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Sample records for min jaan ojarand

  1. MinC/MinD copolymers are not required for Min function.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Du, Shishen; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2015-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, precise placement of the cytokinetic Z ring at midcell requires the concerted action of the three Min proteins. MinD activates MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ, at least in part, by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to the Z ring, while MinE stimulates the MinD ATPase inducing an oscillation that directs MinC/MinD activity away from midcell. Recently, MinC and MinD were shown to form copolymers of alternating dimers of MinC and MinD, and it was suggested that these copolymers are the active form of MinC/MinD. Here, we use MinD mutants defective in binding MinC to generate heterodimers with wild-type MinD that are unable to form MinC/MinD copolymers. Similarly, MinC mutants defective in binding to MinD were used to generate heterodimers with wild-type MinC that are unable to form copolymers. Such heterodimers are active and in the case of MinC were shown to mediate spatial regulation of the Z ring demonstrating that MinC/MinD copolymer formation is not required. Our results are consistent with a model in which a membrane anchored MinC/MinD complex is targeted to the Z ring through the conserved carboxy tail of FtsZ leading to breakage of FtsZ filaments.

  2. MinC/MinD copolymers are not required for Min function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Du, Shishen; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Escherichia coli, precise placement of the cytokinetic Z ring at midcell requires the concerted action of the three Min proteins. MinD activates MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ, at least in part, by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to the Z ring, while MinE stimulates the MinD ATPase inducing an oscillation that directs MinC/MinD activity away from midcell. Recently, MinC and MinD were shown to form copolymers of alternating dimers of MinC and MinD and it was suggested that these copolymers are the active form of MinC/MinD. Here, we use MinD mutants defective in binding MinC to generate heterodimers with wild type MinD that are unable to form MinC/MinD copolymers. Similarly, MinC mutants defective in binding to MinD were used to generate heterodimers with wild type MinC that are unable to form copolymers. Such heterodimers are active and in the case of MinC were shown to mediate spatial regulation of the Z ring demonstrating that MinC/MinD copolymer formation is not required. Our results are consistent with a model in which a membrane anchored MinC/MinD complex is targeted to the Z ring through the conserved carboxy tail of FtsZ leading to breakage of FtsZ filaments. PMID:26268537

  3. Detector for CheMin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-30

    This charged couple device CCD is part of the CheMin instrument on NASA Curiosity rover. When CheMin directs X-rays at a sample of soil, this imager, which is the size of a postage stamp, detects both the position and energy of each X-ray photon.

  4. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  5. Differential affinities of MinD and MinE to anionic phospholipid influence Min Patterning dynamics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The E. coli Min system forms a cell-pole-to-cell-pole oscillator that positions the divisome at mid-cell. The MinD ATPase binds the membrane and recruits the cell division inhibitor MinC. MinE interacts with and releases MinD (and MinC) from the membrane. The chase of MinD by MinE creates the in vivo oscillator that maintains a low level of the division inhibitor at mid-cell. In vitro reconstitution and visualization of Min proteins on a supported lipid bilayer has provided significant advances in understanding Min patterns in vivo. Here we studied the effects of flow, lipid composition, and salt concentration on Min patterning. Flow and no-flow conditions both supported Min protein patterns with somewhat different characteristics. Without flow, MinD and MinE formed spiraling waves. MinD and, to a greater extent MinE, have stronger affinities for anionic phospholipid. MinD-independent binding of MinE to anionic lipid resulted in slower and narrower waves. MinE binding to the bilayer was also more susceptible to changes in ionic strength than MinD. We find that modulating protein diffusion with flow, or membrane binding affinities with changes in lipid composition or salt concentration, can differentially affect the retention time of MinD and MinE, leading to spatiotemporal changes in Min patterning. PMID:24930948

  6. MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE required for the Min oscillator to spatially regulate cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary MinD recruits MinE to the membrane leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring in E. coli. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear since the MinD binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a 6-stranded β-sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. Here, minE mutations are isolated that restore interaction to some MinD and MinE mutants. These mutations alter the MinE structure releasing the MinD binding regions and N-terminal helices that bind MinD and the membrane, respectively. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes reveals a 4-stranded β-sheet MinE dimer with the released β strands (MinD binding regions) converted to α-helices bound to MinD dimers. These results suggest a 6 stranded, β-sheet dimer of MinE ‘senses’ MinD and switches to a 4-stranded β-sheet dimer that binds MinD and contributes to membrane binding. Also, the results indicate how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface. PMID:21816275

  7. The Min Oscillator Uses MinD-Dependent Conformational Changes in MinE to Spatially Regulate Cytokinesis.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyung-Tase; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-09-16

    In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded {beta} sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded {beta} sheet MinE dimer with the released {beta} strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to {alpha} helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.

  8. The Min oscillator uses MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE to spatially regulate cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Battaile, Kevin P; Lovell, Scott; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-08-05

    In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded β sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded β sheet MinE dimer with the released β strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to α helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.

  9. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  10. A Linear Max-Min Problem,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report discusses a two person max -min problem in which the maximizing player moves first and the minimizing player has perfect information of the...The joint constraints as well as the objective function are assumed to be linear. For this problem it is shown that the familiar inequality min max ...or = max min is reversed due to the influence of the joint constraints. The problem is characterized as a nonconvex program and a method of

  11. Self-organization of the MinE protein ring in subcellular Min oscillations.

    PubMed

    Derr, Julien; Hopper, Jason T; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2009-07-01

    We model the self-organization of the MinE ring that is observed during subcellular oscillations of the proteins MinD and MinE within the rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli. With a steady-state approximation, we can study the MinE ring generically--apart from the other details of the Min oscillation. Rebinding of MinE to depolymerizing MinD-filament tips controls MinE-ring formation through a scaled cell shape parameter r. We find two types of E-ring profiles near the filament tip: either a strong plateaulike E ring controlled by one-dimensional diffusion of MinE along the bacterial length or a weak cusplike E ring controlled by three-dimensional diffusion near the filament tip. While the width of a strong E ring depends on r, the occupation fraction of MinE at the MinD-filament tip is saturated and hence the depolymerization speed does not depend strongly on r. Conversely, for weak E rings both r and the MinE to MinD stoichiometry strongly control the tip occupation and hence the depolymerization speed. MinE rings in vivo are close to the threshold between weak and strong, and so MinD-filament depolymerization speed should be sensitive to cell shape, stoichiometry, and MinE-rebinding rate. We also find that the transient to MinE-ring formation is quite long in the appropriate open geometry for assays of ATPase activity in vitro, explaining the long delays of ATPase activity observed for smaller MinE concentrations in those assays without the need to invoke cooperative MinE activity.

  12. Mechanism of the asymmetric activation of the MinD ATPase by MinE

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Lovell, Scott; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Summary MinD is a component of the Min system involved in the spatial regulation of cell division. It is an ATPase in the MinD/ParA/Mrp deviant Walker A motif family which is within the P loop GTPase superfamily. Its ATPase activity is stimulated by MinE, however, the mechanism of this activation is unclear. MinD forms a symmetric dimer with two binding sites for MinE, however, a recent model suggested that MinE occupying one site was sufficient for ATP hydrolysis. By generating heterodimers with one binding site for MinE we show that one binding site is sufficient for stimulation of the MinD ATPase. Furthermore, comparison of structures of MinD and related proteins led us to examine the role of N45 in the switch I region. An asparagine at this position is conserved in four of the deviant Walker A motif subfamilies (MinD, chromosomal ParAs, Get3 and FleN) and we find that N45 in MinD is essential for MinE stimulated ATPase activity and suggest that it is a key residue affected by MinE binding. PMID:22651575

  13. On MaxMin and MinMax Strategies in Multi-Stage Games and ATACM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    of the computation of MaxMin and MinMax strategies in multi-stage games. A new method for finding Max- Min and MinMax strategies for one-stage... Methods for finding decisions that in some sense optimize the payoff are sought; traditionally, an equilibrium point in randomized strategies has been...As a result the total running time is greatly reduced from previous versions. This method can be adapted to find MaxMin and MinMax strategies of

  14. An Introduction to Human Resource Development in Taiwan, R.O.C. = Jong Hwa Min Gwo Ren Li Tz Yuan Fa Jaan Jyan Jieh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Chen, Ya-Yan

    In Taiwan, human resource development (HRD) is defined as the systematic education, training, and development employers provide for their employees as well as organizational development for corporations. A history of HRD development indicates that in the 1960s, the government began to implement planning measures for HRD in business and industry;…

  15. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard Minton, Greg

    2016-06-15

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  16. Destination Innovation: Episode 4 CheMin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-02

    Destination Innovation is a new series that explores the research, science and other projects underway at the NASA Ames Research Center. Episode 4 focuses on the CheMin instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory, NASA' s latest robotic explorer to visit Mars. CheMin, short for 'Chemistry and Mineralogy,' was developed at NASA Ames Research Center and is one of 10 instruments aboard the rover Curiosity. The instrument is an x-ray diffractometer, which will be able to identify minerals in the Martial rock and soil.

  17. Min-Max Bias Robust Regression.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    2 UL uIImImmIIIEllmlllllllll llEllllhllllEI El 1 .1 25 11111 -.4 ___ . .. . . N ~ . MIN- MAX BIAS ROBUST REGRESSION by R. D. Martin V. J. Yohai R. H...shown than an S-estimate based on a jump-function type p solves the n- max bias problem for the class of NI-estimates with very general scale. This...5, (X() -- .5 and the rin- max estimator approaches the least median of squared residuals estimator introduced by Rousseeuw [J. Am. Statist. Assoc

  18. The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinC form polymers in the presence of nucleotide.

    PubMed

    Conti, Joseph; Viola, Marissa G; Camberg, Jodi L

    2015-01-16

    The Min system of proteins, consisting of MinC, MinD and MinE, is essential for normal cell division in Escherichia coli. MinC forms a polar gradient to restrict placement of the division septum to midcell. MinC localization occurs through a direct interaction with MinD, a membrane-associating Par-like ATPase. MinE stimulates ATP hydrolysis by MinD, thereby releasing MinD from the membrane. Here, we show that MinD forms polymers with MinC and ATP without the addition of phospholipids. The topological regulator MinE induces disassembly of MinCD polymers. Two MinD mutant proteins, MinD(K11A) and MinD(ΔMTS15), are unable to form polymers with MinC.

  19. Roles of MinC and MinD in the site-specific septation block mediated by the MinCDE system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    de Boer, P A; Crossley, R E; Rothfield, L I

    1992-01-01

    The proper placement of the cell division site in Escherichia coli requires the site-specific inactivation of potential division sites at the cell poles in a process that requires the coordinate action of the MinC, MinD, and MinE proteins. In the absence of MinE, the coordinate expression of MinC and MinD leads to a general inhibition of cell division. MinE gives topological specificity to the division inhibition process, so that the septation block is restricted to the cell poles. At normal levels of expression, both MinC and MinD are required for the division block. We show here that, when expressed at high levels, MinC acts as a division inhibitor even in the absence of MinD. The division inhibition that results from MinC overexpression in the absence of MinD is insensitive to the MinE topological specificity factor. The results suggest that MinC is the proximate cause of the septation block and that MinD plays two roles in the MinCDE system--it activates the MinC-dependent division inhibition mechanism and is also required for the sensitivity of the division inhibition system to the MinE topological specificity factor.

  20. Comparison of pediatric patients with status epilepticus lasting 5-29 min versus ≥30 min.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Vendrame, Martina; Kapur, Kush; Klehm, Jacqueline; Uysal, Serife; Gedik, Mustafa; An, Sookee; Jillella, Dinesh; Zelener, Jacqueline; Syed, Sana; Gooty, Vasu; Rotenberg, Alexander; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    The most common thresholds for considering prolonged seizures as status epilepticus (SE) are 5 and 30 min. It is unknown whether these different thresholds (5 or 30 min) identify patient populations with different electroclinical characteristics. We compared the characteristics of patients with SE lasting 5-29 min (SE5-29) with those with SE lasting ≥30 min (SE≥30). Inclusion criteria were the following: 1) 1 month to 21 years of age at the time of SE, 2) convulsive seizures, and 3) seizure duration ≥5 min. Exclusion criteria were the following: 1) exclusively neonatal seizures, 2) psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, or 3) incomplete information about seizure duration. Four hundred forty-five patients (50.1% male) with a median (p25-p75) age at SE of 5.5 (2.8-10.5) years were enrolled. Status epilepticus lasted for 5-29 min in 296 (66.5%) of subjects and for ≥30 min in 149 (33.5%). Patients with SE≥30 were younger than the patients with SE5-29 at the time of seizure onset (median: 1 versus 2.1 years, p=0.0007). Status epilepticus as the first seizure presentation was more frequent in patients with SE≥30 (24.2% versus 12.2%, p=0.002). There was a tendency towards a higher rate of abnormalities in the magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in patients with SE≥30 (70.5% versus 57.1%, p=0.061). Differences were not detected in seizure frequency, seizure types, presence of developmental delay, and electroencephalogram abnormalities at baseline. In the pediatric population, SE thresholds of either 5 or 30 min identify groups of patients with very similar electroclinical characteristics, which may influence future definitions of pediatric SE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MinNorm approximation of MaxEnt/MinDiv problems for probability tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaert, Patrick; Gengler, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Categorical data are found in a wide variety of important applications in environmental sciences and dealing with multivariate analyses is a challenging topic. Rebuilding a multivariate probability table becomes an issue and is expected to lead to poor probability estimates when a very limited number of samples are at hand. In order to take into account the lack of data, the information can be rewritten as inequality constraints instead of using the few sampled values as direct probability estimates. There is thus a need for an efficient method that allows us to rebuild a multivariate probability table from equalities and inequalities constraints. Rebuilding a probability function from equalities constraints can be done through a classical maximum entropy (MaxEnt) methodology. MaxEnt problem can be implemented by using iterated minimum norm (MinNorm) approximations. Minimum divergence (MinDiv) methodology extends the problem to the case of inequalities constraints and, again, MinNorm approximations can be applied and iterated. Thus, iterated MinNorm approximations are a fast and efficient way to combine equalities and inequalities constraints to rebuild a multivariate probability table. MinNorm methodology for solving problems involving both equalities and inequalities constraints can be applied in a wide variety of applications. MinNorm approximations become useful, for instance, when only few data are available or when taking into account experts opinion rewritten as equalities and inequalities constraints is of prime interest in probability estimates. An example in environmental sciences is presented in order to illustrate the benefits of the methodology.

  2. On Algorithms for Nonlinear Minimax and Min-Max-Min Problems and Their Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Monterey CA 93943-5000 The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of...MINIMAX AND MIN-MAX-MIN PROBLEMS AND THEIR EFFICIENCY Pee Eng Yau Principal Analyst, Singapore Defence Science and Technology Agency B.Eng., National...BLANK xii LIST OF TABLES 1. Run times based on ϵ for ϵ- PPP . The word “local” means that the algorithm converges to a locally optimal solution that does

  3. Self-Assembly of MinE on the Membrane Underlies Formation of the MinE Ring to Sustain Function of the Escherichia coli Min System*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Min; Chiang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Kong, Lih-Ren; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Rothfield, Lawrence I.; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The pole-to-pole oscillation of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli results in the inhibition of aberrant polar division, thus facilitating placement of the division septum at the midcell. MinE of the Min system forms a ring-like structure that plays a critical role in triggering the oscillation cycle. However, the mechanism underlying the formation of the MinE ring remains unclear. This study demonstrates that MinE self-assembles into fibrillar structures on the supported lipid bilayer. The MinD-interacting domain of MinE shows amyloidogenic properties, providing a possible mechanism for self-assembly of MinE. Supporting the idea, mutations in residues Ile-24 and Ile-25 of the MinD-interacting domain affect fibril formation, membrane binding ability of MinE and MinD, and subcellular localization of three Min proteins. Additional mutations in residues Ile-72 and Ile-74 suggest a role of the C-terminal domain of MinE in regulating the folding propensity of the MinD-interacting domain for different molecular interactions. The study suggests a self-assembly mechanism that may underlie the ring-like structure formed by MinE-GFP observed in vivo. PMID:24914211

  4. Min-Max Spaces and Complexity Reduction in Min-Max Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, Stephane; McEneaney, William M.

    2012-06-15

    Idempotent methods have been found to be extremely helpful in the numerical solution of certain classes of nonlinear control problems. In those methods, one uses the fact that the value function lies in the space of semiconvex functions (in the case of maximizing controllers), and approximates this value using a truncated max-plus basis expansion. In some classes, the value function is actually convex, and then one specifically approximates with suprema (i.e., max-plus sums) of affine functions. Note that the space of convex functions is a max-plus linear space, or moduloid. In extending those concepts to game problems, one finds a different function space, and different algebra, to be appropriate. Here we consider functions which may be represented using infima (i.e., min-max sums) of max-plus affine functions. It is natural to refer to the class of functions so represented as the min-max linear space (or moduloid) of max-plus hypo-convex functions. We examine this space, the associated notion of duality and min-max basis expansions. In using these methods for solution of control problems, and now games, a critical step is complexity-reduction. In particular, one needs to find reduced-complexity expansions which approximate the function as well as possible. We obtain a solution to this complexity-reduction problem in the case of min-max expansions.

  5. The switch I and II regions of MinD are required for binding and activating MinC.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaijin; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2004-03-01

    MinD and MinC cooperate to form an efficient inhibitor of Z-ring formation that is spatially regulated by MinE. MinD activates MinC by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to a septal component. To better understand this activation, we have isolated loss-of-function mutations in minD and carried out site-directed mutagenesis. Many of these mutations block MinC-MinD interaction; however, they also prevent MinD self-interaction and membrane binding, suggesting that they affect nucleotide interaction or protein folding. Two mutations in the switch I region (MinD box) and one mutation in the switch II region had little affect on most MinD functions, such as MinD self-interaction, membrane binding, and MinE stimulation; however, they did eliminate MinD-MinC interaction. Two additional mutations in the switch II region did not affect MinC binding. Further study revealed that one of these allowed the MinCD complex to target to the septum but was still deficient in blocking division. These results indicate that the switch I and II regions of MinD are required for interaction with MinC but not MinE and that the switch II region has a role in activating MinC.

  6. Differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and internal Z rings in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Z ring has the potential to assemble anywhere along the cell length but is restricted to midcell by the action of negative regulatory systems, including Min. In the current model for the Min system, the MinC/MinD division inhibitory complex is evenly distributed on the membrane and can disrupt Z rings anywhere in the cell; however, MinE spatially regulates MinC/MinD by restricting it to the cell poles, thus allowing Z ring formation at midcell. This model assumes that Z rings formed at different cellular locations have equal sensitivity to MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. However, here we report evidence that differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and nonpolar Z rings exists even when there is no MinE. MinC/MinD at proper levels is able to block minicell production in Δmin strains without increasing the cell length, indicating that polar Z rings are preferentially blocked. In the FtsZ-I374V strain (which is resistant to MinC(C)/MinD), wild-type morphology can be easily achieved with MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. We also show that MinC/MinD at proper levels can rescue the lethal phenotype of a min slmA double deletion mutant, which we think is due to the elimination of polar Z rings (or FtsZ structures), which frees up FtsZ molecules for assembly of Z rings at internal sites to rescue division and growth. Taken together, these data indicate that polar Z rings are more susceptible to MinC/MinD than internal Z rings, even when MinE is absent.

  7. Differences in MinC/MinD Sensitivity between Polar and Internal Z Rings in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bang; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Z ring has the potential to assemble anywhere along the cell length but is restricted to midcell by the action of negative regulatory systems, including Min. In the current model for the Min system, the MinC/MinD division inhibitory complex is evenly distributed on the membrane and can disrupt Z rings anywhere in the cell; however, MinE spatially regulates MinC/MinD by restricting it to the cell poles, thus allowing Z ring formation at midcell. This model assumes that Z rings formed at different cellular locations have equal sensitivity to MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. However, here we report evidence that differences in MinC/MinD sensitivity between polar and nonpolar Z rings exists even when there is no MinE. MinC/MinD at proper levels is able to block minicell production in Δmin strains without increasing the cell length, indicating that polar Z rings are preferentially blocked. In the FtsZ-I374V strain (which is resistant to MinCC/MinD), wild-type morphology can be easily achieved with MinC/MinD in the absence of MinE. We also show that MinC/MinD at proper levels can rescue the lethal phenotype of a min slmA double deletion mutant, which we think is due to the elimination of polar Z rings (or FtsZ structures), which frees up FtsZ molecules for assembly of Z rings at internal sites to rescue division and growth. Taken together, these data indicate that polar Z rings are more susceptible to MinC/MinD than internal Z rings, even when MinE is absent. PMID:21097625

  8. Targeting of (D)MinC/MinD and (D)MinC/DicB complexes to septal rings in Escherichia coli suggests a multistep mechanism for MinC-mediated destruction of nascent FtsZ rings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jay E; Lackner, Laura L; de Boer, Piet A J

    2002-06-01

    The MinC protein is an important determinant of septal ring positioning in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal domain ((Z)MinC) suppresses septal ring formation by interfering with FtsZ polymerization, whereas the C-terminal domain ((D)MinC) is required for dimerization as well as for interaction with the MinD protein. MinD oscillates between the membrane of both cell halves in a MinE-dependent fashion. MinC oscillates along with MinD such that the time-integrated concentration of (Z)MinC at the membrane is minimal, and hence the stability of FtsZ polymers is maximal, at the cell center. MinC is cytoplasmic and fails to block FtsZ assembly in the absence of MinD, indicating that recruitment of MinC by MinD to the membrane enhances (Z)MinC function. Here, we present evidence that the binding of (D)MinC to MinD endows the MinC/MinD complex with a more specific affinity for a septal ring-associated target in vivo. Thus, MinD does not merely attract MinC to the membrane but also aids MinC in specifically binding to, or in close proximity to, the substrate of its (Z)MinC domain. MinC-mediated division inhibition can also be activated in a MinD-independent fashion by the DicB protein of cryptic prophage Kim. DicB shows little homology to MinD, and how it stimulates MinC function has been unclear. Similar to the results obtained with MinD, we find that DicB interacts directly with (D)MinC, that the (D)MinC/DicB complex has a high affinity for some septal ring target(s), and that MinC/DicB interferes with the assembly and/or integrity of FtsZ rings in vivo. The results suggest a multistep mechanism for the activation of MinC-mediated division inhibition by either MinD or DicB and further expand the number of properties that can be ascribed to the Min proteins.

  9. Membrane-bound MinDE complex acts as a toggle switch that drives Min oscillation coupled to cytoplasmic depletion of MinD.

    PubMed

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Hwang, Ling Chin; Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-03-15

    The Escherichia coli Min system self-organizes into a cell-pole to cell-pole oscillator on the membrane to prevent divisions at the cell poles. Reconstituting the Min system on a lipid bilayer has contributed to elucidating the oscillatory mechanism. However, previous in vitro patterns were attained with protein densities on the bilayer far in excess of those in vivo and failed to recapitulate the standing wave oscillations observed in vivo. Here we studied Min protein patterning at limiting MinD concentrations reflecting the in vivo conditions. We identified "burst" patterns--radially expanding and imploding binding zones of MinD, accompanied by a peripheral ring of MinE. Bursts share several features with the in vivo dynamics of the Min system including standing wave oscillations. Our data support a patterning mechanism whereby the MinD-to-MinE ratio on the membrane acts as a toggle switch: recruiting and stabilizing MinD on the membrane when the ratio is high and releasing MinD from the membrane when the ratio is low. Coupling this toggle switch behavior with MinD depletion from the cytoplasm drives a self-organized standing wave oscillator.

  10. Membrane-bound MinDE complex acts as a toggle switch that drives Min oscillation coupled to cytoplasmic depletion of MinD

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Hwang, Ling Chin; Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Min system self-organizes into a cell-pole to cell-pole oscillator on the membrane to prevent divisions at the cell poles. Reconstituting the Min system on a lipid bilayer has contributed to elucidating the oscillatory mechanism. However, previous in vitro patterns were attained with protein densities on the bilayer far in excess of those in vivo and failed to recapitulate the standing wave oscillations observed in vivo. Here we studied Min protein patterning at limiting MinD concentrations reflecting the in vivo conditions. We identified “burst” patterns—radially expanding and imploding binding zones of MinD, accompanied by a peripheral ring of MinE. Bursts share several features with the in vivo dynamics of the Min system including standing wave oscillations. Our data support a patterning mechanism whereby the MinD-to-MinE ratio on the membrane acts as a toggle switch: recruiting and stabilizing MinD on the membrane when the ratio is high and releasing MinD from the membrane when the ratio is low. Coupling this toggle switch behavior with MinD depletion from the cytoplasm drives a self-organized standing wave oscillator. PMID:26884160

  11. Determination of structure of the MinD-ATP complex reveals the orientation of MinD on the membrane and the relative location of the binding sites for MinE and MinC

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Park, Kyung-Tae; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary The three Min proteins spatially regulate Z ring positioning in E. coli and are dynamically associated with the membrane. MinD binds to vesicles in the presence of ATP and can recruit MinC or MinE. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicate the binding sites for these two proteins on MinD overlap. Here we solved the structure of a hydrolytic-deficient mutant of MinD truncated for the C-terminal amphipathic helix involved in binding to the membrane. The structure solved in the presence of ATP is a dimer and reveals the face of MinD abutting the membrane. Using a combination of random and extensive site-directed mutagenesis additional residues important for MinE and MinC binding were identified. The location of these residues on the MinD structure confirms that the binding sites overlap and reveals that the binding sites are at the dimer interface and exposed to the cytosol. The location of the binding sites at the dimer interface offers a simple explanation for the ATP-dependency of MinC and MinE binding to MinD. PMID:21231967

  12. Simple membrane-based model of the Min oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Min proteins in E. coli bacteria organize into a dynamic pattern oscillating between the two cell poles. This process identifies the middle of the cell and enables symmetric cell division. In an experimental model system consisting of a flat membrane with effectively infinite supply of proteins and energy source, the Min proteins assemble into travelling waves. Here we propose a simple one-dimensional model of the Min dynamics that, unlike the existing models, reproduces the sharp decrease of Min concentration when the majority of protein detaches from the membrane, and even the narrow MinE maximum immediately preceding the detachment. The proposed model thus provides a possible mechanism for the formation of the MinE ring known from cells. The model is restricted to one dimension, with protein interactions described by chemical kinetics allowing at most bimolecular reactions, and explicitly considering only three, membrane-bound, species. The bulk solution above the membrane is approximated as being well-mixed, with constant concentrations of all species. Unlike other models, our proposal does not require autocatalytic binding of MinD to the membrane. Instead, it is assumed that two MinE molecules are necessary to induce the dissociation of the MinD dimer and its subsequent detachment from the membrane. We investigate which reaction schemes lead to unstable homogeneous steady states and limit cycle oscillations, and how diffusion affects their stability. The suggested model qualitatively describes the shape of the Min waves observed on flat membranes, and agrees with the experimental dependence of the wave period on the MinE concentration. These results highlight the importance of MinE presence on the membrane without being bound to MinD, and of the reactions of Min proteins on the membrane.

  13. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring.

  14. Modeling spatial oscillations of Min proteins in round bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerwyn; Wingreen, Ned

    2004-03-01

    In the rod-shaped bacterium phE. coli, the Min proteins oscillate from pole to pole every ˜40 seconds. This internal spatial oscillator plays an essential role in the high accuracy of phE. coli's cell division. Homologs of the Min proteins also exist in round cells (cocci) such as phNeisseria gonorrhoeae. While oscillations have not been directly observed in phN. gonorrhoeae cells because of their small size ( ˜1 micron in diameter), evidence is accumulating that the Min proteins do oscillate in these cells. For example, the Min proteins are observed to oscillate in round mutants of phE. coli, and the phN. gonorrhoeae Min proteins oscillate when expressed in rod-shaped phE. coli. Adding to the evidence for Min-protein oscillations in phN. gonorrhoeae, we report that a numerical model for Min-protein oscillations in rod-shaped cells also produces oscillations in round cells. Our results moreover explain why the rings of MinE protein found in wild-type phE. coli are absent in round phE. coli mutants. Importantly, we find that there is a minimum radius below which oscillations do not occur. Finally, we show that Min-protein oscillations are able to select the longest axis of nearly round cells. This sensitivity of Min-protein oscillations to cell geometry suggests a role for the oscillations in selecting the plane of cell division.

  15. Weighted MinMax Algorithm for Color Image Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, Paula J.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum intercluster distance and the maximum quantization error that are minimized by the MinMax algorithm are shown to be inappropriate error measures for color image quantization. A fast and effective (improves image quality) method for generalizing activity weighting to any histogram-based color quantization algorithm is presented. A new non-hierarchical color quantization technique called weighted MinMax that is a hybrid between the MinMax and Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithms is also described. The weighted MinMax algorithm incorporates activity weighting and seeks to minimize WRMSE, whereby obtaining high quality quantized images with significantly less visual distortion than the MinMax algorithm.

  16. Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; King, James

    2011-01-01

    Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.

  17. Oscillating behavior of Clostridium difficile Min proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Makroczyová, Jana; Jamroškovič, Ján; Krascsenitsová, Eva; Labajová, Nad'a; Barák, Imrich

    2016-06-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the proper placement of the division septum at the midcell relies, at least partially, on the proteins of the Min system as an inhibitor of cell division. The main principle of Min system function involves the formation of an inhibitor gradient along the cell axis; however, the establishment of this gradient differs between two well-studied gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. While in gram-negative Escherichia coli, the Min system undergoes pole-to-pole oscillation, in gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, proper spatial inhibition is achieved by the preferential attraction of the Min proteins to the cell poles. Nevertheless, when E.coli Min proteins are inserted into B.subtilis cells, they still oscillate, which negatively affects asymmetric septation during sporulation in this organism. Interestingly, homologs of both Min systems were found to be present in various combinations in the genomes of anaerobic and endospore-forming Clostridia, including the pathogenic Clostridium difficile. Here, we have investigated the localization and behavior of C.difficile Min protein homologs and showed that MinDE proteins of C.difficile can oscillate when expressed together in B.subtilis cells. We have also investigated the effects of this oscillation on B.subtilis sporulation, and observed decreased sporulation efficiency in strains harboring the MinDE genes. Additionally, we have evaluated the effects of C.difficile Min protein expression on vegetative division in this heterologous host. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Robust regulation of oscillatory Min-protein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin

    2012-02-01

    Robust spatial patterning was crucial just from the beginning of cellular evolution, and is key to the development of multicellular organisms. In E. Coli, the oscillatory pole-to-pole dynamics of MinCDE proteins functionality prevent improper cell divisions apart from midcell. Min-oscillations are characterized by the remarkable robustness with which spatial patterns dynamically adapt to variations of cell geometry. Moreover, adaption, and therefore proper cell division, is independent of temperature. These observations raise fundamental questions about the underlying core mechanisms, and about the role of spatial cues. With a conceptually novel and universal approach to cellular geometries, we introduce a robust model based on experimental data, consistently explaining the mechanisms underlying pole-to-pole, striped and circular patterns, as well as the observed temperature-dependence. Contrary to prior conjectures, the model predicts that MinD and cardiolipin domains are not colocalized. The key mechanisms are transient sequestration of MinE, and highly canalized transfer of MinD between polar zones. MinD channeling enhances midcell localization and facilitates stripe formation, revealing the potential optimization process from which robust Min-oscillations originally arose.

  19. The relationship between the 5-min oscillation and 3-min oscillations at the umbral/penumbral sunspot boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinping; Liang, Hongfei

    2017-03-01

    Observations of the main sunspot of AR 11692 were carried out with the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) located on the Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO) in Hα on March 13, 2013. The high cadence (up to 12 s) Hα intensity images help us to investigate the relationship between the 5-min oscillation and 3-min oscillation. It is found that running waves, periodically formed at the wave sources within umbra, propagate outward with the shape of partial arcs. The running waves run across the umbra-penumbra boundary and eventually disappear at the edge of penumbra. But there are obvious differences when we measure the period of running waves in different regions of a sunspot. The period is about 150 s when the running waves are located in umbra, which is a typical 3-min oscillation, and the period is about 300 s when the running waves are located in the penumbra, which is a typical 5-min oscillation. On the basis of time-slice images, we conclude that the waves form in the umbral region with the 5-min oscillation period, which can cause the brightness periodicity change in the umbra region with the 3-min period (in fact, is half of 5-min oscillation) and 5-min in the penumbra.

  20. Ocular changes over 60 min in supine and prone postures.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Allison P; Babu, Gautam; Swan, Jacob G; Phillips, Scott D; Knaus, Darin A; Toutain-Kidd, Christine M; Zegans, Michael E; Fellows, Abigail M; Gui, Jiang; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-08-01

    Some astronauts are returning from long-duration spaceflight with structural ocular and visual changes. We investigated both the transient and sustained effects of changes in the direction of the gravity vector acting on the eye using changes in body posture. Intraocular pressure (IOP; measured by Perkins tonometer), ocular geometry (axial length, corneal thickness, and aqueous depth-noncontact biometer), and the choroid (volume and subfoveal thickness optical coherence tomography) were measured in 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Measures were taken over the course of 60 min and analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of covariance to assess the effects of posture and time. In the supine position, choroidal volume increased significantly with time (average value at <5 min = 8.8 ± 2.3 mm(3), 60 min = 9.0 ± 2.4 mm(3), P = 0.03). In the prone position, IOP and axial length increased with time (IOP at <5 min 15 ± 2.7 mmHg, 60 min = 19.8 ± 4.1 mmHg, P < 0.0001; axial length at <5 min = 24.29 ± 0.77 mm, 60 min = 24.31 ± 0.76 mm, P = 0.002). Each increased exponentially, with time constants of 5.3 and 14 min, respectively. Prone corneal thickness also increased with time (<5 min = 528 ± 35 μm, 60 min = 537 ± 35 μm(3), P < 0.001). Aqueous depth was shortened in the prone position (baseline = 3.22 ± 0.31 mm, 60 min = 3.18 ± 0.32 mm, P < 0.0001) but did not change with time. The data show that changes in the gravity vector have pronounced transient and sustained effects on the geometry and physiology of the eye.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that gravity has pronounced transient and sustained effects on the eye by making detailed ocular measurements over 60 min in the supine and prone postures. These data inform our understanding of how gravitational forces can affect ocular structures, which is essential for hypothesizing how ocular changes could occur with microgravity exposure. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Miniature penetrator (MinPen) acceleration recorder development test

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Platzbecker, M.R.

    1998-08-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories actively develops and tests acceleration recorders for penetrating weapons. This new acceleration recorder (MinPen) utilizes a microprocessor-based architecture for operational flexibility while maintaining electronics and packaging techniques developed over years of penetrator testing. MinPen has been demonstrated to function in shock environments up to 20,000 Gs. The MinPen instrumentation development has resulted in a rugged, versatile, miniature acceleration recorder and is a valuable tool for penetrator testing in a wide range of applications.

  2. Intraocular Pressure Response to Moderate Exercise during 30-Min Recovery.

    PubMed

    Najmanova, Eliska; Pluhacek, Frantisek; Botek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after moderate exercise in normal healthy individuals with defined physical exertion. The second aim of this investigation was to determine the correlation between resting IOP (IOPr) and its change induced by exercise as well as the relationship between resting heart rate (HRr) and changes in IOP after exercise. Forty-one healthy volunteers between the ages of 19 and 25 years were recruited for the study. First, the resting (reference) values IOPr and HRr were measured after 30 min of resting time. Volunteers consequently performed 30 min of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Intraocular pressure was remeasured immediately after the end of exercise (the relevant IOP change was denoted as ΔIOP0) and subsequently repeated 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after exercise. A significant decrease in IOP compared with the resting value (post hoc Tukey honest significant difference test) was found immediately after exercise (p = 2 × 10) and 5 and 10 min after exercise (p = 2 × 10 and p = 3 × 10). Significant relationships were found between the change in IOP (ΔIOP0) and baseline IOP (IOPr) and between the baseline resting heart rate (HRr) and the change in IOP (ΔIOP0). There was a significant IOP-lowering effect, which was persistent for 10 min after 30 min of exercise. The IOP change was dependent on the initial IOP reading and initial HR.

  3. The 1-min Screening Test for Reading Problems in College Students: Psychometric Properties of the 1-min TIL.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tânia; Araújo, Susana; Sucena, Ana; Reis, Alexandra; Castro, São Luís

    2017-02-01

    Reading is a central cognitive domain, but little research has been devoted to standardized tests for adults. We, thus, examined the psychometric properties of the 1-min version of Teste de Idade de Leitura (Reading Age Test; 1-min TIL), the Portuguese version of Lobrot L3 test, in three experiments with college students: typical readers in Experiment 1A and B, dyslexic readers and chronological age controls in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were evaluated in 185 students. Reliability was >.70, and phonological decoding underpinned 1-min TIL. In Experiment 1B, internal consistency was assessed by presenting two 45-s versions of the test to 19 students, and performance in these versions was significantly associated (r = .78). In Experiment 2, construct validity, criterion validity and clinical utility of 1-min TIL were investigated. A multiple regression analysis corroborated construct validity; both phonological decoding and listening comprehension were reliable predictors of 1-min TIL scores. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics analyses revealed the high accuracy of this test in distinguishing dyslexic from typical readers. Therefore, the 1-min TIL, which assesses reading comprehension and potential reading difficulties in college students, has the necessary psychometric properties to become a useful screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mapping out Min protein patterns in fully confined fluidic chambers

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Yaron; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Min protein system provides a major model system for studying reaction-diffusion processes in biology. Here we present the first in vitro study of the Min system in fully confined three-dimensional chambers that are lithography-defined, lipid-bilayer coated and isolated through pressure valves. We identify three typical dynamical behaviors that occur dependent on the geometrical chamber parameters: pole-to-pole oscillations, spiral rotations, and traveling waves. We establish the geometrical selection rules and show that, surprisingly, Min-protein spiral rotations govern the larger part of the geometrical phase diagram. Confinement as well as an elevated temperature reduce the characteristic wavelength of the Min patterns, although even for confined chambers with a bacterial-level viscosity, the patterns retain a ~5 times larger wavelength than in vivo. Our results provide an essential experimental base for modeling of intracellular Min gradients in bacterial cell division as well as, more generally, for understanding pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19271.001 PMID:27885986

  5. CheMin Instrument Performance and Calibration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Morookian, J. M.; Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode X-ray tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pattern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A key component of the CheMin instrument is the ability to move grains within sample cells during analysis, providing multiple, random grain orientations that disperse diffracted X-ray photons along Debye rings rather than producing discrete Laue spots. This movement is accomplished by piezoelectric vibration of the sample cells. A cryocooler is used to maintain the CCD at a temperature at about -50 C in order to obtain energy resolution better than 250 eV, allowing discrimination of diffracted Co K X-rays from Fe K and other fluorescent X-rays. A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. The CheMin flight model (FM) is mounted within the body of Curiosity and has been operating on Mars since August 6, 2012. An essentially identical sister instrument, the CheMin demonstration model (DM), is operated in a Mars environment chamber at JPL.

  6. Mapping out Min protein patterns in fully confined fluidic chambers.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Yaron; Dekker, Cees

    2016-11-25

    The bacterial Min protein system provides a major model system for studying reaction-diffusion processes in biology. Here we present the first in vitro study of the Min system in fully confined three-dimensional chambers that are lithography-defined, lipid-bilayer coated and isolated through pressure valves. We identify three typical dynamical behaviors that occur dependent on the geometrical chamber parameters: pole-to-pole oscillations, spiral rotations, and traveling waves. We establish the geometrical selection rules and show that, surprisingly, Min-protein spiral rotations govern the larger part of the geometrical phase diagram. Confinement as well as an elevated temperature reduce the characteristic wavelength of the Min patterns, although even for confined chambers with a bacterial-level viscosity, the patterns retain a ~5 times larger wavelength than in vivo. Our results provide an essential experimental base for modeling of intracellular Min gradients in bacterial cell division as well as, more generally, for understanding pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems.

  7. OGA heterozygosity suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y R; Jang, H-J; Yoon, S; Lee, Y H; Nam, D; Kim, I S; Lee, H; Kim, H; Choi, J H; Kang, B H; Ryu, S H; Suh, P-G

    2014-07-07

    Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation is associated with tumorigenesis. Many oncogenic factors are O-GlcNAcylated, which modulates their functions. However, it remains unclear how O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), affect the development of cancer in animal models. In this study, we show that reduced level of OGA attenuates colorectal tumorigenesis induced by Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mutation. The levels of O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes were simultaneously upregulated in intestinal adenomas from mice, and in human patients. In two independent microarray data sets, the expression of OGA and OGT was significantly associated with poor cancer-specific survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. In addition, OGA heterozygosity, which results in increased levels of O-GlcNAcylation, attenuated intestinal tumor formation in the Apc(min/+) background. Apc(min/+) OGA(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly increased survival rate compared with Apc(min/+) mice. Consistent with this, Apc(min/+) OGA(+/-) mice expressed lower levels of Wnt target genes than Apc(min/+). However, the knockout of OGA did not affect Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Overall, these findings suggest that OGA is crucial for tumor growth in CRC independently of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  8. MinT: Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soobin; Jung, Inbum

    2017-06-20

    This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) middleware called Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things (MinT). MinT supports a fully distributed IoT environment in which IoT devices directly connect to peripheral devices easily construct a local or global network, and share their data in an energy efficient manner. MinT provides a sensor abstract layer, a system layer and an interaction layer. These enable integrated sensing device operations, efficient resource management, and active interconnection between peripheral IoT devices. In addition, MinT provides a high-level API to develop IoT devices easily for IoT device developers. We aim to enhance the energy efficiency and performance of IoT devices through the performance improvements offered by MinT resource management and request processing. The experimental results show that the average request rate increased by 25% compared to Californium, which is a middleware for efficient interaction in IoT environments with powerful performance, an average response time decrease of 90% when resource management was used, and power consumption decreased by up to 68%. Finally, the proposed platform can reduce the latency and power consumption of IoT devices.

  9. MinT: Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soobin; Jung, Inbum

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) middleware called Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things (MinT). MinT supports a fully distributed IoT environment in which IoT devices directly connect to peripheral devices easily construct a local or global network, and share their data in an energy efficient manner. MinT provides a sensor abstract layer, a system layer and an interaction layer. These enable integrated sensing device operations, efficient resource management, and active interconnection between peripheral IoT devices. In addition, MinT provides a high-level API to develop IoT devices easily for IoT device developers. We aim to enhance the energy efficiency and performance of IoT devices through the performance improvements offered by MinT resource management and request processing. The experimental results show that the average request rate increased by 25% compared to Californium, which is a middleware for efficient interaction in IoT environments with powerful performance, an average response time decrease of 90% when resource management was used, and power consumption decreased by up to 68%. Finally, the proposed platform can reduce the latency and power consumption of IoT devices. PMID:28632182

  10. Fast decoding of a d(min) = 6 RS code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, H.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A method for high speed decoding a d sub min = 6 Reed-Solomon (RS) code is presented. Properties of the two byte error correcting and three byte error detecting RS code are discussed. Decoding using a quadratic equation is shown. Theorems and concomitant proofs are included to substantiate this decoding method.

  11. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees

    2016-06-08

    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Min and Max Exponential Extreme Interval Values and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Thomopoulos, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The extreme interval values and statistics (expected value, median, mode, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) for the smallest (min) and largest (max) values of exponentially distributed variables with parameter ? = 1 are examined for different observation (sample) sizes. An extreme interval value g[subscript a] is defined as a…

  13. Some interesting min-bias distributions for early LHC runs

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, P.Z.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    A few observable distributions in min-bias (inelastic, non-diffractive) events which could be well constrained with early LHC data are presented, with some comments on their significance for placing constraints on theoretical models. The effects of fiducial cuts (p{perpendicular} > 0.5 GeV, |{eta}| < 2.5) and extrapolation from the Tevatron are illustrated.

  14. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter

    2015-08-01

    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  15. Metabolomics of Apc Min/+ mice genetically susceptible to intestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, Apc Min/+ , we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of Apc Min/+ vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model. Results Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in Apc Min/+ mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in Apc Min/+ mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of Apc Min/+ -mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression. Conclusions These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures

  16. Characterization of MinION nanopore data for resequencing analyses.

    PubMed

    Magi, Alberto; Giusti, Betti; Tattini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-24

    The Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION is a new device, based on nanopore sequencing that is able to generate reads of tens of kilobases in length with faster sequencing time with respect to other platforms. To evaluate the capability of nanopore data to be exploited for resequencing analyses we used the largest MinION data set to date and we compared with Illumina and Pacific Biosciences technologies. By using five different mapping approaches we estimated that the global sequencing error rate of MinION reads, mainly caused by inserted and deleted bases, is around 11%. The study of error distribution showed that substituted, inserted and deleted bases are not randomly distributed along the reads, but mainly occur in specific nucleotide patterns, generating a significant number of genomic loci that can be misclassified as false-positive variants. With 40× sequencing coverage, MinION data can produce at best around one false substitution and insertion every 10-50 kb, and one false deletion every 1000 bp, making use of this technology still challenging for small-sized variant discovery. We also analyzed depth of coverage distribution and we demonstrated that nanopore sequencing is a uniform process that generates sequences randomly and independently without classical sources of bias such as GC-content and mappability. Owing to these properties, the MinION data can be readily used to detect genomic regions involved in copy number variants with high accuracy, outperforming other state-of-the-art sequencing methods in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Estimating 1 min rain rate distributions from numerical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, Kevin S.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally recognized prognostic models of rain fade on terrestrial and Earth-space EHF links rely fundamentally on distributions of 1 min rain rates. Currently, in Rec. ITU-R P.837-6, these distributions are generated using the Salonen-Poiares Baptista method where 1 min rain rate distributions are estimated from long-term average annual accumulations provided by numerical weather prediction (NWP). This paper investigates an alternative to this method based on the distribution of 6 h accumulations available from the same NWPs. Rain rate fields covering the UK, produced by the Nimrod network of radars, are integrated to estimate the accumulations provided by NWP, and these are linked to distributions of fine-scale rain rates. The proposed method makes better use of the available data. It is verified on 15 NWP regions spanning the UK, and the extension to other regions is discussed.

  18. Using `min' and `max' functions in calculus teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satianov, Pavel; Dagan, Miriam; Amram, Meirav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of the min and max functions in teaching calculus to engineering students. Our experience illustrates that such functions have great possibilities in the development of a student's analytical thinking. The types of problems we present here are not common in most instructional texts, which lead us to suggest that the paper will be interesting and useful to calculus lecturers.

  19. Enumerating Near-Min S-T Cuts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Chapter 2 ENUMERATING NEAR-MIN S-T CUTS Ahmet Balcioglu Operations Research Dept. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 R. Kevin Wood...enumerating near- minimum-weight s-t cuts in directed and undirected graphs, with appli- cation to network interdiction. “Near-minimum” means within a factor...of 1+ of the minimum for some ≥ 0. The algorithm requires only polynomial work per cut enumerated provided that is sufficiently (not trivially) small

  20. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hengyun; Giordano, Francesca; Ning, Zemin

    2016-10-01

    The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS) technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS) technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosome segregation by the Escherichia coli Min system

    PubMed Central

    Di Ventura, Barbara; Knecht, Benoît; Andreas, Helena; Godinez, William J; Fritsche, Miriam; Rohr, Karl; Nickel, Walter; Heermann, Dieter W; Sourjik, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying chromosome segregation in prokaryotes remain a subject of debate and no unifying view has yet emerged. Given that the initial disentanglement of duplicated chromosomes could be achieved by purely entropic forces, even the requirement of an active prokaryotic segregation machinery has been questioned. Using computer simulations, we show that entropic forces alone are not sufficient to achieve and maintain full separation of chromosomes. This is, however, possible by assuming repeated binding of chromosomes along a gradient of membrane-associated tethering sites toward the poles. We propose that, in Escherichia coli, such a gradient of membrane tethering sites may be provided by the oscillatory Min system, otherwise known for its role in selecting the cell division site. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that MinD binds to DNA and tethers it to the membrane in an ATP-dependent manner. Taken together, our combined theoretical and experimental results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of chromosome segregation based on the Min system, further highlighting the importance of active segregation of chromosomes in prokaryotic cell biology. PMID:24022004

  2. The Asymptotics of Quantum Max-Flow Min-Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Matthew B.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum max-flow min-cut conjecture relates the rank of a tensor network to the minimum cut in the case that all tensors in the network are identical in Calegari et al. (J Am Math Soc 23(1):107-188, 2010). This conjecture was shown to be false in Cui et al. (J Math Phys 57:062206, 2016) by an explicit counter-example. Here, we show that the conjecture is almost true, in that the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut converges to 1 as the dimension N of the degrees of freedom on the edges of the network tends to infinity. The proof is based on estimating moments of the singular values of the network. We introduce a generalization of "rainbow diagrams" to tensor networks to estimate the dominant diagrams. A direct comparison of second and fourth moments lower bounds the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut by a constant. To show the tighter bound that the ratio tends to 1, we consider higher moments. In addition, we show that the limiting moments as N → ∞ agree with that in a different ensemble where tensors in the network are chosen independently; this is used to show that the distributions of singular values in the two different ensembles weakly converge to the same limiting distribution. We present also a numerical study of one particular tensor network, which shows a surprising dependence of the rank deficit on N mod 4 and suggests further conjecture on the limiting behavior of the rank.

