay and tumor sphere formation assay. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with genistein reduced its chemoresistance to 5-Fu (fluorouracil) and ciplatin. Further results indicated that the reduced chemoresistance may be associated with the inhibition of ABCG2 expression and ERK 1/2 activity. Furthermore, genistein reduced tumor mass in the xenograft model. Together, genistein inhibited gastric cancer stem cell-like properties and reduced its chemoresistance. Our results provide a further rationale and experimental basis for using the genistein to improve treatment of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:24573253