  3. The Asymptotics of Quantum Max-Flow Min-Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Matthew B.

    2017-04-01

    The quantum max-flow min-cut conjecture relates the rank of a tensor network to the minimum cut in the case that all tensors in the network are identical in Calegari et al. (J Am Math Soc 23(1):107-188, 2010). This conjecture was shown to be false in Cui et al. (J Math Phys 57:062206, 2016) by an explicit counter-example. Here, we show that the conjecture is almost true, in that the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut converges to 1 as the dimension N of the degrees of freedom on the edges of the network tends to infinity. The proof is based on estimating moments of the singular values of the network. We introduce a generalization of "rainbow diagrams" to tensor networks to estimate the dominant diagrams. A direct comparison of second and fourth moments lower bounds the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut by a constant. To show the tighter bound that the ratio tends to 1, we consider higher moments. In addition, we show that the limiting moments as N → ∞ agree with that in a different ensemble where tensors in the network are chosen independently; this is used to show that the distributions of singular values in the two different ensembles weakly converge to the same limiting distribution. We present also a numerical study of one particular tensor network, which shows a surprising dependence of the rank deficit on N mod 4 and suggests further conjecture on the limiting behavior of the rank.

  4. Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.

    1996-02-01

    We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.

  5. Forensic SNP Genotyping using Nanopore MinION Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Senne; Gansemans, Yannick; Deleye, Lieselot; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2017-01-01

    One of the latest developments in next generation sequencing is the Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ (ONT) MinION nanopore sequencer. We studied the applicability of this system to perform forensic genotyping of the forensic female DNA standard 9947 A using the 52 SNP-plex assay developed by the SNPforID consortium. All but one of the loci were correctly genotyped. Several SNP loci were identified as problematic for correct and robust genotyping using nanopore sequencing. All these loci contained homopolymers in the sequence flanking the forensic SNP and most of them were already reported as problematic in studies using other sequencing technologies. When these problematic loci are avoided, correct forensic genotyping using nanopore sequencing is technically feasible. PMID:28155888

  6. Forensic SNP Genotyping using Nanopore MinION Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Senne; Gansemans, Yannick; Deleye, Lieselot; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2017-02-03

    One of the latest developments in next generation sequencing is the Oxford Nanopore Technologies' (ONT) MinION nanopore sequencer. We studied the applicability of this system to perform forensic genotyping of the forensic female DNA standard 9947 A using the 52 SNP-plex assay developed by the SNPforID consortium. All but one of the loci were correctly genotyped. Several SNP loci were identified as problematic for correct and robust genotyping using nanopore sequencing. All these loci contained homopolymers in the sequence flanking the forensic SNP and most of them were already reported as problematic in studies using other sequencing technologies. When these problematic loci are avoided, correct forensic genotyping using nanopore sequencing is technically feasible.

  7. The min-conflicts heuristic: Experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steven; Philips, Andrew B.; Johnston, Mark D.; Laird, Philip

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a simple heuristic method for solving large-scale constraint satisfaction and scheduling problems. Given an initial assignment for the variables in a problem, the method operates by searching through the space of possible repairs. The search is guided by an ordering heuristic, the min-conflicts heuristic, that attempts to minimize the number of constraint violations after each step. We demonstrate empirically that the method performs orders of magnitude better than traditional backtracking techniques on certain standard problems. For example, the one million queens problem can be solved rapidly using our approach. We also describe practical scheduling applications where the method has been successfully applied. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain why the method works so well on certain types of problems and to predict when it is likely to be most effective.

  8. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2008-07-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. Initial compression testing was performed at room temperature at various loading rates ranging between 5 and 500 psi/hour (≈35 and 3500 kPa/hour) to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K. To determine the loading rates that would be used for stress relaxation testing, compression tests were next carried out at various levels followed by stress relaxation under constant strain at temperatures of 650, 850, and 900oC. Additional high temperature compression testing was performed with samples loaded at a rate of 53 psi/hour (365 kPa/hour) in three load steps of 50, 100 and 200 psi (345, 690, and 1380 kPa) with quick unload/load cycles between steps and followed by a hold period in load control (3 to 100 hours) to allow for sample creep. Testing was carried out at 190, 382, 813, and 850oC. Isothermal stress relaxation testing was performed at temperatures of 190, 382, 813, and 850oC and initial loads of 100 and 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa). Gradient stress relaxation testing was intended to be performed at temperatures of 850/450oC and 450/190oC with initial loads of 100 or 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa) performed under constant strain utilizing a twelve-step loading scheme with loading every half hour at a rate of 5.56% strain/hour.

  9. Exposure to ambient PM10 and nitrogen dioxide and ADHD risk: A reply to Min & Min (2017).

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith; Fluegge, Kyle

    2017-03-02

    Min and Min (2017) conducted an epidemiological investigation that revealed further support of a link between exposure to air pollution and risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. We have previously reported that exposure to the agricultural and combustion pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O), may be a primary environmental trigger in the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders, like ADHD and autism spectrum disorders. In order to validate our prior work pointing to an association between farm use of nitrogen fertilizers and a severe ADHD phenotype, we have utilized a different statistical approach (i.e., Poisson regression methodology) including two-way fixed effects. The results reported in this correspondence indicate that for a one-log unit increase in the farm use of nitrogen fertilizers, hospitalization risk for ADHD and conduct disorders increases by a factor of 1.16 (p<0.017), which was a statistically significant increase in risk after multiple pollutant comparison correction. Exposure to PM10 and NOx in this analysis was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for ADHD and conduct disorder. We are able to validate our prior conclusions and, therefore, suggest that future analyses dedicated to improving the literature on the association between air pollution and risk of ADHD take into account environmental emissions of N2O.

  10. Min-cut segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian L.; Barrett, William A.; Swingle, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Handwritten tabular documents, such as census, birth, death and marriage records, contain a wealth of information vital to genealogical and related research. Much work has been done in segmenting freeform handwriting, however, segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents is still an unsolved problem. Tabular documents present unique segmentation challenges caused by handwriting overlapping cell-boundaries and other words, both horizontally and vertically, as "ascenders" and "descenders" overlap into adjacent cells. This paper presents a method for segmenting handwriting in tabular documents using a min-cut/max-flow algorithm on a graph formed from a distance map and connected components of handwriting. Specifically, we focus on line, word and first letter segmentation. Additionally, we include the angles of strokes of the handwriting as a third dimension to our graph to enable the resulting segments to share pixels of overlapping letters. Word segmentation accuracy is 89.5% evaluating lines of the data set used in the ICDAR2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest. Accuracy is 92.6% for a specific application of segmenting first and last names from noisy census records. Accuracy for segmenting lines of names from noisy census records is 80.7%. The 3D graph cutting shows promise in segmenting overlapping letters, although highly convoluted or overlapping handwriting remains an ongoing challenge.

  11. The US Army HazMin probe model

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.; Dirks, J.; Brothers, A.; Fowler, K.; Skumanich, M. ); Scola, R.; Perich, A.; Napolitano, M. )

    1993-03-01

    In 1987, the US Department of Defense (DOD) established a goal of reducing the quantity of hazardous waste generated by DOD facilities by 50%. To help achieve this goal, the US Army Production Base Modernization Activity (PBMA) has contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop decision support software to be used in the Army-wide hazardous waste minimization (HazMin) program. The resulting waste minimization prioritization software has been named the Project Opportunity and Benefit Evaluation (PROBE) model. PROBE can be used to evaluate both waste stream and project priorities. PROBE operates on any IBM-compatible personal computer hardware with at least 640K of memory and 5 megabytes of available hard disk space. PROBE was developed under the direction of PBMA, which retains unlimited rights to the Federal version of PROBE. PBMA encourages other DOD services and other Federal agencies to use PROBE to assist in their own waste minimization programs. PNL is also considering developing a copyrighted version of PROBE for the commercial market. PROBE was written using FoxPro 2.0 application development software, and runs as an executable file from either MS-DOS or Windows. The software can be loaded onto a single high-capacity floppy disk in a compressed format and can be transferred onto hard disk, ready to operate, via a simple start-up routine.

  12. A max-min theorem for integer multiflows

    SciTech Connect

    Lomonosov, M.; Ilani, H; Korach, E.

    1994-12-31

    We consider a multigraph G = (V, E), with the vertex-set V and edge-set E, and a set T {improper_subset} V of terminals, {vert_bar}T{vert_bar} {>=} 2. Given a graph S = (T, U) with U {intersection} E = {O}, called scheme, define an integer S-flow in G as a collection C of edge-disjoint paths in G whose ends are terminals adjacent in S. We address the problem of maximum integer S-flow under the following assumptions: (1) the non-terminal vertices of G have even degrees, and (2) each terminal belongs to atmost two anticliques of S. Due to the assumption, there arises a deep analogy of this problem with matchings in graphs. In fact, it admits formulating as a polymatroid matching problem. We develop an approach analogous to the Berge method of alternating paths, with the notion of {open_quotes}blossom{close_quotes} closely related to that introduced by Edmonds. We characterize max {vert_bar}C{vert_bar} by a max-min relation analogous to the Berge-Tutte formula of the Matching theory.

  13. MOQA min-max heapify: A randomness preserving algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ang; Hennessy, Aoife; Schellekens, Michel

    2012-09-01

    MOQA is a high-level data structuring language, designed to allow for modular static timing analysis [1, 2, 3]. In essence,MOQA allows the programmer to determine the average running time of a broad class of programmes directly from the code in a (semi-)automated way. The modularity property brings a strong advantage for the programmer. The capacity to combine parts of code, where the average-time is simply the sum of the times of the parts, is a very helpful advantage in static analysis, something which is not available in current languages. Modularity also improves precision of average-case analysis, supporting the determination of accurate estimates on the average number of basic operations ofMOQA programs. The mathematical theory underpinning this approach is that of random structures and their preservation. Applying any MOQA operation to all elements of a random structure results in an output isomorphic to one or more random structures, which is the key to systematic timing. Here we introduce the approach in a self contained way and provide a MOQA version of the well-known algorithm of Min-Max heapify, constructed with the MOQA product operation. We demonstrate the "randomness preservation" property of the algorithm and illustrate the applicability of our method by deriving the exact average time of the algorithm.

  14. Transmembrane Helix Assembly by Max-Min Ant System Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sujaree, Kanon; Kitjaruwankul, Sunan; Boonamnaj, Panisak; Supunyabut, Chirayut; Sompornpisut, Pornthep

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid progress in biochemical and structural studies of membrane proteins, considerable attention has been given on developing efficient computational methods for solving low-to-medium resolution structures using sparse structural data. In this study, we demonstrate a novel algorithm, max-min ant system (MMAS), designed to find an assembly of α-helical transmembrane proteins using a rigid helix arrangement guided by distance constraints. The new algorithm generates a large variety with finite number of orientations of transmembrane helix bundle and finds the solution that is matched with the provided distance constraints based on the behavior of ants to search for the shortest possible path between their nest and the food source. To demonstrate the efficiency of the novel search algorithm, MMAS is applied to determine the transmembrane packing of KcsA and MscL ion channels from a limited distance information extracted from the crystal structures, and the packing of KvAP voltage sensor domain using a set of 10 experimentally determined constraints, and the results are compared with those of two popular used stochastic methods, simulated annealing Monte Carlo method and genetic algorithm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Appropriation of the MinD protein-interaction motif by the dimeric interface of the bacterial cell division regulator MinE

    PubMed Central

    Ghasriani, Houman; Ducat, Thierry; Hart, Chris T.; Hafizi, Fatima; Chang, Nina; Al-Baldawi, Ali; Ayed, Saud H.; Lundström, Patrik; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.; Goto, Natalie K.

    2010-01-01

    MinE is required for the dynamic oscillation of Min proteins that restricts formation of the cytokinetic septum to the midpoint of the cell in gram negative bacteria. Critical for this oscillation is MinD-binding by MinE to stimulate MinD ATP hydrolysis, a function that had been assigned to the first ∼30 residues in MinE. Previous models based on the structure of an autonomously folded dimeric C-terminal fragment suggested that the N-terminal domain is freely accessible for interactions with MinD. We report here the solution NMR structure of the full-length MinE dimer from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with two parts of the N-terminal domain forming an integral part of the dimerization interface. Unexpectedly, solvent accessibility is highly restricted for residues that were previously hypothesized to directly interact with MinD. To delineate the true MinD-binding region, in vitro assays for MinE-stimulated MinD activity were performed. The relative MinD-binding affinities obtained for full-length and N-terminal peptides from MinE demonstrated that residues that are buried in the dimeric interface nonetheless participate in direct interactions with MinD. According to results from NMR spin relaxation experiments, access to these buried residues may be facilitated by the presence of conformational exchange. We suggest that this concealment of MinD-binding residues by the MinE dimeric interface provides a mechanism for prevention of nonspecific interactions, particularly with the lipid membrane, to allow the free diffusion of MinE that is critical for Min protein oscillation. PMID:20937912

  16. Mudstone Mineralogy from Curiosity CheMin, 2013 to 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    This series of pie charts shows similarities and differences in the mineral compositions of mudstones at 10 sites where NASA's Curiosity Mars rover collected rock-powder samples and analyzed them with the rover's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument. The charts are arrayed in chronological order, with an indication of relative elevation as the rover first sampled two sites on the floor of Gale Crater in 2013 and later began climbing the crater's central mound, Mount Sharp. The pie chart farthest to the right and uphill shows composition at the "Sebina" target, sampled in October 2016. Five non-mudstone rock targets that the rover drilled and analyzed within this time frame are not included. The mineralogical variations in these mudstones may be due to differences in any or all of these factors: the source materials deposited by water that entered lakes, the processes of sedimentation and rock forming, and how the rocks were later altered. One trend that stands out is that the mineral jarosite -- shown in purple -- was more prominent in the "Pahrump Hills" area of lower Mount Sharp than at sites examined either earlier or later. Jarosite is an indicator of acidic water. Mudstone layers uphill from Pahrump Hills have barely detectable amounts of jarosite, indicating a shift away from acidic conditions in these overlying -- thus younger -- layers. Clay minerals, shown as green, declined in abundance at sites midway through this series, then came back as the rover climbed higher. Each drilled-and-analyzed target is identified with a two-letter abbreviation: JK for "John Klein," CB for "Cumberland." CH for "Confidence Hills," MJ for "Mojave," TP for "Telegraph Peak," BK for "Buckskin," OD for "Oudam," MB for "Marimba," QL for "Quela," and SB for Sebina. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21146

  17. The energetics of semicontact 3 x 2-min amateur boxing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip; Leithäuser, Renate M; Beneke, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    The energy expenditure of amateur boxing is unknown. Total metabolic cost (Wtot) as an aggregate of aerobic (Waer), anaerobic lactic (W[lactate]), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr) energy of a 3 × 2-min semicontact amateur boxing bout was analyzed. Ten boxers (mean ± SD [lower/upper 95% confidence intervals]) age 23.7 ± 4.1 (20.8/26.6) y, height 180.2 ± 7.0 (175.2/185.2) cm, body mass 70.6 ± 5.7 (66.5/74.7) kg performed a semicontact bout against handheld pads created from previously analyzed video footage of competitive bouts. Net metabolic energy was calculated using respiratory gases and blood [lactate]. Waer, 526.0 ± 57.1 (485.1/566.9) kJ, was higher (P < .001) than WPCr, 58.1 ± 13.6 (48.4/67.8) kJ. W[lactate], 26.2 ± 7.1 (21.1/31.3) kJ, was lower (P < .001) than Waer and WPCr. An ~70-kJ fraction of the aerobic energy expenditure reflects rephosphorylation of high-energy phosphates during the breaks between rounds, which elevated Wtot to ~680 kJ with relative contributions of 77% Waer, 19% WPCr, and 4% W[lactate]. The results indicate that the metabolic profile of amateur boxing is predominantly aerobic. They also highlight the importance of a highly developed aerobic capacity as a prerequisite of a high activity rate during rounds and recovery of the high-energy phosphate system during breaks as interrelated requirements of successful boxing.

  18. Selection of the midcell division site in Bacillus subtilis through MinD-dependent polar localization and activation of MinC.

    PubMed

    Marston, A L; Errington, J

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cell division commences with the assembly of the tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, at midcell to form a ring. Division site selection in rod-shaped bacteria is mediated by MinC and MinD, which form a division inhibitor. Bacillus subtilis DivIVA protein ensures that MinCD specifically inhibits division close to the cell poles, while allowing division at midcell. We have examined the localization of MinC protein and show that it is targeted to midcell and retained at the mature cell poles. This localization is reminiscent of the pattern previously described for MinD. Localization of MinC requires both early (FtsZ) and late (PbpB) division proteins, and it is completely dependent on MinD. The effects of a divIVA mutation on localization of MinC now suggest that the main role of DivIVA is to retain MinCD at the cell poles after division, rather than recruitment to nascent division sites. By overexpressing minC or minD, we show that both proteins are required to block division, but that only MinD needs to be in excess of wild-type levels. The results suggest a mechanism whereby MinD is required both to pilot MinC to the cell poles and to constitute a functional division inhibitor.

  19. a Min-Cut Based Filter for Airborne LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Serkan; Shan, Jie

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a routinely employed technology as a 3-D data collection technique for topographic mapping. Conventional workflows for analyzing LiDAR data require the ground to be determined prior to extracting other features of interest. Filtering the terrain points is one of the fundamental processes to acquire higher-level information from unstructured LiDAR point data. There are many ground-filtering algorithms in literature, spanning several broad categories regarding their strategies. Most of the earlier algorithms examine only the local characteristics of the points or grids, such as the slope, and elevation discontinuities. Since considering only the local properties restricts the filtering performance due to the complexity of the terrain and the features, some recent methods utilize global properties of the terrain as well. This paper presents a new ground filtering method, Min-cut Based Filtering (MBF), which takes both local and global properties of the points into account. MBF considers ground filtering as a labeling task. First, an energy function is designed on a graph, where LiDAR points are considered as the nodes on the graph that are connected to each other as well as to two auxiliary nodes representing ground and off-ground labels. The graph is constructed such that the data costs are assigned to the edges connecting the points to the auxiliary nodes, and the smoothness costs to the edges between points. Data and smoothness terms of the energy function are formulated using point elevations and approximate ground information. The data term conducts the likelihood of the points being ground or off-ground while the smoothness term enforces spatial coherence between neighboring points. The energy function is optimized by finding the minimum-cut on the graph via the alpha-expansion algorithm. The resulting graph-cut provides the labeling of the point cloud as ground and off-ground points. Evaluation of the proposed method on

  20. GenMin: An enhanced genetic algorithm for global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, I. E.

    2008-06-01

    A new method that employs grammatical evolution and a stopping rule for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function is considered. The genetic algorithm used is a hybrid genetic algorithm in conjunction with a local search procedure. We list results from numerical experiments with a series of test functions and we compare with other established global optimization methods. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded either in Fortran 77 or in C++. Program summaryProgram title: GenMin Catalogue identifier: AEAR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 810 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 436 613 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Computer: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler RAM: 200 KB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 4.9 Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a nonlinear system of equations via optimization, employing a least squares type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Solution method: Grammatical evolution and a stopping rule. Running time: Depending on the

  1. ATP-Dependent Interactions between Escherichia coli Min Proteins and the Phospholipid Membrane In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Laura L.; Raskin, David M.; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Proper placement of the division apparatus in Escherichia coli requires pole-to-pole oscillation of the MinC division inhibitor. MinC dynamics involves a membrane association-dissociation cycle that is driven by the activities of the MinD ATPase and the MinE topological specificity factor, which themselves undergo coupled oscillatory localization cycles. To understand the biochemical mechanisms underlying Min protein dynamics, we studied the interactions of purified Min proteins with phospholipid vesicles and the role of ATP in these interactions. We show that (i) the ATP-bound form of MinD (MinD.ATP) readily associates with phospholipid vesicles in the presence of Mg2+, whereas the ADP-bound form (MinD.ADP) does not; (ii) MinD.ATP binds membrane in a self-enhancing fashion; (iii) both MinC and MinE can be recruited to MinD.ATP-decorated vesicles; (iv) MinE stimulates dissociation of MinD.ATP from the membrane in a process requiring hydrolysis of the nucleotide; and (v) MinE stimulates dissociation of MinC from MinD.ATP-membrane complexes, even when ATP hydrolysis is blocked. The results support and extend recent work by Z. Hu et al. (Z. Hu, E. P. Gogol, and J. Lutkenhaus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:6761-6766, 2002) and support models of protein oscillation wherein MinE induces Min protein dynamics by stimulating the conversion of the membrane-bound form of MinD (MinD.ATP) to the cytoplasmic form (MinD.ADP). The results also indicate that MinE-stimulated dissociation of MinC from the MinC-MinD.ATP-membrane complex can, and may, occur prior to hydrolysis of the nucleotide. PMID:12533449

  2. Septal membrane localization by C-terminal amphipathic α-helices of MinD in Bacillus subtilis mutant cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2017-06-30

    The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at the mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that B. subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. B. subtilis MinD has two amphipathic α-helices rich in basic amino acid residues at its C-terminus; one of these, named MTS1 here, is the counterpart of the membrane targeting sequence (MTS) in Escherichia coli MinD while the other, named MTS-like sequence (MTSL), is the nearest helix to MTS1. These amphipathic helices were located independently at nascent septal membranes in cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA, whereas elimination of the helices from the wild type protein reduced its localization considerably. MinD variants with altered MTS1 and MTSL, in which basic amino acid residues were replaced with proline or acidic residues, were not located at nascent septal membranes, indicating that the binding to the nascent septal membranes requires basic residues and a helical structure. The septal localization of MTSL, but not of MTS1, was dependent on host cell MinD. These results suggest that MinD is targeted to nascent septal membranes via its C-terminal amphipathic α-helices in B. subtilis cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA. Moreover, the diffuse distribution of MinD lacking both MTSs suggests that only a small fraction of MinD depends on MinJ for its localization to nascent septal membranes.

  3. Polymerization and oscillation stuttering in a filamentous model of the subcellular Min oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Sengupta, Supratim; Sain, Anirban; Derr, Julien

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational model of the E. coli Min oscillation that involves polymerization of MinD filaments followed by depolymerization stimulated by filament-end zones of MinE. Our stochastic model is fully three-dimensional, and tracks the diffusion and interactions of every MinD and MinE molecule. We recover self-organized Min oscillations. We investigate the experimental phenomenon of oscillation stuttering, which we relate to the disruption of MinE tip-binding at the filament scale.

  4. Intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins on the cell division of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Umeda, Akiko; Kadota, Yoshu; Kira, Mizuki; Okazaki, Ami; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori divides in the human stomach resulting in persistent infections and causing various disorders. Bacterial cell division is precisely coordinated by many molecules, including FtsZ and Min proteins. However, the role of Min proteins in H. pylori division is poorly understood. We investigated the functional characteristics of Min proteins in wild-type HPK5 and five HPK5-derivative mutants using morphological and genetic approaches. All mutants showed a filamentous shape. However, the bacterial cell growth and viability of three single-gene mutants (minC, minD, minE) were similar to that of the wild-type. The coccoid form number was lowest in the minE-disruptant, indicating that MinE contributes to the coccoid form conversion during the stationary phase. Immunofluorescence microscopic observations showed that FtsZ was dispersedly distributed throughout the bacterial cell irrespective of nucleoid position in only minD-disruptants, indicating that MinD is involved in the nucleoid occlusion system. A chase assay demonstrated that MinC loss suppressed FtsZ-degradation, indicating that FtsZ degrades in a MinC-dependent manner. Molecular interactions between FtsZ and Min proteins were confirmed by immunoprecipitation (IP)-western blotting (WB), suggesting the functional cooperation of these molecules during bacterial cell division. This study describes the intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins and provides new insights into H. pylori cell division.

  5. Robust Min-system oscillation in the presence of internal photosynthetic membranes in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    MacCready, Joshua S; Schossau, Jory; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Ducat, Daniel C

    2017-02-01

    The oscillatory Min system of Escherichia coli defines the cell division plane by regulating the site of FtsZ-ring formation and represents one of the best-understood examples of emergent protein self-organization in nature. The oscillatory patterns of the Min-system proteins MinC, MinD and MinE (MinCDE) are strongly dependent on the geometry of membranes they bind. Complex internal membranes within cyanobacteria could disrupt this self-organization by sterically occluding or sequestering MinCDE from the plasma membrane. Here, it was shown that the Min system in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 oscillates from pole-to-pole despite the potential spatial constraints imposed by their extensive thylakoid network. Moreover, reaction-diffusion simulations predict robust oscillations in modeled cyanobacterial cells provided that thylakoid network permeability is maintained to facilitate diffusion, and suggest that Min proteins require preferential affinity for the plasma membrane over thylakoids to correctly position the FtsZ ring. Interestingly, in addition to oscillating, MinC exhibits a midcell localization dependent on MinD and the DivIVA-like protein Cdv3, indicating that two distinct pools of MinC are coordinated in S. elongatus. Our results provide the first direct evidence for Min oscillation outside of E. coli and have broader implications for Min-system function in bacteria and organelles with internal membrane systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of 10min vs. 20min passive rest after warm-up on 100m freestyle time-trial performance: A randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Marinho, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 10min vs. 20min passive rest post warm-up on performance in a 100m freestyle time-trial. Randomized crossover. Eleven competitive male swimmers performed two experimental trials on different days, consisting of 100m freestyle time-trials following 10min or 20min passive rest after a standard 1200m warm-up. Performance (time-trial), biomechanical (stroke length, stroke frequency, stroke index, propelling efficiency), physiological (blood lactate concentrations, heart rate, core and tympanic temperature), and psychophysiological (perceived effort) variables were assessed during both trials. Time-trial performance was faster after 10min as opposed to 20min passive rest (58.41±1.99s vs. 59.06±1.86, p<0.01). This was supported by strong effect sizes (d=0.99) and the qualitative indication of "likely" positive effects. Heart rate before the time-trial was also higher after 10min passive rest (89±12bpm vs. 82±13bpm; p<0.01). Furthermore, net core temperature and oxygen uptake values before the time-trial were substantially lower after 20min passive rest. These data suggest that the 10min post warm-up passive rest enhances 100m freestyle performance when compared to a 20min period. An improvement that appears to be mediated by the combined effects of a shorter post warm-up period on core temperature, heart rate and oxygen uptake. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell division inhibitors SulA and MinC/MinD block septum formation at different steps in the assembly of the Escherichia coli division machinery.

    PubMed

    Justice, S S; García-Lara, J; Rothfield, L I

    2000-07-01

    SulA and MinCD are specific inhibitors of cell division in Escherichia coli. In this paper, size exclusion chromatography was used to study the effect of the SulA and MinCD division inhibitors on the oligomerization state of endogenous FtsZ in cytoplasmic extracts, and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine the effect of SulA and MinCD on the formation of FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA rings at potential division sites. SulA prevented the formation of high-molecular-weight FtsZ polymers by interfering with FtsZ dimerization and subsequent oligomerization. In contrast, the MinCD division inhibitor did not prevent the oligomerization of FtsZ in the cell extracts or the formation of FtsZ and ZipA ring structures in vivo. However, MinCD did prevent the formation of FtsA rings. Increased expression of ftsA suppressed MinCD-induced division inhibition, but had no effect on SulA-induced division inhibition. These results indicate that MinCD blocks the assembly of the septation machinery at a later step than SulA, at the stage at which FtsA is added to the FtsZ ring.

  8. Animation and Video Footage of CheMin Instrument for MSL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of the surface operation of Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity's CheMin instrument, and video footage of CheMin's principal investigator David Blake in the lab and in the field with relate...

  9. The Role of the Petite Bourgeoisie within Capitalism: A Response to Pyong Gap Min.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna

    1989-01-01

    Presents an argument against Pyong Gap Min's interpretations of the author's views on Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in Los Angeles (California). Addresses the issues of empirical accuracy and policy implications that Min criticized. Discusses differences between Min's approach to social knowledge and her own. (JS)

  10. MinCD cell division proteins form alternating co-polymeric cytomotive filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debnath; Trambaiolo, Daniel; Amos, Linda A.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Summary During bacterial cell division, filaments of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ assemble at midcell to form the cytokinetic Z-ring. Its positioning is regulated by the oscillation of MinCDE proteins. MinC is activated by MinD through an unknown mechanism and prevents Z-ring assembly anywhere but midcell. Here, using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and in vivo analyses we show that MinD activates MinC by forming a new class of alternating copolymeric filaments that show similarity to eukaryotic septin filaments A non-polymerising mutation in MinD causes aberrant cell division in E. coli. MinCD copolymers bind to membrane, interact with FtsZ, and are disassembled by MinE. Imaging a functional msfGFP-MinC fusion protein in MinE deleted cells reveals filamentous structures. EM imaging of our reconstitution of the MinCD-FtsZ interaction on liposome surfaces reveals a plausible mechanism for regulation of FtsZ ring assembly by MinCD copolymers. PMID:25500731

  11. Heart rate recovery after the 6-min walk test is related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Shiroishi, Ryota; Kitagawa, Chika; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kakuno, Nao; Koyanagi, Harumi; Rikitomi, Naoto; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-05-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal load exercise affects mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the associations of clinical characteristics with HRR after the 6-min walk test (6MWT), which is defined as a submaximal load test, remain unclear. We showed that HRR in patients with COPD after 6MWT was related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery. HRR after the 6MWT may be useful to assess exercise capacity in COPD.

  12. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  13. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  14. Modeling partitioning of Min proteins between daughter cells after septation in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    Ongoing sub-cellular oscillation of Min proteins is required to block minicelling in Escherichia coli. Experimentally, Min oscillations are seen in newly divided cells and no minicells are produced. In model Min systems many daughter cells do not oscillate following septation because of unequal partitioning of Min proteins between the daughter cells. Using the 3D model of Huang et al, we investigate the septation process in detail to determine the cause of the asymmetric partitioning of Min proteins between daughter cells. We find that this partitioning problem arises at certain phases of the MinD and MinE oscillations with respect to septal closure and it persists independently of parameter variation. At most 85% of the daughter cells exhibit Min oscillation following septation. Enhanced MinD binding at the static polar and dynamic septal regions, consistent with cardiolipin domains, does not substantially increase this fraction of oscillating daughters. We believe that this problem will be shared among all existing Min models and discuss possible biological mechanisms that may minimize partitioning errors of Min proteins following septation.

  15. Comparison of risk factors for pediatric convulsive status epilepticus when defined as seizures ≥ 5 min versus seizures ≥ 30 min.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; An, Sookee; Jillella, Dinesh; Kapur, Kush; Zelener, Jacqueline; Rotenberg, Alexander; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    To identify risk factors (RF) of pediatric convulsive status epilepticus (SE) and to determine whether defining SE as seizures ≥ 5 min (SE5) or seizures ≥ 30 min (SE30) would modify the risk factors identified. Retrospective case-control study. We included patients 1 month to 21 years of age at the time of convulsive SE. We compared the characteristics of patients with SE (cases) versus those without SE (controls) using two different seizure duration thresholds: 5 min and 30 min. 1062 patients (54% males) were enrolled. The median (p25-p75) age at the episode was 6.4 (2.8-11.8) years. 444 (41.8%) patients had SE5 and 149 (14%) patients had SE30. On univariate analysis, risk factors for SE were not markedly different when considering a 5 or 30 min threshold. Compared to their respective controls patients with both SE5 and SE30 were younger at the age of seizure onset and at the age of SE, were on more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at baseline, had a higher rate of changes in AEDs in the three months prior to the episode, were more likely to have developmental delay at baseline, and a higher mortality rate. A higher baseline seizure frequency, and a higher increase in seizure frequency prior to the index episode were seen only in SE5. This series identifies RF which predict convulsive SE in pediatric patients. These RF are similar when considering a 5 min or a 30 min threshold for the definition of SE. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery (MINS) in Vascular Surgical Patients: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Biccard, Bruce M; Scott, David Julian Ashbridge; Chan, Matthew T V; Archbold, Andrew; Wang, Chew-Yin; Sigamani, Alben; Urrútia, Gerard; Cruz, Patricia; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Szalay, David; Harlock, John; Tittley, Jacques G; Rapanos, Theodore; Elias, Fadi; Jacka, Michael J; Malaga, German; Abraham, Valsa; Berwanger, Otavio; Montes, Félix R; Heels-Ansdell, Diane M; Hutcherson, Matthew T; Chow, Clara K; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Ackland, Gareth L; Dubois, Luc; Sapsford, Robert J; Williams, Colin; Cortés, Olga L; Le Mananch, Yannick; Devereaux, P J

    2017-05-08

    To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were

  17. The 2-min walk test is sufficient for evaluating walking abilities in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, p<0.001) and to all lower extremity strength, patient-reported, and functional measures in this population. All subjects completed the 2-min walk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The MinCDJ System in Bacillus subtilis Prevents Minicell Formation by Promoting Divisome Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    van Baarle, Suey; Bramkamp, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Background Cell division in Bacillus subtilis takes place precisely at midcell, through the action of Noc, which prevents division from occurring over the nucleoids, and the Min system, which prevents cell division from taking place at the poles. Originally it was thought that the Min system acts directly on FtsZ, preventing the formation of a Z-ring and, therefore, the formation of a complete cytokinetic ring at the poles. Recently, a new component of the B. subtilis Min system was identified, MinJ, which acts as a bridge between DivIVA and MinCD. Methodology/Principal Findings We used fluorescence microscopy and molecular genetics to examine the molecular role of MinJ. We found that in the absence of a functional Min system, FtsA, FtsL and PBP-2B remain associated with completed division sites. Evidence is provided that MinCDJ are responsible for the failure of these proteins to localize properly, indicating that MinCDJ can act on membrane integral components of the divisome. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, we postulate that the main function of the Min system is to prevent minicell formation adjacent to recently completed division sites by promoting the disassembly of the cytokinetic ring, thereby ensuring that cell division occurs only once per cell cycle. Thus, the role of the Min system in rod-shaped bacteria seems not to be restricted to an inhibitory function on FtsZ polymerization, but can act on different levels of the divisome. PMID:20352045

  19. Spontaneous Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Apc (/Min+) Mice Requires Altered T Cell Development with IL-17A.

    PubMed

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2015-01-01

    The control of inflammatory diseases requires functional regulatory T cells (Tregs) with significant Gata-3 expression. Here we address the inhibitory role of Tregs on intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc (/Min+) mouse model that resembles human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Apc (/Min+) mice had a markedly increased frequency of Foxp3+ Tregs and yet decreased Gata-3 expression in the lamina propria. To address the role of heterozygous Apc gene mutation in Tregs, we generated Foxp3-Cre, Apc (flox/+) mice. Tregs from these mice effectively inhibited tumorigenesis comparable to wild type Tregs after adoptive transfer into Apc (/Min+) mice, demonstrating that the heterozygous Apc gene mutation in Tregs does not induce the loss of control over tumor microenvironment. Adoptive transfer of in vitro generated Apc (/Min+) iTregs (inducible Tregs) failed to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis, suggesting that naïve CD4 T cells generated from Apc (/Min+) mice thymus were impaired. We also showed that adoptively transferred IL-17A-deficient Apc (/Min+) Tregs inhibited tumor growth, suggesting that IL-17A was critical to impair the tumor regression function of Apc (/Min+) Tregs. Taken together, our results suggest that both T cell development in a functional thymus and IL-17A control the ability of Treg to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (/Min+) mice.

  20. Max–Min Multicell-Aware Precoding and Power Allocation for Downlink Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Shahram; Aulin, Jocelyn; Gerstacker, Wolfgang; Schober, Robert

    2017-10-01

    We propose a max-min multi-cell aware regularized zero-forcing (Max-Min MCA-RZF) precoding and power allocation scheme for downlink multi-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. A general correlated channel model is considered, and the adopted channel state information (CSI) acquisition model includes the effects of estimation errors and pilot contamination. We use results from random matrix theory to derive deterministic equivalents for the proposed Max-Min power allocation in the large system limit which solely depend on statistical CSI, but not on individual channel realizations. Our numerical results show that the proposed Max-Min MCA-RZF precoder achieves a substantially higher network-wide minimum rate than the MCA-RZF and the conventional RZF precoders with uniform power allocation, respectively, as well as the conventional RZF precoder with Max-Min power allocation.

  1. Osteopontin Deficiency Suppresses Intestinal Tumor Development in Apc-Deficient Min Mice.

    PubMed

    Ishigamori, Rikako; Komiya, Masami; Takasu, Shinji; Mutoh, Michihiro; Imai, Toshio; Takahashi, Mami

    2017-05-14

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein, and is a transcriptional target of aberrant Wnt signaling. OPN is upregulated in human colon cancers, and is suggested to enhance cancer progression. In this study, the effect of deficiency of OPN on intestinal tumor development in Apc-deficient Min mice was investigated. At 16 weeks of age, the number of small intestinal polyps in Min/OPN(+/-) and Min/OPN(-/-) mice was lower than that of Min/OPN(+/+) mice. Colorectal tumor incidences and multiplicities in Min/OPN(+/-) and Min/OPN(-/-) mice were significantly lower than those in Min/OPN(+/+) mice, being 48% and 0.6 ± 0.8, 50% and 0.8 ± 0.9 vs. 80% and 1.6 ± 1.7, respectively. OPN expression in colorectal tumors was strongly upregulated in Min/OPN(+/+) compared to adjacent non-tumor parts, but was decreased in Min/OPN(+/-) and not detected in Min/OPN(-/-). Targets of OPN, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-3, -9, and -13 were lowered by OPN deficiency. Macrophage marker F4/80 in colorectal tumors was also lowered by OPN deficiency. MMP-9 expression was observed in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. These results indicate that induction of OPN by aberrant Wnt signaling could enhance colorectal tumor development in part by upregulation of MMP-3, -9, and -13 and infiltration of macrophage and neutrophils. Suppression of OPN expression could contribute to tumor prevention, but complete deficiency of OPN may cause some adverse effects.

  2. Comparison of the distances covered during 3 and 6 min walking test.

    PubMed

    Iriberri, Milagros; Gáldiz, Juan Bta; Gorostiza, Amaia; Ansola, Pedro; Jaca, Carmen

    2002-10-01

    To determine the reproducibility of the distance covered in 3 min and its correlation with the 6 min walking test, as well as compare the distances covered at different time intervals. Secondly, to evaluate the relationship between the distances covered during these time periods and the maximum oxygen intake obtained during a bicycle ergometer test. Forty-five Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disesase patients were included in the study. Subjects who were either physically limited or familiar with the test, or those with acute exacerbation in the month prior to the study, were excluded. Three walking tests were carried out each day. In 30 patients for three consecutive days, and the distances covered in periods of 3 and 6 min were measured with 20 min rest between each walk. No incentive was given and the patients knew that the distances covered in 3 and 6 min would be quantified. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and degree of breathlessness (modified Borg scale) were registered at baseline. After 3 min, the distance covered and degree of breathlessness were also measured. After 6 min, oxygen saturation, heart rate, degree of breathlessness and distance covered in meters were registered. Spirometry was performed daily on each patient, and those with an FEV1 variation of less than 10% were considered clinically and functionally stable. An exercise test using bicycle ergometer was carried out to determine maximum oxygen intake. A 3 min walking test was performed in 15 patients, independently on the same day, which was followed after 20 min rest with a 6 min walking test. A significant increase was observed in the distance covered over 3 and 6 min in the first 5 walks, with the greatest increase seen in the first 3 walks. The correlation between the distance covered in 3 and 6 min was 0.98. The correlation between the distance covered in 3 min and oxygen intake was 0.64. No significant differences were observed between the distances covered in the 0-3 and 3 to 6 min periods

  3. Wip1 abrogation decreases intestinal tumor frequency in APC(Min/+) mice irrespective of radiation quality.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Thakor, Hemang; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2014-09-01

    Low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) γ-ray exposure is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to their high-LET nature, energetic iron ions found in space are expected to pose greater CRC risks to astronauts undertaking long-duration space missions beyond low Earth orbit. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is important for cellular DNA damage response and its abrogation has been shown to inhibit spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice, a well-studied mouse model of human CRC. However, the relationship of Wip1 to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis, especially by energetic iron ions, has not been investigated in APC(Min/+) mice. We have previously reported that there is a greater intestinal tumorigenic potential of iron-ion radiation relative to (137)Cs γ rays, so the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether Wip1 abrogation could influence high-LET dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumor frequency and grade were assessed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) mice and results were compared to those in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 2 Gy from (137)Cs γ rays or 1.6 Gy from 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cellular differentiation and proliferation were also assessed in the intestinal tumors of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. Decreased tumor frequency and lower tumor grade were observed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. Notably, a similar decrease (∼6-fold in both groups) in tumor number was observed in sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. However, tumorigenesis in the energetic iron-ion exposed group was reduced ∼8-fold in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. A significantly lower proliferation/differentiation index in tumors of iron-ion exposed APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice suggests that reduced proliferation and enhanced

  4. Effects of phospholipid composition on MinD-membrane interactions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Fishov, Itzhak; Fu, Xueyao; Corbin, Brian D; Margolin, William; Dowhan, William

    2003-06-20

    The peripheral membrane ATPase MinD is a component of the Min system responsible for correct placement of the division site in Escherichia coli cells. By rapidly migrating from one cell pole to the other, MinD helps to block unwanted septation events at the poles. MinD is an amphitropic protein that is localized to the membrane in its ATP-bound form. A C-terminal domain essential for membrane localization is predicted to be an amphipathic alpha-helix with hydrophobic residues interacting with lipid acyl chains and cationic residues on the opposite face of the helix interacting with the head groups of anionic phospholipids (Szeto, T. H., Rowland, S. L., Rothfield, L. I., and King, G. F. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99, 15693-15698). To investigate whether E. coli MinD displays a preference for anionic phospholipids, we first examined the localization dynamics of a green fluorescent protein-tagged derivative of MinD expressed in a mutant of E. coli that lacks phosphatidylethanolamine. In these cells, which contain only anionic phospholipids (phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin), green fluorescent protein-MinD assembled into dynamic focal clusters instead of the broad zones typical of cells with normal phospholipid content. In experiments with liposomes composed of only zwitterionic, only anionic, or a mixture of anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids, purified MinD bound to these liposomes in the presence of ATP with positive cooperativity with respect to the protein concentration and exhibited Hill coefficients of about 2. Oligomerization of MinD on the liposome surface also was detected by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between MinD molecules labeled with different fluorescent probes. The affinity of MinD-ATP for anionic liposomes as well as liposomes composed of both anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids increased 9- and 2-fold, respectively, relative to zwitterionic liposomes. The degree of acyl chain unsaturation contributed positively to

  5. Comparison of early (60 min) and delayed (180 min) acquisition of 18F-FDG PET/CT in large vessel vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, I; del Castillo-Matos, R; Quirce, R; Jiménez-Bonilla, J; de Arcocha-Torres, M; Ortega-Nava, F; Rubio-Vassallo, A; Martínez Amador, N; Ibáñez Bravo, S; Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the contribution of the (18)F-FDG-PET/CT acquisition at 180 min and at 60 min in suspicion of large vessel vasculitis (LVV). A prospective study including 23 patients was performed. PET/CT was acquired at 60 and 180 min (early and delayed scan) after (18)F-FDG injection. A visual analysis was performed at the supra-aortic trunks (SAT), thoracic aorta (TA), abdominal aorta (AA), iliac arteries (IA) and femoral/tibioperoneal arteries (FTA). Intensity (0-3) and uptake pattern (diffuse/linear) were assessed in the 115 vascular regions. There was no FDG uptake in the early and delayed acquisition in 20/115 vascular regions (17.4%). Of the 95 regions (82.6%) showing FDG uptake at the early, delayed or both acquisitions, intensity did not change in the delayed acquisition in 46 and changed in 49. Of the 49 regions in which the intensity changed, it decreased in 36 and increased in 13 (TA:8, SAT:5). AA, IA and FTA intensity did not increase in any of the cases. Uptake pattern at the TA in the early acquisition was diffuse in 16 patients. In 7, it changed to linear and in 9 the uptake disappeared. The early pattern was linear in 7 patients and 6 of them showed increased intensity in the delayed acquisition and in 1 remained the same. The 180 min delayed FDG-PET/CT acquisition provides a more detailed visualized of the vessel wall, showing the washout of the blood pool activity. Therefore, it may contribute to a more accurate diagnosis of LVV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. 12. 3-min /sup 256/Cf and 43-min /sup 258/Md and systematics of the spontaneous fission propertiesof heavy nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Weber, J.; Daniels, W.R.; Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    The new isotope 12.3-min /sup 256/Cf was produced via the /sup 254/Cf(t,p) reaction, and a new 43-min isomer of /sup 258/Md was produced via the /sup 255/Es(..cap alpha..,n) reaction. The fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 256/Cf were found to be very similar to those from the spontaneous fission of lighter Cf isotopes. The mass division is primarily asymmetric, and the average total kinetic energy is 189.8 +- 0.9 MeV. The 43-min /sup 258/Md presumably decays by electron capture and provides an opportunity to study the mass and kinetic energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of the 380-..mu..s /sup 258/Fm daughter. The observed narrow, symmetric mass distribution and the most probable total kinetic energy of 238 +- 3 MeV are similar to those reported for the spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm but show a sharp increase in symmetric mass division and total kinetic energy compared to /sup 257/Fm and the lighter Fm isotopes. No such abrupt change in properties was observed for /sup 256/Cf, which, like /sup 258/Fm, has 158 neutrons. The marked difference between the spontaneous fission properties of the heavier Fm isotopes and those of other spontaneously fissioning nuclides is compared to some theoretical predictions.

  7. Epithelial-derived IL-33 promotes intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zhengxiang; Chen, Lili; Souto, Fabricio O; Canasto-Chibuque, Claudia; Bongers, Gerold; Deshpande, Madhura; Harpaz, Noam; Ko, Huaibin M; Kelley, Kevin; Furtado, Glaucia C; Lira, Sergio A

    2017-07-14

    Increased expression of Interleukin (IL)-33 has been detected in intestinal samples of patients with ulcerative colitis, a condition associated with increased risk for colon cancer, but its role in the development of colorectal cancer has yet to be fully examined. Here, we investigated the role of epithelial expressed IL-33 during development of intestinal tumors. IL-33 expression was detected in epithelial cells in colorectal cancer specimens and in the Apc (Min/+) mice. To better understand the role of epithelial-derived IL-33 in the intestinal tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing IL-33 in intestinal epithelial cells (V33 mice). V33 Apc (Min/+) mice, resulting from the cross of V33 with Apc (Min/+) mice, had increased intestinal tumor burden compared with littermate Apc (Min/+) mice. Consistently, Apc (Min/+) mice deficient for IL-33 receptor (ST2), had reduced polyp burden. Mechanistically, overexpression of IL-33 promoted expansion of ST2(+) regulatory T cells, increased Th2 cytokine milieu, and induced alternatively activated macrophages in the gut. IL-33 promoted marked changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides, and antibiotic treatment of V33 Apc (Min/+) mice abrogated the tumor promoting-effects of IL-33 in the colon. In conclusion, elevated IL-33 signaling increases tumor development in the Apc (Min/+) mice.

  8. Sustained Aftereffect of α-tACS Lasts Up to 70 min after Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Florian H; Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase power of endogenous brain oscillations in the range of the stimulated frequency after stimulation. In the alpha band this aftereffect has been shown to persist for at least 30 min. However, in most experiments the aftereffect exceeded the duration of the measurement. Thus, it remains unclear how the effect develops beyond these 30 min and when it decays. The current study aimed to extend existing findings by monitoring the physiological aftereffect of tACS in the alpha range for an extended period of 90 min post-stimulation. To this end participants received either 20 min of tACS or sham stimulation with intensities below their individual sensation threshold at the individual alpha frequency (IAF). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired during 3 min before and 90 min after stimulation. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during the whole measurement. While the enhanced power in the individual alpha band did not return back to pre-stimulation baseline in the stimulation group, the difference between stimulation and sham diminishes after 70 min due to a natural alpha increase of the sham group.

  9. Altered intestinal epithelium-associated lymphocyte repertoires and function in ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lorraine; Coletta, P Louise; Hull, Mark A; Selby, Peter J; Carding, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    ApcMin/+ mice spontaneously develop multiple intestinal adenomas along the length of the small intestine and colon. Currently little is known about the role of the immune system in regulating intestinal tumorigenesis in these animals. This study characterised small intestinal intraepithelial lympho-- cyte (IEL) populations in C56BL/6J ApcMin/+ mice and wild-type (Apc+/+) mice. We also determined the effect that T cells expressing either γδ or αβ encoded T cell receptors (TcR) exert on intestinal tumorigenesis. ApcMin/+ mice had significantly lower numbers of CD3+ IELs compared with Apc+/+ littermates and displayed reduced cytotoxicity against tumour target cells. Further analysis of IEL cytotoxicity revealed differences in the cytotoxic pathways utilised by IELs in ApcMin/+ and Apc+/+ mice with ApcMin/+ IELs displaying an absence of perforin/granzyme-mediated killing and increased levels of Fas-FasL-mediated cytotoxicity compared with wild-type IELs. Analysis of ApcMin/+ mice crossed with αβ T-cell deficient (TcRβ-/-) or γδ T-cell deficient (TcRδ-/-) mice on the same genetic background revealed decreased tumour multiplicity in the absence of both αβ and γδ T-cells. This study demonstrates that altered T-cell subsets play important roles in promoting tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and forms the basis for future mechanistic studies.

  10. Sustained Aftereffect of α-tACS Lasts Up to 70 min after Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Florian H.; Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase power of endogenous brain oscillations in the range of the stimulated frequency after stimulation. In the alpha band this aftereffect has been shown to persist for at least 30 min. However, in most experiments the aftereffect exceeded the duration of the measurement. Thus, it remains unclear how the effect develops beyond these 30 min and when it decays. The current study aimed to extend existing findings by monitoring the physiological aftereffect of tACS in the alpha range for an extended period of 90 min post-stimulation. To this end participants received either 20 min of tACS or sham stimulation with intensities below their individual sensation threshold at the individual alpha frequency (IAF). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired during 3 min before and 90 min after stimulation. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during the whole measurement. While the enhanced power in the individual alpha band did not return back to pre-stimulation baseline in the stimulation group, the difference between stimulation and sham diminishes after 70 min due to a natural alpha increase of the sham group. PMID:27252642

  11. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  12. Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Zhengxiang; Mao, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jinxing; Xiong, Lu; Liao, Chaonan; Huang, Fulian; Liu, Zehao; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Plutzky, Jorge; Huang, He; Yang, Tianlun; Duan, Qiong

    2016-05-15

    Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability and convergent validity of the 6-min run test in young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Pérez, Carlos; Martínez-Lemos, R Iván; Cancela-Carral, José M

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence about the psychometric properties of field tests to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in people with Down syndrome. This study aimed at analyzing the reliability and convergent validity of the 6-min run test when performed by young adults with Down syndrome (DS). In a cross-sectional design fifty-one young adults with DS (mean age 26.20 ± 7.14 years; 54% women) performed the 6-min run test and the 16-min shuttle run test twice with a one week-interval between test and retest. The 6-min run test offered high reliability for the distances covered (ICC: 0.974; 95% CI: 0.955-0.985) and good reliability when comparing peak heart rate values obtained in the test and retest (ICC: 0.870; 95% CI: 0.772-0.926). A significant correlation between the 6-min run test and the 16-min shuttle run test was observed for the test (r = 0.705; Sig = 0.001), and retest phases (r = 0.651; Sig = 0.001). The relationship between the estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) peak after the performance of the 16-min shuttle run test and the distance covered by the 6-min run test was statistically significant (r > 0.7). No significant differences were found between the equations that estimate VO2 peak for both tests. These findings suggest that the 6-min run test shows high test/retest reliability and moderate to moderately high convergent validity when performed by adults with DS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of 1-min rain rate integration statistic in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Choi, Dong-You

    2017-03-01

    The design of millimeter wave communication links and the study of propagation impairments at higher frequencies due to a hydrometeor, particularly rain, require the knowledge of 1-min. rainfall rate data. Signal attenuation in space communication results are due to absorption and scattering of radio wave energy. Radio wave attenuation due to rain depends on the relevance of a 1-min. integration time for the rain rate. However, in practice, securing these data over a wide range of areas is difficult. Long term precipitation data are readily available. However, there is a need for a 1-min. rainfall rate in the rain attenuation prediction models for a better estimation of the attenuation. In this paper, we classify and survey the prominent 1-min. rain rate models. Regression analysis was performed for the study of cumulative rainfall data measured experimentally for a decade in nine different regions in South Korea, with 93 different locations, using the experimental 1-min. rainfall accumulation. To visualize the 1-min. rainfall rate applicable for the whole region for 0.01% of the time, we have considered the variation in the rain rate for 40 stations across South Korea. The Kriging interpolation method was used for spatial interpolation of the rain rate values for 0.01% of the time into a regular grid to obtain a highly consistent and predictable rainfall variation. The rain rate exceeded the 1-min. interval that was measured through the rain gauge compared to the rainfall data estimated using the International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector model (ITU-R P.837-6) along with the empirical methods as Segal, Burgueno et al., Chebil and Rahman, logarithmic, exponential and global coefficients, second and third order polynomial fits, and Model 1 for Icheon regions under the regional and average coefficient set. The ITU-R P. 837-6 exhibits a lower relative error percentage of 3.32% and 12.59% in the 5- and 10-min. to 1-min. conversion, whereas the

  15. Mapping of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) to proximal chromosome 18 of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Luongo, C.; Gould, K.A.; Moser, A.R. ); Su, Likuo; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. ); Dietrich, W.; Lander, E.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mutation of the mouse has been mapped by analyzing the inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence length polymorphisms in progeny from two intraspecific crosses segregating for the Min mutation. Min, a mutant allele of Apc, the mouse homo- log of the human APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, maps to proximal chromosome 18. The synteny between Apc and Mcc, the mouse homolog of the human MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) gene, is conserved between mouse and human, although the gene order in the Apc to Mcc interval is different from that in the APC to MCC interval. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Breast MRI at Very Short TE (minTE): Image Analysis of minTE Sequences on Non-Fat-Saturated, Subtracted T1-Weighted Images.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Geppert, Christian; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Hartmann, Arndt; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Methods Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50 %. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. Results With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with "definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment". The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p < 0.01 for lesions and p < 0.05 for skin). There was no difference between both sequences with respect to SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and detection of multifocal disease. Conclusion Dynamic breast MRI with a minTE protocol is feasible without a major loss of information (SNR, CNR, lesion morphology, contrast enhancement and lesion sizes) and the temporal resolution can be increased by a factor of 2 using minTE sequences. Key points  · Increase of temporal

  17. [Study on prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao; Wang, Rui-Qi; Guo, Zeng-Xiang; Qian, Da-Wei; Song, Bing-Sheng; He, Zi-Qing; Gao, Hong-Ying

    2012-04-01

    To establish a prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County, and the forecasting information can be provided to correlated department and organization. With the basis of the Angelicae sinensis yield statistics in Min County from 1995 to 2009 and weather data of development phase of each ten days, polynomial forecasting modeling was used and the stimulation forecasting of Angelicae sinensis yield in Min County was carried out. The results showed that the average accuracy of prediction model was reached to 97.2%, which basically met the demand for yield prediction. The prediction model of Angelicae sinensis yield per unit in Min County has good accuracy and relatively correct forecasting information about Angelicae sinensis yield, which provides methodology and important references for dynamic forecasting in the progress of Chinese medicinal materials production.

  18. Asymptotic identity in min-plus algebra: a report on CPNS.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions.

  19. Asymptotic Identity in Min-Plus Algebra: A Report on CPNS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions. PMID:21822446

  20. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  1. CHO cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of increase in cell area of CHO cells when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a minimum period of about 24 min. The pattern of oscillations paralleled those of the 24 min period observed with the oxidation of NADH by an external cell surface or plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in cell area was non-linear. Intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the 24 min period was temperature-compensated (approximately the same when measured at 14 degrees C, 24 degrees C or 34 degrees C) while the rate of cell enlargement increased with temperature over this same range of temperatures.

  2. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  3. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  4. New cross section data and review of production routes of medically used 110mIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Baba, M.; Mohsena, B. M. A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of nuclear data for production routes of 110mIn is in progress in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). New experimental cross section data for the indirect natIn(p,x)110Sn-110mIn and for the direct 107Ag(α,n)110mIn and 109Ag(3He,2n)110mIn production routes and for the satellite impurity reactions 107Ag(α,xn)110g,109In and 109Ag(3He,xn)110g,111,109In have been measured by using the activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. Additional data are reported for production of the 111In diagnostic gamma-emitter via the 109Ag(α,2n)111In reaction. The earlier experimental data were critically reviewed in order to prepare recommended data and optimal production parameters for the different routes.

  5. Rule governing the division pattern in Escherichia coli minB and wild-type filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffé, A; Boye, E; D'Ari, R

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli minB mutants form anucleate minicells and multinucleate filaments. We show here that the overwhelming majority of nucleate cells contain 2n (n = 0, 1, 2, ...) nucleoids, as determined by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and 2n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) copies of the replication origin, as determined by flow cytometry. This shows that division sites are not chosen randomly among the available sites in minB filaments. Similarly, wild-type cells contain 2n nucleoids, both during cell division inhibition and when furazlocillin-induced filaments are allowed to divide. We conclude that the min+ function is only to prevent septation only at polar sites; the placement of internal cell division sites must obey strict rules, which are the same in minB and wild-type cells. PMID:2188963

  6. CHO cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of increase in cell area of CHO cells when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a minimum period of about 24 min. The pattern of oscillations paralleled those of the 24 min period observed with the oxidation of NADH by an external cell surface or plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in cell area was non-linear. Intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the 24 min period was temperature-compensated (approximately the same when measured at 14 degrees C, 24 degrees C or 34 degrees C) while the rate of cell enlargement increased with temperature over this same range of temperatures.

  7. Regulation of the Min Cell Division Inhibition Complex by the Rcs Phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Şimşek, Emrah; Kim, Minsu; Rather, Philip N

    2015-08-01

    A key regulator of swarming in Proteus mirabilis is the Rcs phosphorelay, which represses flhDC, encoding the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2. Mutants in rcsB, the response regulator in the Rcs phosphorelay, hyperswarm on solid agar and differentiate into swarmer cells in liquid, demonstrating that this system also influences the expression of genes central to differentiation. To gain a further understanding of RcsB-regulated genes involved in swarmer cell differentiation, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to examine the RcsB regulon. Among the 133 genes identified, minC and minD, encoding cell division inhibitors, were identified as RcsB-activated genes. A third gene, minE, was shown to be part of an operon with minCD. To examine minCDE regulation, the min promoter was identified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and both transcriptional lacZ fusions and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR were used to confirm that the minCDE operon was RcsB activated. Purified RcsB was capable of directly binding the minC promoter region. To determine the role of RcsB-mediated activation of minCDE in swarmer cell differentiation, a polar minC mutation was constructed. This mutant formed minicells during growth in liquid, produced shortened swarmer cells during differentiation, and exhibited decreased swarming motility. This work describes the regulation and role of the MinCDE cell division system in P. mirabilis swarming and swarmer cell elongation. Prior to this study, the mechanisms that inhibit cell division and allow swarmer cell elongation were unknown. In addition, this work outlines for the first time the RcsB regulon in P. mirabilis. Taken together, the data presented in this study begin to address how P. mirabilis elongates upon contact with a solid surface. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Kaiso overexpression promotes intestinal inflammation and potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Christina C; Longo, Joseph; Mavor, Meaghan; Milosavljevic, Snezana B; Chaudhary, Roopali; Gilbreath, Ebony; Yates, Clayton; Daniel, Juliet M

    2015-09-01

    Constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a key contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is recognized as an early event in CRC development, it is the accumulation of multiple subsequent oncogenic insults facilitates malignant transformation. One potential contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis is the POZ-ZF transcription factor Kaiso, whose depletion extends lifespan and delays polyp onset in the widely used Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer. These findings suggested that Kaiso potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis, but this was paradoxical as Kaiso was previously implicated as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To resolve Kaiso's role in intestinal tumorigenesis and canonical Wnt signaling, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Kaiso(Tg/+)) expressing an intestinal-specific myc-tagged Kaiso transgene. We then mated Kaiso(Tg/+) and Apc(Min/+) mice to generate Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice for further characterization. Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited reduced lifespan and increased polyp multiplicity compared to Apc(Min/+) mice. Consistent with this murine phenotype, we found increased Kaiso expression in human CRC tissue, supporting a role for Kaiso in human CRC. Interestingly, Wnt target gene expression was increased in Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting that Kaiso's function as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, as seen in Xenopus, is not maintained in this context. Notably, Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased inflammation and activation of NFκB signaling compared to their Apc(Min/+) counterparts. This phenotype was consistent with our previous report that Kaiso(Tg/+) mice exhibit chronic intestinal inflammation. Together our findings highlight a role for Kaiso in promoting Wnt signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis in the mammalian intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An overlapping propagating spreading center at 87 deg 30 min W on the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perram, Laura Jean; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-01-01

    In September of 1987 nwe completed a SeaMARC II (SMII) survey of the propagating spreading center located at 87 deg 30 min W on the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC). The spreading rate in the area is intermediate with a full rate of approximately 70 mm/yr and the spreading axis is marked by an axial high. Analysis of bathymetry, sidescan sonar and surface magnetic data indicates 90 - 100 mm/yr eastward propagation of the 26 km offset. The morphology of the feature is that of an overlapping spreading center pair (OSC). It fits a kinematic model of overlapping ridges with cyclic failure of the dying rift. There are marked differences in the morphology and kinematics of the propagator compared to the propagator at 95 deg 30 min W where the spreading rate and offset are comparable. The 87 deg 30 min W propagator is marked by an axial high and greater than 40 km of overlap in contrast to the axial rift valley and small amount of overlap associated with the 95 deg 30 min W propagator. Near-field stresses associated with variable axial topography contribute to decrease crack propagation forces at the 95 deg 30 min W propagator and increase those at the 87 deg 30 min W propagator. Differences in crack propagation forces and morphology may be due to a fundamental difference in the amount of available magma. This difference is evident in dominance of volcanism near 87 deg 30 min W as opposed to the dominance of tectonism near 95 deg 30 min W.

  10. Training the Recurrent neural network by the Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm for fault prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Zemouri, Ryad; Racoceanu, Daniel; Minca, Eugenia; Filip, Florin

    2009-03-05

    In this paper, we present a training technique of a Recurrent Radial Basis Function neural network for fault prediction. We use the Fuzzy Min-Max technique to initialize the k-center of the RRBF neural network. The k-means algorithm is then applied to calculate the centers that minimize the mean square error of the prediction task. The performances of the k-means algorithm are then boosted by the Fuzzy Min-Max technique.

  11. My Martian Moment - Episode 1 - David Blake and CheMin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-25

    Ames' David Blake developed the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument, or CheMin for short, which is currently operating on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. It identifies and measures the abundance of various minerals on the Martian surface. The instrument is built around a highly compact X-ray diffraction unit, the first of its kind to operate on a planet besides Earth. CheMin can quickly analyze soil samples, helping scientists understand the composition and history of the Martian surface.

  12. A multicentre validation of the 1-min sit-to-stand test in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Crook, Sarah; Büsching, Gilbert; Schultz, Konrad; Lehbert, Nicola; Jelusic, Danijel; Keusch, Stephan; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Radtke, Thomas; Frey, Martin; Turk, Alexander; Puhan, Milo A; Frei, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Our aim was to comprehensively validate the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and explore the physiological response to the test.We used data from two longitudinal studies of COPD patients who completed inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. We collected 1-min STS test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), health-related quality of life, dyspnoea and exercise cardiorespiratory data at admission and discharge. We assessed the learning effect, test-retest reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and minimal important difference of the 1-min STS test.In both studies (n=52 and n=203) the 1-min STS test was strongly correlated with the 6MWT at admission (r=0.59 and 0.64, respectively) and discharge (r=0.67 and 0.68, respectively). Intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI) between 1-min STS tests were 0.93 (0.83-0.97) for learning effect and 0.99 (0.97-1.00) for reliability. Standardised response means (95% CI) were 0.87 (0.58-1.16) and 0.91 (0.78-1.07). The estimated minimal important difference was three repetitions. End-exercise oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output, ventilation, breathing frequency and heart rate were similar in the 1-min STS test and 6MWT.The 1-min STS test is a reliable, valid and responsive test for measuring functional exercise capacity in COPD patients and elicited a physiological response comparable to that of the 6MWT.

  13. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coisson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  14. Validation of functional fetal autonomic brain age score fABAS in 5 min short recordings.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Schneider, Uwe; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Grönemeyer, Dietrich Hw; van Leeuwen, Peter

    2015-11-01

    With the objective of evaluating the functional maturation age and developmental disturbances we have previously introduced the fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) using 30 min fetal magnetocardiographic recordings (fMCG, Jena). The score is based on heart rate pattern indices that are related to universal principles of developmental biology. The present work aims at the validation of the fABAS methodology on 5 min recordings from an independent database (fMCG, Bochum).We found high agreement of fABAS obtained from Jena normal fetuses (5 min subsets, n =  364) and Bochum recordings (n =  322, normal fetuses). fABAS of 48 recordings from fetuses with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, Bochum) was reduced in most of the cases, a result consistent with IUGR fetuses from Jena previously reported. fABAS calculated from 5 min snapshots only partly covers the accuracy when compared to fABAS from 30 min recordings. More precise diagnosis requires longer recordings.fABAS obtained from fMCG recordings is a strong candidate for standardized assessment of functional maturation age and developmental disturbances. Even 5 min recordings seem to be valuable for screening for maturation problems.

  15. Residence and transit times of MinD in E. coli bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Maximiliano; Kelly, Corey; Dutcher, John

    2012-02-01

    A key step in the life of a bacterial cell is its division into two daughters cells of equal size. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that an equal partitioning of the main cell components is obtained, which is critical for the viability of the daughter cells. In E. coli this regulation is accomplished in part by the Min protein system, that determines the localization of the division machinery. Of particular interest is the MinD protein that exhibits an oscillation between the poles in the rod shaped bacteria. The oscillation relies on a ATP mediated dimerization of the MinD protein that allows its insertion into the inner membrane at one of the poles of the cell, followed by an interaction with the MinE protein, which releases the MinD from the membrane, allowing it to travel to the other pole of the cell where the cycle is repeated. We have studied the spatio-temporal characteristics of the MinD oscillation from which we extract the average times for the two main processes that determine the oscillation period: the residence time in the membrane and the transit time to travel the length of the cell. Additionally, we explore how these two timescales are affected by stresses on the bacterial cells due to unfavorable physiological conditions.

  16. Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on MinD Protein Oscillations in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Corey; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2012-02-01

    The pole-to-pole oscillation of MinD proteins in E. coli cells determines the location of the division septum, and is integral to healthy cell division. It has been shown previously that the MinD oscillation period is approximately 40 s for healthy cells [1] but is strongly dependant on environmental factors such as temperature, which may place stress on the cell [2,3]. We use a strain of E. coli in which the MinD proteins are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing fluorescence visualization of the MinD oscillation. We use high-resolution total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and a custom, temperature controlled flow cell to observe the effect of exposure to antimicrobial agents on the MinD oscillation period and, more generally, to analyze the time variation of the spatial distribution of the MinD proteins within the cells. These measurements provide insight into the mechanism of antimicrobial action. [1] Raskin, D.M.; de Boer, P. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 4971-4976. [2] Touhami, A.; Jericho, M; Rutenberg, A. (2006) J. Bacteriol. 188: 7661-7667. [3] Downing, B.; Rutenberg, A.; Touhami, A.; Jericho, M. (2009) PLoS ONE 4: e7285.

  17. The Reliability and Validity of the 3-min All-out Cycling Critical Power Test.

    PubMed

    Wright, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Jobson, Simon A

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that critical power (CP) can be estimated from a single 3-min bout of all-out cycling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the 3-min all-out cycling test when carried out at a constant cadence (isokinetic) and against a fixed resistance (linear). 12 participants completed 8 tests: 1) a ramp test; 2-4) 3 fixed power tests to calculate CP and W' using the 1/time mathematical model; 5-8) four 3-min all-out tests to calculate EP and WEP; 2 isokinetic and 2 linear tests. There was no significant difference between EP-isokinetic and CP (P=0.377). There were significant differences between EP-linear and CP (P=0.004), WEP-isokinetic and W' (P<0.001) and WEP-linear and W' (P<0.001). The coefficient of variation in EP-isokinetic, EP-linear, WEP-isokinetic and WEP-linear was 1.93, 1.17, 8.44 and 5.39%, respectively. The 3-min all-out isokinetic test provides a reliable estimate of EP and a valid estimate of CP. The 3-min all-out linear test provides a reliable estimate of EP, but not a valid estimate of CP. Furthermore, these results suggest that the 3-min all-out test should not be used to estimate W'. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: a herbal product derived from Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Andrés; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Sierra, Fernando; Correa, Gonzalo

    2006-08-01

    Shen-Min is a herbal product sold as a supplement for women to enhance hair growth. It is widely available across Asia, Europe, and the United States and sold without prescription as a hair nutritional supplement. We describe a case of acute liver injury in a 28-year-old white woman who developed symptomatic hepatitis 8 weeks after starting Shen-Min. All other potential causes of acute hepatitis including viral, hypoxic/ischemic, metabolic, and autoimmune etiologies were excluded. The liver injury slowly resolved over 3 weeks after discontinuing the herbal product. Although the mechanism of Shen-Min hepatotoxicity is unknown, we suspect an idiosyncratic reaction because the patient developed a fine maculopapular rash, mild eosinophilia, and did not overdose. Shen-Min is a Chinese herbal product with a mixture of several plants and vitamins including Polygonum multiflorum, a root that has been previously associated with hepatotoxicity. Nonetheless to our knowledge this is the first reported case of herbal-induced hepatotoxicity in a patient taking Shen-Min per se. Clinicians taking care of patients with acute hepatitis of unclear etiology should be aware that the consumption of Shen-Min, a hair supplement widely available in the United States and Western countries might cause acute hepatitis.

  19. Evidence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line 35 deg 30 min to 36 deg 30 min north latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic reconnaissance guided by analysis of ERTS-1 and Apollo-9 satellite imagery and intermediate scale photography from X-15 and U-2 aircraft has confirmed the presence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line, between 35 deg 30 min and 36 deg 30 min north latitude. The name Pahrump Fault Zone has been suggested for this feature after the valley in which it is best exposed. Field reconnaissance has indicated the existence of previously unreported faults cutting bedrock along range fronts, and displacing Tertiary and Quaternary basin sediments. Gravity data support the interpretation of regional structural discontinuity along this zone. Individual fault traces within the Pahrump Fault Zone form generally left-stepping en echelon patterns. These fault patterns, the apparent offset of a Laramide age thrust fault, and possible drag folding along a major fault break suggest a component of right lateral displacement. The trend and postulated movement of the Pahrump Fault Zone are similar to the adjacent Las Vegas Shear Zone and Death Valley-Furnace Creek Faults, which are parts of a regional strike slip system in the southern Basin-Range Province.

  20. Reaction rates of the 113In(γ,n)112mIn and 115In(γ,n)114mIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, Ye; Semisalov, I.; Kasilov, V.; Popov, V.; Kochetov, S.; Maslyuk, V.; Mazur, V.; Parlag, O.; Gajnish, I.

    2016-01-01

    The integral yields of the 113In(γ,n)112mIn (Jπ=9/2+→Jπ=4+) and 115In(γ,n)114mIn (Jπ=9/2+→Jπ=5+) photonuclear reactions were measured in the bremsstrahlung end-point energy range from the respective thresholds up to 14 MeV by a conventional activation/decay technique using the 197Au(γ,n)196Au reaction cross sections as the standard for the absolute photon intensity determination. The metallic indium samples of the natural and enriched compositions were irradiated by the bremsstrahlung beams from thin tantalum converters of the electron linear accelerator of NSC KIPT (Kharkiv) and the microtron of IEP (Ughhorod). The integral reaction yields were determined from the activities of the nuclei-products measured by the high resolution γ-ray spectrometry technique with Ge(Li)- and HPGe-detectors. The reaction rates for the Planck spectrum of a thermal photon bath were derived for the ground state target nuclei and compared to the predictions of the statistical model of nuclear reactions.

  1. Effectiveness of simplified 15-min refresher BLS training program: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Murakami, Yukiko; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Okamoto, Yoshio; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of 15-min refresher basic life support (BLS) training following 45-min chest compression-only BLS training. After the 45-min chest compression-only BLS training, the participants were randomly assigned to either the refresher BLS training group, which received a 15-min refresher training 6 months after the initial training (refresher training group), or to the control group, which did not receive refresher training. Participants' resuscitation skills were evaluated by a 2-min case-based scenario test 1 year after the initial training. The primary outcome measure was the number of appropriate chest compressions during a 2-min test period. 140 participants were enrolled and 112 of them completed this study. The number of appropriate chest compressions performed during the 2-min test period was significantly greater in the refresher training group (68.9±72.3) than in the control group (36.3±50.8, p=0.009). Time without chest compressions was significantly shorter in the refresher training group (16.1±2.1 s versus 26.9±3.7 s, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in time to chest compression (29.6±16.7 s versus 34.4±17.8 s, p=0.172) and AED use between the groups. A short-time refresher BLS training program 6 months after the initial training can help trainees retain chest compression skills for up to 1 year. Repeated BLS training, even if very short, would be adopted to keep acquired CPR quality optimal (UMIN-CTR UMIN 000004101). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mission Overview of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Mason, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat to study the energy distribution of solar flare soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of the quiet Sun, active regions, and during flares and to model the solar SXR impact in Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere (ITM) using these MinXSS solar measurements. The energy variability in the SXR range can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXR to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. Energy from SXR radiation is deposited mostly in the ionospheric E-region, from ~80 to ~150 km, but the precise altitude is strongly dependent on the SXR spectrum because of the steep slope and structure of the photoionization cross sections of atmospheric gases in this wavelength range. The new MinXSS solar SXR spectra measurements and associated modeling of the solar spectra and Earth’s ITM response will address these outstanding issues. MinXSS includes an Amptek X123 X-ray spectrometer to measure solar irradiance spectra from 0.5 - 30 keV [2.5- 0.04 nm] with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution [spectral resolution of 0.7 nm at 2.5 nm and 0.0002 nm at 0.04 nm] and a SXR photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. Both of these SXR instruments had pre-flight calibrations with an accuracy of about 5% at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). This presentation will include an overview of the MinXSS CubeSat design and development that involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The MinXSS CubeSat was launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) and awaits deployment from the ISS in April-May 2016. Assuming MinXSS has been deployed before June, we also intend to present first light observations from MinXSS to highlight solar SXR spectra and SXR variability

  3. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  4. Using miglitol at 30 min before meal is effective in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after a total gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Jun; Murohashi, Yuko; Okazaki, Noriko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tetsuya; Okuyama, Tomoko; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman who had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer presented with a history of postprandial hypoglycemic episodes with loss of consciousness after meals. Laboratory findings revealed marked hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia after a meal. We first treated the patient with octreotide; however, she was unable to continue the treatment because of adverse effects of the drug, such as nausea and headache. Diazoxide was used next for preventing hyperinsulinemia; however, this was not effective for suppressing the postprandial insulin secretion. Since hypoglycemia following gastrectomy is thought to be caused by rapid delivery of nutrients into the duodenum, we performed a meal tolerance test while varying the timing of administration of miglitol in relation to the meal. Miglitol was administered 30 min before, just before, or both 30 min and just before a meal. In the case of administration just before a meal, insulin secretion was suppressed, although hypoglycemia was not prevented. Administration of the drug 30 min before a meal prevented postprandial hypoglycemia by slowing the increase of the blood glucose and serum insulin levels following the meal to a greater degree than administration just before a meal. Miglitol administration both 30 min and just before a meal caused an even smoother increase in blood glucose and serum insulin levels following the meal. In this report, we propose a new therapeutic approach for reactive hypoglycemia after gastrectomy, namely, administration of miglitol 30 min before meals.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of poliovirus mutants resistant to heating at 50 degrees Celsius for 30 min.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroshi; Urasawa, Tomoko; Urasawa, Shozo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Abe, Shibobu; Taniguchi, Koki

    2004-11-01

    Poliovirus is heat-labile; on heating at 50 degrees Celsius for 30 min its infectivity decreases drastically and its antigenicity reverts from N to H. However, mutants resistant to heating at 50 degrees Celsius for 30 min from the Sabin 1 and 2 viruses were isolated by repeating the process of incubation of the virus stock at 50 degrees Celsius for 30 min and multiplication of the remaining virus in a cell culture. The isolated mutants were stable genetically, and maintained the rct and d markers of the parent virus. On electron microscopical examination, the mutants were observed to retain the intact morphology after being heated at 50 degrees Celsius for 30 min, while the parent virus was converted to empty particles devoid of RNA under the same conditions. On determination of the nucleotide sequence of the P1 region, a single nucleotide sequence substitution was detected at nucleotide no. 2741, resulting in an amino acid change from valine to alanine at the 87th position of VP1. This amino acid might be associated with the heat-resistance of the mutants. Furthermore, it was found that the thermostable mutants obtained in this study, which are resistant to "high" temperature (50 degrees Celsius) for a short time (30 min), were not stable against heating at the ambient temperature (37 degrees Celsius) for a long time (5 or 7 days). This suggests that the inactivation at high temperature for a short time and that at ambient temperature for a long time involve different mechanisms.

  6. Effect of the Min System on Timing of Cell Division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuxin; Keilberg, Daniela; Hot, Edina; Thanbichler, Martin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Lenz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the Min protein system plays an important role in positioning the division site. We show that this system also has an effect on timing of cell division. We do this in a quantitative way by measuring the cell division waiting time (defined as time difference between appearance of a division site and the division event) and the Z-ring existence time. Both quantities are found to be different in WT and cells without functional Min system. We develop a series of theoretical models whose predictions are compared with the experimental findings. Continuous improvement leads to a final model that is able to explain all relevant experimental observations. In particular, it shows that the chromosome segregation defect caused by the absence of Min proteins has an important influence on timing of cell division. Our results indicate that the Min system affects the septum formation rate. In the absence of the Min proteins this rate is reduced, leading to the observed strongly randomized cell division events and the longer division waiting times. PMID:25090009

  7. Prosodic Realization of Focus in Bilingual Production of Southern Min and Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Xu, Yi; Guion-Anderson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previously post-focus compression (PFC) - the lowering of fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity of post-focal words to below those of the same words in identical sentences with neutral focus - was found in Beijing Mandarin but not in Taiwan Southern Min and Taiwan Mandarin. This study investigated whether the presence of PFC would vary with age and language use of societal bilinguals of Southern Min and Mandarin. Three groups of bilingual speakers of Quanzhou Southern Min and Mandarin, age around 20, 40 and 60, were examined for their prosodic realization of focus. All the speakers acquired Southern Min first, followed by Mandarin in childhood, but the younger speakers used more Mandarin than the older speakers. Comparisons of duration, intensity and F0 in focused, prefocus and post-focus words indicated that all groups produced Taiwan-like focus, i.e., without PFC, in Southern Min, but the youngest group produced Beijing-like PFC in Mandarin. These findings reveal that increased language experience, such as greater amount of second language (L2) use, correlates with increased ability to produce native-like PFC in L2, suggesting that PFC can be used as an indicator in assessing L2 speech acquisition.

  8. Stochastic switching between multistable oscillation patterns of the Min-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiranashvili, Artemij; Schnellbächer, Nikolas D.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2016-09-01

    The spatiotemporal oscillation patterns of the proteins MinD and MinE are used by the bacterium E. coli to sense its own geometry. Strikingly, both computer simulations and experiments have recently shown that for the same geometry of the reaction volume, different oscillation patterns can be stable, with stochastic switching between them. Here we use particle-based Brownian dynamics simulations to predict the relative frequency of different oscillation patterns over a large range of three-dimensional compartment geometries, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Fourier analyses as well as pattern recognition algorithms are used to automatically identify the different oscillation patterns and the switching rates between them. We also identify novel oscillation patterns in three-dimensional compartments with membrane-covered walls and identify a linear relation between the bound Min-protein densities and the volume-to-surface ratio. In general, our work shows how geometry sensing is limited by multistability and stochastic fluctuations.

  9. Evolution of the Min Protein Oscillation in E. coli Bacteria During Cell Growth and Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, Benjamin; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2014-03-01

    Cell division is a key step in the life of a bacterium. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that the cellular machinery is equally partitioned into two daughter cells of equal size. In E. coli, this is accomplished, in part, by the Min protein system, in which Min proteins oscillate along the long axis of the rod-shaped cells. We have used high magnification, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy to characterize in detail the oscillation in E. coli cells in which the MinD proteins are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We have used a microfluidic device to confine the bacteria into microchannels that allows us to track the evolution of the oscillation in cells as they grow and divide in LB growth media. In particular, we have tracked the loss of synchrony between the oscillations in the daughter cells following cell division.

  10. What is the horizontal scale of the 5-min oscillations. [in solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Solar oscillations with periods near 5 min were discovered in the photosphere by Leighton et al. (1962) on Doppler photographs which showed the sun to be covered with small velocity cells a few thousand km in diameter. If wrong, all the early reports of a small horizontal scale (about 2000 km) for the 5-min oscillations may be due to unfortunate similarities between the velocity and overturning time of the solar granule convection and the corresponding velocity and period typical of the oscillations. A large horizontal scale (about 30,000 km) for the oscillations seems consistent with the old data and almost required by more recent measurements. The large scales recently measured would imply that a sizable fraction of the solar volume is involved in the oscillation and would cast some doubt on all the old theories of the 5-min oscillations which were based on plane parallel atmospheres.

  11. [Professor YANG Zhao-min's contribution to the education of modern acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Qin; Mu, Yan-Yun; Xia, You-Bing; Zhang, Jian-Bin

    2012-05-01

    It was completely collected and summarized the teaching history and the relevant historical materials of Professor YANG Zhao-min via consulting the literatures, investigation, interview, etc. in this paper. The summaries indicated that from the beginning of running a school, Professor YANG Zhao-min adhered to the CHENG's moral, worked hard and successfully explored and practiced the training pattern of teaching tour for the personnel training of acupuncture and moxibustion. He established the specialty of acupuncture and moxibustion, formatted courses and inherited the feature of practice teaching. He was in charge of the compilation of textbook and engaged in scientific innovation. He inherited the past and forged ahead into the future and had made the decision to cultivate the personnel of acupuncture and moxibustion. Professor YANG Zhao-min had practiced and developed the modern educational thought from the CHENG Dan-an and had made the important contribution to the training of acupuncture and moxibustion professionals.

  12. Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period length of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a period length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min periodicity observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the period was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the period length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.

  13. Blood-brain barrier after resuscitation from 10-min clinical death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A; Kapuściński, P

    1995-01-01

    In rats 10-min clinical death was induced by intrathoracic compression of the cardiac vessel bundle. The animals were sacrificed from 15 min to 7 days after resuscitation. They were decapitated 15 sec after intracarotid injection of mixture of L-[U-14C]glutamic acid and tritiated water. Using by the dual label method the brain uptake index (BUI) and percent of injected dose of amino acid in the cerebral hemisphere were calculated. In 45% of animals an increase of amino acid transfer and rise of BUI revealed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) alterations. The most pronounced changes developed after 120 min and 1 day after resuscitation. The impaired vs. normal BBB state depends probably on uneven recovery of cerebral circulation in individual animals after resuscitation.

  14. MinION nanopore sequencing identifies the position and structure of a bacterial antibiotic resistance island.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Philip M; Nair, Satheesh; Dallman, Tim; Rubino, Salvatore; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Wain, John; O'Grady, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Short-read, high-throughput sequencing technology cannot identify the chromosomal position of repetitive insertion sequences that typically flank horizontally acquired genes such as bacterial virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The MinION nanopore sequencer can produce long sequencing reads on a device similar in size to a USB memory stick. Here we apply a MinION sequencer to resolve the structure and chromosomal insertion site of a composite antibiotic resistance island in Salmonella Typhi Haplotype 58. Nanopore sequencing data from a single 18-h run was used to create a scaffold for an assembly generated from short-read Illumina data. Our results demonstrate the potential of the MinION device in clinical laboratories to fully characterize the epidemic spread of bacterial pathogens.

  15. Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated period length of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a period length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min periodicity observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the period was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the period length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.

  16. Characterization and Calibration of the CheMin Mineralogical Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Bish, David; Bristow, Tom; Chen, Curtis; Chipera, Steve; Crisp, Joy; Des Marais, David; Downs, Robert T.; Farmer, Jack; Feldman, Sabrina; Fonda, Mark; Gailhanou, Marc; Ma, Hongwei; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Stolper, Ed; Treiman, Allan; Yen, Albert

    2012-09-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize past habitable environments on Mars. Determination of the mineralogical and chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils constrains their formation and alteration pathways, providing information on climate and habitability through time. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument on MSL will return accurate mineralogical identifications and quantitative phase abundances for scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. The instrument has a Co X-ray source and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arranged in transmission geometry with the sample. CheMin's angular range of 5∘ to 50∘ 2 θ with <0.35∘ 2 θ resolution is sufficient to identify and quantify virtually all minerals. CheMin's XRF requirement was descoped for technical and budgetary reasons. However, X-ray energy discrimination is still required to separate Co K α from Co K β and Fe K α photons. The X-ray energy-dispersive histograms (EDH) returned along with XRD for instrument evaluation should be useful in identifying elements Z>13 that are contained in the sample. The CheMin XRD is equipped with internal chemical and mineralogical standards and 27 reusable sample cells with either Mylar® or Kapton® windows to accommodate acidic-to-basic environmental conditions. The CheMin flight model (FM) instrument will be calibrated utilizing analyses of common samples against a demonstration-model (DM) instrument and CheMin-like laboratory instruments. The samples include phyllosilicate and sulfate minerals that are expected at Gale crater on the basis of remote sensing observations.

  17. Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Levels at 5 min Can Identify Multigland Disease.

    PubMed

    Alhefdhi, Amal; Ahmad, Kamal; Sippel, Rebecca; Chen, Herbert; Schneider, David F

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring is crucial in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Often, the 5 min IOPTH levels fall, but not by the requisite 50 %. In such cases, the surgeon must decide whether to wait for additional levels or to continue exploration. This study aimed to evaluate the 5 min drop in IOPTH for distinguishing single adenomas (SA) from multigland disease. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was performed on PHPT patients who underwent initial curative parathyroidectomy between 2001 and 2013. Those with familial disease and those taking lithium or undergoing concomitant thyroidectomy were excluded from the analysis. For cases of double adenomas (DA) or hyperplasia (HA), the IOPTH values indicating additional glands were analyzed. The inclusion criteria were met by 1021 patients: 817 patients with SA (82.2 %), 99 patients with DA (10 %), and 78 with HA (7.9 %). The SA patients exhibited a 56.6 ± 4.9 % decline in IOPTH at 5 min compared with 21.3 ± 4.5 % of the DA patients and 22.5 ± 4.3 % of the HA patients (p < 0.01). Post hoc comparisons showed that the 5 min decrease in the SA group was significantly greater than in either the DA group or the HA group (p < 0.01). A 5 min percentage decline of 35 % best distinguished SA from multiglandular disease (85.3 vs. 24.9 %). The data suggest that when IOPTH level does not drop by at least 35 % at 5 min after excision, the surgeon should consider further exploration rather than wait for additional levels.

  18. Black raspberries suppress colonic adenoma development in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pan; Skaer, Chad W; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Stirdivant, Steven M; Young, Matthew R; Oshima, Kiyoko; Stoner, Gary D; Lechner, John F; Huang, Yi-Wen; Wang, Li-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) have demonstrated chemopreventive effects in a dietary intervention trial with human colorectal cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate BRB-caused metabolite changes using the Apc(Min/+) mouse as a model of human colorectal cancer. Wild-type (WT) mice were fed control diet, and Apc(Min/+) mice were fed either control diet or control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 weeks. Colonic and intestinal polyp size and number were measured. A non-targeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on colonic mucosa, liver and fecal specimens. Eight weeks of BRB treatment significantly decreased intestinal and colonic polyp number and size in Apc(Min/+) mice. The apc gene mutation significantly changed 52 metabolites in colonic mucosa associated with increased amino acid and decreased lipid metabolites, as well as 39 liver and 8 fecal metabolites. BRBs significantly reversed 23 apc-regulated metabolites, including 13 colonic mucosa, 8 liver and 2 fecal metabolites that were involved in amino acid, glutathione, lipid and nucleotide metabolism. Of these, changes in eight metabolites were linearly correlated with decreased colonic polyp number and size in BRB-treated Apc(Min/+) mice. Elevated levels of putrescine and linolenate in Apc(Min/+) mice were significantly decreased by BRBs. Ornithine decarboxylase expression, the key enzyme in putrescine generation, was fully suppressed by BRBs. These results suggest that BRBs produced beneficial effects against colonic adenoma development in Apc(Min/+) mice and modulated multiple metabolic pathways. The metabolite changes produced by BRBs might potentially reflect the BRB-mediated chemopreventive effects in colorectal cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Spontaneous initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer in the novel A/J Min/+ mouse.

    PubMed

    Sødring, Marianne; Gunnes, Gjermund; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-04-15

    The C57BL/6J multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mouse is a widely used murine model for familial adenomatous polyposis, a hereditary form of human colorectal cancer. However, it is a questionable model partly because the vast majority of tumors arise in the small intestine, and partly because the fraction of tumors that progress to invasive carcinomas is minuscule. A/J mice are typically more susceptible to carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer than C57BL/6J mice. To investigate whether the novel Min/+ mouse on the A/J genetic background could be a better model for colorectal cancer, we examined the spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in 81 A/J Min/+ mice ranging in age from 4 to 60 weeks. The A/J Min/+ mouse exhibited a dramatic increase in number of colonic lesions when compared to what has been reported for the conventional Min/+ mouse; however, an increase in small intestinal lesions did not occur. In addition, this novel mouse model displayed a continual development of colonic lesions highlighted by the transition from early lesions (flat ACF) to tumors over time. In mice older than 40 weeks, 13 colonic (95% CI: 8.7-16.3) and 21 small intestinal (95% CI: 18.6-24.3) tumors were recorded. Notably, a considerable proportion of those lesions progressed to carcinomas in both the colon (21%) and small intestine (51%). These findings more closely reflect aspects of human colorectal carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse may be a relevant model for initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer.

  20. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, S.; Collins, S.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  1. Genetic analysis of intestinal polyp development in Collaborative Cross mice carrying the Apc (Min/+) mutation.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Alexandra; Baer, Daria; Tomlinson, Ian; Mott, Richard; Iraqi, Fuad A

    2016-02-19

    Colorectal cancer is an abnormal tissue development in the colon or rectum. Most of CRCs develop due to somatic mutations, while only a small proportion is caused by inherited mutations. Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited genetic disease, which is characterized by colorectal polyps. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Mice carrying and non-sense mutation in Adenomatous polyposis coli gene at site R850, which designated Apc (R850X/+) (Min), develop intestinal adenomas, while the bulk of the disease is in the small intestine. A number of genetic modifier loci of Min have been mapped, but so far most of the underlying genes have not been identified. In our previous studies, we have shown that Collaborative Cross mice are a powerful tool for mapping loci responsible for phenotypic variation. As a first step towards identification of novel modifiers of Min, we assessed the phenotypic variation between 27 F1 crosses between different Collaborative cross mice and C57BL/6-Min lines. Here, C57BL/6-Min male mice were mated with females from 27 Collaborative cross lines. F1 offspring were terminated at 23 weeks old and multiple phenotypes were collected: polyp counts, intestine length, intestine weight, packed cell volume and spleen weight. Additionally, in eight selected F1 Collaborative cross-C57BL/6-Min lines, body weight was monitored and compared to control mice carry wildtype Adenomatous polyposis coli gene. We found significant (p < 0.05) phenotypic variation between the 27 F1 Collaborative cross-C57BL/6-Min lines for all the tested phenotypes, and sex differences with traits; Colon, body weight and intestine length phenotypes, only. Heritability calculation showed that these phenotypes are mainly controlled by genetic factors. Variation in polyp development is controlled, an appreciable extent, by genetic factors segregating in the Collaborative cross population and suggests that it is suited for identifying

  2. Extrinsic intestinal denervation modulates tumor development in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Verena; Dietrich, Alexandra; Kasparek, Michael S; Benhaqi, Petra; Schneider, Marlon R; Schemann, Michael; Seeliger, Hendrik; Kreis, Martin E

    2015-04-29

    Innervation interacts with enteric immune responses. Chronic intestinal inflammation is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. We aimed to study potential extrinsic neuronal modulation of intestinal tumor development in a mouse model. Experiments were performed with male Apc(Min/+) or wild type mice (4 weeks old, body weight approximately 20 g). Subgroups with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (apcV/wtV), sympathetic denervation of the small intestine (apcS/wtS) or sham operated controls (apcC/wtC) were investigated (n = 6-14 per group). Three months after surgical manipulation, 10 cm of terminal ileum were excised, fixed for 48 h in 4% paraformaldehyde and all tumors were counted and their area determined in mm(2) (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)). Whole mounts of the muscularis of terminal ileum and duodenum (internal positive control) were also stained for tyrosine hydroxylase to confirm successful sympathetic denervation. Tumor count in Apc(Min/+) mice was 62 ± 8 (apcC), 46 ± 11 (apcV) and 54 ± 8 (apcS) which was increased compared to wildtype controls with 4 ± 0.5 (wtC), 5 ± 0.5 (wtV) and 5 ± 0.6 (wtS; all p < 0.05). For Apc(Min/+) groups, vagotomized animals showed a trend towards decreased tumor counts compared to sham operated Apc(Min/+) controls while sympathetic denervation was similar to sham Apc(Min/+). Area covered by tumors in Apc(Min/+) mice was 55 ± 10 (apcC), 31 ± 8 (apcV) and 42 ± 8 (apcS) mm(2), which was generally increased compared to wildtype controls with 7 ± 0.6 (wtC), 7 ± 0.4 (wtV) and 7 ± 0.6 (wtS) mm(2) (all p < 0.05). In Apc(Min/+) groups, tumor area was decreased in vagotomized animals compared to sham operated controls (p < 0.05) while sympathetically denervated mice showed a minor trend to decreased tumor area compared to controls. Extrinsic innervation of the small bowel is likely to modulate tumor development in Apc(Min/+) mice

  3. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    DOEpatents

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya

    2011-07-26

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  4. Min-entropy and quantum key distribution: Nonzero key rates for ''small'' numbers of signals

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Mertz, Markus; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar

    2011-02-15

    We calculate an achievable secret key rate for quantum key distribution with a finite number of signals by evaluating the quantum conditional min-entropy explicitly. The min-entropy for a classical random variable is the negative logarithm of the maximal value in its probability distribution. The quantum conditional min-entropy can be expressed in terms of the guessing probability, which we calculate for d-dimensional systems. We compare these key rates to previous approaches using the von Neumann entropy and find nonzero key rates for a smaller number of signals. Furthermore, we improve the secret key rates by modifying the parameter estimation step. Both improvements taken together lead to nonzero key rates for only 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} signals. An interesting conclusion can also be drawn from the additivity of the min-entropy and its relation to the guessing probability: for a set of symmetric tensor product states, the optimal minimum-error discrimination (MED) measurement is the optimal MED measurement on each subsystem.

  5. Minásbate Equivalents of Mathematical Concepts: Their Socio-Cultural Undertones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balbuena, Sherwin E.; Cantoria, Uranus E.; Cantoria, Amancio L., Jr.; Ferriol, Eny B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the collection and analysis of Minásbate equivalents of some concepts used in the study of arithmetic, counting, and geometry as provided by the elderly residents of the province of Masbate. The glossary of mathematical terms derived from interviews would serve as an authoritative reference for mother tongue teachers in the…

  6. Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn.

    PubMed

    Kakavand, T; Mirzaii, M; Eslami, M; Karimi, A

    2015-10-01

    (110m)In is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of (110)Cd(d, 2n), (111)Cd(d, 3n), (nat)Cd(d, xn), (110)Cd(p, n), (111)Cd(p, 2n), (112)Cd(p, 3n) and (nat)Cd(p, xn) reactions to produce the (110m)In were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of (110)In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the (110)Cd(p, n)(110m)In is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σ(m)/σ(g)) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15-5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of (110m)In and other byproducts were measured.

  7. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  8. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-08-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  9. Middle School Physical Education Physical Activity Quantification: A Pedometer Steps/Min Guideline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to improve physical activity (PA) surveillance of the Healthy People 2010 Objective 22:10 (i.e., 50% of the lesson time engaged in PA) by establishing a pedometer steps/min guideline to quantify time engaged in PA during physical education. A sample of 180 middle school students had their PA measured via pedometry…

  10. Effect of intercellular junction protein expression on water transport during freezing of MIN6 cells.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Adam Z; Karlsson, Jens O M

    2013-10-01

    A mouse insulinoma (MIN6) strain in which connexin expression has been inhibited by antisense technology holds promise as an experimental model system for investigating the role of gap junctions in intercellular ice propagation. However, to properly interpret measurements of intracellular ice formation kinetics, the effects of cell dehydration on cytoplasmic supercooling must be determined. Thus, the cell membrane water permeability in monolayer cultures of the antisense-transfected MIN6 strain was measured using a fluorescence quenching method. By repeating the experiments at 4°C, 12°C, 21°C, and 37°C, the activation energy for water transport was determined to be E(a) = 51 ± 3 k J/mol. Although differences between membrane permeability measurements in theantisense and wild-type strains were not statistically significant, simulation of water transport during rapid freezing (130°C/min) predicted that intracellular supercooling in the genetically modified MIN6 strain may become significantly larger than the supercooling in wild-type cells at temperatures below -15°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Colonography of Min Mice Using Dark Lumen Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, C. Chad; Lepage, Martin; Gorden, D. Lee; Fingleton, Barbara; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Price, Ronald R.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Gore, John C.; McIntyre, J. Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Dark lumen MRI colonography detects colonic polyps by minimization of the intestinal lumen signal intensity. Here we validate the use of perfluorinated oil as an intestinal-filling agent for dark lumen MRI studies in mice, enabling the physiological characterization of colonic polyps by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. In control and Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mice with and without pretreatment with oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), polyps as small as 0.94 mm diameter were consistently identified using standard 2D gradient echo imaging (voxel size, 0.23 × 0.16 × 0.5 mm). In serial studies, polyp growth rates were heterogeneous with an average ≈5% increase in polyp volume per day. In DSS-treated control mice the colon wall contrast agent extravasation rate constant, Ktrans, and extravascular extracellular space volume fraction, ve, values were measured for the first time and found to be 0.10 ± 0.03 min-1 and 0.23 ± 0.09, respectively. In DSS-treated Min mice, polyp Ktrans values (0.09 ± 0.04 min-1) were similar to those in the colon wall but the ve values were substantially lower (0.16 ± 0.03), suggesting increased cellular density. The functional dark-lumen colonography approach described herein provides new opportunities for the noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal disease pathology and treatment response in mouse models. PMID:18727087

  12. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 1 data release and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ip, Camilla L C; Loose, Matthew; Tyson, John R; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Brown, Bonnie L; Jain, Miten; Leggett, Richard M; Eccles, David A; Zalunin, Vadim; Urban, John M; Piazza, Paolo; Bowden, Rory J; Paten, Benedict; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Batty, Elizabeth M; Simpson, Jared T; Snutch, Terrance P; Birney, Ewan; Buck, David; Goodwin, Sara; Jansen, Hans J; O'Grady, Justin; Olsen, Hugh E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a miniaturized DNA sequencing device with a high-throughput contextual sequencing capability embodies the next generation of large scale sequencing tools. The MinION™ Access Programme (MAP) was initiated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies™ in April 2014, giving public access to their USB-attached miniature sequencing device. The MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium (MARC) was formed by a subset of MAP participants, with the aim of evaluating and providing standard protocols and reference data to the community. Envisaged as a multi-phased project, this study provides the global community with the Phase 1 data from MARC, where the reproducibility of the performance of the MinION was evaluated at multiple sites. Five laboratories on two continents generated data using a control strain of Escherichia coli K-12, preparing and sequencing samples according to a revised ONT protocol. Here, we provide the details of the protocol used, along with a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of typical runs including the consistency, rate, volume and quality of data produced. Further analysis of the Phase 1 data presented here, and additional experiments in Phase 2 of E. coli from MARC are already underway to identify ways to improve and enhance MinION performance.

  13. Word Prosody in Loanword Phonology: Focus on Japanese Borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Jung-yueh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the adaptation of word prosody in loanword phonology. First, it explicates several influential loanword theories and reviews some representative cases of prosodic adaptation from different languages. Then, it turns to the focus on the prosodic adaptation of Japanese borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM or Taiwanese).…

  14. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G.C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale for its subcellular organisation. However, the effects of the cell’s spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shape Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2x1x1 to 11x6x1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe, and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale in adaptation to the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3–6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling, and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood. PMID:26098227

  15. A New World: Redefining the Legacy of Min-Zhan Lu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses exchanges between a number of scholars during the 1990s centering on Min-Zhan Lu's controversial essay "Conflict and Struggle: The Enemies or Preconditions of Basic Writing?" In some ways, "Conflict and Struggle" blazed a trail for later work in "hybrid" or "mixed" forms of academic writing while at the same time igniting…

  16. Yes-No Question Patterns in Southern Min: Variation Across Some Dialects in Fujian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, in some Fujian Southern Min dialects, the patterns VP-neg and Adv-VP are mutually exclusive, presenting data from Xiamen to show recent innovations in the yes-no question pattern. Describes this innovation, explaining how the origin of the innovative patterns and limitations on their further development are influenced by…

  17. TSH response to 30 min stay in sauna in the morning and during evening hours.

    PubMed

    Tatár, P; Strbák, V; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M

    1984-05-01

    The response of plasma TSH to 30 min stay in sauna was compared in the morning and in the evening. Both in the morning and in the evening plasma TSH was significantly elevated after sauna, with more prolonged response in the evening. This difference resembles the different reactivity of TSH to exogenous TRH administration in various times of day.

  18. A Modified MinMax k-Means Algorithm Based on PSO

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The MinMax k-means algorithm is widely used to tackle the effect of bad initialization by minimizing the maximum intraclustering errors. Two parameters, including the exponent parameter and memory parameter, are involved in the executive process. Since different parameters have different clustering errors, it is crucial to choose appropriate parameters. In the original algorithm, a practical framework is given. Such framework extends the MinMax k-means to automatically adapt the exponent parameter to the data set. It has been believed that if the maximum exponent parameter has been set, then the programme can reach the lowest intraclustering errors. However, our experiments show that this is not always correct. In this paper, we modified the MinMax k-means algorithm by PSO to determine the proper values of parameters which can subject the algorithm to attain the lowest clustering errors. The proposed clustering method is tested on some favorite data sets in several different initial situations and is compared to the k-means algorithm and the original MinMax k-means algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our proposed algorithm can reach the lowest clustering errors automatically. PMID:27656201

  19. A Modified MinMax k-Means Algorithm Based on PSO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanping

    The MinMax k-means algorithm is widely used to tackle the effect of bad initialization by minimizing the maximum intraclustering errors. Two parameters, including the exponent parameter and memory parameter, are involved in the executive process. Since different parameters have different clustering errors, it is crucial to choose appropriate parameters. In the original algorithm, a practical framework is given. Such framework extends the MinMax k-means to automatically adapt the exponent parameter to the data set. It has been believed that if the maximum exponent parameter has been set, then the programme can reach the lowest intraclustering errors. However, our experiments show that this is not always correct. In this paper, we modified the MinMax k-means algorithm by PSO to determine the proper values of parameters which can subject the algorithm to attain the lowest clustering errors. The proposed clustering method is tested on some favorite data sets in several different initial situations and is compared to the k-means algorithm and the original MinMax k-means algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our proposed algorithm can reach the lowest clustering errors automatically.

  20. Optimizing the 6-Min Walk Test as a Measure of Exercise Capacity in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Wise, Robert A.; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S.; Benzo, Roberto P.; Criner, Gerard; Make, Barry; Slivka, William A.; Ries, Andrew L.; Reilly, John J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is uncertain whether the effort and expense of performing a second walk for the 6-min walk test improves test performance. Hence, we attempted to quantify the improvement in 6-min walk distance if an additional walk were to be performed. Methods: We studied patients consecutively enrolled into the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who prior to randomization and after 6 to 10 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation performed two 6-min walks on consecutive days (N = 396). Patients also performed two 6-min walks at 6-month follow-up after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery (n = 74) or optimal medical therapy (n = 64). We compared change in the first walk distance to change in the second, average-of-two, and best-of-two walk distances. Results: Compared with the change in the first walk distance, change in the average-of-two and best-of-two walk distances had better validity and precision. Specifically, 6 months after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery, changes in the average-of-two (r = 0.66 vs r = 0.58, P = .01) and best-of-two walk distances (r = 0.67 vs r = 0.58, P = .04) better correlated with the change in maximal exercise capacity (ie, better validity). Additionally, the variance of change was 14% to 25% less for the average-of-two walk distances and 14% to 33% less for the best-of-two walk distances than the variance of change in the single walk distance, indicating better precision. Conclusions: Adding a second walk to the 6-min walk test significantly improves its performance in measuring response to a therapeutic intervention, improves the validity of COPD clinical trials, and would result in a 14% to 33% reduction in sample size requirements. Hence, it should be strongly considered by clinicians and researchers as an outcome measure for therapeutic interventions in patients with COPD. PMID:23364913

  1. Optimizing the 6-min walk test as a measure of exercise capacity in COPD.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Divay; Wise, Robert A; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S; Benzo, Roberto P; Criner, Gerard; Make, Barry; Slivka, William A; Ries, Andrew L; Reilly, John J; Martinez, Fernando J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2012-12-01

    It is uncertain whether the effort and expense of performing a second walk for the 6-min walk test improves test performance. Hence, we attempted to quantify the improvement in 6-min walk distance if an additional walk were to be performed. We studied patients consecutively enrolled into the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who prior to randomization and after 6 to 10 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation performed two 6-min walks on consecutive days (N = 396). Patients also performed two 6-min walks at 6-month follow-up after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery (n = 74) or optimal medical therapy (n = 64). We compared change in the first walk distance to change in the second, average-of-two, and best-of-two walk distances. Compared with the change in the first walk distance, change in the average-of-two and best-of-two walk distances had better validity and precision. Specifically, 6 months after randomization to lung volume reduction surgery, changes in the average-of-two (r = 0.66 vs r = 0.58, P = .01) and best-of-two walk distances (r = 0.67 vs r = 0.58, P = .04) better correlated with the change in maximal exercise capacity (ie, better validity). Additionally, the variance of change was 14% to 25% less for the average-of-two walk distances and 14% to 33% less for the best-of-two walk distances than the variance of change in the single walk distance, indicating better precision. Adding a second walk to the 6-min walk test significantly improves its performance in measuring response to a therapeutic intervention, improves the validity of COPD clinical trials, and would result in a 14% to 33% reduction in sample size requirements. Hence, it should be strongly considered by clinicians and researchers as an outcome measure for therapeutic interventions in patients with COPD.

  2. ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non-energy raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vidal, o.; christmann, p.; Bol, d.; Goffé, b.; Groth, m.; Kohler, e.; Persson Nelson, k.; Schumacher, k.

    2012-04-01

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it remains dependent on the importation of many metals, as its domestic production is limited to about 3% of world production. We will present the project ERA-MIN, which is an ERA-NET on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European industries, financially supported by the European Commission. The main objectives of ERA-MIN are: 1) Mapping and Networking: interconnecting the members of the currently fragmented European mineral resources research area, to the aim of fostering convergence of public research programs, industry, research institutes, academia and the European Commission, 2) Coordinating: establishing a permanent mechanism for planning and coordination of the European non-energy mineral raw materials research community (ENERC). 3) Roadmapping: defining the most important scientific and technological challenges that should be supported by the EU and its state members, 4) Programming: designing a Joint European Research Programme model and implementating it into a call for proposals open to academic and industrial research. The topics of interest in ERA-MIN are the primary continental and marine resources, the secondary resources and their related technologies, substitution and material efficiency, along with transversal topics such as environmental impact, public policy support, mineral intelligence, and public education and teaching. Public scientific research is very central in the scope of the ERA-MIN activity, whose consortium is indeed lead by a public organisation of fundamental research. Thus, universities and public research organisations are warmly invited to play an active role in defining the scientific questions and challenges that shall determine the European Raw Materials Roadmap and should be addressed by joint programming at the European scale

  3. Assessing the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION

    PubMed Central

    Laver, T.; Harrison, J.; O’Neill, P.A.; Moore, K.; Farbos, A.; Paszkiewicz, K.; Studholme, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION is a new sequencing technology that potentially offers read lengths of tens of kilobases (kb) limited only by the length of DNA molecules presented to it. The device has a low capital cost, is by far the most portable DNA sequencer available, and can produce data in real-time. It has numerous prospective applications including improving genome sequence assemblies and resolution of repeat-rich regions. Before such a technology is widely adopted, it is important to assess its performance and limitations in respect of throughput and accuracy. In this study we assessed the performance of the MinION by re-sequencing three bacterial genomes, with very different nucleotide compositions ranging from 28.6% to 70.7%; the high G + C strain was underrepresented in the sequencing reads. We estimate the error rate of the MinION (after base calling) to be 38.2%. Mean and median read lengths were 2 kb and 1 kb respectively, while the longest single read was 98 kb. The whole length of a 5 kb rRNA operon was covered by a single read. As the first nanopore-based single molecule sequencer available to researchers, the MinION is an exciting prospect; however, the current error rate limits its ability to compete with existing sequencing technologies, though we do show that MinION sequence reads can enhance contiguity of de novo assembly when used in conjunction with Illumina MiSeq data. PMID:26753127

  4. Assessing the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION.

    PubMed

    Laver, T; Harrison, J; O'Neill, P A; Moore, K; Farbos, A; Paszkiewicz, K; Studholme, D J

    2015-03-01

    The Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION is a new sequencing technology that potentially offers read lengths of tens of kilobases (kb) limited only by the length of DNA molecules presented to it. The device has a low capital cost, is by far the most portable DNA sequencer available, and can produce data in real-time. It has numerous prospective applications including improving genome sequence assemblies and resolution of repeat-rich regions. Before such a technology is widely adopted, it is important to assess its performance and limitations in respect of throughput and accuracy. In this study we assessed the performance of the MinION by re-sequencing three bacterial genomes, with very different nucleotide compositions ranging from 28.6% to 70.7%; the high G + C strain was underrepresented in the sequencing reads. We estimate the error rate of the MinION (after base calling) to be 38.2%. Mean and median read lengths were 2 kb and 1 kb respectively, while the longest single read was 98 kb. The whole length of a 5 kb rRNA operon was covered by a single read. As the first nanopore-based single molecule sequencer available to researchers, the MinION is an exciting prospect; however, the current error rate limits its ability to compete with existing sequencing technologies, though we do show that MinION sequence reads can enhance contiguity of de novo assembly when used in conjunction with Illumina MiSeq data.

  5. Exploring the ecological validity and variability of a 10-min bout of wheeling.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Megan K; Lam, Tania; Klimstra, Marc; Zehr, E Paul; Sawatzky, Bonita J

    2017-05-09

    To determine the ecological validity of using able-bodied participants to perform a 10-min wheeling trial by (1) evaluating changes in biomechanics over the trial in manual wheelchair users and able-bodied participants naïve to wheeling and (2) describing differences in changes and variability between groups. Manual wheelchair users (n = 7, 2-27 years' experience) and able-bodied participants (n = 11) wheeled for 10 min. Kinetic and temporal variables were collected and averaged over each minute, while wheeling strategy (movement pattern) was categorized at minutes 1 and 10. There was a main effect of time for push angle, and a main effect of group for average push angle, tangential force and total force. Manual wheelchair users used larger push angles and forces compared to able-bodied participants. Surprisingly, intercycle variability did not differ between groups. Using able-bodied participants to represent manual wheelchair users performing a 10-min wheeling trial is not ecologically valid and caution should be used when interpreting push angle and forces applied to the pushrim. Considering that push angle was the only variable that demonstrated a main effect of time, long durations (e.g., 10 min) of wheeling may be appropriate for use in study designs acknowledging potential changes in wheeling strategy and push angle. Implications for Rehabilitation Some experienced wheelchair users and non-wheelchair users modify their movement pattern from an arc to a circular pattern within a 10-min wheeling trial. There are clear biomechanical differences in push angle and forces applied to the pushrim between wheelchair users with experience and able-bodied non-wheelchair users. Able-bodied participants who have no prior manual wheeling experience are no more variable than long-term wheelchair users. Variability may play an important role in wheelchair propulsion.

  6. TP53 gene mutation analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by nanopore MinION sequencing.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Cumbo, Cosimo; Orsini, Paola; Brunetti, Claudia; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Minervini, Angela; Casieri, Paola; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Tota, Giuseppina; Impera, Luciana; Giordano, Annamaria; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2016-10-10

    The assessment of TP53 mutational status is becoming a routine clinical practice for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (CLL). A broad spectrum of molecular techniques has been employed so far, including both direct Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released the MinION an USB-interfaced sequencer. In this paper we report our experience, with the MinION technology for the detection of the TP53 gene mutation in CLL patients. Twelve CLL patients at diagnosis were included in this study. All except one patient showed the TP53 gene deletion in Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. Patients were investigated for TP53 mutation by Sanger and by MinION sequencing. Analysis by Sanger was performed according with the IARC protocol. Analysis by MinION was performed adopting a strategy based on long template PCR, read error correction, and post variant calling filtering. Due to the high error rate of nanopore technology, sequence data were both used directly and before correction with two different in silico methods: ALEC and nanocorrect. A mean error rate of 15 % was detected before correction that was reduced to 4-5 % after correction. Analysis by Sanger sequencing was able to detect four patients mutated for TP53. MinION analysis detected one more mutated patient previously not detected from Sanger. In our hands, the Nanopore technology shows correlation with Sanger sequencing but more sensitive, manageable and less expensive, and therefore has proven to be a useful tool for TP53 gene mutation detection.

  7. ApcMin, A Mutation in the Murine Apc Gene, Predisposes to Mammary Carcinomas and Focal Alveolar Hyperplasias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Amy Rapaich; Mattes, Ellen M.; Dove, William F.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Haag, Jill D.; Gould, Michael N.

    1993-10-01

    ApcMin (Min, multiple intestinal neoplasia) is a point mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene. Min/+ mice develop multiple intestinal adenomas, as do humans carrying germ-line mutations in APC. Female mice carrying Min are also prone to develop mammary tumors. Min/+ mammary glands are more sensitive to chemical carcinogenesis than are +/+ mammary glands. Transplantation of mammary cells from Min/+ or +/+ donors into +/+ hosts demonstrates that the propensity to develop mammary tumors is intrinsic to the Min/+ mammary cells. Long-term grafts of Min/+ mammary glands also gave rise to focal alveolar hyperplasias, indicating that the presence of the Min mutation also has a role in the development of these lesions.

  8. Stress-responsiveness influences baseline glucocorticoid levels: Revisiting the under 3min sampling rule.

    PubMed

    Small, Thomas W; Bebus, Sara E; Bridge, Eli S; Elderbrock, Emily K; Ferguson, Stephen M; Jones, Blake C; Schoech, Stephan J

    2017-02-09

    Plasma glucocorticoid (CORT) levels collected within 3min of capture are commonly believed to reflect pre-stressor, baseline CORT levels. Differences in these "baseline" values are often interpreted as reflecting differences in health, or the amount of social and environmental stress recently experienced by an individual. When interpreting "baseline" values it is generally assumed that any effect of capture-and-handling during the initial sampling period is small enough and consistent enough among individuals to not obscure pre-capture differences in CORT levels. However, plasma CORT increases in less than 3min post-capture in many free-living, endothermic species in which timing has been assessed. In addition, the rate of CORT secretion and the maximum level attained (i.e., the degree of stress-responsiveness) during a severe stressor often differs among individuals of the same species. In Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), an individual's stress-responsiveness during a 30min post-capture stressor is correlated with CORT levels in samples collected within 1.5min of capture, suggesting there is an intrinsic connection between stress-responsiveness and pre-capture CORT levels. Although differences in stress-responsiveness accounted for just 11% of the variance in these samples, on average, higher stress-responsive jays (top third of individuals) had baseline values twice that of lower stress-responsive jays (bottom third). Further, plasma CORT levels begin to increase around 2min post-capture in this species, but the rate of increase between 2 and 3min differs markedly with CORT increasing more rapidly in jays with higher stress-responsiveness. Together, these data indicate that baseline CORT values can be influenced by an individual's stress response phenotype and the differences due to stress-responsiveness can be exaggerated during sample collection. In some cases, the effects of differences in stress-responsiveness and the increase in CORT during

  9. Influence of all-out and fast start on 5-min cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Aisbett, Brad; Lerossignol, Peter; McConell, Glenn Kevin; Abbiss, Chris Richard; Snow, Rod

    2009-10-01

    To examine the influence of two different fast-start pacing strategies on performance and oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometer time trials lasting ∼5 min. Eight trained male cyclists performed four cycle ergometer time trials whereby the total work completed (113 ± 11.5 kJ; mean ± SD) was identical to the better of two 5-min self-paced familiarization trials. During the performance trials, initial power output was manipulated to induce either an all-out or a fast start. Power output during the first 60 s of the fast-start trial was maintained at 471.0 ± 48.0 W, whereas the all-out start approximated a maximal starting effort for the first 15 s (mean power: 753.6 ± 76.5 W) followed by 45 s at a constant power output (376.8 ± 38.5 W). Irrespective of starting strategy, power output was controlled so that participants would complete the first quarter of the trial (28.3 ± 2.9 kJ) in 60 s. Participants performed two trials using each condition, with their fastest time trial compared. Performance time was significantly faster when cyclists adopted the all-out start (4 min 48 s ± 8 s) compared with the fast start (4 min 51 s ± 8 s; P < 0.05). The first-quarter VO2 during the all-out start trial (3.4 ± 0.4 L·min(-1)) was significantly higher than during the fast-start trial (3.1 ± 0.4 L·min(-1); P < 0.05). After removal of an outlier, the percentage increase in first-quarter VO2 was significantly correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.05) with the relative difference in finishing time. An all-out start produces superior middle distance cycling performance when compared with a fast start. The improvement in performance may be due to a faster VO2 response rather than time saved due to a rapid acceleration.

  10. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  11. Deterministic separation of cancer cells from blood at 10 mL/min

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutherback, Kevin; D'Silva, Joseph; Liu, Liyu; Wu, Amy; Austin, Robert H.; Sturm, James C.

    2012-12-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating clusters of cancer and stromal cells have been identified in the blood of patients with malignant cancer and can be used as a diagnostic for disease severity, assess the efficacy of different treatment strategies and possibly determine the eventual location of metastatic invasions for possible treatment. There is thus a critical need to isolate, propagate and characterize viable CTCs and clusters of cancer cells with their associated stroma cells. Here, we present a microfluidic device for mL/min flow rate, continuous-flow capture of viable CTCs from blood using deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. We show here that a DLD array device can isolate CTCs from blood with capture efficiency greater than 85% CTCs at volumetric flow rates of up to 10 mL/min with no effect on cell viability.

  12. [Contribution of Professor SHI Xue-min's academic thoughts to treatment of stroke].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Based on the thought of Zhishen (a kind of mind regulation), Professor SHI Xue-min, academician of the China Academy of Engineering, found the Xingnao Kaiqiao (to refresh the mind and to cause resuscitation) acupuncture method, which still plays an important role in the acupuncture treatment of wind stroke nowadays. Meanwhile, great importance is attached to the comprehensive treatment of wind stroke. Danqi Piantan capsule (see text) is developed and "wind stroke unit" is set up. In recent years, Professor SHI shifts the center of research to the treatment of hypertension, the risk factor of wind stroke. Taking Renying (ST 9) as the major acupoint, acupuncture with standard measurement and manipulations is established. And good clinical effect has been obtained as well. Therefore, this article focuses on the introduction of Professor SHI Xue-min's contribution to wind stroke treatment.

  13. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  14. DeepNano: Deep recurrent neural networks for base calling in MinION nanopore reads.

    PubMed

    Boža, Vladimír; Brejová, Broňa; Vinař, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The MinION device by Oxford Nanopore produces very long reads (reads over 100 kBp were reported); however it suffers from high sequencing error rate. We present an open-source DNA base caller based on deep recurrent neural networks and show that the accuracy of base calling is much dependent on the underlying software and can be improved by considering modern machine learning methods. By employing carefully crafted recurrent neural networks, our tool significantly improves base calling accuracy on data from R7.3 version of the platform compared to the default base caller supplied by the manufacturer. On R9 version, we achieve results comparable to Nanonet base caller provided by Oxford Nanopore. Availability of an open source tool with high base calling accuracy will be useful for development of new applications of the MinION device, including infectious disease detection and custom target enrichment during sequencing.

  15. Human connectome module pattern detection using a new multi-graph MinMax cut model.

    PubMed

    De, Wang; Wang, Yang; Nie, Feiping; Yan, Jingwen; Cai, Weidong; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Huang, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Many recent scientific efforts have been devoted to constructing the human connectome using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data for understanding the large-scale brain networks that underlie higher-level cognition in human. However, suitable computational network analysis tools are still lacking in human connectome research. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-graph min-max cut model to detect the consistent network modules from the brain connectivity networks of all studied subjects. A new multi-graph MinMax cut model is introduced to solve this challenging computational neuroscience problem and the efficient optimization algorithm is derived. In the identified connectome module patterns, each network module shows similar connectivity patterns in all subjects, which potentially associate to specific brain functions shared by all subjects. We validate our method by analyzing the weighted fiber connectivity networks. The promising empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  16. Fifteen-month-old infants' cortisol levels decrease after a 30-min-warm-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Zmyj, Norbert; Schneider, Silvia; Seehagen, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Stress-induction procedures designed to increase cortisol levels in infants have been ineffective in many studies. One reason might be that infants did not have sufficient time to settle into the laboratory environment prior to the start of the stress induction, and thus already had high baseline levels of cortisol. In this study we investigate whether an extended warm-up period reduces infants' (N=22) cortisol levels. Fifteen-month-old infants' saliva cortisol was measured upon arrival at the laboratory. Then, they were allowed to play with their parent. After 30min, cortisol was measured again. There was a decrease in cortisol after 30min of free play. Our study suggests that infants' cortisol levels decrease when infants have the opportunity to acclimatize to the test environment. An extended warm-up phase prior to stress induction procedures might be necessary to reliably increase cortisol levels in infants.

  17. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Heros Ribeiro; Ferreira, Pamela Gill; Loures, João Paulo; Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Buck, Hudson Sousa; Montor, Wagner Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  18. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  19. Reproducibility of lactate markers during 4 and 8 min stage incremental running: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Willems, Mark E T; Myers, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the reproducibility of speed corresponding to specific lactate markers during incremental treadmill running of normal and prolonged stage durations. Nineteen healthy participants (14 male, 5 female) performed repeated, incremental treadmill running trials of 4 and 8 min stages on separate days to examine the test-retest reproducibility of speed at lactate markers. Two trials were completed for each duration in a randomised order. Fingertip blood samples drawn upon stage completion were analysed for plasma lactate, then used to determine running speed at: 2.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mmol l(-1) fixed blood lactate accumulations (FBLA), a 1 mmol l(-1) rise from baseline, and the markers: the deviation maximum (Dmax), the Dmax of the second curve derivative (D2L(max)), the lactate threshold (LT) and log-log LT. The 2.0 mmol l(-1) FBLA reported the lowest mean bias between 4 min trials (-0.06 km h(-1)), with the narrowest limits of agreement (LoA) (-1.78 to 1.66 km h(-1)). The Dmax had the second lowest bias (0.14 km h(-1)), D2L(max) the second narrowest LoA (-1.93 to 2.90 km h(-1)). For 8 min stages, the 1 mmol l(-1) rise demonstrated, low mean bias (-0.13 km h(-1)) and narrowest LoA (-1.22 to 0.97 km h(-1)) between trials. This preliminary report suggests the reproducibility of running speed at lactate summary markers is influenced by stage duration for incremental treadmill running. Varied marker reproducibility between 4 and 8 min stages indicates different blood lactate response, and therefore workload calculation, according to stage length. Consideration of marker construct is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Chloroplast Min System Functions Differentially in Two Specific Nongreen Plastids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Su, Jianbin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Bing; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    The nongreen plastids, such as etioplasts, chromoplasts, etc., as well as chloroplasts, are all derived from proplastids in the meristem. To date, the Min system members in plants have been identified as regulators of FtsZ-ring placement, which are essential for the symmetrical division of chloroplasts. However, the regulation of FtsZ-ring placement in nongreen plastids is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the division site placement of nongreen plastids by examining the etioplasts as representative in Arabidopsis Min system mutants. Surprisingly, the shape and number of etioplasts in cotyledons of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 mutants were similar to that observed in wild-type plants, whereas arc12 and parc6 mutants exhibited enlarged etioplasts that were reduced in number. In order to examine nongreen plastids in true leaves, we silenced the ALB3 gene in these Min system mutant backgrounds to produce immature chloroplasts without the thylakoidal network using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS). Interestingly, consistent with our observations in etioplasts, enlarged and fewer nongreen plastids were only detected in leaves of parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants. Further, the FtsZ-ring assembled properly at the midpoint in nongreen plastids of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, but organized into multiple rings in parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and presented fragmented filaments in arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, suggesting that division site placement in nongreen plastids requires fewer components of the plant Min system. Taken together, these results suggest that division site placement in nongreen plastids is different from that in chloroplasts. PMID:23936263

  1. Microfossils in stromatolitic cherts from the upper proterozoic Min'yar formation, southern Ural Mountains, USSR.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, A V; Schopf, J W

    1984-05-01

    A diverse assemblage of exceptionally well-preserved microorganisms, including several previously unknown taxa, has been discovered in stromatolitic black chert from the ca. 680-790 Ma-old Min'yar Formation (Suite) of the southern Ural Mountains, USSR. Like most ancient and modern stromatolitic communities, the Min'yar microflora is dominated by filamentous and unicellular cyanobacteria. Geologic evidence indicates that the microbial community inhabited a shallow water, presumably marine environment. The microfossils occur in two interlaminated and thinly interbedded sedimentary fabrics: 1, fact to wavy-laminated Stratifera-like stromatolitic laminae that presumably were deposited during periods of little wave action; and 2, intraclast grainstone that formed as a result of desiccation and (or) wave agitation. Microfossils are both better preserved and more abundant in the intraclasts than in the Stratifera-like laminae. The occurrence of probable pseudomorphs after replacement of sulfate minerals provides additional evidence for a shallow water, periodically emergent depositional environment for the Min'yar microbial mats. Kerogenous microfossils are three-dimensionally preserved, permineralized in fine-grained silica of primary or early diagenetic origin. In many aspects the Min'yar assemblage is comparable to that of the well-known ca. 850 Ma-old Bitter Springs Formation of central Australia. The following taxa are herein described: Division? Schizomycophyta or ? Cyanophyta, Biocatenoides sp.; Family Oscillatoriaceae, Eomycetopsis robusta Schopf emend. Knoll and Golubic, Rhicnonema antiquum Hofmann, Entosphaeroides? sp., Palaeolyngbya? sp., Siphonophycus capitaneum n. gen., n. sp.; Family? Oscillatoriaceae or? Rivulariaceae, Caudiculophycus? sp.; Family? Scytonemataceae or? Stigonemataceae, Ramivaginalis uralensis n. gen., n. sp.; Family Chroococcaceae, Sphaerophycus medium Horodyski and Donaldson, Eosynechococcus amadeus Knoll and Golubic, Gloeodiniopsis

  2. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors. PMID:27429837

  3. X-Ray Diffraction on Mars: Scientific Discoveries Made by the CheMin Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity landed in Gale crater in August 2012 with the goal to identify and characterize habitable environments on Mars. Curiosity has been studying a series of sedimentary rocks primarily deposited in fluviolacustrine environments approximately 3.5 Ga. Minerals in the rocks and soils on Mars can help place further constraints on these ancient aqueous environments, including pH, salinity, and relative duration of liquid water. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument on Curiosity uses a Co X-ray source and charge-coupled device detector in transmission geometry to collect 2D Debye-Scherrer ring patterns of the less than 150 micron size fraction of drilled rock powders or scooped sediments. With an angular range of approximately 2.52deg 20 and a 20 resolution of approximately 0.3deg, mineral abundances can be quantified with a detection limit of approximately 1-2 wt. %. CheMin has returned quantitative mineral abundances from 16 mudstone, sandstone, and aeolian sand samples so far. The mineralogy of these samples is incredibly diverse, suggesting a variety of depositional and diagenetic environments and different source regions for the sediments. Results from CheMin have been essential for reconstructing the geologic history of Gale crater and addressing the question of habitability on ancient Mars.

  4. Resource efficient hardware architecture for fast computation of running max/min filters.

    PubMed

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k(2) - 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding.

  5. Optimizing Multiple QoS for Workflow Applications using PSO and Min-Max Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar Ambursa, Faruku; Latip, Rohaya; Abdullah, Azizol; Subramaniam, Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Workflow scheduling under multiple QoS constraints is a complicated optimization problem. Metaheuristic techniques are excellent approaches used in dealing with such problem. Many metaheuristic based algorithms have been proposed, that considers various economic and trustworthy QoS dimensions. However, most of these approaches lead to high violation of user-defined QoS requirements in tight situation. Recently, a new Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based QoS-aware workflow scheduling strategy (LAPSO) is proposed to improve performance in such situations. LAPSO algorithm is designed based on synergy between a violation handling method and a hybrid of PSO and min-max heuristic. Simulation results showed a great potential of LAPSO algorithm to handling user requirements even in tight situations. In this paper, the performance of the algorithm is anlysed further. Specifically, the impact of the min-max strategy on the performance of the algorithm is revealed. This is achieved by removing the violation handling from the operation of the algorithm. The results show that LAPSO based on only the min-max method still outperforms the benchmark, even though the LAPSO with the violation handling performs more significantly better.

  6. An experimental comparison of min-cut/max-flow algorithms for energy minimization in vision.

    PubMed

    Boykov, Yuri; Kolmogorov, Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    After [15], [31], [19], [8], [25], [5], minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in low-level vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many min-cut/max-flow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of this paper is to provide an experimental comparison of the efficiency of min-cut/max flow algorithms for applications in vision. We compare the running times of several standard algorithms, as well as a new algorithm that we have recently developed. The algorithms we study include both Goldberg-Tarjan style "push-relabel" methods and algorithms based on Ford-Fulkerson style "augmenting paths." We benchmark these algorithms on a number of typical graphs in the contexts of image restoration, stereo, and segmentation. In many cases, our new algorithm works several times faster than any of the other methods, making near real-time performance possible. An implementation of our max-flow/min-cut algorithm is available upon request for research purposes.

  7. Global Statistical Maps of Extreme-Event Magnetic Observatory 1 Min First Differences in Horizontal Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity (delta)Bh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold(nTmin) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site,proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1(sigma), lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500,[350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nTmin. At 40deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and1(sigma) values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nTmin.

  8. Conservation and differences of the Min system in the chloroplast and bacterial division site placement

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kabeya, Yukihiro; Okazaki, Kumiko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplasts are descended from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and divide by binary fission. Reminiscent of the process in their bacterial ancestor, chloroplast division involves a part of cyanobacteria-derived division machineries in addition to those acquired during chloroplast evolution.1,2 In both bacterial and chloroplast division, formation of the FtsZ ring at the mid position is required for subsequent constriction and fission at the mid division site.1–4 As in bacteria, positioning of the FtsZ ring at the mid-chloroplast is mediated by the Min system.1,2 Recently, we identified the MCD1 protein, a plant-specific component of the Min system in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts.5 Unlike other division components that have been acquired after endosymbiosis and function outside of the chloroplasts (i.e., in/on the outer envelope membrane),6–9 MCD1 functions inside the chloroplast. Since we already discussed about the function and significance of MCD1 as a division component of plant origin,5 here we focus on and discuss about the diversity and evolution of the Min system. PMID:19907699

  9. Global Statistical Maps of Extreme-Event Magnetic Observatory 1 Min First Differences in Horizontal Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity (delta)Bh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold(nTmin) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site,proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1(sigma), lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500,[350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nTmin. At 40deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and1(sigma) values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nTmin.

  10. Resource Efficient Hardware Architecture for Fast Computation of Running Max/Min Filters

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k2 − 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding. PMID:24288456

  11. Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) analysis of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Simons, M.; Lin, Y. N.; Agram, P. S.; DiCaprio, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new approach to extracting spatially and temporally continuous ground deformation fields from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. We focus on unwrapped interferograms from a single viewing geometry, estimating ground deformation along the line-of-sight. Our approach is based on a wavelet decomposition in space and a general parametrization in time. We refer to this approach as MInTS (Multiscale InSAR Time Series). The wavelet decomposition efficiently deals with commonly seen spatial covariances in repeat-pass InSAR measurements, such that coefficients of the wavelets are essentially spatially uncorrelated. Our time-dependent parametrization is capable of capturing both recognized and unrecognized processes, and is not arbitrarily tied to the times of the SAR acquisitions. We estimate deformation in the wavelet-domain, using a cross-validated, regularized least-squares inversion. We include a model-resolution-based regularization, in order to more heavily damp the model during periods of sparse SAR acquisitions, compared to during times of dense acquisitions. To illustrate the application of MInTS, we consider a catalog of 92 ERS and Envisat interferograms, spanning 16 years, in the Long Valley caldera, CA, region. MInTS analysis captures the ground deformation with high spatial density over the Long Valley region.

  12. Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) analysis of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Musé, P.; Simons, M.; Lin, Y. N.; Agram, P. S.; Dicaprio, C. J.

    2012-02-01

    We present a new approach to extracting spatially and temporally continuous ground deformation fields from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. We focus on unwrapped interferograms from a single viewing geometry, estimating ground deformation along the line-of-sight. Our approach is based on a wavelet decomposition in space and a general parametrization in time. We refer to this approach as MInTS (Multiscale InSAR Time Series). The wavelet decomposition efficiently deals with commonly seen spatial covariances in repeat-pass InSAR measurements, since the coefficients of the wavelets are essentially spatially uncorrelated. Our time-dependent parametrization is capable of capturing both recognized and unrecognized processes, and is not arbitrarily tied to the times of the SAR acquisitions. We estimate deformation in the wavelet-domain, using a cross-validated, regularized least squares inversion. We include a model-resolution-based regularization, in order to more heavily damp the model during periods of sparse SAR acquisitions, compared to during times of dense acquisitions. To illustrate the application of MInTS, we consider a catalog of 92 ERS and Envisat interferograms, spanning 16 years, in the Long Valley caldera, CA, region. MInTS analysis captures the ground deformation with high spatial density over the Long Valley region.

  13. Viability of adhered bacterial cells: tracking MinD protein oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Matt; Colville, Keegan; Schultz-Nielsen, Chris; Jericho, Manfred; Dutcher, John

    2010-03-01

    To study bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy, it is necessary to immobilize the cells on a substrate. Because bacterial cells and common substrates such as glass and mica have a net negative charge, positively charged polymers such as poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are commonly used as adhesion layers. However, the use of adhesion polymers could stress the cell and even render it inviable. Viable E. coli cells use oscillations of Min proteins along the axis of the rod-shaped cells to ensure accurate cell division. By tagging MinD proteins with GFP, oscillations can be observed using fluorescence microscopy. For a healthy cell in an ideal environment, the oscillation period is measured to be ˜40 s. Prior experiments have shown that PLL increases the oscillation period significantly (up to 80%). In the present study, we have used epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to track MinD protein oscillations in E. coli bacteria adhered to a variety of positively charged polymers on mica as a function of polymer surface coverage.

  14. Sensor scheduling in mobile robots using incomplete information via Min-Conflict with Happiness.

    PubMed

    Gage, Aaron; Murphy, Robin Roberson

    2004-02-01

    This paper develops and applies a variant of the Min-Conflict algorithm to the problem of sensor allocation with incomplete information for mobile robots. A categorization of the types of contention over sensing resources is provided, as well as a taxonomy of available information for the sensor scheduling task. The Min-Conflict with Happiness (MCH) heuristic algorithm, which performs sensor scheduling for situations in which no information is known about future assignments, is then described. The primary contribution of this modification to Min-Conflict is that it permits the optimization of sensor certainty over the set of all active behaviors, thereby producing the best sensing state for the robot at any given time. Data are taken from simulation experiments and runs from a pair of Nomad200 robots using the SFX hybrid deliberative/reactive architecture. Results from these experiments demonstrate that MCH is able to satisfy more sensor assignments (up to 142%) and maintain a higher overall utility of sensing than greedy or random assignments (a 7-24% increase), even in the presence of sensor failures. In addition, MCH supports behavioral sensor fusion allocations. The practical advantages of MCH include fast, dynamic repair of broken schedules allowing it to be used on computationally constrained systems, compatibility with the dominant hybrid robot architectural style, and least-disturbance of prior assignments minimizing interruptions to reactive behaviors.

  15. Division site placement in E.coli: mutations that prevent formation of the MinE ring lead to loss of the normal midcell arrest of growth of polar MinD membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Fu, Xiaoli; King, Glenn F; Le, Trung; Rothfield, Lawrence

    2002-07-01

    The MinE protein functions as a topological specificity factor in determining the site of septal placement in Escherichia coli. MinE assembles into a membrane-associated ring structure near midcell and directs the localization of MinD and MinC into a membrane- associated polar zone that undergoes a characteristic pole-to-pole oscillation cycle. Single (green fluorescent protein) and double label (yellow fluorescent protein/cyan fluorescent protein) fluorescence labeling experiments showed that mutational alteration of a site on the alpha-face of MinE led to a failure to assemble the MinE ring, associated with loss of the ability to support a normal pattern of division site placement. The absence of the MinE ring did not prevent the assembly and disassembly of the MinD polar zone. Mutant cells lacking the MinE ring were characterized by the growth of MinD polar zones past their normal arrest point near midcell. The results suggested that the MinE ring acts as a stop-growth mechanism to prevent the MinCD polar zone from extending beyond the midcell division site.

  16. DRO1 inactivation drives colorectal carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Grill, Jessica I; Neumann, Jens; Herbst, Andreas; Hiltwein, Felix; Ofner, Andrea; Marschall, Maximilian K; Wolf, Eckhard; Kirchner, Thomas; Göke, Burkhard; Schneider, Marlon R; Kolligs, Frank T

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer develops from adenomatous precursor lesions by a multistep process that involves several independent mutational events in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene is an early event and a prerequisite for the development of human colorectal adenoma. Previous in vitro studies identified DRO1 (CCDC80) to be a putative tumor suppressor gene that is negatively regulated in colorectal cancers and downregulated upon neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells. To investigate the in vivo role of DRO1 in colorectal carcinogenesis, a constitutive DRO1 knockout mouse model was generated. Disruption of DRO1 did not result in spontaneous intestinal tumor formation, consistent with the notion that DRO1 might have a role in suppressing the development of colon tumors in Apc(Min) (/+) mice, a widely used model for studying the role of APC in intestinal tumorigenesis that is hampered by the fact that mice predominantly develop adenomas in the small intestine and not in the colon. Here, deletion of DRO1 in Apc(Min) (/+) mice results in earlier death, a dramatically increased colonic tumor burden, and frequent development of colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is observed in colon epithelium and tumors from DRO1 knockout mice. Thus, this study reveals that inactivation of DRO1 is required for colorectal carcinogenesis in the Apc(Min) (/+) mouse and establishes a new mouse model for the study of colorectal cancer. This report characterizes a new mouse model for the study of colorectal cancer and establishes DRO1 (CCDC80) as a tumor suppressor via a mechanism involving ERK phosphorylation. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning

    2006-12-01

    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  18. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  19. Efficacy of small-volume simethicone given at least 30 min before gastroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingjun; Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Law, Ngai Moh; Ong, Jeannie Peng Lan; Tan, Jessica Yi-Lyn; Harichander Thurairajah, Prem; Ang, Daphne Shih Wen; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2016-11-06

    To evaluate the efficacy of 5 mL simethicone solution in decreasing gastric foam if given at least 30 min before gastroscopy. This was a randomized, placebo controlled, endoscopist blinded study performed at Changi General Hospital. Patients were at least 21 years old, had no prior surgical resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and scheduled for elective diagnostic gastroscopies. The primary outcome was the total mucosal visibility score (TMVS) which was evaluated using McNally score. The sample size was calculated to be 24 per group (SD 2.4, 80% power, P < 0.05, 2-sample t test). Fifty-four patients were randomised to receive either simethicone [1 mL liquid simethicone (100 mg) in 5 mL of water] or placebo (5 mL of water) at least 30 min before their gastroscopy. Six accredited consultants conducted the gastroscopy, and the interobserver agreement of scoring TMVS was good with a Kappa statistic of 0.73. The simethicone group had significantly better mean TMVS compared to placebo (5.78 ± SD 1.65 vs 8.89 ± SD 1.97, P < 0.001). The improvement was statistically significant for the duodenum and the gastric antrum, angularis, body, and fundus. Percent 51.9 of patients in the simethicone group had a TMVS of 4 (no bubbles at all) to 5 (only 1 area with minimal bubbles), while in the placebo group 3.7% of patients had TMVS of 4 or 5. The number needed to treat was 2.1 to avoid a TMVS of 6 and more. The simethicone group also had a significantly shorter procedure time with less volume of additional flushes required during gastroscopy to clear away obscuring gastric foam. With a premedication time of at least 30 min, 5 mL simethicone can significantly decrease gastric foam, decrease the volume of additional flushes, and shorten gastroscopy time.

  20. Chair Side Application of NovaMin for the Treatment of Dentinal Hypersensitivity- A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    P, Padmavati; Sanghani, Nehal N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate bioactive glass (NovaMin) as a chair side desensitizing agent. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into 3 groups of 20 each as follows. Group I (NovaMin application without scaling and root planing), Group II (NovaMin application after scaling and root planing) and Group III (control group). Sensitivity was assessed using air blast and cold water stimulus at baseline, immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8d using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: Mean VAS (air blast stimulus) for group I was 5.9 at baseline, 3.4 immediately after application, 3.05 after half an hour, and 3.0 after 8 days. In group II VAS score were 6.2, 3.35, 2.9, 2.75 and group III 6.6, 7.0, 7.0, 7.0 respectively. For cold water stimulus in group I VAS score were 5.6, 3.35, 3.15, 3.1, group II VAS score 5.7, 3.35, 3.1, 2.85 and group III 5.8, 6.1, 6.05, 6.05 respectively. VAS scores in between group I and group III and group II and group III were statistically significant (<0.001) immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8days (ANOVA). Conclusion: Chair side application of calcium phosphosilicate bioactive glass can be a therapeutic adjunct to provide immediate relief for the patient with dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:25478437

  1. Efficacy of small-volume simethicone given at least 30 min before gastroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingjun; Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Law, Ngai Moh; Ong, Jeannie Peng Lan; Tan, Jessica Yi-Lyn; Harichander Thurairajah, Prem; Ang, Daphne Shih Wen; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of 5 mL simethicone solution in decreasing gastric foam if given at least 30 min before gastroscopy. METHODS This was a randomized, placebo controlled, endoscopist blinded study performed at Changi General Hospital. Patients were at least 21 years old, had no prior surgical resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and scheduled for elective diagnostic gastroscopies. The primary outcome was the total mucosal visibility score (TMVS) which was evaluated using McNally score. The sample size was calculated to be 24 per group (SD 2.4, 80% power, P < 0.05, 2-sample t test). RESULTS Fifty-four patients were randomised to receive either simethicone [1 mL liquid simethicone (100 mg) in 5 mL of water] or placebo (5 mL of water) at least 30 min before their gastroscopy. Six accredited consultants conducted the gastroscopy, and the interobserver agreement of scoring TMVS was good with a Kappa statistic of 0.73. The simethicone group had significantly better mean TMVS compared to placebo (5.78 ± SD 1.65 vs 8.89 ± SD 1.97, P < 0.001). The improvement was statistically significant for the duodenum and the gastric antrum, angularis, body, and fundus. Percent 51.9 of patients in the simethicone group had a TMVS of 4 (no bubbles at all) to 5 (only 1 area with minimal bubbles), while in the placebo group 3.7% of patients had TMVS of 4 or 5. The number needed to treat was 2.1 to avoid a TMVS of 6 and more. The simethicone group also had a significantly shorter procedure time with less volume of additional flushes required during gastroscopy to clear away obscuring gastric foam. CONCLUSION With a premedication time of at least 30 min, 5 mL simethicone can significantly decrease gastric foam, decrease the volume of additional flushes, and shorten gastroscopy time. PMID:27867691

  2. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine.

  3. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    PubMed

    Narsale, Aditi A; Enos, Reilly T; Puppa, Melissa J; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Murphy, E Angela; Fayad, Raja; Pena, Majorette O'; Durstine, J Larry; Carson, James A

    2015-01-01

    The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia) was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein), IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1), and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase) and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3). Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1) and S6 (ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation. Thus, cancer

  4. Performing mineral hydration experiments in the CheMin diffractometer on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S.; Morookian, J.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T.; Morris, R. V.; Gellert, R.; Morrison, S. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Achilles, C.; Downs, R. T.; Rapin, W.; Meslin, P. Y.; Rice, M. S.; Treiman, A. H.; Sarrazin, P.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory work is the cornerstone of experimental planetary geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology, but much is gained by "experiments" while on a planet surface. Earth-bound experiments are often limited in ability to control multiple conditions relevant to planetary bodies (e.g. cycles in temperature and H2O vapor pressure), but observations on-planet provide an opportunity where conditions are native to the planet and those affected by sampling and analysis can be constrained. The CheMin XRD instrument on Mars Science Laboratory has tested mineral hydration in samples held for up to 300 Mars days (sols). Clay minerals sampled at Yellowknife Bay early in the mission had both collapsed (10 Å) and expanded (13.2 Å) basal spacing. Collapsed interlayers were expected, but larger spacing was not; it was uncertain whether larger basal spacing would collapse on prolonged exposure to warmer conditions inside CheMin. Observation over several hundred sols showed no collapse, with the conclusion that expanded interlayer spacing was due to partial intercalation by metal-hydroxyl groups that resist dehydration. More recently, a sample of the Murray Formation, Oudam, provided XRD detection of abundant gypsum and a chance to observe gypsum stability. Laboratory work suggests gypsum is stable at Mars surface conditions, and indeed gypsum has been observed from orbit at higher latitudes and in thick veins at Yellowknife Bay by Mastcam reflectance spectra, although LIBS by ChemCam indicates that bassanite predominates in Ca-sulfate veins. Laboratory experiments show that on dehydration gypsum does not become X-ray amorphous but rather transforms to water-deficient bassanite. Over a period of 37 sols, it was observed that the Oudam sample in CheMin transformed from an assemblage of gypsum+anhydrite, to gypsum+bassanite+anhydrite, and finally to bassanite+anhydrite. Mg-sulfates were also anticipated but have not been observed in CheMin despite chemical evidence for their

  5. First results from the CheMin, DAN and SAM instruments on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2012-12-01

    One of the principal goals of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is to identify and characterize the early habitable environments of Mars, as recorded in the stratified rocks and soil of Gale crater. The suite of instruments aboard Curiosity will make measurements useful for determining the presence and lateral/vertical distribution of hydrated phases, the mineralogy and "preservation potential" of sediments and rocks, and the identity and isotopic composition of organic and other carbon containing molecules, should such be present. Three of Curiosity's instruments, DAN ("Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons," a soil hydrogen detector), CheMin ("Chemistry and Mineralogy," a mineralogy instrument) and SAM ("Surface Analysis at Mars," an organic molecule and isotopic analysis instrument) are uniquely suited to this purpose. DAN consists of a pulsed neutron generator and neutron detector that will measure the hydrogen content (i.e., hydrated phases, water ice) in the upper meter of the soil. Both passive and active measurements will be obtained, resulting in a meter-scale resolution transect map of near-surface hydrogen along the path of the rover. These measurements will provide context for the mineralogical and organic measurements of drilled and scooped samples analyzed by CheMin and SAM. CheMin, a powder X-ray Diffraction (pXRD) instrument, will determine the mineralogy of scooped soils and powders obtained from drilled rocks. Hydrated minerals will be identified, along with whole-rock mineralogy for characterizing the environment of formation and preservation potential for organic molecules. SAM consists of a sample handling system, a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. SAM will accept the same powdered rock and soil samples as CheMin, and will measure and identify organic carbon in these samples as well as evolved inorganic gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O. Isotopic composition of noble gases and several light elements are

  6. Permutation Min-Entropy and Statistical Complexity Analysis of Electricity Spot Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the subtle temporal dynamics of California 1999-2000 spot price series based on permutation min-entropy (PME) and complexity-entropy causality plane. The dynamical transitions of price series are captured and the temporal correlations of price series are also discriminated by the recently introduced PME. Moreover, utilizing the CECP, we provide a refined classification of the monthly price dynamics and obtain an insight into the stochastic nature of price series. The results uncover that the spot price signal presents diverse temporal correlations and exhibits a higher stochastic behavior during the periods of crisis.

  7. Performing Mineral Hydration Experiments in the CheMin Diffractometer on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Geller, R.; Morrison, S. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Archilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Rapin, W.; Rice, M.; Bell, J. F., III; Sarrazin, P.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory work is the cornerstone of experimental planetary geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology, but much is to be gained by "experiments" while on a planet surface. Earth-bound experiments are often limited in ability to control multiple conditions relevant to planetary bodies (e.g. cycles in temperature and vapor pressure of water), but observations on-planet provide a unique opportunity where conditions are native to the planet and those affected by sampling and analysis can be constrained. The CheMin XRD instrument on Mars Science Laboratory has been able to test mineral hydration in samples held for up to 300 Mars days (sols). Clay minerals sampled at Yellowknife Bay early in the mission had both collapsed (10 Å) and expanded (13.2 Å) basal spacing. Collapsed interlayers were expected, but larger spacing was not; it was uncertain whether larger basal spacing would collapse on prolonged exposure to warmer conditions inside CheMin. Observation over several hundred sols showed no collapse, with the conclusion that expanded interlayer spacing was due to partial intercalation by metal-hydroxyl groups that resist dehydration. More recently, a sample of the Murray Formation, Oudam, provided the first XRD detection of gypsum and a chance to observe gypsum stability. Laboratory work suggests gypsum should be stable at Mars surface conditions, and indeed gypsum has been observed from orbit at higher latitudes and in thick veins at Yellowknife Bay by Mastcam reflectance spectra. Laboratory experiments have shown that on dehydration the gypsum would not become X-ray amorphous but would rather transform to a water-deficient bassanite structure. Over a period of 37 sols, it was observed that the Oudam sample in CheMin transformed from an assemblage of gypsum+anhydrite, to gypsum+bassanite+anhydrite, and finally to bassanite+anhydrite. Mg-sulfates were also anticipated but have not been observed in CheMin despite chemical evidence for their presence. Unlike gypsum

  8. 220000-r/min, 2-kW PM Motor Drive for Turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Toshihiko; Takata, Yosuke; Yamashita, Yukio; Komatsu, Yoshimi; Ibaraki, Seiichi

    This paper describes an ultra high-speed permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive, which is embedded in a turbocharger of an internal-combustion engine. The electrical drive makes it possible to enhance output power of the turbocharger in a motoring mode and to retrieve combustion energy from exhaust gas in a regenerating mode. Computer simulations and experimental tests are conducted to examine various operation characteristics of a prototype. The experimental data demonstrate 220000-r/min operation at 2.2-kW inverter output power, which agree with the simulation results well and prove feasibility of the proposed system.

  9. NASA Ames Science Instrument Launches Aboard New Mars Rover (CheMin)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-23

    When NASA's Mars Science Laboratory lands in a region known as Gale Crater in August of 2012, it will be poised to carry out the most sophisticated chemical analysis of the Martian surface to date. One of the 10 instruments on board the rover Curiosity will be CheMin - short for chemistry and mineralogy. Developed by Ames researcher David Blake and his team, it will use new technology to analyze and identify minerals in the Martian rocks and soil. Youtube: NASA Ames Scientists Develop MSL Science Instrument

  10. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial (104.5 +/- 9.4 mmol/kg wet wt) when compared to the L-CHO trial (72.2 +/- 5.6 mmol/kg wet wt). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, and respiratory quotient during exercise were not significantly different between the 2 trials. Serum glucose during exercise for the H-CHO trial significantly increased (p < .05) from 4.5 +/- 0.1 mmol x L(-1) (pre) to 6.7 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1) (post), while no changes were found for the L-CHO trial. In addition, post-exercise serum glucose was significantly greater (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial when compared to the L-CHO trial (H-CHO, 6.7 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1); L-CHO, 5.2 +/- 0.2 mmol x L(-1)). No significant changes were observed in serum free fatty acid, triglycerides, or insulin concentration in either trial. The findings suggest that L-CHO had no major effect on 45-min cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  11. MinION™ nanopore sequencing of environmental metagenomes: a synthetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Mick; Minot, Samuel S.; Rivera, Maria C.; Franklin, Rima B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Environmental metagenomic analysis is typically accomplished by assigning taxonomy and/or function from whole genome sequencing or 16S amplicon sequences. Both of these approaches are limited, however, by read length, among other technical and biological factors. A nanopore-based sequencing platform, MinION™, produces reads that are ≥1 × 104 bp in length, potentially providing for more precise assignment, thereby alleviating some of the limitations inherent in determining metagenome composition from short reads. We tested the ability of sequence data produced by MinION (R7.3 flow cells) to correctly assign taxonomy in single bacterial species runs and in three types of low-complexity synthetic communities: a mixture of DNA using equal mass from four species, a community with one relatively rare (1%) and three abundant (33% each) components, and a mixture of genomic DNA from 20 bacterial strains of staggered representation. Taxonomic composition of the low-complexity communities was assessed by analyzing the MinION sequence data with three different bioinformatic approaches: Kraken, MG-RAST, and One Codex. Results: Long read sequences generated from libraries prepared from single strains using the version 5 kit and chemistry, run on the original MinION device, yielded as few as 224 to as many as 3497 bidirectional high-quality (2D) reads with an average overall study length of 6000 bp. For the single-strain analyses, assignment of reads to the correct genus by different methods ranged from 53.1% to 99.5%, assignment to the correct species ranged from 23.9% to 99.5%, and the majority of misassigned reads were to closely related organisms. A synthetic metagenome sequenced with the same setup yielded 714 high quality 2D reads of approximately 5500 bp that were up to 98% correctly assigned to the species level. Synthetic metagenome MinION libraries generated using version 6 kit and chemistry yielded from 899 to 3497 2D reads with lengths

  12. MinSORTING: an Excel macro for modelling sediment composition and grain-size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Malusà, Marco G.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Detrital mineral analyses are gaining increasing attention in the geosciences as new single-grain analytical techniques are constantly improving their resolution, and consequently widening their range of application, including sedimentary petrology, tectonic geomorphology and archaeology (Mange and Wright, 2007; von Eynatten and Dunkl, 2012). We present here MinSORTING, a new tool to quickly predict the size distribution of various minerals and rock fragments in detrital sediments, based on the physical laws that control sedimentation by tractive wind or water currents (Garzanti et al., 2008). The input values requested by the software are the sediment mean size, sorting, fluid type (seawater, freshwater, air) and standard sediment composition chosen from a given array including nine diverse tectonic settings. MinSORTING calculates the bulk sediment density and the settling velocity. The mean size of each single detrital component, assumed as lognormally-distributed, is calculated from its characteristic size-shift with respect to bulk sediment mean size, dependent in turn on its density and shape. The final output of MinSORTING is the distribution of each single detrital mineral in each size classes (at the chosen 0.25, 0.5 or 1 phi intervals). This allows geochronolgists to select the most suitable grain size of sediment to be sampled in the field, as well as the most representative size-window for analysis. Also, MinSORTING provides an estimate of the volume/weight of the fractions not considered in both sizes finer and coarser than the selected size-window. A beta version of the software is available upon request from: alberto.resentini@unimib.it Mange, M., and Wright, D. (eds), 2007. Heavy minerals in use. Developments in Sedimentology Series, 58. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Garzanti, E., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 273, 138-151. von

  13. A MinMax self-consistent-field approach for auxiliary density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Andreas M.; del Campo, Jorge M.; Janetzko, Florian; Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo

    2009-03-01

    A MinMax self-consistent-field (SCF) approach is derived in the framework of auxiliary density functional theory. It is shown that the SCF convergence can be guided by the fitting coefficients that arise from the variational fitting of the Coulomb potential. An in-core direct inversion of the iterative subspace (DIIS) algorithm is presented. Due to its reduced memory demand this new in-core DIIS method can be applied without overhead to very large systems with tens of thousands of basis and auxiliary functions. Due to the new DIIS error definition systems with fractional occupation numbers can be treated, too.

  14. Molecular Interactions of the Min Protein System Reproduce Spatiotemporal Patterning in Growing and Dividing Escherichia coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James C.; Angstmann, Christopher N.; Duggin, Iain G.; Curmi, Paul M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations of the Min protein system are involved in the correct midcell placement of the divisome during Escherichia coli cell division. Based on molecular interactions of the Min system, we formulated a mathematical model that reproduces Min patterning during cell growth and division. Specifically, the increase in the residence time of MinD attached to the membrane as its own concentration increases, is accounted for by dimerisation of membrane-bound MinD and its interaction with MinE. Simulation of this system generates unparalleled correlation between the waveshape of experimental and theoretical MinD distributions, suggesting that the dominant interactions of the physical system have been successfully incorporated into the model. For cells where MinD is fully-labelled with GFP, the model reproduces the stationary localization of MinD-GFP for short cells, followed by oscillations from pole to pole in larger cells, and the transition to the symmetric distribution during cell filamentation. Cells containing a secondary, GFP-labelled MinD display a contrasting pattern. The model is able to account for these differences, including temporary midcell localization just prior to division, by increasing the rate constant controlling MinD ATPase and heterotetramer dissociation. For both experimental conditions, the model can explain how cell division results in an equal distribution of MinD and MinE in the two daughter cells, and accounts for the temperature dependence of the period of Min oscillations. Thus, we show that while other interactions may be present, they are not needed to reproduce the main characteristics of the Min system in vivo. PMID:26018614

  15. Collective Adoption of Max--Min Strategy in an Information Cascade Voting Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki

    2013-08-01

    We consider a situation where one has to choose an option with multiplier m. The multiplier is inversely proportional to the number of people who have chosen the option and is proportional to the return if it is correct. If one does not know the correct option, we call him a herder, and then there is a zero-sum game between the herder and other people who have set the multiplier. The max--min strategy where one divides one's choice inversely proportional to m is optimal from the viewpoint of the maximization of expected return. We call the optimal herder an analog herder. The system of analog herders takes the probability of correct choice to one for any value of the ratio of herders, p<1, in the thermodynamic limit if the accuracy of the choice of informed person q is one. We study how herders choose by a voting experiment in which 50 to 60 subjects sequentially answer a two-choice quiz. We show that the probability of selecting a choice by the herders is inversely proportional to m for 4/3 ≤ m ≤ 4 and they collectively adopt the max--min strategy in that range.

  16. Parathyroidectomy monitored by intra-operative PTH: the relevance of the 20 min end-point.

    PubMed

    Di Stasio, Enrico; Carrozza, Cinzia; Pio Lombardi, Celestino; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; Bellantone, Rocco; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2007-06-01

    RI-PTH measurements are a prerequisite for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, providing guidance regarding the removal of hyper-functioning tissue. Different criteria of PTH decrease, concentration and clearance were analyzed in order to predict surgical treatment. Blood samples at pre-incision, manipulation, 5, 10 and 20 min after resection, were collected from 145 patients presenting unambiguous, pre-surgical "single adenoma" diagnosis. The meeting of Irvin criterion would have permitted the identification of 28% uncured cases leading to 4% unnecessary neck exploration. On the contrary, we would have identified all of the uncured patients, to the detriment of 7% unnecessarily prolonged procedure by taking into account PTH drop, concentration and clearance shape at 20 min. The 20' end-point plays a key role in the correct determination of surgical outcome, strongly improving the possibility of adequate patient treatment. However, since the high success rate of traditional parathyroidectomy, yet not provided by RI-PTH, the utmost improvement to hyper-parathyroidism surgical treatment by RI-PTH could be achieved in pre-operative equivocal glands localization or multiglandular disease selected population to quickly guide and confirm the complete removal of all hyper-secreting tissue.

  17. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, NaNa; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade was determined. The total number and size of polyps were reduced remarkably in berberine group, compared with control group. A significant decrease in protein levels of F4/80, mannose receptor (MR), and COX-2 in stroma of intestinal polyps and an increase in the level of iNOS were observed after berberine treatment. The mRNA level of MR and Arg-1 in berberine group was significantly lower than those in IL-10 or IL-4 group, while no significant difference in mRNA levels of iNOS and CXCL10 was observed. The migration and invasiveness assays in vitro showed that berberine could reduce the capability of migration and invasiveness. These findings suggest that berberine attenuates intestinal tumorigenesis by inhibiting the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells via regulation of macrophage polarization. PMID:27493671

  18. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM. PMID:27047382

  19. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM.

  20. Influencing factors of the 6-min walk distance in adult Arab populations: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Joobeur, Samah; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Sfaxi, Raoudha; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2016-05-01

    Background Walk tests, especially the 6-min walk-test (6MWT), are commonly used in order to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity. The primary outcome of the 6MWT is the 6-min walk-distance (6MWD). Numerous demographic, physiological and anthropometric factors can influence the 6MWD in healthy adults. Objective The purpose of the present review is to highlight and discuss the 6MWD influencing factors in healthy of the healthy adult Arab populations. Methods It is a review including a literature search, from 1970 to September 31th 2015 using the PubMed, the Science Direct databases and the World Wide Web on Google search engine. Reference lists of retrieved English/French articles were searched for any additional references. Results Six studies, conducted in Tunisia (n=2), Saudi Arabia (n=3) and Algeria (n=1) were included. All studies were conducted according to the 2002-American-thoracic-society guidelines for the 6MWT. In addition to anthropometric data (sex, age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass), the following data were recognized as 6MWD influencing factors: schooling and socioeconomic levels, urban origin, parity, physical activity score or status, metabolic equivalent task for moderate activity, spirometric data, end-walk heart-rate, resting diastolic blood pressure, dyspnoea Borg value and niqab-wearing. Conclusion The 6MWD influencing factors in adult Arab populations are numerous and include some specific predictors such as parity, physical activity level and niqab-wearing.

  1. 1D Genome Sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Sara; Wappel, Robert; McCombie, W Richard

    2017-07-11

    Today's short-read sequencing instruments can generate read lengths between 50 bp and 700 bp depending on the specific instrument. These high-throughput sequencing approaches have revolutionized genomic science, allowing hundreds of thousands of full genomes to be sequenced, and have become indispensable tools for many researchers. With greater insight has come the revelation that many genomes are much more complicated than originally thought and include many rearrangements and copy-number variations. Unfortunately, short-read sequencing technologies are not well suited for identifying many of these types of events. Long-read sequencing technologies can read contiguous fragments of DNA in excess of 10 kb and are much better suited for detecting large structural events. The newest long-read sequencing instrument is the MinION device from Oxford Nanopore. The rapid sequencing speed and low upfront instrument cost are features drawing interest in this device from the genomics community. This unit provides a representative protocol for carrying out human genome sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-04-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using Kepler data with 1-min sampling in order to detect superflares with a short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100 to 1,000 s which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found that the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy ( E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE∝ E - α ) with α˜-1.5 for 1033< E<1036 erg which is consistent with the previous results. The average occurrence rate of superflares with the energy of 1033 erg which is equivalent to X100 solar flares is about once in 500 to 600 years. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the photometry. We also found that the duration of superflares ( τ) increases with the flare energy ( E) as τ∝ E 0.39 ± 0.03. This can be explained if we assume the time scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.

  3. Pharmacological therapies against soman-induced seizures in rats 30 min following onset and anticonvulsant impact.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Enger, Siri; Aas, Pål

    2006-10-24

    Systemic administration does not allow a clear differentiation between the anticonvulsant properties of GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) modulators. For this reason, various GABAA modulators have previously been micro-infused into seizure controlling substrates (area tempestas, substantia nigra) in the rat brain as a screening method for potential systemic administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the anticonvulsant impact of the GABAergic modulators muscimol, ethanol, and propofol (screened by micro-infusions) when each drug was combined with procyclidine and administered systemically. The results showed that all 3 combinations could effectively terminate soman-induced (100 microg/kg s.c.) seizures when administered 30-35 min after onset. Procyclidine and propofol were considered as the most relevant double regimen to replace a previous triple regimen (procyclidine, diazepam, pentobarbital) against soman-induced seizures. Additionally, it was shown that unilateral implantation of hippocampal electrodes resulted in increased resistance to aphagia/adipsia and neuropathology, but not to lethality following soman. Efficient pharmacological treatment of soman-induced seizures at an early stage (< 20 min) is crucial to avoid neuropathology and cognitive deficits.

  4. An enhanced fuzzy min-max neural network for pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed Falah; Lim, Chee Peng

    2015-03-01

    An enhanced fuzzy min-max (EFMM) network is proposed for pattern classification in this paper. The aim is to overcome a number of limitations of the original fuzzy min-max (FMM) network and improve its classification performance. The key contributions are three heuristic rules to enhance the learning algorithm of FMM. First, a new hyperbox expansion rule to eliminate the overlapping problem during the hyperbox expansion process is suggested. Second, the existing hyperbox overlap test rule is extended to discover other possible overlapping cases. Third, a new hyperbox contraction rule to resolve possible overlapping cases is provided. Efficacy of EFMM is evaluated using benchmark data sets and a real medical diagnosis task. The results are better than those from various FMM-based models, support vector machine-based, Bayesian-based, decision tree-based, fuzzy-based, and neural-based classifiers. The empirical findings show that the newly introduced rules are able to realize EFMM as a useful model for undertaking pattern classification problems.

  5. The 6-min walk distance in healthy subjects: reference standards from seven countries.

    PubMed

    Casanova, C; Celli, B R; Barria, P; Casas, A; Cote, C; de Torres, J P; Jardim, J; Lopez, M V; Marin, J M; Montes de Oca, M; Pinto-Plata, V; Aguirre-Jaime, A

    2011-01-01

    The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) predicted values have been derived from small cohorts mostly from single countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences between countries and identify new reference values to improve 6MWD interpretation. We studied 444 subjects (238 males) from seven countries (10 centres) ranging 40-80 yrs of age. We measured 6MWD, height, weight, spirometry, heart rate (HR), maximum HR (HR(max)) during the 6-min walk test/the predicted maximum HR (HR(max) % pred), Borg dyspnoea score and oxygen saturation. The mean ± sd 6MWD was 571 ± 90 m (range 380-782 m). Males walked 30 m more than females (p < 0.001). A multiple regression model for the 6MWD included age, sex, height, weight and HR(max) % pred (adjusted r² = 0.38; p < 0.001), but there was variability across centres (adjusted r² = 0.09-0.73) and its routine use is not recommended. Age had a great impact in 6MWD independent of the centres, declining significantly in the older population (p < 0.001). Age-specific reference standards of 6MWD were constructed for male and female adults. In healthy subjects, there were geographic variations in 6MWD and caution must be taken when using existing predictive equations. The present study provides new 6MWD standard curves that could be useful in the care of adult patients with chronic diseases.

  6. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility testing in less than 30 min using direct single-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Baltekin, Özden; Boucharin, Alexis; Tano, Eva; Andersson, Dan I; Elf, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are aggravated by incorrect prescription and use of antibiotics. A core problem is that there is no sufficiently fast diagnostic test to guide correct antibiotic prescription at the point of care. Here, we investigate if it is possible to develop a point-of-care susceptibility test for urinary tract infection, a disease that 100 million women suffer from annually and that exhibits widespread antibiotic resistance. We capture bacterial cells directly from samples with low bacterial counts (10(4) cfu/mL) using a custom-designed microfluidic chip and monitor their individual growth rates using microscopy. By averaging the growth rate response to an antibiotic over many individual cells, we can push the detection time to the biological response time of the bacteria. We find that it is possible to detect changes in growth rate in response to each of nine antibiotics that are used to treat urinary tract infections in minutes. In a test of 49 clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates, all were correctly classified as susceptible or resistant to ciprofloxacin in less than 10 min. The total time for antibiotic susceptibility testing, from loading of sample to diagnostic readout, is less than 30 min, which allows the development of a point-of-care test that can guide correct treatment of urinary tract infection.

  8. A deterministic annealing algorithm for approximating a solution of the min-bisection problem.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chuangyin; Ma, Wei; Liang, Jiye

    2009-01-01

    The min-bisection problem is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper an equivalent linearly constrained continuous optimization problem is formulated and an algorithm is proposed for approximating its solution. The algorithm is derived from the introduction of a logarithmic-cosine barrier function, where the barrier parameter behaves as temperature in an annealing procedure and decreases from a sufficiently large positive number to zero. The algorithm searches for a better solution in a feasible descent direction, which has a desired property that lower and upper bounds are always satisfied automatically if the step length is a number between zero and one. We prove that the algorithm converges to at least a local minimum point of the problem if a local minimum point of the barrier problem is generated for a sequence of descending values of the barrier parameter with a limit of zero. Numerical results show that the algorithm is much more efficient than two of the best existing heuristic methods for the min-bisection problem, Kernighan-Lin method with multiple starting points (MSKL) and multilevel graph partitioning scheme (MLGP).

  9. Non-parametric iterative model constraint graph min-cut for automatic kidney segmentation.

    PubMed

    Freiman, M; Kronman, A; Esses, S J; Joskowicz, L; Sosna, J

    2010-01-01

    We present a new non-parametric model constraint graph min-cut algorithm for automatic kidney segmentation in CT images. The segmentation is formulated as a maximum a-posteriori estimation of a model-driven Markov random field. A non-parametric hybrid shape and intensity model is treated as a latent variable in the energy functional. The latent model and labeling map that minimize the energy functional are then simultaneously computed with an expectation maximization approach. The main advantages of our method are that it does not assume a fixed parametric prior model, which is subjective to inter-patient variability and registration errors, and that it combines both the model and the image information into a unified graph min-cut based segmentation framework. We evaluated our method on 20 kidneys from 10 CT datasets with and without contrast agent for which ground-truth segmentations were generated by averaging three manual segmentations. Our method yields an average volumetric overlap error of 10.95%, and average symmetric surface distance of 0.79 mm. These results indicate that our method is accurate and robust for kidney segmentation.

  10. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    PubMed

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team

    2003-04-01

    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [http://minurals.brgm.fr] or [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/mineralogy/minurals/minurals.htm] or [http://www.anrb.ru/geol/MinUrals] or [http://minurals.ilmeny.ac.ru] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  12. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, David; Bristow, , David Blake, Tom; Des Marais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Spanovich, Ashwin Vasavada, , Robert Anderson, Joy Crisp, John Michael Morookian, Nicole; Yen, Albert; Bish, David; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Farmer, Jack; Grotzinger, John; Stolper, Edward; Morris, , Douglas Ming, Richard; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Sarrazin, Philippe; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (~An50), forsteritic olivine (~Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each <2 wt% of the crystalline component) include sanidine, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite and ilmenite. Significantly, about a third of the sample is amorphous or poorly ordered in XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at ~27° 2θ (Co Kα) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2θ may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to <150 µm, and delivered to

  13. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; Yen, Albert; Bish, David; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Farmer, Jack; Grotzinger, John; Stolper, Edward; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each <2 wt% of the crystalline component) include sanidine, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite and ilmenite. Significantly, about a third of the sample is amorphous or poorly ordered in XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to

  14. Curiosity Rover's CheMin Instrument Investigates Mineralogy of Gale Crater and Implications for Diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendrich, Kim; Rampe, Elizabeth; Vaniman, David; Bish, David; Blake, David; Treiman, Allan; Ming, Doug; Morris, Richard; Bristow, Tom; Cavanagh, Patrick; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Chipera, Steve; Achilles, Cherie; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Crisp, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Yen, Albert; Gellert, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity employs a suite of instruments to investigate past or present habitability of Mars, as observed at Gale crater and particularly in the lower strata of the crater's central mound, informally named Mount Sharp. The X-ray diffractometer on board, CheMin, is used to assess the quantitative mineralogy of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders. Methods of modeling diffraction peak positions and intensities to evaluate the abundances of minerals include Rietveld refinement and FULLPAT (full-pattern fitting). Each of the samples analyzed by CheMin contains X-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component chemistry is resolved by subtracting the chemistry of the crystalline composition, as determined by X-ray diffraction data, from the bulk sample chemistry, as determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Diffraction results have been obtained on five samples thus far to include Rocknest, John Klein, Cumberland, Windjana and Confidence Hills. Soil samples collected at Rocknest, an aeolian bedform in Gale crater, were the first to be analyzed in situ by CheMin. The Rocknest mineral assemblage is basaltic (plagioclase, Fe-forsterite, augite, pigeonite) and contains amorphous material that is compositionally similar to palagonitic volcanic soils found on Earth, with the addition of sulfur and chlorine. The four drill analyses are characteristic of deposition in a variety of fluvio-lacustrine environments and exhibit evidence of low-temperature diagenesis. Both John Klein and Cumberland are part of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, where the first drilled samples were acquired as well as the first evidence of a habitable environment on Mars. Drilled three meters apart from each other, the two samples reveal basaltic minerals similar to those at Rocknest, as well as phyllosilicates, Fe-oxides/hydroxides, Ca-sulfates, Fe-sulfides, and amorphous materials. The nature and hydration of interlayer cations

  15. A comparative evaluation of the effect of 8% and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid exposure for 1 min and 10 min on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Shreetha; Kakamari, Sapna; Srinivasan, Raghu; Chandrappa, Mahesh Martur; Nasreen, Farhat; Junjanna, Pramod

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8% and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) exposure for 1 min and 10 min on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots. Sixty human single-rooted teeth were decoronated and divided into six groups (n = 10). Canal preparation was carried out except in negative control group, using the ProTaper rotary file system. Final irrigation was performed using distilled water, 17% EDTA for 1 min and 10 min, 8% EDTA for 1 min and 10 min. Thereafter, roots were obturated with ProTaper F3 Gutta-percha points and AH Plus sealer using a single-cone technique. The specimens were loaded vertically at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until vertical root fracture occurred. Results were evaluated statistically with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. Analysis of results showed that the unprepared roots showed the highest fracture resistance and roots irrigated with 17% EDTA for 10 min showed the lowest fracture resistance. The mean fracture resistance of unprepared roots, roots irrigated with 8% EDTA for 10 min and 17% EDTA for 1 min was significantly higher than roots irrigated with 8% EDTA for 1 min, 17% EDTA for 10 min and distilled water. From a clinical viewpoint, if EDTA has to be used, it is safer to use higher concentration for a shorter application time or a low concentration with a longer application time. Prolonged use of high concentrations of EDTA might increase the risk of root fracture.

  16. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation in newborn infants in the first 15 min of life after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Elisabeth; Pichler, Gerhard; Rehak, Thomas; Avian, Alexander; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate regional oxygen saturation of the brain during immediate transition after birth, and to correlate it with pre-ductal arterial oxygen saturation in newborn infants. The prospective observational study including newborn infants in the first 15 min after spontaneous vaginal delivery and uncomplicated transitional period was undertaken. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)brain) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured on the right wrist by pulse oximetry. rSO(2)brain, SpO(2) and HR measurements were started immediately after birth and were performed in the first 15 min of life. Cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) was calculated for each minute. Of 145 newborn infants, 16 were included and the gender allocation was 31 females (49.2%) and 32 males (50.8%). rSO(2)brain increased rapidly from 39% (2 min) to 69% (5 min), SpO(2) increased from 72% (2 min) to 96% (14 min) and FTOE showed a significant decrease from minute 2 (0.47) until minute 4 (0.30) and an increase between 8 to 13 min. rSO(2)brain increased rapidly after vaginal delivery. Although SpO(2) increased within the first 14 min after delivery, rSO(2)brain showed no further significant changes after 5 min. FTOE decreased in the first 4 min and reached standard values subsequently.

  17. Effect on truck drivers' alertness of a 30-min. exposure to bright light: a field study.

    PubMed

    Landström, Ulf; Akerstedt, Torbörn; Byström, Marianne; Nordström, Bertil; Wibom, Roger

    2004-06-01

    Reduced alertness is common during night driving. Light treatment may constitute one countermeasure to reduce sleepiness. To test this idea six professional drivers participated in this study in which they self-administered a 30-min. light treatment during a break in the middle of a night drive of about 9 hours. Two experimental conditions were used, including light exposures with a light box and a light visor. There was a control condition. Alertness was measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. No significant effect of light was found, but ratings of sleepiness increased significantly through the night drive. The experimental light treatment was not correlated with any increased wakefulness compared to the drivings where no extra light exposures were carried out.

  18. Observation of additional low-degree 5-min modes of solar oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D.

    1982-01-01

    High-order solar oscillations with degrees l=3, 4, and 5 could be detected. The observations were made by measuring the difference between the shifts in the Fe 5,124 spectrum line from light integrated from a central circular portion of the solar disk and from an annular portion exterior to it. The frequencies of the octupole modes agree well with the values obtained from whole-disk measurements at the South Pole. A least-squares fit of the observed frequencies to values interpolated between and extrapolated from the predictions of a sequence of solar models with different chemical compositions selects two models. One, a helium-rich solution, agrees with that of similar analyses of whole-disk data. The extrapolated solution has a relatively deep convection zone, and is thus consistent with analyses of 5-min oscillations of high degree.

  19. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Yasuda, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  20. Slow release realized in 40 min? Assembly of lanthanide hydroxycarbonates and oxycarbonates based on multiple irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Zheng, Yuhui; Wang, Qianming

    2014-08-01

    It has been well documented that urea would be slowly hydrolyzed to produce OH- and the reaction equilibrium requires relatively long times. Sometimes the samples have been achieved under high temperature (such as hydrothermal method). Here we describe systematic preparation of lanthanide hydroxycarbonate series through a facile and effective route (supersonic and microwave co-assistance) at 80 °C in less than 40 min. Product formation can be observed directly by the naked eye. Synthetic conditions were identical for all tested lanthanide elements, and corresponding nano- or micro-scale materials with different structures were obtained. A three-stage-effect was observed in crystalline phases and morphologies. More importantly, the intensive red and green emissions from europium and terbium oxycarbonates, respectively, were observed under relatively long wavelength excitations (365 or 394 nm).

  1. Low-frequency spin dynamics in the CeMIn5 materials.

    PubMed

    Curro, N J; Sarrao, J L; Thompson, J D; Pagliuso, P G; Kos, S; Abanov, Ar; Pines, D

    2003-06-06

    We measure the spin lattice relaxation of the planar In(1) nuclei in the CeMIn5 materials, extract quantitative information about the low energy spin dynamics of the lattice of Ce moments in both CeRhIn5 and CeCoIn5, and identify a crossover in the normal state. Above a temperature T(*) the Ce lattice exhibits "Kondo gas" behavior characterized by local fluctuations of independently screened moments; below T(*) both systems exhibit a "Kondo liquid" regime in which interactions between the local moments contribute to the spin dynamics. Both the antiferromagnetic and superconducting ground states in these systems emerge from the Kondo liquid regime. Our analysis provides strong evidence for quantum criticality in CeCoIn5.

  2. Big Sky and Greenhorn Drill Holes and CheMin X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    The graph at right presents information from the NASA Curiosity Mars rover's onboard analysis of rock powder drilled from the "Big Sky" and "Greenhorn" target locations, shown at left. X-ray diffraction analysis of the Greenhorn sample inside the rover's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument revealed an abundance of silica in the form of noncrystalline opal. The broad hump in the background of the X-ray diffraction pattern for Greenhorn, compared to Big Sky, is diagnostic of opal. The image of Big Sky at upper left was taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera the day the hole was drilled, Sept. 29, 2015, during the mission's 1,119th Martian day, or sol. The Greenhorn hole was drilled, and the MAHLI image at lower left was taken, on Oct. 18, 2015 (Sol 1137). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20272

  3. Observation of additional low-degree 5-min modes of solar oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D.

    1982-01-01

    High-order solar oscillations with degrees l=3, 4, and 5 could be detected. The observations were made by measuring the difference between the shifts in the Fe 5,124 spectrum line from light integrated from a central circular portion of the solar disk and from an annular portion exterior to it. The frequencies of the octupole modes agree well with the values obtained from whole-disk measurements at the South Pole. A least-squares fit of the observed frequencies to values interpolated between and extrapolated from the predictions of a sequence of solar models with different chemical compositions selects two models. One, a helium-rich solution, agrees with that of similar analyses of whole-disk data. The extrapolated solution has a relatively deep convection zone, and is thus consistent with analyses of 5-min oscillations of high degree.

  4. A search for 5 min periodic structure in solar 2 cm emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-five hours of solar data obtained from a 2 cm radiometer during 1968-1969 were analyzed for evidence of periodic structure related to the 5 min periodic chromospheric oscillations detected in optical line emissions. A power spectral analysis of the data failed to show any statistically significant periodic activity in the frequency range 1-15 mHz for data organized according to solar activity in H-alpha, soft solar X-rays (2-12 A), and several microwave frequencies (3-15 GHz). A small shift in power from low to higher frequencies in the power spectrum of the 2 cm data was found to be correlated with H-alpha and X-ray activity. This power shift is attributed to a relative increase in chromospheric turbulence at altitudes common to H-alpha, X-ray, and 2 cm emission.

  5. Buckskin Drill Hole and CheMin X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    The graph at right presents information from the NASA Curiosity Mars rover's onboard analysis of rock powder drilled from the "Buckskin" target location, shown at left. X-ray diffraction analysis of the Buckskin sample inside the rover's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument revealed the presence of a silica-containing mineral named tridymite. This is the first detection of tridymite on Mars. Peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern are from minerals in the sample, and every mineral has a diagnostic set of peaks that allows identification. The image of Buckskin at left was taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on July 30, 2015, and is also available at PIA19804. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20271

  6. Networked min-max model predictive control of constrained nonlinear systems with delays and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiping; Shi, Yang

    2013-04-01

    This article investigates a class of constrained nonlinear networked control systems (NCSs) subject to external disturbances, input and state constraints and network-induced constraints. From a practical perspective, the network-induced constraints considered include the time delays and packet dropouts on both the sensor-to-controller (S-C) channel and the controller-to-actuator (C-A) channel simultaneously. The min-max model predictive control method is proposed to design the control packets by incorporating the external disturbances into the optimisation problem. Moreover, the input-to-state practical stability of the resulting nonlinear NCS is established by constructing a novel Lyapunov function. Finally, the simulation results and the comparison studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method.

  7. MinMaxDM distributions for an analysis of the tensile strength of a unidirectional composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, Yu.; Andersons, J.; Kleinhofs, M.; Blumbergs, I.

    2010-09-01

    An analysis of the tensile strength of some fiber or fiber bundle specimens is presented. The specimens are modeled as chains of links consisting of longitudinal elements (LEs) with different cumulative distribution functions of strength, corresponding to the presence and absence of defects. Each link is considered as a system of parallel LEs a part of which can have defects. In the simplest case, the strength of defective elements is assumed equal to zero. The strength of a link is determined by the maximum average stress the link can sustain under a growing load. To calculate the stress, the randomized Daniels model or the theory of Markov chains is used. The strength of specimens is determined by the minimum strength of links. The concept of MinMaxDM family of distribution functions is introduced. A numerical example of processing experimental results for a monolayer of carbon bundles is presented.

  8. Design of Voltage-Mode MAX-MIN Circuits with Low Area and Low Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Mohammad; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khayrollah; Dinavari, Vahid Fagih

    In this paper, new structure of Voltage-Mode MAX-MIN circuit are presented for nonlinear systems, fuzzy applications, neural network and etc. A differential pair with improved cascode current mirror is used to choose the desired input. The advantages of the proposed structure are high operating frequency, high precision, low power consumption, low area and simple expansion for multiple inputs by adding only three transistors for each extra input. The proposed circuit which is simulated by HSPICE in 0.35µm CMOS process shows the total power consumption of 85µW in 5MHz operating frequency from a single 3.3-V supply. Also, the total area of the proposed circuit is about 420µm2 for two input voltages, and would be negligibly increased for each extra input.

  9. An Intelligence Model with Max-Min Strategy for Constrained Evolutionary Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueqiang; Hao, Zhifeng; Huang, Han

    An intelligence model (IM) is proposed for constrained optimization in this paper. In this model, two main issues are considered: first, handling feasible and infeasible individuals in population, and second, recognizing the piecewise continuous Pareto front to avoid unnecessary search, it could reduce the amount of calculation and improve the efficiency of search. In addition, max-min strategy is used in selecting optimization. By integrating IM with evolutionary algorithm (EA), a generic constrained optimization evolutionary (IMEA) is derived. The new algorithm is applied to tackle 7 test instances on the CEC2009 MOEA competition, and the performance is assessed by IGD metric, the results suggest that it outperforms or performs similarly to other algorithms in CEC2009 competition.

  10. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  11. MicroPET/CT Colonoscopy in long-lived Min mouse using NM404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Matthew B.; Halberg, Richard B.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Weichert, Jamey P.

    2009-02-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in the US, even though many cases are preventable if tumors are detected early. One technique to promote screening is Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC). NM404 is a second generation phospholipid ether analogue which has demonstrated selective uptake and prolonged retention in 43/43 types of malignant tumors but not inflammatory sites or premalignant lesions. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate (SWR x B6 )F1.Min mice as a preclinical model to test MicroPET/CT dual modality virtual colonoscopy. Each animal was given an IV injection of 124I-NM404 (100 uCi) 24, 48 and 96 hours prior to scanning on a dedicated microPET/CT system. Forty million counts were histogrammed in 3D and reconstructed using an OSEM 2D algorithm. Immediately after PET acquisition, a 93 m volumetric CT was acquired at 80 kVp, 800 uA and 350 ms exposures. Following CT, the mouse was sacrificed. The entire intestinal tract was excised, washed, insufflated, and scanned ex vivo A total of eight tissue samples from the small intestine were harvested: 5 were benign adenomas, 2 were malignant adenocarcinomas, and 1 was a Peyer's patch (lymph tissue) . The sites of these samples were positioned on CT and PET images based on morphological cues and the distance from the anus. Only 1/8 samples showed tracer uptake. several hot spots in the microPET image were not chosen for histology. (SWR x B6)F1.Min mice develop benign and malignant tumors, making this animal model a strong candidate for future dual modality microPET/CT virtual colonography studies.

  12. Immune function during and after 60 min of moderate exercise wearing protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Chantal; Mathieu, Jacques; Peinnequin, André; Carter, Robert; Alonso, Antonia; Melin, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    As exercise while wearing protective clothing exacerbates body heat storage compared to exercise in the heat, and as exercise alters immune responses, it appeared worthwhile to examine immune and stress responses while wearing protective clothing during moderate exercise. Eight subjects completed two bouts of exercise at 45% Vo2(max) in a thermoneutral environment: once while wearing shorts only (Control trial, CON) and again while wearing protective clothing (PRO). Venous blood samples were taken to analyze TNF-alpha mRNA by RT-PCR in LPS stimulated blood, plasma catecholamines, and cortisol. Blood cell count was analyzed by flow cytometry. Rectal temperature (T(re)) was monitored continuously. Exercise with PRO resulted in significantly greater increases in T(re) (39.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C in PRO vs. 38.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C in CON) and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (+70% and 150%, respectively). Plasma cortisol increased only at the end of PRO exercise (+33%). Leukocyte and lymphocyte cell count was 14% and 18% higher, respectively, but there were no significant changes in T cytotoxic and NK cell counts compared to the CON trial. Only T helper lymphocyte count was lower (-29%). During both exercise trials, T helper lymphocytes were significantly decreased at the end of exercise and recovery. With or without protective clothing, exercise was associated with an inhibition of TNF- alpha expression in stimulated monocytes (approximately -50% at min 20 and 40, and approximately -30% at min 60). Protective clothing wearing induces significant thermal challenge during exercise. The inhibition of TNF-alpha appears to be mediated primarily by exercise and not the added thermal load associated with protective clothing.

  13. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  14. Berries as chemopreventive dietary constituents--a mechanistic approach with the ApcMin/+ mouse.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Marja; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Paivarinta, Essi; Misikangas, Marjo; Rajakangas, Johanna; Marttinen, Maija; Oikarinen, Seija

    2008-01-01

    Berries contain a number of compounds that are proposed to have anticarcinogenic properties. We wanted to see if pure ellagic acid, natural ellagitannins and three wild berries have any effect on the adenoma formation in Apc- mutated Min/+ mice. Min/+ mice were fed high-fat AIN93-G diets containing 10% (w/w) freeze-dried bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), cloudberry seeds or cloudberry pulp or pure ellagic acid at 1564 mg/kg for 10 weeks. beta-Catenin and cyclin D1 protein levels in the adenomas and in the normal-appearing mucosa were determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Early changes in gene expression in the normal-appearing mucosa were analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays. Three wild berries significantly reduced tumour number (15-30%, p < 0.05), and cloudberry and lingonberry also reduced tumour size by over 60% (p < 0.01). Cloudberry resulted in decreased levels of nuclear beta-catenin and cyclin D1 and lingonberry in the level of cyclin D1 in the large adenomas (p < 0.05). Affymetrix microarrays revealed changes in genes implicated in colon carcinogenesis, including the decreased expression of the adenosine deaminase, ecto-5f-nucleotidase and PGE2 receptor subtype EP4. Ellagic acid had no effect on the number or size of adenomas in the distal or total small intestine but it increased adenoma size in the duodenum when compared with the control diet (p < 0.05). Neither cloudberry seed nor pulp had any effect on the adenoma formation. Berries seem to have great potential as a source of chemopreventive components.

  15. Molecular alterations associated with sulindac-resistant colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Emily J; Nichols, Frank C; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2010-09-01

    Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), including sulindac, have been used extensively as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer, results are not consistent. NSAIDs, most reportedly sulindac, often do not cause a complete regression of adenomas and some patients develop resistance to NSAID treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sulindac on colon tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Sulindac (180 ppm) given in drinking water for 9 weeks to Apc(Min/+) mice significantly reduced the size of colon tumors, but actually caused an increase in colon tumor multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 5.5 versus 1.6 tumors per mouse, respectively; P < 0.0001). This indicated that the drug could inhibit colon tumor progression but not initiation. As expected, in the small intestine, sulindac significantly reduced tumor size and multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 2.3 versus 42.0 tumors per mouse, respectively; P < 0.0001). Generation of a panel of prostanoids was comparably suppressed in the small intestine and colon by sulindac treatment. Sulindac is also known to exert its growth inhibitory effects through regulation of many noncyclooxygenase targets, including p21, beta-catenin, E-cadherin, mitochondrial apoptotic proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. We found that sulindac treatment protected against E-cadherin loss in colon tumors, with associated inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin accumulation. Importantly, p21(WAF1/cip1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression were absent in colon tumors from sulindac-treated mice, suggesting that loss of these proteins is necessary for drug resistance. Together, these observations may be translatable to designing novel clinical therapies using combinations of agents that target multiple molecular pathways to overcome sulindac resistance.

  16. Molecular alterations associated with sulindac resistant colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Emily J.; Nichols, Frank C.; Rosenberg, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including sulindac, have been used extensively as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer (CRC), results are not consistent. NSAIDs, most reportedly sulindac, often do not cause a complete regression of adenomas and some patients develop resistance to NSAID treatment. In this study we evaluated the effect of sulindac on colon tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model. Sulindac (180 p.p.m.) given in drinking water for 9 weeks to ApcMin/+ mice significantly reduced the size of colon tumors, but actually caused an increase in colon tumor multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 5.5 vs. 1.6 tumors/mouse, respectively; P<0.0001). This indicated that the drug could inhibit colon tumor progression but not initiation. As expected, in the small intestine sulindac significantly reduced tumor size and multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 2.3 vs. 42.0 tumors/mouse, respectively; P<0.0001). Generation of a panel of prostanoids was comparably suppressed in the small intestine and colon by sulindac treatment. Sulindac is also known to exert its growth inhibitory effects through regulation of many non-COX targets, including p21, β-catenin, E-cadherin, mitochondrial apoptotic proteins and PPARγ. We found that sulindac treatment protected against E-cadherin loss in colon tumors, with associated inhibition of nuclear β-catenin accumulation. Importantly, p21WAF1/cip1 and PPARγ expression were absent in colon tumors from sulindac-treated mice, suggesting that loss of these proteins is necessary for drug resistance. Together, these observations may be translatable to designing novel clinical therapies utilizing combinations of agents that target multiple molecular pathways to overcome sulindac resistance. PMID:20716632

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals the Min System of Escherichia coli Modulates Reversible Protein Association with the Inner Membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Chiang, I-Chen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong; Wang, Kwan-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The Min system of Escherichia coli mediates placement of the division septum at the midcell. It oscillates from pole to pole to establish a concentration gradient of the division inhibition that is high at the poles but low at the midcell; the cell middle thereby becomes the most favorable site for division. Although Min oscillation is well studied from molecular and biophysical perspectives, it is still an enigma as to whether such a continuous, energy-consuming, and organized movement of the Min proteins would affect cellular processes other than the division site selection. To tackle this question, we compared the inner membrane proteome of the wild-type and Δmin strains using a quantitative approach. Forty proteins that showed differential abundance on the inner membrane of the mutant cells were identified and defined as proteins of interest (POIs). More than half of the POIs were peripheral membrane proteins, suggesting that the Min system affects mainly reversible protein association with the inner membrane. In addition, 6 out of 10 selected POIs directly interacted with at least one of the Min proteins, confirming the correlation between POIs and the Min system.Further analysis revealed a functional relationship between metabolism and the Min system. Metabolic enzymes accounted for 45% of the POIs, and there was a change of metabolites in the related reactions. We hypothesize that the Min system could alter the membrane location of proteins to modulate their enzymatic activity. Thus, the metabolic modulation in the Δmin mutant is likely an adaptive phenotype in cells of abnormal size and chromosome number due to an imbalanced abundance of proteins on the inner membrane. Taken together, the current work reports novel interactions of the Min system and reveals a global physiological impact of the Min system in addition to the division site placement. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Cell surface NADH oxidase activity of brine shrimp oscillates with a period of 25 min and is entrained by light.

    PubMed

    Chalko, C J; Morré, D M; Morré, D J

    2000-01-01

    Plants have a surface NADH oxidase that measures time by oscillating with a 24-min period. The period is synchronized by light. With plants, a new maximum is observed exactly 12 min after the beginning of the light exposure. These experiments were to determine if animals exhibited a cell surface NADH oxidase having a similar periodicity and to answer the question, does the periodicity in animals respond to light? Using brine shrimp as a model, the findings show that plants and animals exhibit similar oscillating NADH oxidase activity and that the periodicity in this invertebrate animal does respond to light. Brine shrimp were grown for two to three days and transferred to darkness for 45 min. After return to light for one min, NADH was added and measurements of NADH oxidation were recorded over 50 min. The brine shrimp exhibited a cell surface NADH oxidase that oscillated with a period of 25 min. After being subjected to light, the brine shrimp showed a new maximum in NADH oxidation between 12 to 13 min after the beginning of the light exposure and again at 37 min and at 25 min intervals thereafter. The findings demonstrate that the periodic oscillations in NADH oxidation of brine shrimp are light entrainable.

  19. Time course of changes in passive properties of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit during 5 min of static stretching.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ikezoe, Tome; Takeno, Yohei; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2013-06-01

    The minimum time required for Static stretching (SS) to change the passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), as well as the association between these passive properties, remains unclear. This study investigated the time course of changes in the passive properties of gastrocnemius MTU during 5 min of SS. The subjects comprised 20 healthy males (22.0 ± 1.8 years). Passive torque as an index of MTU resistance and myotendinous junction (MTJ) displacement as an index of muscle extensibility were assessed using ultrasonography and dynamometer during 5 min of SS. Significant differences before and every 1 min during SS were determined using Scheffé's post hoc test. Relationships between passive torque and MTJ displacement for each subject were determined using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Although gradual changes in both passive torque and MTJ displacement were demonstrated over every minute, these changes became statistically significant after 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of SS compared with the values before SS. In addition, passive torque after 5 min SS was significantly lower than that after 2 min SS. Similarly, MTJ displacement after 5 min SS was significantly higher than that after 2 min SS. A strong correlation was observed between passive torque and MTJ displacement for each subject (r = -0.886 to -0.991). These results suggest that SS for more than 2 min effectively increases muscle extensibility, which in turn decreases MTU resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The N-Terminal Amphipathic Helix of the Topological Specificity Factor MinE Is Associated with Shaping Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Huang, Kai-Fa; Lai, Hsin-Mei; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Lee, Chai-Siah; Chang, Chiao-Min; Mak, Huey-Ming; Hsieh, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chu-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Pole-to-pole oscillations of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli are required for the proper placement of the division septum. Direct interaction of MinE with the cell membrane is critical for the dynamic behavior of the Min system. In vitro, this MinE-membrane interaction led to membrane deformation; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here we report that MinE-induced membrane deformation involves the formation of an amphipathic helix of MinE2–9, which, together with the adjacent basic residues, function as membrane anchors. Biochemical evidence suggested that the membrane association induces formation of the helix, with the helical face, consisting of A2, L3, and F6, inserted into the membrane. Insertion of this helix into the cell membrane can influence local membrane curvature and lead to drastic changes in membrane topology. Accordingly, MinE showed characteristic features of protein-induced membrane tubulation and lipid clustering in in vitro reconstituted systems. In conclusion, MinE shares common protein signatures with a group of membrane trafficking proteins in eukaryotic cells. These MinE signatures appear to affect membrane curvature. PMID:21738659

  1. Global evolution of Birkeland currents on 10 min timescales: MHD simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Anderson, B. J.; Lyon, J. G.; Korth, H.; Wiltberger, M.; Motoba, T.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we compare time-dependent global ionospheric field-aligned current (FAC) patterns on 10 min timescales inferred from the Active Magnetosphere and Polar Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) with the high-resolution Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The improved LFM model yields temporally varying FAC patterns with a fine structure on the sub-100 km scale. The goal of the study is to explore the responses of observed and simulated FAC patterns and underlying magnetic perturbations to a succession of rapid transitions in the solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) parameters. To drive the simulations, we use the upstream Wind and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft measurements recorded on 3 August 2010. For the time interval of interest (˜40 min following the impact of an interplanetary shock), the IMF is characterized by a BZ rotation from southward to northward direction under negative BY conditions. Through this case study analysis, it is found that the simulations have generally reproduced the salient characteristics of both the morphology and dynamics of the AMPERE FAC patterns. Due to the high resolution of the global model, the peak current densities are found to significantly (by a factor of 2-4) exceed those obtained from AMPERE. As a further quantitative analysis, the low-altitude magnetic perturbations measured by Iridium spacecraft and used to derive the AMPERE 2-D FAC patterns are also compared with the magnetic field variations calculated from the simulations. It is found that outside of localized regions of peak current densities, which mainly occur on the dayside and can fall between the Iridium tracks, the simulated magnetic perturbations closely follow the Iridium measurements. This demonstrates, in particular, that there is no systematic bias in the simulations to overestimate the magnetic perturbations and corresponding FAC

  2. MinFinder: Locating all the local minima of a function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic clustering algorithm is introduced that aims to locate all the local minima of a multidimensional continuous and differentiable function inside a bounded domain. The accompanying software (MinFinder) is written in ANSI C++. However, the user may code his objective function either in C++, C or Fortran 77. We compare the performance of this new method to the performance of Multistart and Topographical Multilevel Single Linkage Clustering on a set of benchmark problems. Program summaryTitle of program:MinFinder Catalogue identifier:ADWU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which is has been tested:The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation:University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:200 KB No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:5797 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:588 121 Distribution format:gzipped tar file Nature of the physical problem:A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Method of solution:Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from the

  3. RECO level {sqrt {s}_{min }} and subsystem improved {sqrt {s}_{min }} : global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] events at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Partha; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2011-06-01

    The variable {sqrt {s}_{min }} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {sqrt {s}_{min }} , however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {sqrt {s}_{min }} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {sqrt {s}_{min }} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the sqrt {s}_{_{min }}^{left( {{reco}} right)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {sqrt {s}_{min }} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem sqrt {s}_{_{min }}^{left( {{sub}} right)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {sqrt {s}_{min }} to other popular inclusive variables such as H T , M Tgen and M TTgen . We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

  4. Differential gene expression in well-regulated and dysregulated pancreatic beta-cell (MIN6) sublines.

    PubMed

    Lilla, Valérie; Webb, Gene; Rickenbach, Katharina; Maturana, Andres; Steiner, Donald F; Halban, Philippe A; Irminger, Jean-Claude

    2003-04-01

    To identify genes involved in regulated insulin secretion, we have established and characterized two sublines derived from the mouse pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6, designated B1 and C3. They have a similar insulin content, but differ in their secretory properties. B1 responded to glucose in a concentration- and cell confluence-dependent manner, whereas C3 did not. B1 cells were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, leucine, arginine, glibenclamide, isobutylmethylxanthine, and KCl, whereas C3 did not respond (leucine, arginine, and glibenclamide) or responded to a lesser extent (isobutylmethylxanthine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and KCl). Although intracellular Ca(2+) rose in response to glucose in B1 but not C3 cells, KCl increased intracellular Ca(2+) in a similar manner in both sublines. GLUT-1, GLUT-2, Kir6.2, and SUR1 expression was not significantly different between B1 and C3 cells, whereas E-cadherin was more abundantly expressed in B1 cells. A more complete list of differentially expressed genes was established by suppression subtractive hybridization and high density (Affymetrix) oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes were clustered according to known or putative function. Those involved in metabolism, intracellular signaling, cytoarchitecture, and cell adhesion are of potential interest. These two sublines should be useful for identification of the genes and mechanisms involved in regulated insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta-cell.

  5. High-energy cosmic rays and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect.

    PubMed

    Watson, A A

    2014-03-01

    Although cosmic rays were discovered over 100 years ago their origin remains uncertain. They have an energy spectrum that extends from ∼1 GeV to beyond 10(20) eV, where the rate is less than 1 particle per km(2) per century. Shortly after the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965, it was pointed out that the spectrum of cosmic rays should steepen fairly abruptly above about 4 × 10(19) eV, provided the sources are distributed uniformly throughout the Universe. This prediction, by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min, has become known as the GZK effect and in this article I discuss the current position with regard to experimental data on the energy spectrum of the highest cosmic-ray energies that have been accumulated in a search that has lasted nearly 50 years. Although there is now little doubt that a suppression of the spectrum exists near the energy predicted, it is by no means certain that this is a manifestation of the GZK effect as it might be that this energy is also close to the maximum to which sources can accelerate particles, with the highest energy beam containing a large fraction of nuclei heavier than protons. The way forward is briefly mentioned.

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses intestinal carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice with natural ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kawajiri, Kaname; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Ohtake, Fumiaki; Ikuta, Togo; Matsushima, Yoshibumi; Mimura, Junsei; Pettersson, Sven; Pollenz, Richard S.; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Akiyama, Tetsu; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Poellinger, Lorenz; Kato, Shigeaki; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal cancer is one of the most common human cancers. Aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade, for example, caused by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations, leads to increased stabilization and accumulation of β-catenin, resulting in initiation of intestinal carcinogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has dual roles in regulating intracellular protein levels both as a ligand-activated transcription factor and as a ligand-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we show that the AhR E3 ubiquitin ligase has a role in suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis by a previously undescribed ligand-dependent β-catenin degradation pathway that is independent of and parallel to the APC system. This function of AhR is activated by both xenobiotics and natural AhR ligands, such as indole derivatives that are converted from dietary tryptophan and glucosinolates by intestinal microbes, and suppresses intestinal tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice. These findings suggest that chemoprevention with naturally-occurring and chemically-designed AhR ligands can be used to successfully prevent intestinal cancers. PMID:19651607

  7. Supervised colour image segmentation using granular reflex fuzzy min-max neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandedkar, Abhijeet V.

    2010-02-01

    Granular data classification and clustering is an upcoming and important issue in the field of pattern recognition. This paper proposes a Supervised Colour Image Segmentation technique based on Granular Reflex Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (GrRFMN). GrRFMN architecture consists of a reflex mechanism inspired from human brain to handle class overlaps. It has been observed that most of the image segmentation techniques are pixel based. It means that segmentation is done on pixel-by-pixel basis. In this paper, a novel granule based approached for colour image segmentation is proposed. In the proposed technique granules of an image are processed. This results into a fast segmentation process. The image segmentation discussed here is a supervised. In training phase, GrRFMN learns different classes in the image using class granules. A trained GrRFMN is then used to segment the image. As GrRMN is trainable on-line in a single pass through data, the proposed method is easily extended for video sequence segmentation. Results on various standard images are presented.

  8. Observational relationship between meso-sized convection and 5-min oscillation in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Kitai, R.

    In order to understand 3-dimensional structures of upper solar convection zone, we performed two different kinds of observation simultaneously with the Domeless Solar Telescope of Hida Observatory. One is the 2D imaging observation of solar quiet photosphere in wavelengths around lambda4308 AA. Another is the slit 1D spectroscopy of the neutral iron line lambda6302.5 AA; at the central region of the field-of-view of the imaging observation. Thus the horizontal velocity field is obtained from the former observation, while the radial velocity field is obtained from the latter one at the same region. In both velocity fields, we found the meso-sized structures and confirmed convective nature of the flow. And we observed that amplitudes of 5-min oscillations were increased soon after large downward motions of convection, similar to the other observations' results (T.R. Rimmele, P.R. Goode, E. Harold, and R.T. Stebbins 1995; O. Espagnet, R. Muller, Th. Roudier, P. Mein, N. Mein, and J.M. Malherbe 1996). Moreover, we report the possible relationship between horizontal velocity gradient distributions and oscillation excitations.

  9. The 6-min Walk Test Reflects Functional Capacity in Primary Care and Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Baillargeon, J-P; Brown, C; Langlois, M-F

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the association between the 6-min walk test distance (6MWTD) and physical functional capacity (PF) in primary care patients, as well as in obese individuals. We studied 351 subjects (age=56.8±14.6 years; BMI=29.4±5.7 kg/m(2); 68% women), including 141 obese subjects (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)), recruited in 10 different family practices. Physical (PCS) and mental component summary of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the 8 sub-scores were measured using the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Anthropometry, vital signs and physical testing were measured according to standardized protocols. Recreational physical activity (LPA) and sedentary levels were determined using the Canadian Community Health Survey. In a stepwise multivariate analysis, 65% of the 6MWTD variance was explained by PF of the HRQOL, age, quadriceps strength, number of chronic diseases, LPA categories, BMI, resting heart rate, PCS, height and TV-viewing categories in primary care subjects. In the obese individuals, PF, age, quadriceps strength and BMI explained 57% of the 6MWTD variance. In these 2 groups, 44% of the 6MWTD variance is explained by PF only. To conclude, the 6MWTD is strongly associated with PF of the HRQOL. Thus, it adequately reflects physical limitations in daily life activities of primary care patients, including obese individuals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  11. Neat monolayer tiling of molecularly thin two-dimensional materials in 1 min

    PubMed Central

    Matsuba, Kazuaki; Wang, Chengxiang; Saruwatari, Kazuko; Uesusuki, Yusuke; Akatsuka, Kosho; Osada, Minoru; Ebina, Yasuo; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Controlled arrangement of molecularly thin two-dimensional (2D) materials on a substrate, particularly into precisely organized mono- and multilayer structures, is a key to design a nanodevice using their unique and enhanced physical properties. Several techniques such as mechanical transfer process and Langmuir-Blodgett deposition have been applied for this purpose, but they have severe restrictions for large-scale practical applications, for example, limited processable area and long fabrication time, requiring skilled multistep operations. We report a facile one-pot spin-coating method to realize dense monolayer tiling of various 2D materials, such as graphene and metal oxide nanosheets, within 1 min over a wide area (for example, a 30-mmφ substrate). Centrifugal force drives the nanosheets in a thin fluid layer to the substrate edge where they are packed edge to edge all the way to the central region, without forming overlaps. We investigated the relationship between precursor concentration, rotation speed, and ultraviolet-visible absorbance and developed an effective method to optimize the parameters for neat monolayer films. The multilayer buildup is feasible by repeating the spin-coating process combined with a heat treatment at moderate temperature. This versatile solution-based technique will provide both fundamental and practical advancements in the rapid large-scale production of artificial lattice-like films and nanodevices based on 2D materials. PMID:28695198

  12. Double K-shell-vacancy production in the decay of 114mIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijk, C. W. E.; Wijnhorst, J.; Popelier, M. A.

    1981-08-01

    The probability PKK of double K-shell-vacancy production per K-shell internal conversion of the 192-keV E4 transition in the decay of 114mIn has been determined by means of a hypersatellite KαH-x-ray-K-x-ray coincidence experiment using an intrinsic Ge and a NaI(Tl) detector, and by means of a direct measurement of the KαH1- and KαH2-x-ray components with a curved-crystal spectrometer. The results are in good agreement: PKK=(10.8+/-0.9)×10-5 and PKK=(9.6+/-0.8)×10-5, respectively. The average value is PKK=(10.2+/-0.6)×10-5. For the intensity ratio of the KαH1- and KαH2-x-ray components we obtained 1.57+/-0.17, and for the energy shifts of the two components we obtained, respectively, 566.8+/-1.4 and 560.2+/-1.3 eV.

  13. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes.

  14. Methane (CH4) emission from a tidal marsh in the Min River estuary, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Marrs, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The total methane emission to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and its seasonal variation, were estimated using an enclosed static chamber technique from a tidal marshes dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Min River estuary, southeast China. Measurements were taken at three tidal stages (before flood, during the flooding and ebbing process, and after ebb). Potential rates of methane production from the marsh sediment layers were also measured using an incubation technique. This P. australis tidal marsh was a net methane source, emitting 32.59 and 6.87 g CH(4) x m(-2) x yr(-1) to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, respectively. There was considerable monthly variation with emissions greater before flood in some months, whereas at other months emission was greater after ebb. The average methane fluxes were 5.13, 5.06 and 4.74 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1) before flood, during flooding and ebbing, and after ebb, respectively. Emissions to the tidewater and the atmosphere during the flooding and ebbing process were 2.98 and 2.08 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1),respectively. Sediment methane production potential (0-40 cm depth) ranged from 0.028-0.123 micro g CH(4) x g(-1) x d(-1), with the greatest production was in the surface soil. Methane fluxes had a significant correlation with atmospheric, sediment temperature and above ground biomass. The implications of these data for global warming are discussed briefly.

  15. Spectroscopic study on the interaction between mononaphthalimide spermidine (MINS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiyong; Zang, Fenglei; Luo, Wen; Zhao, Zhonghua; Wang, Yueqiao; Xu, Xuejun; Wang, Chaojie

    2015-01-01

    The interaction mononaphthalimide spermidine (MINS, 1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV/vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra (CD) under physiological conditions (pH=7.4). The observed spectral quenching of BSA by compound 1 indicated compound 1 could bind to BSA. Further fluorescent tests revealed that the quenching mechanism of BSA by compound 1 was overall static. Meanwhile, the obtained binding constant and thermodynamic parameters on compound-BSA interaction showed that the type of interaction force of compound 1 and BSA was mainly hydrophobic. The analysis of synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD showed that compound 1 had weak influence on the conformational changes in BSA. Molecular docking simulation was performed and docking model in silico suggested that the configuration of compound 1 was localized in enzymatic drug site II in BSA. Furthermore, naphthalimide moiety of compound 1 greatly contributed to the hydrophobic interaction between compound 1 and BSA protein, as confirmed by experimental data.

  16. A 210-min solid phase cytometry test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    2000-09-01

    A 210-min-test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water is described, based on solid phase cytometry (SPC) and a two-step enzymatic procedure for fluorescence labelling of single cells and small microcolonies. The test involves membrane filtration through a 25-mm black polyester filter, induction of beta-glucuronidase in the retained target cells, fluorescence labelling with fluorescein-di-beta-Dglucuronide as an enzyme substrate and laser scanning of the membrane filter. Scan results can be confirmed on-line by epifluorescence microscopy. Application to 149 naturally contaminated and uncontaminated well, tap, out-of-pump centre (distribution), surface and sewage-spiked water samples indicated > or =90% agreement and equivalence with plate count methods, including Chromocult Coliform agar and m FC agar. In 5.4% of all samples examined, SPC detected between 1 and 11 E. coli per 100 ml, while the two plate methods yielded negative results. Cases of a negative SPC result but a positive E. coli count on both reference media were not observed. This test would primarily be useful for 'emergency' monitoring of drinking water when rapid results are crucial.

  17. Evaluation of the Passive Cooling Strategies for Pei Min Sport Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yam, K. S.; Yem, W. L.; Lee, V. C. C.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a modelling study on the evaluation of the passive cooling strategies for Pei Min sport complex at Miri. The squash centre has experienced excessively high temperature during peak hours that results in complains from the users. We discussed several passive cooling mechanisms and proposed four strategies for the sport centre. Thermal energy simulations were performed on these strategies using OpenStudio to evaluate their impact on the hourly temperature profile within the building. It was found that the peak temperature during the noon was significantly reduced when conductive material was applied at the lower surface of the roof, and the top of the roof was coated with white paint. However, insulating the roof also leads to weaker heat dispersion from the building which lower the rate of temperature drop in the late afternoon. Partitioning the roof was found to have similar effect as insulating roof. Air infiltration is essential for promoting air movement and regulating the temperature within the building. It was found the complex already have sufficient opening for the full effect of air infiltration.

  18. Task-based imaging of colon cancer in the ApcMin/+ mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, James B.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Hariri, Lida P.; Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Besselsen, David G.; Gerner, Eugene W.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2006-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used for the task of multimodal study of healthy and adenomatous mouse colon. The results from each modality were compared with histology, which served as the gold standard. The ApcMin/+ genetic mouse model of colon cancer was compared with wild-type mice. In addition, a special diet was used for the task of studying the origins of a 680 nm autofluorescent signal that was previously observed in colon. The study found close agreement among each of the modalities and with histology. All four modalities were capable of identifying diseased tissue accurately. The OCT and LSCM images provided complementary structural information about the tissue, while the autofluorescence signal measured by LIF and LSCM provided biochemical information. OCT and LIF were performed in vivo and nondestructively, while the LSCM and histology required extraction of the tissue. The magnitude of the 680 nm signal correlates with chlorophyll content in the mouse diet, suggesting that the autofluorescent compound is a dietary metabolite.

  19. Spectral discrimination of an invasive species (Spartina alterniflora) in Min River wetland using field spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jin-quan; Chen, Wen-hui; Chen, Li-quan

    2013-08-01

    Spartina alterniflora, an invasive plant, has been a threat to the local ecological security since it was introduced to Fujian coastal beach over 30 years ago. How to monitor its dynamic changes effectively is of great significance. Currently, hyperspectral remote sensing technology has become an important way to monitor invasive species dynamic changes. This paper investigates whether S. alterniflora could be discriminated from the other three native species using field spectrometer ranging from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to reduce and select the optimal bands for the potential discrimination of S. alterniflora, a hierarchical method is implemented to spectrally discriminate S. alterniflora from the other three native species. In the first level of the analysis using ANOVA, we found that there were statistically significance differences in spectral reflectance between S. alterniflora and the other three native species at different bands. The algorithm of classification and regression trees (CART) were used to further investigate in the second level of analysis to identify the most sensitive bands for spectral discrimination. We found that the greatest discrimination power for S. alterniflora is located in the red-edge, especially in the near infrared, and mid infrared regions. Subsequently, we used Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance to assess spectral separability of bands selected by CART. Overall, results of this study offer the possibility of extending field measurements at canopy level to airborne and hyperspectral data for discriminating S. alterniflora in Min river wetland.

  20. A New Max-Min Variational, Semi-Definite Programming Based, Quantization Procedure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos

    2007-10-01

    A new variational quantization procedure is developed exploiting the moment problem based analysis underlying the Eigenvalue Moment Method (EMM) developed by Handy, Bessis, and co-workers [1-5]. The EMM procedure is the first to exploit Semidefinite Programming (SDP) analysis in solving quantum problems, and has played a pivotal role in defining new computational tools for tackling non-Hermitian problems such as those concerning PT-invariant (and symmetry breaking) systems [6] and Regge pole calculations for atomic-molecular scattering [7]. It offers a more rigorous (fool-proof) framework than other methods, including those based on a Hill determinant approach. By extension, these same properties are enjoyed by the new Max-Min variational procedure. We offer some illustrative examples which underscore important convexity properties of the underlying ``volcano-function'' [4,5]. [1] C. R. Handy and D. Bessis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 931 (1985). [2] C. R. Handy, D. Bessis, T. D. Morley, Phys. Rev. A 37, 4557 (1988). [3] C. R. Handy, D. Bessis, G. Sigismondi, T. D. Morley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 253 (1988). [4] C. R. Handy, K . Appiah, D. Bessis, Phys. Rev. A 50, 988 (1994). [5] C. R. Handy, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3468 (1995). [6] C. R. Handy, J. Phys. A 34, 5065 (2001). [7] C. R. Handy, C. J. Tymczak, A. Z. Msezane, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050701 (R) (2002).

  1. Minerals detection for hyperspectral images using adapted linear unmixing: LinMin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Legendre, Maxime; Le Mouëlic, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Minerals detection over large volume of spectra is the challenge addressed by current hyperspectral imaging spectrometer in Planetary Science. Instruments such OMEGA (Mars Express), CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), M3 (Chandrayaan-1), VIRTIS (Rosetta) and many more, have been producing very large datasets since one decade. We propose here a fast supervised detection algorithm called LinMin, in the framework of linear unmixing, with innovative arrangement in order to treat non-linear cases due to radiative transfer in both atmosphere and surface. We use reference laboratory and synthetic spectral library. Additional spectra are used in order to mimic the effect of Martian aerosols, grain size, and observation geometry discrepancies between reference and observed spectra. The proposed algorithm estimates the uncertainty on “mixing coefficient” from the uncertainty of observed spectra. Both numerical and observational tests validate the approach. Fast parallel implementation of the best algorithm (IPLS) on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) allows to significantly reduce the computation cost by a factor of ∼40.

  2. The Prevalence and Disadvantage of Min-Counting in Seventh Grade: Problems with Confidence as Well as Accuracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah; Bayliss, Donna

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we examined how 200 students in seventh grade (around 12 years old) solved simple addition problems. A cluster approach revealed that less than half of the cohort displayed proficiency with simple addition: 35% predominantly used min-counting and were accurate, and 16% frequently made min-counting errors. Students who frequently…

  3. Effect of an Antimicrobial Compound on Different Processes within the Oscillation of Min Proteins in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    A key step in the life of a bacterium is its division into two daughter cells of equal size. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that equal partitioning of the cellular machinery is obtained. In E. coli, this regulation is accomplished, in part, by the Min protein system. The Min proteins undergo an oscillation between the poles of rod-shaped E. coli bacteria. We use high magnification, time-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to characterize the temporal distributions of different processes within the oscillation: the MinD-MinE interaction time, the residence time for membrane bound MinD, and the recruitment time for MinD to be observed at the opposite pole. We also characterize the change in each of these processes in the presence of the antimicrobial compound polymyxin B (PMB). We show that the times corresponding to the removal of MinD from one pole and the recruitment of MinD at the opposite pole are correlated. We explain this correlation through the existence of a concentration threshold. The effect of PMB on the concentration threshold is used to identify which process within the oscillation is most affected.

  4. The Prevalence and Disadvantage of Min-Counting in Seventh Grade: Problems with Confidence as Well as Accuracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah; Bayliss, Donna

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we examined how 200 students in seventh grade (around 12 years old) solved simple addition problems. A cluster approach revealed that less than half of the cohort displayed proficiency with simple addition: 35% predominantly used min-counting and were accurate, and 16% frequently made min-counting errors. Students who frequently…

  5. Consecutive 15 min is necessary for focal low frequency stimulation to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zhenghao; Xu, Cenglin; Ying, Xiaoying; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Shihong; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is emerging as a new option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. The stimulation duration may influence the anti-epileptic effect of LFS but is poorly studied. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-epileptic effect of focal LFS with different stimulation duration on amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats. We found 15 and 30 min but not 1 or 5 min LFS delivered immediately after the kindling stimulation slowed the progression of behavioral seizure stages and reduced mean afterdischarge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. In fully kindled animals, 15 and 30min rather than 1 and 5 min LFS decreased the incidence of generalized seizures and the average seizure stage as well as shortened the cumulative generalized seizure duration (GSD). Meanwhile, EEG analysis showed 15 and 30 min LFS specifically lowered the power in delta band. However, if 15min LFS delivered intermittently by 5 min interval, it had no suppressing effect on kindling rat. Thus, it is likely that consecutive 15 min is necessary for LFS to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats, indicating the stimulation duration may be a key fact affecting the clinical effect of LFS on epilepsy.

  6. The Min system is not required for precise placement of the midcell Z ring in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Migocki, Margaret D.; Freeman, Marcelle K.; Wake, R. Gerry; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2002-01-01

    In bacteria, the Min system plays a role in positioning the midcell division site by inhibiting the formation of the earliest precursor of cell division, the Z ring, at the cell poles. However, whether the Min system also contributes to establishing the precise placement of the midcell Z ring is unresolved. We show that the Z ring is positioned at midcell with a high degree of precision in Bacillus subtilis, and this is completely maintained in the absence of the Min system. Min is therefore not required for correct midcell Z ring placement in B. subtilis. Our results strongly support the idea that the primary role of the Min system is to block Z ring formation at the cell poles and that a separate mechanism must exist to ensure cell division occurs precisely at midcell. PMID:12446561

  7. Clinical utility of the 6-min walk test for patients with moderate Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Himuro, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the clinical utility of the 6-min walk test (6MWT) for patients with moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) through a determination of factors related to this test. This was a descriptive, observational study carried out at a General Hospital, in-patients. Twenty-four patients with moderate PD were studied. We used Hoehn and Yahr stage ratings (HY stage), Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scales (UPDRS) motor examination score, 6MWT, Berg Balance scale, Timed 'Up & Go' test (TUG), 10-m walk test (10-m walk speed, 10-m walk steps and cadence), and the energy cost of walking (Ec). The average HY stage was 3.1±0.5 and 6MWT was 340.8±110.9 m. TUG (r=-0.68, P<0.01) and Ec (r=-0.65, P<0.01) were correlated significantly with 6MWT. Multiple regression analysis with age, HY stage, TUG, cadence, and Ec as variables indicated a significant degree of variability in the 6MWT results (R=0.77, P<0.001). The TUG (β=-0.47, P<0.01) and Ec (β=-0.4, P<0.01) were correlated independently with the 6MWT results. In contrast, age, HY stage, and cadence were not independently correlated. The 6MWT is a simple tool for assessing walking capacity for patients with PD. In this study, we confirmed the convergent validity and clinical utility of the 6MWT for patients with moderate PD. The 6MWT is useful for clinical assessment to guide the planning of rehabilitation treatment for patients with moderate PD.

  8. A novel min-cost flow method for estimating transcript expression with RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Tomescu, Alexandru I; Kuosmanen, Anna; Rizzi, Romeo; Mäkinen, Veli

    2013-01-01

    Through transcription and alternative splicing, a gene can be transcribed into different RNA sequences (isoforms), depending on the individual, on the tissue the cell is in, or in response to some stimuli. Recent RNA-Seq technology allows for new high-throughput ways for isoform identification and quantification based on short reads, and various methods have been put forward for this non-trivial problem. In this paper we propose a novel radically different method based on minimum-cost network flows. This has a two-fold advantage: on the one hand, it translates the problem as an established one in the field of network flows, which can be solved in polynomial time, with different existing solvers; on the other hand, it is general enough to encompass many of the previous proposals under the least sum of squares model. Our method works as follows: in order to find the transcripts which best explain, under a given fitness model, a splicing graph resulting from an RNA-Seq experiment, we find a min-cost flow in an offset flow network, under an equivalent cost model. Under very weak assumptions on the fitness model, the optimal flow can be computed in polynomial time. Parsimoniously splitting the flow back into few path transcripts can be done with any of the heuristics and approximations available from the theory of network flows. In the present implementation, we choose the simple strategy of repeatedly removing the heaviest path. We proposed a new very general method based on network flows for a multiassembly problem arising from isoform identification and quantification with RNA-Seq. Experimental results on prediction accuracy show that our method is very competitive with popular tools such as Cufflinks and IsoLasso. Our tool, called Traph (Transcrips in gRAPHs), is available at: http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/gsa/traph/.

  9. Modelling the biogeochemical cycle of silicon in soils using the reactive transport code MIN3P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, F.; Mayer, K. U.; Hodson, M. J.; Meunier, J.

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the biogeochemical cycling of Si in an acidic brown soil covered by a coniferous forest (Douglas fir) based on a comprehensive data set and reactive transport modelling. Both published and original data enable us to make up a conceptual model on which the development of a numerical model is based. We modified the reactive transport code MIN3P, which solves thermodynamic and kinetic reactions coupled with vadose zone flow and solute transport. Simulations were performed for a one-dimensional heterogeneous soil profile and were constrained by observed data including daily soil temperature, plant transpiration, throughfall, and dissolved Si in solutions collected beneath the organic layer. Reactive transport modelling was first used to test the validity of the hypothesis that a dynamic balance between Si uptake by plants and release by weathering controls aqueous Si-concentrations. We were able to calibrate the model quite accurately by stepwise adjustment of the relevant parameters. The capability of the model to predict Si-concentrations was good. Mass balance calculations indicate that only 40% of the biogeochemical cycle of Si is controlled by weathering and that about 60% of Si-cycling is related to biological processes (i.e. Si uptake by plants and dissolution of biogenic Si). Such a large contribution of biological processes was not anticipated considering the temperate climate regime, but may be explained by the high biomass productivity of the planted coniferous species. The large contribution of passive Si-uptake by vegetation permits the conservation of seasonal concentration variations caused by temperature-induced weathering, although the modelling suggests that the latter process was of lesser importance relative to biological Si-cycling.

  10. Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 β-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brittany; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2016-08-09

    Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells. To understand this dichotomy, we investigated the dynamic interactions between the dopamine receptor subtypes and their G-proteins using two-color fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) of mouse MIN6 β-cells. We show that proper membrane localization of exogenous G-proteins depends on both the Gβ and Gγ subunits being overexpressed in the cell. Triple transfections of the dopamine receptor subtype and Gβ and Gγ subunits, each labeled with a different-colored fluorescent protein (FP), yielded plasma membrane expression of all three FPs and permitted an FFS evaluation of interactions between the dopamine receptors and the Gβγ complex. Upon dopamine stimulation, we measured a significant decrease in interactions between DRD3 and the Gβγ complex, which is consistent with receptor activation. In contrast, dopamine stimulation did not cause significant changes in the interactions between DRD2 and the Gβγ complex. These results demonstrate that two-color FFS is a powerful tool for measuring dynamic protein interactions in living cells, and show that preferential DRD3 signaling in β-cells occurs at the level of G-protein release. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Min and max are the only continuous ampersand-, V-operations for finite logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1992-01-01

    Experts usually express their degrees of belief in their statements by the words of a natural language (like 'maybe', 'perhaps', etc.). If an expert system contains the degrees of beliefs t(A) and t(B) that correspond to the statements A and B, and a user asks this expert system whether 'A&B' is true, then it is necessary to come up with a reasonable estimate for the degree of belief of A&B. The operation that processes t(A) and t(B) into such an estimate t(A&B) is called an &-operation. Many different &-operations have been proposed. Which of them to choose? This can be (in principle) done by interviewing experts and eliciting a &-operation from them, but such a process is very time-consuming and therefore, not always possible. So, usually, to choose a &-operation, the finite set of actually possible degrees of belief is extended to an infinite set (e.g., to an interval (0,1)), define an operation there, and then restrict this operation to the finite set. Only this original finite set is considered. It is shown that a reasonable assumption that an &-operation is continuous (i.e., that gradual change in t(A) and t(B) must lead to a gradual change in t(A&B)), uniquely determines min as an &-operation. Likewise, max is the only continuous V-operation. These results are in good accordance with the experimental analysis of 'and' and 'or' in human beliefs.

  12. Caffeine ingestion improves power output decrement during 3-min all-out exercise.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Shih, Ming-Tsung; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on the 3-min all-out test (3MT) performance and plasma electrolytes in athletes. Fifteen collegiate male basketball players were recruited and completed two trials separated by at least 1 week in caffeine (CAF, 6 mg kg(-1)) and placebo conditions. During the first visit, participants performed an incremental cycling test to determine their 3MT resistance. After a familiarization trial, participants performed a CAF or PL trial according to a randomized crossover design. One hour after ingesting capsules, the participants performed the 3MT to estimate the end-test power (EP) and work done above EP (WEP). Blood samples for sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), pH, and lactate concentrations were drawn pretest, 1 h after ingestion, and posttest. Significant differences in WEP (CAF vs. PL, 13.4 ± 3.0 vs. 12.1 ± 2.7 kJ, P < 0.05) but not in EP (CAF vs. PL, 242 ± 37 vs. 244 ± 42 W, P > 0.05) were determined between the conditions. Compared with the PL condition, the CAF condition yielded significantly higher power outputs (60-150 s), a lower fatigue rate during the 3MT (CAF vs. PL, 0.024 ± 0.007 vs. 0.029 ± 0.006 s(-1), P < 0.05), a significantly higher lactate concentration after the 3MT, and significantly lower K(+) concentrations at 1 h after caffeine ingestion. There were no significant interaction effects for pH and Na(+) concentrations. Caffeine ingestion did not change EP but improved WEP and the rate of decline in power output during short-term, severe exercise.

  13. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26561346

  14. Chemoprevention of benzo(a)pyrene-induced colon polyps in ApcMin mice by resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Huderson, Ashley C.; Myers, Jeremy N.; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Washington, Mary K.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2012-01-01

    Human dietary exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] has generated interest with regard to the association of BaP with gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Since colon cancer ranks third among cancer-related mortalities, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of phytochemicals on colon cancer initiation and progression. In this study we investigated the preventive effects of resveratrol (RVT) on BaP-induced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin mouse model. For the first group of mice, 100 μg BaP/kg bw was administered to mice in peanut oil via oral gavage over a 60 day period. For the second group, RVT was co-administered with BaP at a dose of 45 μg/kg. For the third group, RVT was administered for 1 week prior to BaP exposure for 60 days. Jejunum, colon and liver, were collected at 60 days post-BaP & RVT exposure; adenomas in jejunum and colon were counted and subjected to histopathology. Resveratrol reduced the number of colon adenomas in BaP + RVT-treated mice significantly compared to mice that received BaP alone. While dysplasia of varying degrees was noted in colon of BaP-treated mice, the dysplasias were of limited occurrence in RVT-treated mice. To ascertain whether the tumor inhibition is a result of altered BaP-induced toxicity of tumor cells, growth, apoptosis and proliferation of adenocarcinoma cells were assessed post treatment with RVT and BaP. Co-treatment with RVT increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation to a greater extent than with BaP alone. Overall, our observations reveal that RVT inhibits colon tumorigenesis when given together with BaP and holds promise as a therapeutic agent. PMID:22889612

  15. Different responses of mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets to metabolic stimulation: a note of caution.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Torben; Morsi, Mai; Brüning, Dennis; Schumacher, Kirstin; Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    MIN6 cells and MIN6 pseudo-islets are popular surrogates for the use of primary beta cells and islets. Even though it is generally agreed that the stimulus-secretion coupling may deviate from that of beta cells or islets, direct comparisons are rare. The present side-by-side comparison of insulin secretion, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) points out where similarities and differences exist between MIN6 cells and normal mouse beta cells. In mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets depolarization by 40 mM KCl was a more robust insulinotropic stimulus than 30 mM glucose. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, but not in mouse islets, the response to 30 mM glucose was much lower than to 40 mM KCl and could be suppressed by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, glucose was less effective to raise [Ca(2+)] i than in primary islets. In marked contrast to islets, the OCR response of MIN6 pseudo-islets to 30 mM glucose was smaller than to 40 mM KCl and was further diminished by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. The same pattern was observed when MIN6 pseudo-islets were cultured in 5 mM glucose. As with insulin secretion memory effects on the OCR remained after wash-out of a stimulus. The differences between MIN6 cells and primary beta cells were generally larger in the responses to glucose than to depolarization by KCl. Thus, the use of MIN6 cells in investigations on metabolic signalling requires particular caution.

  16. NMR Studies of magnetism and unconventional superconductivity in CeMIn_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshio

    2002-03-01

    We report the novel interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in CeMIn5 that forms in a tetragonal structure, focusing on spin dynamics probed by In-NQR measurement via the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate (1/T_1). At the normal state of CeIrIn5 (T_c=0.4 K) and CeCoIn5 (T_c= 2.1 K), 1/T1 is strongly T-dependent, which indicates that both are much more itinerant than known Ce-based heavy-fermion superconductors. We find that 1/T_1T follows a [1/(T+θ)]^3/4 variation with the respective θ=8 and 0.5 K. This novel feature points to anisotropic, due to a layered crystal structure, spin fluctuations near a magnetic ordering. Remarkably, as the system approaches the magnetic critical point at θ=0, a Tc seems to be more enhanced up to 2.1 K for CeCoIn5 rather than for CeIrIn5 [1,2]. In the superconducting (SC) state, 1/T1 follows a T^3 variation without the coherence peak, suggesting unconventional superconductivity with line-node gap. In the itinerant helical magnet CeRhIn_5, we found that the Néel temperature TN is reduced at P > 1.23 GPa with an emergent pseudogap behavior [3,4]. The coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity is found in a narrow P range of 1.63 - 1.75 GPa [5], followed by the onset of SC state with line-node gap at pressures exceeding a value of P=2.1 GPa [3,6]. By contrast, in CeIn3 that forms in a cubic structure, the localized magnetic character is robust against the application of pressure up to P=1.9 GPa, beyond which the system evolves into an itinerant regime in which the resistive SC phase emerges [4]. We discuss the relationship between the phase diagram and the magnetic fluctuation. [1] G. -q. Zheng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4664 (2001). [2] Y. Kawasaki et al., unpublished. [3] T. Mito et al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 220507(R) (2001). [4] S. Kawasaki et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. B in January, 2002. [5] T. Mito et al., unpublished. [6] Y. Kohori et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 18, 601 (2000).

  17. A lightweight QRS detector for single lead ECG signals using a max-min difference algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Diptangshu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chengyu; Chattopadhyay, Samiran; Aslam, Nauman; Lim, Chee Peng

    2017-06-01

    Detection of the R-peak pertaining to the QRS complex of an ECG signal plays an important role for the diagnosis of a patient's heart condition. To accurately identify the QRS locations from the acquired raw ECG signals, we need to handle a number of challenges, which include noise, baseline wander, varying peak amplitudes, and signal abnormality. This research aims to address these challenges by developing an efficient lightweight algorithm for QRS (i.e., R-peak) detection from raw ECG signals. A lightweight real-time sliding window-based Max-Min Difference (MMD) algorithm for QRS detection from Lead II ECG signals is proposed. Targeting to achieve the best trade-off between computational efficiency and detection accuracy, the proposed algorithm consists of five key steps for QRS detection, namely, baseline correction, MMD curve generation, dynamic threshold computation, R-peak detection, and error correction. Five annotated databases from Physionet are used for evaluating the proposed algorithm in R-peak detection. Integrated with a feature extraction technique and a neural network classifier, the proposed ORS detection algorithm has also been extended to undertake normal and abnormal heartbeat detection from ECG signals. The proposed algorithm exhibits a high degree of robustness in QRS detection and achieves an average sensitivity of 99.62% and an average positive predictivity of 99.67%. Its performance compares favorably with those from the existing state-of-the-art models reported in the literature. In regards to normal and abnormal heartbeat detection, the proposed QRS detection algorithm in combination with the feature extraction technique and neural network classifier achieves an overall accuracy rate of 93.44% based on an empirical evaluation using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia data set with 10-fold cross validation. In comparison with other related studies, the proposed algorithm offers a lightweight adaptive alternative for R-peak detection with good

  18. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  19. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  20. Tethered 3-min all-out test did not predict the traditional critical force parameters in inexperienced swimmers.

    PubMed

    Kalva-Filho, Carlos A; Zagatto, Alessandro M; da Silva, Adelino S; Castanho de Araújo, Monique Y; de Almeida, Pablo B; Papoti, Marcelo

    2017-09-01

    Critical power model can be performed in tethered swimming (i.e. critical force model). Although critical force can be used to prescribe aerobic training, its determination depends on at least three exhaustive efforts in altered days. In this context, previously studies have demonstrate that critical power model can be estimated by a single 3-min all-out test (3MT), which was not investigated in swimming yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the parameters obtained during the tethered swimming 3MT to those obtained during the traditional critical force model. Seven swimmers (four female and three male) underwent a tethered swimming 3MT and three exhaustive efforts to determine the traditional critical force parameters (i.e. critical force [CF] and anaerobic impulse capacity [AIC]). The critical force (CF3-MIN) and force-time integral above the CF3-MIN (AIC3-MIN) determined during the tethered 3MT were not different to CF and AIC, respectively (P value >0.55). However, these parameters were not correlated (P value >0.45). In addition, we verified large limits of agreement between CF3MIN and CF (±19.7 N), which was also observed between AIC3MIN and AIC (±0.84 Log[N·min]). These findings demonstrated that tethered 3MTs should not be used to predict traditional critical force parameters, at least when the swimmers are inexperienced in long tethered all-out efforts.

  1. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  2. Changing the 30-min Rule in Canada: The Effect of Room Temperature on Bacterial Growth in Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Kou, Yuntong; Ducas, Éric; Thibault, Louis

    2016-11-01

    To maintain product quality and safety, the '30-min rule' requires the discard of red blood cells (RBCs) that are exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for more than 30 min. Recent studies suggest this rule may safely be extended to a 60-min rule. A pool-and-split design study (N = 4) was run in parallel at Canadian Blood Services (SAGM RBCs) and Héma-Québec (AS-3 RBCs). RBCs were spiked with ∼1 colony-forming unit/ml of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Control units remained in storage at 1-6 °C for 42 days. Test 30 (T30) and T60 units were exposed to room temperature (RT) six times during storage, each time for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Bacterial proliferation was monitored. Mesophilic bacteria do not proliferate in RBCs. The growth of psychrophilic bacteria is not significantly different in RBCs exposed for 30 or 60 min to RT (p < 0.05). The study findings were the final evidence to support extension from a 30-min rule to a 60-min rule in Canada.

  3. Changing the 30-min Rule in Canada: The Effect of Room Temperature on Bacterial Growth in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Kou, Yuntong; Ducas, Éric; Thibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background To maintain product quality and safety, the ‘30-min rule’ requires the discard of red blood cells (RBCs) that are exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for more than 30 min. Recent studies suggest this rule may safely be extended to a 60-min rule. Methods A pool-and-split design study (N = 4) was run in parallel at Canadian Blood Services (SAGM RBCs) and Héma-Québec (AS-3 RBCs). RBCs were spiked with ∼1 colony-forming unit/ml of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Control units remained in storage at 1-6 °C for 42 days. Test 30 (T30) and T60 units were exposed to room temperature (RT) six times during storage, each time for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Bacterial proliferation was monitored. Results Mesophilic bacteria do not proliferate in RBCs. The growth of psychrophilic bacteria is not significantly different in RBCs exposed for 30 or 60 min to RT (p < 0.05). Conclusion The study findings were the final evidence to support extension from a 30-min rule to a 60-min rule in Canada. PMID:27994525

  4. Cables1 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates intestinal tumor progression in Apc(Min) mice.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Pino, Maria S; Yilmaz, Omer; Kirley, Sandra D; Rueda, Bo R; Chung, Daniel C; Zukerberg, Lawrence R

    2013-07-01

    The transformation of colonic mucosal epithelium to adenocarcinoma requires progressive oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation. Loss of chromosome 18q is common in colon cancer but not in precancerous adenomas. A few candidate tumor suppressor genes have been identified in this region, including CABLES1 at 18q11.2-12.1. This study investigates the role of CABLES1 in an in vivo mouse model of intestinal adenocarcinoma and in human colon cancer cell culture. Apc(Min/+) mice were crossed with mice harboring targeted inactivation of the Cables1 gene (Cables1(-/-)). The intestinal tumor burden and tumor expression of β-catenin and PCNA was compared in Cables1(+/+)Apc(Min/+) and Cables1(-/-)Apc(Min/+) mice. β-catenin activity in human colon cancer cells with CABLES1 inactivation and intestinal progenitor cell function in Cables1(-/-) mice were assayed in vitro. The mean number of small intestinal tumors per mouse was 3.1 ± 0.6 in Cables1(+/+)Apc(Min/+) mice, compared with 32.4 ± 3.5 in the Cables1(-/-)Apc(Min/+) mice (P < 0.0001). Fewer colonic tumors were observed in Cables1(+/+)Apc(Min/+) mice (mean 0.6 ± 0.1) compared with the Cables1(-/-)Apc(Min/+) mice (mean 1.3 ± 0.3, P = 0.01). Tumors from Cables1(-/-)Apc(Min/+) mice demonstrated increased nuclear expression of β-catenin and an increased number of PCNA-positive cells. In vitro studies revealed that CABLES1 deficiency increased β-catenin dependent transcription and increased intestinal progenitor cell activity. Loss of Cables1 enhances tumor progression in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Cables1 is a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 18q in this in vivo mouse model and likely has a similar role in human colon cancer.

  5. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  6. Evidence in the human of a hypotensive and a bradycardic effect after mouth opening maintained for 10 min.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Ghione, Sergio; Foresi, Paola; Lapi, Dominga; Fommei, Enza; Colantuoni, Antonio; Scuri, Rossana

    2017-07-01

    We have recently shown that in humans submaximal mouth opening associated with partial masticatory movements for 10 min is followed by a small but significant and prolonged reduction of blood pressure and heart rate. We here report the effects of a fixed mouth opener. In 22 seated normotensive volunteers the effect on blood pressure and heart rate was studied in randomized order after fixed mandibular extension and after a control procedure consisting in keeping a stick between the incisor teeth (both for 10 min). Automated recordings every 10 min were done for 40 min before and 120 min following the procedure. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures on absolute values (actual recordings) and on changes from baseline revealed that, compared to controls, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower after mandibular extension. Compared to controls, mandibular extension induced an average blood pressure drop of 2.88 mmHg (systolic), 2.55 mmHg (diastolic) and 2.42 mmHg (mean) over the entire observation period. The average decline over the central part of the observation period (30th to 80th min) was, respectively, of 3.62, 3.70 and 3.61 mmHg. The decrements of heart rate were of 2.11 and 2.66 beats per min. All these differences were statistically significant. The hypotensive and bradycardic responses persisted for 70-120 min. This study shows that, in normotensives, a single fixed submaximal mouth opening for 10 min is followed by prolonged albeit small reductions of blood pressure and heart rate.

  7. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion.

  8. Cellular architecture mediates DivIVA ultrastructure and regulates min activity in Bacillus subtilis | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Min system in rod-shaped bacteria restricts improper assembly of the division septum. In Escherichia coli, the Min system localizes to the cell poles, but in Bacillus subtilis, it is recruited to nascent cell division sites at mid-cell to prevent aberrant septation events immediately adjacent to a constricting septum. How does the cell spatially and temporally restrict the inhibitory activity of the Min system so that it does not interfere with normal cell division? This image reveals (using a super-resolution

  9. Dietary fat overcomes the protective activity of thrombospondin-1 signaling in the ApcMin/+ model of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Pantoja, D R; Sipes, J M; Martin-Manso, G; Westwood, B; Morris, N L; Ghosh, A; Emenaker, N J; Roberts, D D

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin 1 is a glycoprotein that regulates cellular phenotype through interactions with its cellular receptors and extracellular matrix-binding partners. Thrombospondin 1 locally regulates angiogenesis and inflammatory responses that contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. The ability of thrombospondin 1 to regulate responses of cells and tissues to a variety of stresses suggested that loss of thrombospondin 1 may also have broader systemic effects on metabolism to modulate carcinogenesis. ApcMin/+:Thbs1−/− mice exhibited decreased survival and higher tumor multiplicities in the small and large intestine relative to ApcMin/+ mice when fed a low (5%) fat western diet. However, the protective effect of endogenous thrombospondin 1 was lost when the mice were fed a western diet containing 21% fat. Biochemical profiles of liver tissue identified systemic metabolic changes accompanying the effects of thrombospondin 1 and dietary lipid intake on tumorigenesis. A high-fat western diet differentially regulated elements of amino acid, energy and lipid metabolism in ApcMin/+:Thbs1−/− mice relative to ApcMin/+:Thbs1+/+mice. Metabolic changes in ketone body and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates indicate functional interactions between Apc and thrombospondin 1 signaling that control mitochondrial function. The cumulative diet-dependent differential changes observed in ApcMin/+:Thbs1−/− versus ApcMin/+ mice include altered amino acid and lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, eicosanoids and ketone body formation. This metabolic profile suggests that the protective role of thrombospondin 1 to decrease adenoma formation in ApcMin/+ mice results in part from improved mitochondrial function. PMID:27239962

  10. Faster FOLFOX: Oxaliplatin Can Be Safely Infused at a Rate of 1 mg/m2/min.

    PubMed

    Cercek, Andrea; Park, Vivian; Yaeger, Rona; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Kemeny, Nancy E; Stadler, Zsofia K; Segal, Neil H; Varghese, Anna; Saltz, Leonard B

    2016-05-01

    Oxaliplatin at a dose of 85 mg/m(2) traditionally has been administered over 120 min in the standard FOLFOX (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) regimen. CapeOx (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin), in which the dose of oxaliplatin is 130 mg/m(2), has also been infused over 120 min. Maintenance of a prolonged infusion time has been largely based on the concern for a potential hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) if administered too quickly. We first performed a retrospective review of our institutional experience to assess whether HSR rates were similar in FOLFOX and CapeOx by using computerized pharmacy records between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. We then instituted a new policy to infuse all nonresearch doses of oxaliplatin at a set rate of 1 mg/m(2)/min (85 mg/m(2) given over 85 min; 68 mg/m(2) over 68 min, etc). The incidence of HSRs with the new infusion rate was actively monitored. Of 2,097 patients who previously received oxaliplatin over 120 min, 1,936 received a dose of 85 mg/m(2) (± 10%), and 161 received a dose of 130 mg/m(2). The incidence of HSRs in the 85 mg/m(2) group was 11% versus 7% in the 130 mg/m(2) group (P = .13). Then between December 1, 2014, and June 4, 2015, 667 patients received oxaliplatin at a rate of 1 mg/m(2)/min for all doses. The incidence of HSRs in patients treated at this fixed infusion rate was 8%. Infusing oxaliplatin at a rate of 1 mg/m(2)/min does not increase the rate of HSRs and does not compromise patient safety. This infusion rate is safe for use in routine practice. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Dietary fat overcomes the protective activity of thrombospondin-1 signaling in the Apc(Min/+) model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pantoja, D R; Sipes, J M; Martin-Manso, G; Westwood, B; Morris, N L; Ghosh, A; Emenaker, N J; Roberts, D D

    2016-05-30

    Thrombospondin 1 is a glycoprotein that regulates cellular phenotype through interactions with its cellular receptors and extracellular matrix-binding partners. Thrombospondin 1 locally regulates angiogenesis and inflammatory responses that contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice. The ability of thrombospondin 1 to regulate responses of cells and tissues to a variety of stresses suggested that loss of thrombospondin 1 may also have broader systemic effects on metabolism to modulate carcinogenesis. Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) mice exhibited decreased survival and higher tumor multiplicities in the small and large intestine relative to Apc(Min/+) mice when fed a low (5%) fat western diet. However, the protective effect of endogenous thrombospondin 1 was lost when the mice were fed a western diet containing 21% fat. Biochemical profiles of liver tissue identified systemic metabolic changes accompanying the effects of thrombospondin 1 and dietary lipid intake on tumorigenesis. A high-fat western diet differentially regulated elements of amino acid, energy and lipid metabolism in Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) mice relative to Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(+/+)mice. Metabolic changes in ketone body and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates indicate functional interactions between Apc and thrombospondin 1 signaling that control mitochondrial function. The cumulative diet-dependent differential changes observed in Apc(Min/+):Thbs1(-/-) versus Apc(Min/+) mice include altered amino acid and lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, eicosanoids and ketone body formation. This metabolic profile suggests that the protective role of thrombospondin 1 to decrease adenoma formation in Apc(Min/+) mice results in part from improved mitochondrial function.

  12. Superconducting in the isostructural heavy-fermion compounds CeMIn5 and PuMGa5

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, John L.; Wastin, F.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallographic structure of CeMIn{sub 5} and PuCoGa{sub 5} appears to be important for their superconductivity as well as their magnetic properties. Substantial evidence suggests that superconductivity in CeMTn{sub 5} compounds is unconventional and mediated by antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The common structure-property relationships in CeMIn{sub 5} and PuMGa{sub 5} imply that superconductivity in PuMGa{sub 5} also may be spin-mediated.

  13. Chamber for indirect calorimetry with accurate measurement and time discrimination of metabolic plateaus of over 20 min.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; de Jonge, L; Smith, S R; Bray, G A

    2003-09-01

    A robust algorithm for pull-calorimeters that provides a rapid response to changes in respiratory gas exchange has been implemented. Metabolic plateaus (over 20 min), such as that generated by steady treadmill exercise, can be measured accurately (< 2.0% error for an energy expenditure level of 16.7 kJ min(-1)). The time resolution for changes between plateaus can be accurately found with 1 min discrimination. Implementation required only software changes but no structural or instrumentation changes to the chamber. The algorithm was based on the one developed for the push-calorimeter at the Sahlgrenska Hospital in Sweden. The method utilises published equations for the rate of O2 consumption and CO2 production in the chamber, along with techniques for suppressing noise and identifying trends. Using the exact solution of the equations for steady state, the O2 concentrations from the preceding 30 min period are fitted to two connected exponential segments, of variable length, using the least-squares method. The smoothed O2 concentration and associated time derivative are then determined for the time point 15 min earlier and substituted into the respiration equations. The CO2 concentrations are subjected to the same analysis. The process is repeated every minute, and the newly computed rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production, as well as metabolic rate, are then presented. Gas injection tests proved that the chamber can respond instantaneously to a change from one steady state of respiration to another and correctly averages repeated changes in respiration with periods less than 15min (< 1.4% error for simulated, alternating O2 consumption levels of 0.81 min (-1) and 0.01 min). The successful integration of the algorithm into the Pennington chambers allows for traditional 24 h energy expenditure measurements and various metabolic experiments requiring rapid responses.

  14. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations were an IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by another IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by a mock IO injection. The second premolar, first molar, and second molar were blindly tested with an Analytic Technology pulp tester at 2-min cycles for 120 min postinjection. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. One hundred percent of the subjects had lip numbness with IAN/IO and with IAN/IO plus repeated IO techniques. Rates of anesthetic success for the IAN/IO and for the IAN/IO plus repeated IO injection, respectively, were 100% and 97% for the second premolar, 95% and 95% for the first molar, and 87% and 87% for the second molar. The repeated IO injection increased pulpal anesthesia for approximately 14 min in the second premolar and for 6 min in the first molar, but no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were shown. In conclusion, the repeated IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine given 30 min following a combination IAN/IO injection did not significantly increase pulpal anesthesia in mandibular second premolars or in first and second molars. PMID:10483386

  15. Cefazolin should be administered maximum 30 min before incision in total knee arthroplasty when tourniquet is used.

    PubMed

    Bicanic, Goran; Crnogaca, Kresimir; Barbaric, Katarina; Delimar, Domagoj

    2014-06-01

    Periprosthetic infection is regarded as one of the most feared complications following total knee arthroplasty, developing in 0.4-2% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are credited for more than half of all infections. Cefazolin is the most commonly used antibiotic drug in arthroplasty antibiotic prophylaxis worldwide. Guidelines and studies recommend that prophylactic antibiotics should be completely infused within 60 min before the surgical incision. Cefazolin achieves highest peak bone concentrations 40 min after parenteral application with serum half-life of 108 min and bone half-life of 42 min. Respecting the given pharmacokinetics of cefazolin and theoretical mathematical model we hypothesise that parenteral application of cefazolin should be in time period not longer than 30 min before incision (tourniquet inflation) and not less than 10 min before tourniquet inflation if given in bolus. This new regime would provide maximal blood concentration of the cefazolin and almost maximal bone concentration of the cefazolin at the beginning of the operation and at the beginning of the tourniquet inflation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  17. Physiological, biochemical and functional changes induced by a simulated 30 min off-road competitive motocross heat.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, A; Azevedo, V; Ferreira, R; Oliveira, E; Marques, F; Magalhães, J

    2008-09-01

    Up to now, few studies regarding the impact of motocross heats on functional and physiological variables have been addressed so far. The aim of the present study was to analyze physiological and functional changes induced by a simulated off-road motocross heat. Fifteen motocross riders (28.3+/-7.9 yrs; 71.1+/-7.0 kg; 169.0+/-4.0 cm; 53.5+/-3.7 mL.kg(-1).min(-1); 14.9+/-3.3% fat) performed one treadmill running to exhaustion to determine maximal heart rate (HRmax) and maximal oxygen consumption. Thereafter, simulated 30 min competitive off-road motocross heats were performed to measure biochemical (blood lactate and urine catecholamine concentrations) and functional (upper-limb power and fatigue--Wingate and Handgrip) alterations induced by the race. Exercise intensity through HR monitoring, rating of perceived exertion and upper-limb pain were also accomplished. During the 30 min heats, the riders spent 87% of time above 90% of their HRmax. Significant impairments were observed on maximal isometric handgrip as well as on Wingate variables after the race. Blood lactate concentrations significantly increased from rest vs 10 min, 20 min and final time of analysis (P < 0.05). However, a significant decrease was observed between 10 min vs 20 min and final of the race. A significant increase in the 24-h urine catecholamine levels was observed after the race. The present data suggest that motocross heats are performed at high exercise intensity. Motocross specific effort induces significant functional alterations that may reflect muscle fatigue with consequent decrement on physical performance.

  18. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6-7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2013-11-01

    To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6-7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Evaluations at 6-7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0-3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0-3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration.

  19. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  20. A combined insulin reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy 30 min before running best preserves blood glucose concentration after exercise through improved fuel oxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Bain, Stephen C; Kilduff, Liam P; Luzio, Stephen; Still, Rachel; Bracken, Richard M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we examined the glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses to alterations in the timing of a low glycaemic index carbohydrate and 75% reduced insulin dose, prior to running, in type 1 diabetes individuals. After carbohydrate (75 g isomaltulose) and insulin administration, the seven participants rested for 30 min, 60 min, 90 min or 120 min (conditions 30MIN, 60MIN, 90MIN, and 120MIN, respectively) before completing 45 min of running at 70% peak oxygen uptake. Carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were monitored during exercise and blood glucose and insulin were measured before and for 3 h after exercise. Data were analysed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pre-exercise blood glucose concentrations were lower for 30MIN compared with 120MIN (P < 0.05), but insulin concentrations were similar. Exercising carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were lower and greater, respectively, for 30MIN compared with 120MIN (P < 0.05). The drop in blood glucose during exercise was less for 30MIN (3.7 mmol · l(-1), s(x) = 0.4) compared with 120MIN (6.4 mmol · l(-1), s(x) = 0.3) (P = 0.02). For 60 min post-exercise, blood glucose concentrations were higher for 30MIN compared with 120MIN (P < 0.05). There were no cases of hypoglycaemia in the 30MIN condition, one case in the 60MIN condition, two in the 90MIN condition, and five in the 120MIN condition. In conclusion, a low glycaemic index carbohydrate and reduced insulin dose administered 30 min before running improves pre- and post-exercise blood glucose responses in type 1 diabetes.

  1. Pediatric patients who receive antibiotics for fever and neutropenia in less than 60 min have decreased intensive care needs.

    PubMed

    Salstrom, Jennifer L; Coughlin, Rebecca L; Pool, Kathleen; Bojan, Melissa; Mediavilla, Camille; Schwent, William; Rannie, Michael; Law, Dawn; Finnerty, Michelle; Hilden, Joanne

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic delivery to patients with fever and neutropenia (F&N) in <60 min is an increasingly important quality measure for oncology centers, but several published reports indicate that a time to antibiotic delivery (TTA) of <60 min is quite difficult to achieve. Here we report a quality improvement (QI) effort that sought to decrease TTA and assess associated clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with cancer and F&N. We used Lean-Methodology and a Plan-Do-Study-Act approach to direct QI efforts and prospectively tracked TTA measures and associated clinical outcomes (length of stay, duration of fever, use of imaging studies to search for occult infection, bacteremia, intensive care unit (ICU) consultation or admission, and mortality). We then performed statistical analysis to determine the impact of our QI interventions on total TTA, sub-process times, and clinical outcomes. Our QI interventions significantly improved TTA such that we are now able to deliver antibiotics in <60 min nearly 100% of the time. All TTA sub-process times also improved. Moreover, achieving TTA <60 min significantly reduced the need for ICU consultation or admission (P = 0.003) in this population. Here we describe our QI effort along with a detailed assessment of several associated clinical outcomes. These data indicate that decreasing TTA to <60 min is achievable and associated with improved outcomes in pediatric patients with cancer and F&N. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inhibitory effects of low-dose aloe-emodin on the development of colorectal tumors in min mice.

    PubMed

    Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shinzato, Masanori; Yukitake, Jun; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone compound, has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of AE in an Apc-deficient Min mouse model. In the first experiment, male Min mice were fed a basal diet or diets containing 5 ppm AE and 10 ppm AE for 12 weeks. The dietary administration of 5 ppm AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. In a second experiment, we investigated the effects of AE on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in Min mouse treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Female Min mice were administered 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. AE was given to mice in their diet at a dose of 5 or 50 ppm for 5 weeks. Feeding with AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. When proliferation of cells in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was assessed by monoclonal anti-rat Ki-67 antibody (MIB-5) immunohistochemistry in experiments 1 and 2, the AE treatment significantly decreased the mean MIB-5-labeling index. These results suggest that the dietary administration of low-dose AE may have chemopreventive effects against development of colorectal tumors in Min mice, possibly in part by reducing cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa.

  3. TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10min or shorter.

    PubMed

    Durukan Tolvanen, A; Tatlisumak, E; Pedrono, E; Abo-Ramadan, U; Tatlisumak, T

    2017-05-15

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30min, n=6-8pergroup) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10min of ischemia followed up to 1week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An experimental setup for traceable measurement and calibration of liquid flow rates down to 5 nl/min.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Martin; Nestler, Bodo; Klein, Stephan; Lucas, Peter; Petter, Harm Tido; Damiani, Christian

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the improvements of an experimental setup for measuring ultra-low flow rates down to 5 nl/min. The system uses a telecentric CCD imaging system mounted on a high-precision, computer-controlled linear stage to track a moving liquid meniscus inside a glass capillary. Compared to the original setup, the lowest attainable expanded uncertainty at any flow rate has been reduced from 5.4% to 2%. In addition, the conformity with specification of three commercial micro-fluidic devices was evaluated using the new setup: one syringe pump, one implantable infusion pump and one thermal flow sensor. The flow sensor and the implantable infusion pump met the compliance criteria (coverage probability 95%). The syringe pump however, failed to meet the specifications at 5 nl/min and 10 nl/min. No assessment could be made at higher flow rates.

  5. Bactericidal efficacy of a 1.5min surgical hand-rubbing protocol under in-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Kac, G; Masmejean, E; Gueneret, M; Rodi, A; Peyrard, S; Podglajen, I

    2009-06-01

    In healthy volunteers, surgical hand rubbing with Sterillium for 1.5min has been shown to be as effective as a 3min procedure. The aim of this study was to assess whether this result was reproducible under in-use conditions. During nine weeks in the ambulatory surgery theatre of a 750-bed tertiary care university hospital, the two surgical hand-rubbing procedures were compared with each other, and with a hand-scrubbing procedure using a povidone-iodine (4%) scrub prior to and after 25 different surgical operations for each. Imprints of the surgeon's dominant hand were taken on culture plates before and within 1min following the end of the hand-rubbing/scrubbing procedures (immediate effect) and at the end of surgery (sustained effect). Plates were incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 48h. Colonies were counted at 24h and 48h. Results were expressed as the number of colony-forming units per hand. No significant difference in baseline hand bacterial load was found before the hand-rubbing/scrubbing procedures among the three groups (P=0.19). With respect to immediate and sustained antimicrobial effects, a significantly greater reduction in microbial loads on the hands was achieved with the 3min hand-rubbing protocol as opposed to hand-scrubbing protocol (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively), but there was no difference between the reductions obtained with 1.5 and 3min rubbing protocols (P=0.41 and P=0.36, respectively). Surgical hand rubbing with Sterillium using a 1.5min protocol should be considered as an attractive alternative method for surgical hand disinfection.

  6. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glycerol or palmitate kinetics during 90 min of moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Horton, Tracy J; Miller, Emily K; Bourret, Kristen

    2006-03-01

    The systemic flux of glycerol and palmitate [a representative nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA)] was assessed in three different phases of the menstrual cycle at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise. It was hypothesized that circulating glycerol and NEFA turnover would be greatest in the midfollicular (MF) phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen is elevated but progesterone low, followed by the midluteal phase (ML; high estrogen and progesterone), and lowest in the early follicular (EF) phase of the menstrual cycle (low estrogen and progesterone). Subjects included moderately active, eumenorrheic, healthy women. Testing occurred after 3 days of diet control and after an overnight fast (12-13 h). Resting and exercise (50% maximal oxygen uptake, 90 min) measurements of tracer-determined glycerol and palmitate kinetics were made. There was a significant increase in both glycerol and palmitate turnover from rest to exercise in all phases of the menstrual cycle (P<0.0001). No significant differences, however, were observed between cycle phases in the systemic flux of glycerol or palmitate, at rest or during exercise. Maximal peripheral lipolysis during exercise, as represented by glycerol rate of appearance at 90 min, equaled 8.45+/-0.96, 8.35+/-1.12, and 7.71+/-0.96 micromol.kg-1.min-1 in the EF, MF, and ML phases, respectively. Circulating free fatty acid utilization also peaked at 90 min of exercise, as indicated by the palmitate rate of disappearance (3.31+/-0.35, 3.17+/-0.39, and 3.47+/-0.26 micromol.kg-1.min-1) in the EF, MF, and ML phases, respectively. In conclusion, systemic rates of glycerol and NEFA turnover (as represented by palmitate flux) were not significantly affected by the cyclic fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur throughout the normal menstrual cycle, either at rest or during 90 min of moderate exercise.

  7. CheMin: A Definitive Mineralogy Instrument in the Analytical Laboratory of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chiprera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL 09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown.

  8. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  10. Paracrine cyclooxygenase-2 activity by macrophages drives colorectal adenoma progression in the Apc (Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hull, Mark A; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ko, C W Stanley; Scott, Daniel J; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Hawcroft, Gillian; Perry, Sarah L; Ingram, Nicola; Carr, Ian M; Markham, Alexander F; Bonifer, Constanze; Coletta, P Louise

    2017-07-20

    Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 abrogates intestinal adenoma development at early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 is localised to stromal cells (predominantly macrophages) in human and mouse intestinal adenomas. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that paracrine Cox-2-mediated signalling from macrophages drives adenoma growth and progression in vivo in the Apc (Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. Using a transgenic C57Bl/6 mouse model of Cox-2 over-expression driven by the chicken lysozyme locus (cLys-Cox-2), which directs integration site-independent, copy number-dependent transgene expression restricted to macrophages, we demonstrated that stromal macrophage Cox-2 in colorectal (but not small intestinal) adenomas from cLys-Cox-2 x Apc (Min/+) mice was associated with significantly increased tumour size (P = 0.025) and multiplicity (P = 0.025), compared with control Apc (Min/+) mice. Transgenic macrophage Cox-2 expression was associated with increased dysplasia, epithelial cell Cox-2 expression and submucosal tumour invasion, as well as increased nuclear β-catenin translocation in dysplastic epithelial cells. In vitro studies confirmed that paracrine macrophage Cox-2 signalling drives catenin-related transcription in intestinal epithelial cells. Paracrine macrophage Cox-2 activity drives growth and progression of Apc (Min/+) mouse colonic adenomas, linked to increased epithelial cell β-catenin dysregulation. Stromal cell (macrophage) gene regulation and signalling represent valid targets for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

  11. An Optimal Free Energy Dissipation Strategy of the MinCDE Oscillator in Regulating Symmetric Bacterial Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liping; Lan, Ganhui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. The obtained oscillatory patterns provide vital functions as timekeepers, pacemakers and spacemarkers. Models based on control theory have been introduced to explain how specific oscillatory behaviors stem from protein interaction feedbacks, whereas the energy dissipation through the oscillating processes and its role in the regulatory function remain unexplored. Here we developed a general framework to assess an oscillator’s regulation performance at different dissipation levels. Using the Escherichia coli MinCDE oscillator as a model system, we showed that a sufficient amount of energy dissipation is needed to switch on the oscillation, which is tightly coupled to the system’s regulatory performance. Once the dissipation level is beyond this threshold, unlike stationary regulators’ monotonic performance-to-cost relation, excess dissipation at certain steps in the oscillating process damages the oscillator’s regulatory performance. We further discovered that the chemical free energy from ATP hydrolysis has to be strategically assigned to the MinE-aided MinD release and the MinD immobilization steps for optimal performance, and a higher energy budget improves the robustness of the oscillator. These results unfold a novel mode by which living systems trade energy for regulatory function. PMID:26317492

  12. The Apc(min) mouse has altered hematopoietic stem cell function and provides a model for MPD/MDS.

    PubMed

    Lane, Steven W; Sykes, Stephen M; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Shterental, Sebastian; Paktinat, Mahnaz; Lo Celso, Cristina; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Ebert, Benjamin L; Williams, David A; Gilliland, D Gary

    2010-04-29

    Apc, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a bona-fide tumor suppressor whose loss of function results in intestinal polyposis. APC is located in a commonly deleted region on human chromosome 5q, associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suggesting that haploinsufficiency of APC contributes to the MDS phenotype. Analysis of the hematopoietic system of mice with the Apc(min) allele that results in a premature stop codon and loss of function showed no abnormality in steady state hematopoiesis. Bone marrow derived from Apc(min) mice showed enhanced repopulation potential, indicating a cell intrinsic gain of function in the long-term hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. However, Apc(min) bone marrow was unable to repopulate secondary recipients because of loss of the quiescent HSC population. Apc(min) mice developed a MDS/myeloproliferative phenotype. Our data indicate that Wnt activation through haploinsufficiency of Apc causes insidious loss of HSC function that is only evident in serial transplantation strategies. These data provide a cautionary note for HSC-expansion strategies through Wnt pathway activation, provide evidence that cell extrinsic factors can contribute to the development of myeloid disease, and indicate that loss of function of APC may contribute to the phenotype observed in patients with MDS and del(5q).

  13. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science…

  14. A novel diagnostic method for malaria using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and MinION™ nanopore sequencer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuo; Tarumoto, Norihito; Misawa, Kazuhisa; Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Sakai, Jun; Hayashida, Kyoko; Eshita, Yuki; Maeda, Ryuichiro; Tuda, Josef; Murakami, Takashi; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamagishi, Junya; Maeda, Takuya

    2017-09-13

    A simple and accurate molecular diagnostic method for malaria is urgently needed due to the limitations of conventional microscopic examination. In this study, we demonstrate a new diagnostic procedure for human malaria using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the MinION™ nanopore sequencer. We generated specific LAMP primers targeting the 18S-rRNA gene of all five human Plasmodium species including two P. ovale subspecies (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale wallikeri, P. ovale curtisi, P. knowlesi and P. malariae) and examined human blood samples collected from 63 malaria patients in Indonesia. Additionally, we performed amplicon sequencing of our LAMP products using MinION™ nanopore sequencer to identify each Plasmodium species. Our LAMP method allowed amplification of all targeted 18S-rRNA genes of the reference plasmids with detection limits of 10-100 copies per reaction. Among the 63 clinical samples, 54 and 55 samples were positive by nested PCR and our LAMP method, respectively. Identification of the Plasmodium species by LAMP amplicon sequencing analysis using the MinION™ was consistent with the reference plasmid sequences and the results of nested PCR. Our diagnostic method combined with LAMP and MinION™ could become a simple and accurate tool for the identification of human Plasmodium species, even in resource-limited situations.

  15. Use of max and min scores for trend tests for association when the genetic model is unknown.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang

    2003-08-30

    In case-control studies, the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test is powerful for detection of an association between a risk allele and a marker. To apply this test, a score should be assigned to the genotypes based on the genetic model. When the underlying genetic model is unknown, the trend test statistic is a function of the score. In this paper, simple procedures are given to obtain two scores (max and min), which respectively maximize and minimize the CA trend test statistics for genetic associations. These two scores can be used to examine the effect of the choice of scores on the test of no association. When the CA trend test statistic with the max (or min) score is less (or greater) than a prespecified value, the conclusion is clear: we will accept (or reject) the null hypothesis of no association for any scores used. When this value is less than the CA trend test statistic with the max score but greater than the one with the min score, the decision of whether or not to reject the null hypothesis depends on the choice of scores. In this situation, the CA trend test with a prespecified score cannot be used without careful scientific justification of the choice of scores. The use of max and min scoring schemes is applied to a real data set.

  16. Influence of caffeine ingestion on perceived mood states, concentration, and arousal levels during a 75-min university lecture.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-12-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During week 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were assigned to either a caffeine- or placebo-supplemented group and were subsequently required to attend a 75-min exercise rehabilitation lecture. Seven days later, students were assigned to the opposite supplementation group before attending a second follow-on lecture, equal in duration to that of week 1. At the conclusion of each lecture, students were required to complete a mood perception questionnaire to assess the perceived level of mood state, concentration, and arousal during the lecture. The results showed that after caffeine consumption, students perceived themselves to be significantly more awake, clear minded, energetic, alert, and anxious (P < 0.05). Additionally, students also felt they were better able to concentrate and had a greater level of arousal than when the placebo was consumed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of this investigation show that university students report enhanced perceptual feelings of behavior and mood state when a low dose of caffeine is consumed 60 min prior to a 75-min academic lecture.

  17. Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION(TM) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minh Duc; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Elliott, Alysha G; Zhang, Huihui; Cooper, Matthew A; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2016-07-26

    The recently introduced Oxford Nanopore MinION platform generates DNA sequence data in real-time. This has great potential to shorten the sample-to-results time and is likely to have benefits such as rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection and identification of drug resistance. However, there are few tools available for streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data. Here, we present a framework for streaming analysis of MinION real-time sequence data, together with probabilistic streaming algorithms for species typing, strain typing and antibiotic resistance profile identification. Using four culture isolate samples, as well as a mixed-species sample, we demonstrate that bacterial species and strain information can be obtained within 30 min of sequencing and using about 500 reads, initial drug-resistance profiles within two hours, and complete resistance profiles within 10 h. While strain identification with multi-locus sequence typing required more than 15x coverage to generate confident assignments, our novel gene-presence typing could detect the presence of a known strain with 0.5x coverage. We also show that our pipeline can process over 100 times more data than the current throughput of the MinION on a desktop computer.

  18. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science…

  19. Constitutive TLR4 signalling in intestinal epithelium reduces tumor load by increasing apoptosis in APC(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Teo, W L; Low, M J; Meijer, L; Sanderson, I; Pettersson, S; Greicius, G

    2014-01-16

    The microbial pattern-recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major signal transducers known to shape and influence the postnatal maturation of host intestinal epithelium. Perturbations in this intricate host-microbe cross-talk have been reported to be associated with uncontrolled epithelial cell growth and thus potential cancer development by mechanisms which are largely unknown. We therefore generated transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active TLR4 (CD4-TLR4) linked to an intestinal epithelial cell-specific promoter. Ex vivo analysis of transgenic crypt-villus organoid cultures revealed an increased proliferative capacity and a lowered cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) expression in these organoids compared with wild-type control cultures. Introducing the CD4-TLR4 transgene into APC(Min/+) mice (CD4-TLR4-APC(Min/+)), a model of colorectal carcinoma, resulted in a dramatic drop in tumor load as compared with control APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumors from CD4-TLR4-APC(Min/+) mice displayed reduced Cox-2 protein, elevated interferon β expression and increased caspase-3 activity, which correlated with increased apoptosis in vivo. Thus, our data reveal that host microbiota-mediated signal transduction via TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells is far more complex than what is previously reported.

  20. Sleep inertia associated with a 10-min nap before the commute home following a night shift: A laboratory simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Van Dongen, Hans P; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Night shift workers are at risk of road accidents due to sleepiness on the commute home. A brief nap at the end of the night shift, before the commute, may serve as a sleepiness countermeasure. However, there is potential for sleep inertia, i.e. transient impairment immediately after awakening from the nap. We investigated whether sleep inertia diminishes the effectiveness of napping as a sleepiness countermeasure before a simulated commute after a simulated night shift. N=21 healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 12 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a baseline night, subjects were kept awake for 27h for a simulated night shift. They were randomised to either receive a 10-min nap ending at 04:00 plus a 10-min pre-drive nap ending at 07:10 (10-NAP) or total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP). A 40-min York highway driving task was performed at 07:15 to simulate the commute. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue) were administered at 06:30 (pre-nap), 07:12 (post-nap), and 07:55 (post-drive). In the 10-NAP condition, total pre-drive nap sleep time was 9.1±1.2min (mean±SD), with 1.3±1.9min spent in slow wave sleep, as determined polysomnographically. There was no difference between conditions in PVT-B performance at 06:30 (before the nap). In the 10-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse after the nap (07:12) compared to before the nap (06:30); no change across time was found in the NO-NAP condition. There was no significant difference between conditions in PVT-B performance after the drive. SP-Fatigue and driving performance did not differ significantly between conditions. In conclusion, the pre-drive nap showed objective, but not subjective, evidence of sleep inertia immediately after awakening. The 10-min nap did not affect driving performance during the simulated commute home, and was not effective as a sleepiness countermeasure.

  1. Reliability of ultra-short-term analysis as a surrogate of standard 5-min analysis of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Cho, Chul-Ho; Cho, Jaegeol; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing demands of ultra-short-term heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) for practical ambulatory applications, there have been few studies that have investigated R-R interval recording for less than 5 min for HRV analysis. It has not been extensively validated, and, currently, no normative data for ultra-short-term HRV exist. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between standard 5-min and ultra-short-term HRV by collecting data from a large population consisting of a wide range of age groups. The 5-min R-R interval series were obtained from 467 healthy volunteers ranging from 8 to 69 years of age. The original R-R interval was segmented into 270, 240, 210, 180, 150, 120, 90, 60, 30, 20, and 10 s, and those HRV features most commonly reported within the literature were calculated and compared with those using the original 5-min R-R interval series. The Pearson correlation r, the p value by the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Bland-Altman plot analysis computations were performed for each HRV variable calculated using different lengths of R-R interval series. For each HRV variable, the minimum length of the R-R interval required to reliably estimate the 5-min HRV was identified. The results were different for each age group: 10 s for HR, 20 s for high-frequency, 30 s for root mean square difference, 60 s for proportion of the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms divided by total number of NNs, 90 s for low-frequency, normalized low-frequency, normalized high-frequency, and low-frequency/high-frequency, 240 s for standard deviation of successive NN interval differences and time-frequency, and 270 s for very low-frequency. In addition, the reference value for short-term HRV from normal healthy subjects was also presented. Some HRV variables calculated from R-R interval series shorter than 5 min were well matched with those calculated from the 5-min R-R interval. Thus, ultra

  2. Assessment of the embryo flash position and migration with 3D ultrasound within 60 min of embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Saravelos, Sotirios H; Wong, Alice Wai Yee; Chan, Carol Pui Shan; Kong, Grace Wing Shan; Cheung, Lai Ping; Chung, Cathy Hoi Sze; Chung, Jacqueline Pui Wah; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2016-03-01

    Does the air bubble (embryo flash) position and migration as visualized with 3D ultrasound (US) within 60 min of embryo transfer correlate with clinical outcome following fresh ART transfer cycles? The location of the embryo flash and the direction of its movement at 60 min, but not at 1 or 5 min after transfer, are associated with clinical pregnancy. Studies assessing the relation between the pregnancy rate and the position of the catheter tip and/or the position of the air bubbles following embryo transfer show conflicting results to date. This was a prospective cohort study including 277 infertile women undergoing ART between July 2011 and August 2013. Good prognosis patients undergoing fresh ART cycles within a single tertiary University unit were assessed by 3D US at 1, 5 and 60 min after embryo transfer. The distance of the embryo flash from the fundus was measured at these time points, along with the direction of the embryo flash movement within 60 min of transfer. Within 60 min of embryo transfer, 76.4% (198/259) of the embryo flashes migrated towards the fundus, 12.4% (32/259) migrated towards the cervix and 11.2% (29/259) remained static. There was no significant association between the embryo position or movement and the pregnancy rate at 1 and 5 min. At 60 min, however, the pregnancy and implantation rates among subjects with embryo flashes located <15 mm from the fundus was significantly higher than those with embryo flashes located >15 mm from the fundus (46.5 and 32.8% versus 25.8 and 18.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The pregnancy and implantation rates when the embryo flash was seen moving towards the cervix (25.0 and 15.0%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) compared with those remaining static (55.2 and 37.7%) or moving towards the fundus (45.5 and 32.8%). Although the air bubbles seen at the time of embryo transfer are thought to represent the position of the embryo, they are in fact a surrogate marker of the embryo

  3. Comparative evaluation of NovaMin desensitizer and Gluma desensitizer on dentinal tubule occlusion: a scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Surabhi; Gowda, Ashwini Shivananje

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) desensitizing agent, which is a powder-based system, and hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glutaraldehyde (Gluma desensitizer), which is liquid-based system, on dentinal tubule occlusion was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The effects of the above two along with one control group were compared to determine the more effective method of sealing the dentinal tubules after initial application. Methods Twenty specimens were allocated to each of 3 groups: Control, Gluma desensitizer, and NovaMin. Two additional samples were also prepared and treated with Gluma and NovaMin; these samples were longitudinally fractured. The specimens were prepared from extracted sound human premolars and were stored in 10% formalin at room temperature. The teeth were cleaned of gross debris and then sectioned to provide one to two dentin specimens. The dentin specimens were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed in distilled water. Control discs were dried, and the test discs were treated with the desensitizing agents as per the manufacturer's instructions. The discs as well as longitudinal sections were later analyzed under the scanning electron microscope. The proportions of completely occluded, partially occluded, and open tubules within each group were calculated. The ratios of completely and partially occluded tubules to the total tubules for all the groups was determined, and the data was statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests and statistical significance was calculated. Results NovaMin showed more completely occluded tubules (0.545±0.051) while Gluma desensitizer showed more partially occluded tubules (0.532±0.075). The differences among all the groups were statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Conclusion Both materials were effective in occluding dentinal tubules but NovaMin appeared more promising in occluding tubules completely after initial application. PMID:24455439

  4. Comparison of bacterial genome assembly software for MinION data and their applicability to medical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Martin; Reuter, Sandra; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Michael A.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Translating the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing technology into medical microbiology requires on-going analysis that keeps pace with technological improvements to the instrument and release of associated analysis software. Here, we use a multidrug-resistant Enterobacter kobei isolate as a model organism to compare open source software for the assembly of genome data, and relate this to the time taken to generate actionable information. Three software tools (PBcR, Canu and miniasm) were used to assemble MinION data and a fourth (SPAdes) was used to combine MinION and Illumina data to produce a hybrid assembly. All four had a similar number of contigs and were more contiguous than the assembly using Illumina data alone, with SPAdes producing a single chromosomal contig. Evaluation of the four assemblies to represent the genome structure revealed a single large inversion in the SPAdes assembly, which also incorrectly integrated a plasmid into the chromosomal contig. Almost 50 %, 80 % and 90 % of MinION pass reads were generated in the first 6, 9 and 12 h, respectively. Using data from the first 6 h alone led to a less accurate, fragmented assembly, but data from the first 9 or 12 h generated similar assemblies to that from 48 h sequencing. Assemblies were generated in 2 h using Canu, indicating that going from isolate to assembled data is possible in less than 48 h. MinION data identified that genes responsible for resistance were carried by two plasmids encoding resistance to carbapenem and to sulphonamides, rifampicin and aminoglycosides, respectively. PMID:28348876

  5. Clinical relevance of decreased oxygen saturation during 6-min walk test in preoperative physiologic assessment for lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Chiba, Naohisa; Saito, Masao; Sakaguchi, Yasuto; Ishikawa, Shinya

    2014-10-01

    The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery (JACS) has released guidelines on preoperative physiologic assessment for lung cancer surgery. However, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), which is recommended for patients with poor pulmonary function, is available only in limited institutions. We investigated the possibility of 6-min walk test (6MWT) as a substitute of maximum oxygen consumption test (VO(2)max) on preoperative physiologic assessment for lung cancer surgery. The relationship between VO(2)max and 6MWT was retrospectively analyzed in 51 subjects other than lung cancer patients. Following the preliminary analysis, we modified the risk assessment in the JACS guidelines by substituting 6MWT for VO(2)max, and patients who underwent lung cancer surgery were retrospectively assessed using the modified assessment. Analysis of the correlation between VO(2)max and 6MWT revealed VO(2)max to be significantly correlated to minimum SpO(2) (SpO(2)min) and maximum decrease in SpO(2) (ΔSpO(2)) during 6MWT. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that SpO(2)min and ΔSpO(2) were predictable for a VO(2)max of 15 mL/kg/min, which is the borderline between the average- and increased-risk groups in the JACS guidelines. A total of 1,066 patients were assigned to the average- or increased-risk group according to the modified JACS guidelines using the criteria of SpO(2)min < 91 % and ΔSpO(2) > 4 %. The increased-risk group was significantly inferior to the average-risk group in Home Oxygen Therapy induction rate, cardiopulmonary-related 30- and 90-day mortality (p < 0.001). In clinical practice, decreased saturation during 6MWT may be simple and substitutive for CPET in risk assessment for lung cancer surgery using the JACS guidelines.

  6. Responses to a 120 min reserve team soccer match: a case study focusing on the demands of extra time.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonathan; Kilduff, Liam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The movement demands of the soccer extra time period are unknown despite the importance of this period of play. Data are presented for five English Premier League reserve team players who wore GPS (10 Hz) monitors during an official soccer match that required extra time to be played. Countermovement jump performance (peak power output (PPO) and jump height) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were assessed before (-24 h; baseline) and after (+24 h, +48 h) match play. Players covered 14,106 ± 859 m (109 ± 7 m·min(-1)) throughout the game. From 90 to 120 min, 3213 ± 286 m were covered and 12 ± 6 sprints, 221 ± 14 accelerations and 207 ± 16 decelerations occurred. From 105 to 120 min, acceleration and deceleration parameters reduced by >10% compared to the opening 15 min. At +24 h and +48 h, PPO reduced by 416.1 ± 199.9 W (10.9% ± 4.4%) and 155.1 ± 34.8 W (4.1% ± 0.8%), jump heights decreased by 0.064 ± 0.046 m (17.8% ± 11.2%) and 0.025 ± 0.009 m (7.4% ± 3.2%), whereas CK increased by 586.6 ± 85.1 μ·l(-1) (236% ± 92%) and 266.8 ± 134.7 μ·l(-1) (107% ± 89%) versus baseline, respectively. Physical performance markers reduced throughout match play and countermovement jump performance was impaired, while CK remained elevated, for at least 48 h after the game. Interventions which maintain performance throughout a game and which enhance recovery in the days after 120 min of soccer match play warrant further investigation.

  7. Phyllosilicate analysis capabilities of the CheMin mineralogical instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL '11) Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P.

    2011-12-01

    The CheMin mineralogical instrument on the MSL '11 Curiosity rover will return quantitative X-ray diffraction data (XRD) from scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected from the Mars surface. Samples of 45-65 mm3 from material sieved to <150 μm will be delivered through a funnel to one of 27 reuseable sample cells (five additional cells on the sample wheel contain diffraction or fluorescence standards). Sample cells are 8-mm diameter discs with 7-μm thick Mylar or Kapton windows spaced 170 μm apart. Within this volume, the sample is shaken by piezoelectric vibration at sonic frequencies, causing the powder to flow past a narrow, collimated X-ray beam in random orientations over the course of an analysis. In this way, diffraction patterns exhibiting little to no preferred orientation can be obtained even from minerals normally exhibiting strong preferred orientation such as phyllosilicates. Individual analyses will require several hours over one or more Mars sols. For typical well-ordered minerals, CheMin has a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, an accuracy of better than 15% and a precision of better than 10% for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). The resolution of the diffraction patterns is 0.30 degrees 2θ, and the angular measurement range is 4-55 degrees 2θ. With this performance, CheMin can identify and distinguish a number of clay minerals. For example, discrimination between 1:1 phyllosilicates (such as the kaolin minerals), with repeat distances of ~7Å, and smectites (e.g., montmorillonite, nontronite, saponite), with repeat distances from 10-15Å, is straightforward. However, it is important to note that the variety of treatments used in terrestrial laboratories to aid in discrimination of clay minerals will not be accessible on Mars (e.g., saturation with ethylene glycol vapor, heat treatments). Although these treatments will not be available on Mars, dehydration within the CheMin instrument could be used to

  8. Science Goals and First Light Analysis from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Mason, James; McTiernan, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat with deployment from the ISS planned in Q2 2016. Its goal is to measure the solar soft X-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance, an observational signature of hot plasma in the solar corona. Over the last few decades, there have been very few spectrally resolved observations from ~0.2 to ~4 keV (~0.3-6 nm). This range is sensitive to high-temperature plasma and contains many spectral lines (e.g., Mg, Si, Fe, S, Ar), the abundances of which probe plasma transport and provide valuable constraints on plasma heating mechanisms during both flares and quiescence. This solar SXR emission is primarily absorbed in the E-region of Earth's ionosphere, and the subsequently driven dynamical processes are still poorly understood, in large part because the energy distribution of the incident SXRs is not yet well characterized.MinXSS flies a miniature commercial off-the-shelf soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD. The silicon drift detector has 0.5 mm fully depleted thickness and a 25 mm^2 physical area, with a ~16 micron Be entrance window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar SXRs from ~0.5 to 30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. MinXSS also includes a broadband SXR photometer, providing an integrated intensity over a similar energy range for comparison, cross-calibration, and additional data, especially useful during more intense flares at the upper end of the X123 dynamic range.We present the MinXSS science goals for studying hot plasma in the solar corona, including impulsive flare heating and quiescent coronal heating, and the impact of the resultant SXR emission on Earth's ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. We present analysis of MinXSS first light results (depending on deployment date from the ISS), as well as modeling and predictions of future observations over the MinXSS 6-12 month mission lifetime.

  9. Inducible recombination in the cardiac conduction system of minK: CreERT² BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arnolds, David E; Moskowitz, Ivan P

    2011-11-01

    Inducible Cre recombination is a powerful technology that allows for spatial and temporal modulation of gene expression in vivo. Diseases of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) pose a significant clinical burden but are not currently well understood at the molecular level. To enable inducible recombination in the murine CCS, we created a minK:CreERT(2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line. Cre activity is present after tamoxifen administration in the atrioventricular (AV) node, AV bundle, and bundle branches of adult transgenic mice. We anticipate that by enabling inducible recombination specifically in the AV node, bundle, and bundle branches, minK:CreERT(2) BAC transgenic mice will prove useful in advancing our understanding of CCS disease and function. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Architecture and performance analysis of DIRSMIN: A fault-tolerant switch using dilated reduced-stage MIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somani, Arun K.; Zhang, Tianming

    1995-01-01

    We develop and analyze a dilated high performance fault tolerant fast packet multistage interconnection network (MIN) in this paper. In this new design, the links at the input and the output stages of a dilated banyan-based MIN are rearranged to create multiple routes for each source-destination pair in the network after removing one stage in the network. These multiple paths are link- and node-disjoint. Fault tolerance at low latency is achieved by sending multiple copies of each input packet simultaneously using different routes and different priorities. This guarantees that high throughput is maintained even in the presence of faults. Throughput is analyzed using simulation and analysis and we show that the new design has considerably higher performance in the presence of a faulty switching element (SE) or link in comparison to dilated networks. We also analyze the reliability and show that the new design has superior reliability in comparison to competing proposals.

  11. Activation of Distinct P2Y Receptor Subtypes Stimulates Insulin Secretion in MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Wess, Jürgen; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and their receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in disorders such as inflammation, brain disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Pancreatic β cells express several purinergic receptors, and reported nucleotide effects on insulin secretion are contradictory. We studied the effect of P2Y receptors on insulin secretion and cell death in MIN6, mouse pancreatic β cells. Expression of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors was revealed by total mRNA analysis using RT-PCR. MIN6 cells were stimulated in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose with or without P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists, 2-MeSADP and Up3U, respectively. Both the agonists increased insulin secretion with EC50 values of 44.6±7.0 nM and 30.7±12.7 nM respectively. The insulin secretion by P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists was blocked by their selective antagonists MRS2179 and MRS2578, respectively. Binding of the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist radioligand [125I]MRS2500 in MIN6 cell membranes was saturable (KD 4.74±0.47 nM), and known P2Y1 ligands competed with high affinities. Inflammation and glucose toxicity leads to pancreatic β cell death in diabetes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Up3U but not 2-MeSADP protected MIN6 cells against TNF-α induced apoptosis. Overall, the results demonstrate that selective stimulation of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors increases insulin secretion that accompanies intracellular calcium release, suggesting potential application of P2Y receptor ligands in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20067775

  12. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  13. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  14. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0–2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5′ and 3′ UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  15. MinVar: A rapid and versatile tool for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michael; Metzner, Karin J; Geissberger, Fabienne D; Shah, Cyril; Leemann, Christine; Klimkait, Thomas; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Zagordi, Osvaldo

    2017-02-01

    Genotypic monitoring of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 infected individuals is strongly recommended to guide selection of the initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes of drug regimens. Traditionally, mutations conferring drug resistance are detected by population sequencing of the reverse transcribed viral RNA encoding the HIV-1 enzymes target by ART, followed by manual analysis and interpretation of Sanger sequencing traces. This process is labor intensive, relies on subjective interpretation from the operator, and offers limited sensitivity as only mutations above 20% frequency can be reliably detected. Here we present MinVar, a pipeline for the analysis of deep sequencing data, which allows reliable and automated detection of DRMs down to 5%. We evaluated MinVar with data from amplicon sequencing of defined mixtures of molecular virus clones with known DRM and plasma samples of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals and we compared it to VirVarSeq, another virus variant detection tool exclusively working on Illumina deep sequencing data. MinVar was designed to be compatible with a diverse range of sequencing platforms and allows the detection of DRMs and insertions/deletions from deep sequencing data without the need to perform additional bioinformatics analysis, a prerequisite to a widespread implementation of HIV-1 genotyping using deep sequencing in routine diagnostic settings.

  16. 30 min of treadmill walking at self-selected speed does not increase gait variability in independent elderly.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Kunzler, Marcos R; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-09-04

    Walking is one of the preferred exercises among elderly, but could a prolonged walking increase gait variability, a risk factor for a fall in the elderly? Here we determine whether 30 min of treadmill walking increases coefficient of variation of gait in elderly. Because gait responses to exercise depend on fitness level, we included 15 sedentary and 15 active elderly. Sedentary participants preferred a lower gait speed and made smaller steps than the actives. Step length coefficient of variation decreased ~16.9% by the end of the exercise in both the groups. Stride length coefficient of variation decreased ~9% after 10 minutes of walking, and sedentary elderly showed a slightly larger step width coefficient of variation (~2%) at 10 min than active elderly. Active elderly showed higher walk ratio (step length/cadence) than sedentary in all times of walking, but the times did not differ in both the groups. In conclusion, treadmill gait kinematics differ between sedentary and active elderly, but changes over time are similar in sedentary and active elderly. As a practical implication, 30 min of walking might be a good strategy of exercise for elderly, independently of the fitness level, because it did not increase variability in step and stride kinematics, which is considered a risk of fall in this population.

  17. Daikenchuto (TU-100) Suppresses Tumor Development in the Azoxymethane and APC(min/+) Mouse Models of Experimental Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takumu; Matsukawa, Jun; Ringus, Daina; Miyoshi, Jun; Hart, John; Kaneko, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Wang, Chong-Zi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W; Chang, Eugene B

    2017-01-01

    Chemopreventative properties of traditional medicines and underlying mechanisms of action are incompletely investigated. This study demonstrates that dietary daikenchuto (TU-100), comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper effectively suppresses intestinal tumor development and progression in the azoxymethane (AOM) and APC(min/+) mouse models. For the AOM model, TU-100 was provided after the first of six biweekly AOM injections. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks. APC(min/+) mice were fed diet without or with TU-100 starting at 6 weeks, and sacrificed at 24 weeks. In both models, dietary TU-100 decreased tumor size. In APC (min/+) mice, the number of small intestinal tumors was significantly decreased. In the AOM model, both TU-100 and Japanese ginseng decreased colon tumor numbers. Decreased Ki-67 and β-catenin immunostaining and activation of numerous transduction pathways involved in tumor initiation and progression were observed. EGF receptor expression and stimulation/phosphorylation in vitro were investigated in C2BBe1 cells. TU-100, ginger, and 6-gingerol suppressed EGF receptor induced Akt activation. TU-100 and ginseng and to a lesser extent ginger or 6-gingerol inhibited EGF ERK1/2 activation. TU-100 and some of its components and metabolites of these components inhibit tumor progression in two mouse models of colon cancer by blocking downstream pathways of EGF receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High dietary niacin may increase prostaglandin formation but does not increase tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Alan M.; Tippin, Brigette L.; Materi, Alicia M.; Buslon, Virgilio S.; French, Samuel W.; Lin, Henry J.

    2011-01-01

    High doses of niacin (nicotinic acid) used to treat dyslipidemias cause flushing, due to high levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). GPR109A, a G-protein coupled receptor, triggers the flushing in the skin. In addition to boosting PGD2, niacin binding to GPR109A activates the entire prostanoid cascade. We found that GPR109A occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Mice that alternated between a 1% niacin diet and a control diet had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite levels when on niacin (2.8-fold increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–3.9). PGE2 promotes tumors in the intestines, whereas PGD2 may have an opposite effect, on the basis of our report showing that transgenic hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase suppresses intestinal adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice. To determine if either tumor growth or tumor suppression prevails, we fed ApcMin/+ mice a 1% niacin diet and assessed tumor development. A 1% niacin diet did not affect the number of tumors scored histologically in ApcMin/+ mice at 14 weeks (33 mice on niacin, 33 controls). Although niacin stimulates production of various prostaglandins, our results support an interpretation that very high intakes of niacin are safe in relation to intestinal tumors in this model. PMID:21774590

  19. ZipA is required for targeting of DMinC/DicB, but not DMinC/MinD, complexes to septal ring assemblies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jay E; Lackner, Laura L; Hale, Cynthia A; de Boer, Piet A J

    2004-04-01

    The MinC division inhibitor is required for accurate placement of the septal ring at the middle of the Escherichia coli cell. The N-terminal domain of MinC ((Z)MinC) interferes with FtsZ assembly, while the C-terminal domain ((D)MinC) mediates both dimerization and complex formation with either MinD or DicB. Binding to either of these activators greatly enhances the division-inhibitory activity of MinC in the cell. The MinD ATPase plays a crucial role in the rapid pole-to-pole oscillation of MinC that is proposed to force FtsZ ring formation to midcell. DicB is encoded by one of the cryptic prophages on the E. coli chromosome (Qin) and is normally not synthesized. Binding of MinD or DicB to (D)MinC produces complexes that have high affinities for one or more septal ring-associated targets. Here we show that the FtsZ-binding protein ZipA is required for both recruitment of the (D)MinC/DicB complex to FtsZ rings and the DicB-inducible division block normally seen in MinC(+) cells. In contrast, none of the known FtsZ-associated factors, including ZipA, FtsA, and ZapA, appear to be specifically required for targeting of the (D)MinC/MinD complex to rings, implying that the two MinC/activator complexes must recognize distinct features of FtsZ assemblies. MinD-dependent targeting of MinC may occur in two steps of increasing topological specificity: (i) recruitment of MinC from the cytoplasm to the membrane, and (ii) specific targeting of the MinC/MinD complex to nascent septal ring assemblies on the membrane. Using membrane-tethered derivatives of MinC, we obtained evidence that both of these steps contribute to the efficiency of MinC/MinD-mediated division inhibition.

  20. Redistribution of cathepsin B activity from the endosomal-lysosomal pathway in chick intestine within 3 min of calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Nemere, I; Norman, A W

    1991-06-01

    Earlier work has suggested that calcium-containing lysosomes are involved in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-stimulated intestinal absorption of the divalent cation. In the present report immunofluorescent labelling studies on fixed frozen sections of chick intestine were undertaken to determine whether lysosomes could respond to calcium transport conditions in less than 5 min. Tissue prepared from vitamin D-deficient chicks dosed with vehicle or 1.3 nmol of 1,25(OH)2D3 15 h prior to use was immunofluorescently labelled for cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease. In the absence of calcium absorption, punctate staining was found in the region below the terminal web, and more diffusely in the cytoplasm. The intensity of staining was noticeably greater in sections from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated than control chicks. In sections prepared after 3 min of calcium absorption, cathepsin B staining was localized near the basal and lateral membranes of the epithelial cells. After 30 min of transport, the protease was found in the villus core regardless of vitamin D status; however, immunoreactivity within the epithelial cells of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chick intestine had returned to pretransport intensity, whereas that of controls had not. To further investigate the specificity of the cathepsin B antibody, the intracellular compartmentalization of the protease was determined by biochemical methods. Using dosing procedures and calcium transport times equivalent to those for the immunofluorescent studies mucosae were collected by scraping, homogenized, and subcellular fractions prepared by a combination of differential and Percoll gradient centrifugation. In the absence of calcium transport, cathepsin B-specific activity was enhanced in whole homogenates, endocytic vesicles, and a lysosomal fraction prepared from intestinal epithelium of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chicks, relative to vitamin D-deficient controls. After 3 min of calcium absorption, a profound (approximately 4-fold) decrease in

  1. Assessment of equivalence of adipose tissue treatment with a noncontact field RF system delivering 200 W for 30 min and 300 W for 20 min: An in vivo porcine study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kim, Jong Hwan; Joon, Seok; Mun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Beom Joon

    2017-03-31

    Abdominal circumferential reduction with noncontact high frequency apoptosis-inducing field RF (AiRF) is becoming very popular. The present study compared the treatment results from two different sets of parameters giving the same dose from the same system in an in vivo porcine model. Two 10 cm × 10 cm areas were symmetrically marked on both sides of the midline (total of 4 areas) over the rectus abdominis muscle of two anesthetized female micropigs. In Animal A (G1), 27.12 MHz AiRF treatment was given at 200 W for 30 min, and 300 W for 20 min in Animal B (G2). Four sessions were performed at weekly intervals. Gross observation by a veterinary specialist was performed on a daily basis. Temperature measurements (fat and skin), clinical photography and ultrasound imaging were carried out at each session. In addition, blood chemistry was performed before each session to check lipid levels, any adverse changes in markers for liver damage in addition to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for raised levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. Biopsies were taken and routinely processed for hematoxylin and eosin, Toluidine blue and oil red O stains to examine for tissue damage at baseline and after each treatment. TUNEL assays were performed to check of apoptotic-related DNA damage. Follow-up assessments included photography, ultrasound, ELISA tests and biopsies which were taken regularly up to 90 days after the final treatment. The maximum adipose tissue temperatures at and over the apoptotic threshold of 43°C were reached and maintained in both G1 and G2. The skin surface temperature was slightly higher in G2 after 20 min than in G1 after 30 min, but was still below 43°C. Gross and magnified observation revealed no appreciable differences or thermally-mediated damage between the skin of either of the two groups after the treatments or during the 90-day follow-up period. No lasting erythema or any other adverse event was seen in either group. The liver enzyme markers

  2. A safety evaluation of profound hypothermia-induced suspended animation for delayed resuscitation at 90 or 120 min.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Shu; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Han, Jin-Song; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Zong-Tao; Wang, Hui-Shan

    2017-01-01

    The successful treatment of military combat casualties with penetrating injuries is significantly dependent on the time needed to get the patient to an adequate treatment facility. Profound hypothermia-induced suspended animation for delayed resuscitation (SADR) is a novel approach for inducing cardiac arrest and buying additional time for such injuries. However, the time used to safely administer circulatory arrest (CA) is controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of hypothermia-induced SADR over 90 and 120 min time intervals. Sixteen male BAMA minipigs were randomized into two groups: CA90 group (90 min, n = 8) and CA120 group (120 min, n = 8). Cannulation of the right common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins was performed to establish cardiopulmonary bypass for each animal. Through the perfusion of cold organ preservation solution (OPS), cardioplegia and profound hypothermia (15 °C) were induced. After CA, cardiopumonary bypass (CPB) was restarted, and the animals were gradually re-warmed and resuscitated. The animals were assisted with ventilators until spontaneous breathing was achieved. The index of hemodynamic perioperative serum chemistry values [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (CR), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and troponin T (TnT)] and survival were observed from pre-operation to 7 days post-operation. Fifteen animals were enrolled in the experiment, while 1 animal in CA120 group died from surgical error. All 8 animals in CA90 group recovered, with only 1 animal displaying mild disability. However, in CA120 group, only 2 animals survived with severe disability, and the other 5 animals died after 2 days post-operation. In CA90 group, the perioperative serum chemistry values increased at 1 day post-operation (ALT 84.43 ± 18.65 U/L; AST 88.99 ± 23.19 U/L; Cr 87.90 ± 24.49 μmol/L; LDH 1894.13 ± 322.26 U/L; TnT 0.849 ± 0.135 ng/ml) but decreased to normal

  3. The CheMin Mineralogy Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory: Analysis of Clays and Sulfates at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; CheMin Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is to identify and characterize present or past habitable environments on Mars. Mineralogy is important in this regard because minerals are thermodynamic phases, stable under specific (and known) conditions of temperature, pressure and composition. By determining the mineralogical composition of a rock or soil, one can often deduce the conditions under which it formed or its subsequent diagenetic or metamorphic history. The CheMin instrument on MSL will return accurate mineral determinations and quantitative mineralogical information from scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. Individual analyses will require several hours over one or more Mars sols. For typical well-ordered minerals, CheMin will have a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, an accuracy of better than 15% and a precision of better than 10% of the amount present for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). The resolution of the diffraction patterns is 0.3° 2θ. This performance is sufficient to allow for the detection and quantification of virtually all minerals. Orbital imagery and analysis of reflectance spectra from Gale Crater reveal a wealth of mineralogical and morphological features suggestive of ancient habitable environments and water. CheMin is quite capable of discriminating and quantifying the clay and sulfate mineralogies expected within the landing ellipse and in the strata of the central mound, the primary target at Gale. Both polyhydrated and monohydrated (kieserite) sulfate minerals are distributed in mappable strata at Gale. Virtually all hydrated and nonhydrated sulfates are uniquely identifiable and quantifiable with CheMin. Breadboard and commercial equivalents of the CheMin instrument have already been used extensively in evaporite field localities ranging from Death Valley to Antarctica and Spitsbergen; at all

  4. Short Blue Light Pulses (30 Min) in the Morning Support a Sleep-Advancing Protocol in a Home Setting.

    PubMed

    Geerdink, Moniek; Walbeek, Thijs J; Beersma, Domien G M; Hommes, Vanja; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2016-10-01

    Many people in our modern civilized society sleep later on free days compared to work days. This discrepancy in sleep timing will lead to so-called 'social jetlag' on work days with negative consequences for performance and health. Light therapy in the morning is often proposed as the most effective method to advance the circadian rhythm and sleep phase. However, most studies focus on direct effects on the circadian system and not on posttreatment effects on sleep phase and sleep integrity. In this placebo-controlled home study we investigated if blue light, rather than amber light therapy, can phase shift the sleep phase along with the circadian rhythm with preservation of sleep integrity and performance. We selected 42 participants who suffered from 'social jetlag' on workdays. Participants were randomly assigned to either high-intensity blue light exposure or amber light exposure (placebo) with similar photopic illuminance. The protocol consisted of 14 baseline days without sleep restrictions, 9 treatment days with either 30-min blue light pulses or 30-min amber light pulses in the morning along with a sleep advancing scheme and 7 posttreatment days without sleep restrictions. Melatonin samples were taken at days 1, 7, 14 (baseline), day 23 (effect treatment), and day 30 (posttreatment). Light exposure was recorded continuously. Sleep was monitored through actigraphy. Performance was measured with a reaction time task. As expected, the phase advance of the melatonin rhythm from day 14 to day 23 was significantly larger in the blue light exposure group, compared to the amber light group (84 min ± 51 (SD) and 48 min ± 47 (SD) respectively; t36 = 2.23, p < 0.05). Wake-up time during the posttreatment days was slightly earlier compared to baseline in the blue light group compared to slightly later in the amber light group (-21 min ± 33 (SD) and +12 min ± 33 (SD) respectively; F1,35 = 9.20, p < 0.01). The number of sleep bouts was significantly

  5. Using daily 30-min phase advances to achieve a 6-hour advance: circadian rhythm, sleep, and alertness.

    PubMed

    Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J; Billy, Bart D

    2006-07-01

    A ground-based study was undertaken to determine whether circadian and sleep dysfunction could be avoided by "trickling in" a 6-h phase advance in sleep/wake schedule by 12 consecutive 30-min phase advances as per NASA's Appendix K. We simulated a 16-d (384 h) mission for each of 10 subjects. Temporal cues and light levels approximated those experienced in space. All sleep periods were exactly 8 h. Before the study, for 14 d, subjects were required to live on a schedule with a 23:00 bedtime and 07:00 wake time. Laboratory sessions then started with a 4-d baseline segment on that schedule. The fourth night and the day following it were then taken as baseline. Repeated 30-min phase advances in bedtime were then required on each of the next 12 successive nights, resulting in an eventual movement of bedtimes to a 6-h phase-advanced position (bedtime: 17:00, wake time: 01:00). Polysomnographic sleep, circadian rhythms in urinary free cortisol, urinary volume (every void), and core body temperature (once per minute), and ratings of performance, mood, and alertness (five per day) were measured. While circadian dysfunction was largely avoided by trickling in the phase shift, there remained slight differences in phase between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the imposed routine which disrupted sleep and daytime alertness. Though statistically significant, the disruption was less than we observed from repeated 2-h phase delays reported in a 2004 ASEM paper. Evidence would thus seem to favor repeated 30-min phase advances over repeated 2-h phase delays.

  6. Safety and efficacy of total dose infusion of 1,020 mg of ferumoxytol administered over 15 min.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Michael; Strauss, William; Auerbach, Sarah; Rineer, Stella; Bahrain, Huzefa

    2013-11-01

    For the majority of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), a full course of intravenous (IV) iron is 1 g. Most IV irons require 5-10 administrations of 100-300 mg. We have successfully employed 1 g low molecular weight iron dextran over 1 hr. For further convenience for patients and physicians, we explored the administration of 1.02 g of ferumoxytol over 15 min instead of the approved 2 × 510 mg injections. Sixty patients with IDA, (hemoglobin <11 g/dL, transferrin saturation [TSAT] ≤20%, and ferritin <100 ng/mL) with an inadequate response or intolerance to oral iron, received 1020 mg ferumoxytol over 15 min. Vital signs were measured for 1 hr. Adverse events (AEs) were collected via telephone at 1, 2, and 7 days. Follow-up visits occurred at 4 and 8 weeks for efficacy assessments. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. Secondary efficacy endpoints included mean change in hemoglobin, TSAT, and red cell distribution width. No serious adverse events (SAEs) occurred. Fifty-eight patients received the planned dose. Twenty-six out of sixty (43.3%) patients reported AEs of which 13 were mild and transient during infusion. All resolved within minutes. Fourteen patients reported self-limited arthralgias, myalgias, and/or headache within 24-48 hr. At Baseline, the mean hemoglobin was 9.4 g/dL. The mean increments at Week 4 and 8 were 2.1 and 2.6 g/dL, respectively. Ferumoxytol, administered as 1.02 g infusion over 15 min was well tolerated with no SAEs and demonstrated excellent efficacy. If corroborated in future studies this represents an improved method of treating IDA.

  7. Impacts of hydrologic variations on chemical weathering and solute sources in the Min River basin, Himalayan-Tibetan region.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Li, Si-Liang; Tao, Faxiang; Ding, Hu; Liu, Jing

    2017-06-28

    Feedback between hydrologic variations and chemical weathering is thought to play a crucial role in modulating global carbon cycling. The mechanisms associated with the impacts of hydrologic variations on solute sources and chemical weathering were evaluated by examining the relationships between river discharge and hydrochemistry based on high-frequency sampling of the Min River, which originates in the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Fluid transit times and flow pathways vary with changes in discharge, thereby affecting various biogeochemical processes. Although shorter transit times occur during the high-flow season than during the low-flow season, concentrations of chemical weathering products exhibit chemostatic behaviour (less variation than changes in discharge) in response to increasing discharge due to hydrologic flushing of minerals, which increases the amount of reactive mineral surface area. The contributions of various sources to dissolved loads in the Min River were estimated using a forward model. The calculated annual carbonate and silicate weathering fluxes are 24.1 and 9.6 t/km(2) year, respectively. Atmospheric contributions increase with increasing discharge, whereas the contributions of silicate weathering decrease with increasing discharge. Both the carbonate weathering flux (FCarb) and silicate weathering flux (FSil) are positively correlated with the discharge, indicating that temporal variations in chemical weathering fluxes in the Min River are highly affected by hydrologic variations. The slope of the relationship between FCarb and discharge is much greater than that between FSil and discharge due to the rapid dissolution of carbonate minerals, suggesting that carbonate weathering is more sensitive than silicate weathering to hydrologic variations. This study demonstrates that high-frequency sampling is necessary when investigating solute sources and chemical weathering processes in river basins influenced by a monsoon climate.

  8. Detecting Nanophase Weathering Products with CheMin: Reference Intensity Ratios of Allophane, Aluminosilicate Gel, and Ferrihydrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Ming, D W.; Blake, D. F.; Anderson, R. C.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, A.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Stolper, E. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) data collected of the Rocknest samples by the CheMin instrument on Mars Science Laboratory suggest the presence of poorly crystalline or amorphous materials [1], such as nanophase weathering products or volcanic and impact glasses. The identification of the type(s) of X-ray amorphous material at Rocknest is important because it can elucidate past aqueous weathering processes. The presence of volcanic and impact glasses would indicate that little chemical weathering has occurred because glass is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration. The presence of nanophase weathering products, such as allophane, nanophase iron-oxides, and/or palagonite, would indicate incipient chemical weathering. Furthermore, the types of weathering products present could help constrain pH conditions and identify which primary phases altered to form the weathering products. Quantitative analysis of phases from CheMin data is achieved through Reference Intensity Ratios (RIRs) and Rietveld refinement. The RIR of a mineral (or mineraloid) that relates the scattering power of that mineral (typically the most intense diffraction line) to the scattering power of a separate mineral standard such as corundum [2]. RIRs can be calculated from XRD patterns measured in the laboratory by mixing a mineral with a standard in known abundances and comparing diffraction line intensities of the mineral to the standard. X-ray amorphous phases (e.g., nanophase weathering products) have broad scattering signatures rather than sharp diffraction lines. Thus, RIRs of X-ray amorphous materials are calculated by comparing the area under one of these broad scattering signals with the area under a diffraction line in the standard. Here, we measured XRD patterns of nanophase weathering products (allophane, aluminosilicate gel, and ferrihydrite) mixed with a mineral standard (beryl) in the CheMinIV laboratory instrument and calculated their RIRs to help constrain the abundances of these phases in

  9. de novo assembly and population genomic survey of natural yeast isolates with the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer.

    PubMed

    Istace, Benjamin; Friedrich, Anne; d'Agata, Léo; Faye, Sébastien; Payen, Emilie; Beluche, Odette; Caradec, Claudia; Davidas, Sabrina; Cruaud, Corinne; Liti, Gianni; Lemainque, Arnaud; Engelen, Stefan; Wincker, Patrick; Schacherer, Joseph; Aury, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    Oxford Nanopore Technologies Ltd (Oxford, UK) have recently commercialized MinION, a small single-molecule nanopore sequencer, that offers the possibility of sequencing long DNA fragments from small genomes in a matter of seconds. The Oxford Nanopore technology is truly disruptive; it has the potential to revolutionize genomic applications due to its portability, low cost, and ease of use compared with existing long reads sequencing technologies. The MinION sequencer enables the rapid sequencing of small eukaryotic genomes, such as the yeast genome. Combined with existing assembler algorithms, near complete genome assemblies can be generated and comprehensive population genomic analyses can be performed. Here, we resequenced the genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C strain to evaluate the performance of nanopore-only assemblers. Then we de novo sequenced and assembled the genomes of 21 isolates representative of the S. cerevisiae genetic diversity using the MinION platform. The contiguity of our assemblies was 14 times higher than the Illumina-only assemblies and we obtained one or two long contigs for 65 % of the chromosomes. This high contiguity allowed us to accurately detect large structural variations across the 21 studied genomes. Because of the high completeness of the nanopore assemblies, we were able to produce a complete cartography of transposable elements insertions and inspect structural variants that are generally missed using a short-read sequencing strategy. Our analyses show that the Oxford Nanopore technology is already usable for de novo sequencing and assembly; however, non-random errors in homopolymers require polishing the consensus using an alternate sequencing technology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Brandon N.; Enos, Reilly T.; Murphy, E. Angela; Carson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6. PMID:27449092

  11. Mechanistic study of the anti-cancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tai, William Chi-Shing; Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Lu, Cheng; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins (GpS) have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we used the Apc(Min) (/+) colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of GpS and we demonstrated that GpS treatment could significantly reduce the number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice. In order to identify the potential targets and mechanisms involved, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed and 40 differentially expressed proteins after GpS treatment were identified. Bioinformatics analyses suggested a majority of these proteins were involved in processes related to cellular redox homeostasis, and predicted Raf-1 as a potential target of GpS. The upregulation of two proteins known to be involved in redox homeostasis, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1) and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx2), and the downregulation of Raf-1 were validated using Western blot analysis. After further investigation of the associated signaling networks, we postulated that the anti-cancer effect of GpS was mediated through the upregulation of Prdx1 and Prdx2, suppression of Ras, RAF/MEK/ERK/STAT, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and modulation of JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. We also examined the potential combinatorial effect of GpS with the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and found that GpS could enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-FU, further suppressing the number of polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Our findings highlight the potential of GpS as an anti-cancer agent, the potential mechanisms of its anti-cancer activities, and its effect as an adjuvant of 5-FU in the chemotherapy of CRC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Evidence for Divisome Localization Mechanisms Independent of the Min System and SlmA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew W.; Bisicchia, Paola; Warren, Boyd T.; Sherratt, David J.; Männik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Cell division in Escherichia coli starts with assembly of FtsZ protofilaments into a ring-like structure, the Z-ring. Positioning of the Z-ring at midcell is thought to be coordinated by two regulatory systems, nucleoid occlusion and the Min system. In E. coli, nucleoid occlusion is mediated by the SlmA proteins. Here, we address the question of whether there are additional positioning systems that are capable of localizing the E. coli divisome with respect to the cell center. Using quantitative fluorescence imaging we show that slow growing cells lacking functional Min and SlmA nucleoid occlusion systems continue to divide preferentially at midcell. We find that the initial Z-ring assembly occurs over the center of the nucleoid instead of nucleoid-free regions under these conditions. We determine that Z-ring formation begins shortly after the arrival of the Ter macrodomain at the nucleoid center. Removal of either the MatP, ZapB, or ZapA proteins significantly affects the accuracy and precision of Z-ring positioning relative to the nucleoid center in these cells in accordance with the idea that these proteins link the Ter macrodomain and the Z-ring. Interestingly, even in the absence of Min, SlmA, and the putative Ter macrodomain – Z-ring link, there remains a weak midcell positioning bias for the Z-ring. Our work demonstrates that additional Z-ring localization systems are present in E. coli than are known currently. In particular, we identify that the Ter macrodomain acts as a landmark for the Z-ring in the presence of MatP, ZapB and ZapA proteins. PMID:25101671

  13. The relationship of a 6-min walk to VO(2 peak) and VT in older heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Martín, Sara; Brubaker, Peter H; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Moore, J Brian; Stewart, Kathryn P; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between a 6-min walk test (6-MWT) to peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)) and ventilatory threshold (VT) in older heart failure (HF) patients, to validate the equation by Cahalin et al., and to develop a new equation to improve the prediction of VO(2 peak) from 6-MWT. Older patients (>65 yr) with systolic or diastolic HF (N=97) performed an exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental protocol. Gas exchange measures were collected along with continuous electrocardiograph monitoring. 6-MWT was performed on an indoor track at a self-selected pace under standardized conditions. The formula of Cahalin et al. was used to predict VO(2 peak) from 6-MWT, and a new equation was generated from the measured VO(2 peak)-6-MWT relationship from this investigation. The correlation between 6-MWT and measured VO(2 peak) was moderate (r=0.54) with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 2.48 mL.kg.min. The correlation between 6-MWT and VT was weak (r=0.23), whereas the correlation between VO(2 peak) and VT was strong (r=0.74). Correlations between the measured and predicted VO(2 peak) values were moderate (r=0.54) for both prediction equations, and the SEE was 2.83 versus 1.34 mL.kg.min for the Cahalin et al. and the new equation, respectively. These results indicate that 6-MWT does not accurately predict functional capacity in older HF patients, and questions the validity of using this test to determine functional capacity in older HF patients. Predicting VO(2 peak) from equations using 6-MWT also results in substantial variability and, consequently, should not be used in older HF patients where an accurate determination of functional capacity is essential.

  14. The 3-min test does not provide a valid measure of critical power using the SRM isokinetic mode.

    PubMed

    Karsten, B; Jobson, S A; Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Beedie, C

    2014-04-01

    Recent datas suggest that the mean power over the final 30 s of a 3-min all-out test is equivalent to Critical Power (CP) using the linear ergometer mode. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether this is also true using an "isokinetic mode". 13 cyclists performed: 1) a ramp test; 2) three 3-min all-out trials to establish End Power (EP) and work done above EP (WEP); and 3) 3 constant work rate trials to determine CP and the work done above CP (W') using the work-time (=CP1/W'1) and 1/time (=CP2/W'2) models. Coefficient of variation in EP was 4.45% between trials 1 and 2, and 4.29% between trials 2 and 3. Limits of Agreement for trials 1-2 and trials 2-3 were -2±38 W. Significant differences were observed between EP and CP1 (+37 W, P<0.001), between WEP and W'1(-6.2 kJ, P=0.001), between EP and CP2 (+31 W, P<0.001) and between WEP and W'2 (-4.2 kJ, P=0.006). Average SEE values for EP-CP1 and EP-CP2 of 7.1% and 6.6% respectively were identified. Data suggest that using an isokinetic mode 3-min all-out test, while yielding a reliable measure of EP, does not provide a valid measure of CP.

  15. The Role of NAG-1/GDF15 in the Inhibition of Intestinal Polyps in APC/Min Mice by Sulindac

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingya; Kingsley, Philip J.; Marnett, Larry J.; Eling, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are assumed to be due to the inhibition of COX activity, but COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) is induced by NSAIDs and has antitumorigenic activities. To determine the contribution of COX-2 inhibition and NAG-1/GDF15 expression to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis by NSAIDs, we evaluated several sulindac derivatives [des-methyl (DM)-sulindac sulfide and its prodrug DM-sulindac] that do not inhibit COX-2 activity. Sulindac sulfide and DM-sulindac induced the expression of NAG-1/GDF15 in HCT116 cells as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We fed APC/Min mice with 320 ppm of sulindac and doses of DM-sulindac. Only sulindac significantly inhibited tumor formation in APC/Min mice. To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of sulindac and DM-sulindac in vivo, wild-type C57/B6 mice were fed with sulindac and DM-sulindac at 80, 160, and 320 ppm. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the conversion of DM-sulindac to DM-sulindac sulfide (active form) was less efficient than the conversion of sulindac to sulindac sulfide (active form) in the mice. Lower levels of DM-sulindac sulfide accumulated in intestinal and colon tissues in comparison with sulindac sulfide. In addition, NAG-1/GDF15 was induced in the liver of sulindac-fed mice but not in the DM-sulindac–fed mice. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor-inhibitory effects of sulindac in APC/Min mice may be due to, in part, NAG-1/GDF15 induction in the liver. Our study also suggests that pharmacologic properties should be carefully evaluated when developing drug candidates. PMID:21205743

  16. The role of NAG-1/GDF15 in the inhibition of intestinal polyps in APC/Min mice by sulindac.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingya; Kingsley, Philip J; Marnett, Larry J; Eling, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are assumed to be due to the inhibition of COX activity, but COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) is induced by NSAIDs and has antitumorigenic activities. To determine the contribution of COX-2 inhibition and NAG-1/GDF15 expression to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis by NSAIDs, we evaluated several sulindac derivatives [des-methyl (DM)-sulindac sulfide and its prodrug DM-sulindac] that do not inhibit COX-2 activity. Sulindac sulfide and DM-sulindac induced the expression of NAG-1/GDF15 in HCT116 cells as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We fed APC/Min mice with 320 ppm of sulindac and doses of DM-sulindac. Only sulindac significantly inhibited tumor formation inAPC/Min mice. To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of sulindac and DM-sulindac in vivo, wild-type C57/B6 mice were fed with sulindac and DM-sulindac at 80, 160, and 320 ppm. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the conversion of DM-sulindac to DM-sulindac sulfide (active form) was less efficient than the conversion of sulindac to sulindac sulfide (active form) in the mice. Lower levels of DM-sulindac sulfide accumulated in intestinal and colon tissues in comparison with sulindac sulfide. In addition, NAG-1/GDF15 was induced in the liver of sulindac-fed mice but not in the DM-sulindac-fed mice. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor-inhibitory effects of sulindac in APC/Min mice may be due to, in part, NAG-1/GDF15 induction in the liver. Our study also suggests that pharmacologic properties should be carefully evaluated when developing drug candidates. ©2011 AACR.

  17. Isolation, characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a novel temperate bacteriophage Min1, isolated from the nematode pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum.

    PubMed

    Akimkina, Tatiana; Venien-Bryan, Catherine; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    We report the discovery, properties and complete sequence (46,365bp) of Min1, the first bacteriophage to be reported for the coryneform genus Microbacterium. This temperate phage is normally integrated into a stable plasmid, pMN1, found in cells of Microbacterium nematophilum, a pathogen of certain soil nematodes including Caenorhabditis elegans, but it can also grow lytically. The phage is lambdoid in morphology and in sequence, belonging to the family Siphoviridae. General and specific features of the genome are discussed, together with possible contributions of the phage to host virulence.

  18. The Agaricus blazei-Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™, Protects against Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Dag M.; Tangen, Jon M.; Haugen, Mads H.; Mirlashari, Mohammad R.; Paulsen, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The novel A/J Min/+ mouse, which is a model for human Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), develops spontaneously multiple adenocarcinomas in the colon as well as in the small intestine. Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is an edible Basidiomycetes mushroom that has been used in traditional medicine against cancer and other diseases. The mushroom contains immunomodulating β-glucans and is shown to have antitumor effects in murine cancer models. Andosan™ is a water extract based on AbM (82%), but it also contains the medicinal Basidiomycetes mushrooms Hericeum erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. Methods and findings Tap water with 10% Andosan™ was provided as the only drinking water for 15 or 22 weeks to A/J Min/+ mice and A/J wild-type mice (one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) difference), which then were exsanguinated and their intestines preserved in formaldehyde and the serum frozen. The intestines were examined blindly by microscopy and also stained for the tumor-associated protease, legumain. Serum cytokines (pro- and anti-inflammatory, Th1-, Th2 -and Th17 type) were measured by Luminex multiplex analysis. Andosan™ treated A/J Min/+ mice had a significantly lower number of adenocarcinomas in the intestines, as well as a 60% significantly reduced intestinal tumor load (number of tumors x size) compared to control. There was also reduced legumain expression in intestines from Andosan™ treated animals. Moreover, Andosan™ had a significant cytotoxic effect correlating with apoptosis on the human cancer colon cell line, Caco-2, in vitro. When examining serum from both A/J Min/+ and wild type mice, there was a significant increase in anti-tumor Th1 type and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the Andosan™ treated mice. Conclusions The results from this mouse model for colorectal cancer shows significant protection of orally administered Andosan™ against development of intestinal cancer. This is supported by the finding of less legumain in intestines

  19. Cloud top structure of a tornadic thunderstorm from 3 min interval stereo satellite images compared with radar and other observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Adler, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cloud heights from 3 min interval GOES EAST/GOES WEST stereo pairs are shown to provide an important new tool for studying severe convective storms with potential for the detection of severe local storms. It is possible to use these data for observing cloud top structure as a function of time on a size scale of few kilometers with quantitative height measurements with relative and absolute accuracies on the order of + or - 0.5 km. It is noted that stereo height measurements detect cirrus anvil cloud decks at two altitudes corresponding to a lower stable layer and the main tropopause.

  20. Test-retest reliability of a 3-min isokinetic all-out test using two different cadences.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Greco, Camila Coelho; Dekerle, Jeanne; Caritá, Renato Aparecido Corrêa; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of mechanical parameters derived from a 3-min isokinetic all-out test, performed at 60 and 100 rpm. Reliability and validity of the peak oxygen uptake derived from 3-min isokinetic all-out test were also tested. 14 healthy male subjects completed an incremental ramp testing and four randomized 3-min isokinetic all-out test (two at 60 rpm and two at 100 rpm). The absolute and relative reliability of the following parameters were analyzed: peak power, mean power, end power, fatigue index, work performed above end power and peak oxygen uptake. No difference was found between each two sets of data, although there were between-cadence differences for peak power, mean power, end power, and fatigue index. Higher intra-class correlation (ICC) and lower coefficient of variation (CV) were found for end power (ICC = 0.91 and 0.95; CV = 5.6 and 5.7%) and mean power (ICC = 0.97 and 0.98; CV = 2.4 and 3.1%), than for peak power (ICC = 0.81 and 0.84; CV = 8.7 and 10%) and work performed above end power (ICC = 0.79 and 0.84; CV = 7.9 and 10.6%; values reported for 60 rpm and 100 rpm, respectively). High reliability scores were also observed for peak oxygen uptake at both cadences (60 rpm, CV = 3.2%; 100 rpm, CV = 2.3%,) with no difference with the incremental ramp testing peak oxygen uptake. The power profile and peak oxygen uptake of a 3-min isokinetic all-out test are both highly reliable, whether the test is performed at 60 or 100 rpm. Besides, peak oxygen uptake and work performed above end power were not affected by the change in cadence while peak power, mean power, end power, and fatigue index were. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint min-max distribution and Edwards-Anderson's order parameter of the circular 1/f-noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the joint min-max distribution and the Edwards-Anderson's order parameter for the circular model of 1/f-noise. Both quantities, as well as generalisations, are obtained exactly by combining the freezing-duality conjecture and Jack-polynomial techniques. Numerical checks come with significantly improved control of finite-size effects in the glassy phase, and the results convincingly validate the freezing-duality conjecture. Application to diffusive dynamics is discussed. We also provide a formula for the pre-factor ratio of the joint/marginal Carpentier-Le Doussal tail for minimum/maximum which applies to any logarithmic random energy model.

  2. Syntheses, structures, and optical properties of Ba{sub 4}MInSe{sub 6} (M=Cu, Ag)

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Wenlong; Feng Kai; Hao Wenyu; Yao Jiyong; Wu Yicheng

    2012-08-15

    Two new quaternary chalcogenides, namely Ba{sub 4}MInSe{sub 6} (M=Cu, Ag), were synthesized by solid state reactions. These two isostructural compounds adopt the Ba{sub 2}MnS{sub 3} structure type in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the M and In atoms randomly occupy one crystallographic unique metal position with the molar ratio of 1:1 The (M/In)Se{sub 4} tetrahedra are connected to each other by corner-sharing to form one-dimensional chains along the b direction, which are separated by mono-capped trigonal prismatically coordinated Ba atoms. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectrum, the optical band gaps were determined to be 2.23(2) and 2.41(2) eV for Ba{sub 4}CuInSe{sub 6} and Ba{sub 4}AgInSe{sub 6}, respectively. - Graphical abstract: In the structure of Ba{sub 4}MInSe{sub 6} (M=Cu, Ag), the (M/In)Se{sub 4} tetrahedra are connected by corner-sharing to form chains along the b direction, which are separated by Ba atoms. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two new quaternary chalcogenides, Ba{sub 4}MInSe{sub 6} (M=Cu, Ag), were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 4}MInSe{sub 6} (M=Cu, Ag) are isostructural and crystallize in the Ba{sub 2}MnS{sub 3} structure type Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The (M/In)Se{sub 4} tetrahedra are connected by corner-sharing to form chains along the b direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chains are separated by mono-capped trigonal prismatically coordinated Ba atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical band gaps are 2.23(2) and 2.41(2) eV for Ba{sub 4}CuInSe{sub 6} and Ba{sub 4}AgInSe{sub 6}, respectively.

  3. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Parker, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  4. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 2 data release and analysis of R9.0 chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Miten; Tyson, John R; Loose, Matthew; Ip, Camilla L C; Eccles, David A; O'Grady, Justin; Malla, Sunir; Leggett, Richard M; Wallerman, Ola; Jansen, Hans J; Zalunin, Vadim; Birney, Ewan; Brown, Bonnie L; Snutch, Terrance P; Olsen, Hugh E

    2017-01-01

    Long-read sequencing is rapidly evolving and reshaping the suite of opportunities for genomic analysis. For the MinION in particular, as both the platform and chemistry develop, the user community requires reference data to set performance expectations and maximally exploit third-generation sequencing. We performed an analysis of MinION data derived from whole genome sequencing of Escherichiacoli K-12 using the R9.0 chemistry, comparing the results with the older R7.3 chemistry. We computed the error-rate estimates for insertions, deletions, and mismatches in MinION reads. Run-time characteristics of the flow cell and run scripts for R9.0 were similar to those observed for R7.3 chemistry, but with an 8-fold increase in bases per second (from 30 bps in R7.3 and SQK-MAP005 library preparation, to 250 bps in R9.0) processed by individual nanopores, and less drop-off in yield over time. The 2-dimensional ("2D") N50 read length was unchanged from the prior chemistry. Using the proportion of alignable reads as a measure of base-call accuracy, 99.9% of "pass" template reads from 1-dimensional ("1D")  experiments were mappable and ~97% from 2D experiments. The median identity of reads was ~89% for 1D and ~94% for 2D experiments. The total error rate (miscall + insertion + deletion ) decreased for 2D "pass" reads from 9.1% in R7.3 to 7.5% in R9.0 and for template "pass" reads from 26.7% in R7.3 to 14.5% in R9.0. These Phase 2 MinION experiments serve as a baseline by providing estimates for read quality, throughput, and mappability. The datasets further enable the development of bioinformatic tools tailored to the new R9.0 chemistry and the design of novel biological applications for this technology. K: thousand, Kb: kilobase (one thousand base pairs), M: million, Mb: megabase (one million base pairs), Gb: gigabase (one billion base pairs).

  5. Influence of Forecast Accuracy of Photovoltaic Power Output on Capacity Optimization of Microgrid Composition under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Akihito; Kato, Takeyoshi; Shimakage, Toyonari; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A microgrid (MG) is one of the measures for enhancing the high penetration of renewable energy (RE)-based distributed generators (DGs). If a number of MGs are controlled to maintain the predetermined electricity demand including RE-based DGs as negative demand, they would contribute to supply-demand balancing of whole electric power system. For constructing a MG economically, the capacity optimization of controllable DGs against RE-based DGs is essential. By using a numerical simulation model developed based on a demonstrative study on a MG using PAFC and NaS battery as controllable DGs and photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) as a RE-based DG, this study discusses the influence of forecast accuracy of PVS output on the capacity optimization. Three forecast cases with different accuracy are compared. The main results are as follows. Even with no forecast error during every 30 min. as the ideal forecast method, the required capacity of NaS battery reaches about 40% of PVS capacity for mitigating the instantaneous forecast error within 30 min. The required capacity to compensate for the forecast error is doubled with the actual forecast method. The influence of forecast error can be reduced by adjusting the scheduled power output of controllable DGs according to the weather forecast. Besides, the required capacity can be reduced significantly if the error of balancing control in a MG is acceptable for a few percentages of periods, because the total periods of large forecast error is not so often.

  6. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. The Max-Min High-Order Dynamic Bayesian Network for Learning Gene Regulatory Networks with Time-Delayed Regulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifeng; Chen, Haifen; Zheng, Jie; Ngom, Alioune

    2016-01-01

    Accurately reconstructing gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data is a challenging task in systems biology. Although some progresses have been made, the performance of GRN reconstruction still has much room for improvement. Because many regulatory events are asynchronous, learning gene interactions with multiple time delays is an effective way to improve the accuracy of GRN reconstruction. Here, we propose a new approach, called Max-Min high-order dynamic Bayesian network (MMHO-DBN) by extending the Max-Min hill-climbing Bayesian network technique originally devised for learning a Bayesian network's structure from static data. Our MMHO-DBN can explicitly model the time lags between regulators and targets in an efficient manner. It first uses constraint-based ideas to limit the space of potential structures, and then applies search-and-score ideas to search for an optimal HO-DBN structure. The performance of MMHO-DBN to GRN reconstruction was evaluated using both synthetic and real gene expression time-series data. Results show that MMHO-DBN is more accurate than current time-delayed GRN learning methods, and has an intermediate computing performance. Furthermore, it is able to learn long time-delayed relationships between genes. We applied sensitivity analysis on our model to study the performance variation along different parameter settings. The result provides hints on the setting of parameters of MMHO-DBN.

  8. Searching for discrimination rules in protease proteolytic cleavage activity using genetic programming with a min-max scoring function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Thomson, Rebecca; Hodgman, T Charles; Dry, Jonathan; Doyle, Austin K; Narayanan, Ajit; Wu, XiKun

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which is able to extract discriminant rules from oligopeptides for protease proteolytic cleavage activity prediction. The algorithm is developed using genetic programming. Three important components in the algorithm are a min-max scoring function, the reverse Polish notation (RPN) and the use of minimum description length. The min-max scoring function is developed using amino acid similarity matrices for measuring the similarity between an oligopeptide and a rule, which is a complex algebraic equation of amino acids rather than a simple pattern sequence. The Fisher ratio is then calculated on the scoring values using the class label associated with the oligopeptides. The discriminant ability of each rule can therefore be evaluated. The use of RPN makes the evolutionary operations simpler and therefore reduces the computational cost. To prevent overfitting, the concept of minimum description length is used to penalize over-complicated rules. A fitness function is therefore composed of the Fisher ratio and the use of minimum description length for an efficient evolutionary process. In the application to four protease datasets (Trypsin, Factor Xa, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV protease cleavage site prediction), our algorithm is superior to C5, a conventional method for deriving decision trees.

  9. Validity and reliability of the 3-min all-out running test to measure critical velocity in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Wong, Del P

    2017-01-01

    This study's aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min all-out running test (3MRT) in hot environments. Twelve male sprinters (age 21.2 ± 1.8 years; height 1.78 ± 0.01 m; weight 71.0 ± 1.6 kg; [Formula: see text] 55.0 ± 1.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed an incremental exercise test in a laboratory, during which the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and [Formula: see text] were determined. In addition, they performed two 3MRTs on an outdoor track in a hot environment, during which the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic capacity (D') were estimated. Significant reproducibility was found in CV and D' (ICC = 0.74 and 0.61, P < 0.05). The average CV in 3MRTs (3.09 ± 0.13 m s(-1)) correlated significantly with VT1 (3.13 ± 0.07 m s(-1), P < 0.05). The 3MRT is a reliable tool for measuring CV and D', while CV from 3MRT in a hot environment was identical to VT1.

  10. Identification of vancomycin interaction with Enterococcus faecalis within 30 min of interaction time using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Cora; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Hey, Jessica; Kostudis, Sophia; Pfister, Wolfgang; Schlattmann, Peter; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Vancomycin is an important glycopeptide antibiotic which is used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. However, during the last years, a tremendous rise in vancomycin resistances, especially among Enterococci, was reported, making fast diagnostic methods inevitable. In this contribution, we apply Raman spectroscopy to systematically characterize vancomycin-enterococci interactions over a time span of 90 min using a sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strain and two different vancomycin concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Successful action of the drug on the pathogen could be observed already after 30 min of interaction time. Characteristic spectral changes are visualized with the help of multivariate statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions). Those changes were employed to train a statistical model to predict vancomycin treatment based on the Raman spectra. The robustness of the model was tested using data recorded by an independent operator. Classification accuracies of >90 % were obtained for vancomycin concentrations in the lower range of a typical trough serum concentration recommended for most patients during appropriate vancomycin therapy. Characterization of drug-pathogen interactions by means of label-free spectroscopic methods, such as Raman spectroscopy, can provide the knowledge base for innovative and fast susceptibility tests which could speed up microbiological analysis as well as finding applications in novel antibiotic screenings assays. Graphical Abstract E. faecalis is incubated with vancomycin and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy after different time points. Characteristic spectral changes reveal efficient vancomycin-enterococci-interaction.

  11. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber inhibits intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to cell cycle and immune response.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Lizárraga, Daneida; Miranda, Anibal; Vinardell, Maria P; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Torres, Josep L; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Capellà, Gabriel; Cascante, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that fiber and phenolic compounds might have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Accordingly, we assessed the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin (PA)-rich dietary fiber [grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF)] on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Mice were fed a standard diet (control group) or a 1% (w/w) GADF-supplemented diet (GADF group) for 6 weeks. GADF supplementation greatly reduced intestinal tumorigenesis, significantly decreasing the total number of polyps by 76%. Moreover, size distribution analysis showed a considerable reduction in all polyp size categories [diameter <1mm (65%), 1-2mm (67%) and >2mm (87%)]. In terms of polyp formation in the proximal, middle and distal portions of the small intestine, a decrease of 76, 81 and 73% was observed, respectively. Putative molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis were investigated by comparison of microarray expression profiles of GADF-treated and non-treated mice. We observed that the effects of GADF are mainly associated with the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of genes related to the immune response and inflammation. Our findings show for the first time the efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of GADF against intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting its potential for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  12. Un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée dans le sud de la France

    PubMed Central

    Pocholle, E.; Reyes-Gomez, E.; Giacomo, A.; Delaunay, P.; Hasseine, L.; Marty, P.

    2012-01-01

    Cet article rapporte un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée chez un chat (Felis catus) de 14 ans, séropositif pour le FIV et vivant dans les Alpes-Maritimes (sud de la France). Le chat présente des papules érythémateuses ulcérées sur la face et l’encolure, et une lésion proliférative ulcérée sur l’oreille gauche. C’est l’examen histopathologique des lésions cutanées qui permet le diagnostic d’une leishmaniose disséminée, associée à un carcinome épidermoïde de l’oreille. 100 mg d’allopurinol administrés une fois par jour per os pendant quatre mois ont permis la rémission totale des lésions cutanées. Des prélèvements post mortem ont révélé la persistance du parasite dans l’organisme après six mois de traitement. Cet article discute de la sensibilité du chat à la leishmaniose et de son rôle potentiel de réservoir. PMID:22314243

  13. Geometric effect of the hydrogel grid structure on in vitro formation of homogeneous MIN6 cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chae Yun; Min, Mun-kyeong; Kim, Hail; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-07-07

    A microstructure-based hydrogel was employed to study the relationship between spatial specificity and cellular behavior, including cell fate, proliferation, morphology, and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. To effectively form homogeneous cell clusters in vitro, we made cell-containing hydrogel membrane constructs with an adapted grid structure based on a hexagonal micropattern. Homogeneous cell clusters (average diameter: 83.6 ± 14.2 μm) of pancreatic insulinoma (MIN6) cells were spontaneously generated in the floating hydrogel membrane constructs, including a hexagonal grid structure (size of cavity: 100 μm, interval between cavities: 30 μm). Interestingly, 3D clustering of MIN6 cells mimicking the structure of pancreatic islets was coalesced into a merged aggregate attaching to each hexagonal cavity of the hydrogel grid structure. The fate and insulin secretion of homogeneous cell clusters in the hydrogel grid structure were also assessed. The results of these designable hydrogel-cell membrane constructs suggest that facultative in vitro β-cell proliferation and maintenance can be applied to biofunctional assessments.

  14. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE ~ E -α) with α=1.5 for 1033 < E < 1036 erg. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the amplitude of brightness variations. We also found that the duration of superflares (τ) increases with the flare energy (E) as τ ~ E 0.39+/-0.03. This can be explained if we assume the time-scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.

  15. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-12-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  16. Is there a difference between patients with peak oxygen consumption below 10 ml/kg/min versus between 10 and 14 ml/kg/min? Does the "Grey Zone" really exist?

    PubMed

    Lizak, M K; Zakliczyński, M; Jarosz, A; Zembala, M

    2009-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is an important component of evaluation when orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is considered for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. However there is a question about the accuracy of interpretations of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) used at present. We analyzed 302 CHF patients stratified into 3 groups according to VO(2)max (mL/kg/min): group 1 = <10 (n = 37); group 2 = 10-14 (n = 121) and group 3 = >14 (n = 144). We compared the mortality rate, the OHT rate, time to OHT, time to death and pulmonary function tests (PFT) among the groups using ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis tests for analysis in Statistica 7.1. No important differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05), but first in comparison with group 3 (P < .05) in terms of mortality (48.6% vs 33.1% vs 21.5%), number of OHT (24.3% vs 32.2% vs 14.6%), time to death (15.4 vs 16.6 vs 34.4 months) or PFT results (forced expiratory volume in the first second forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow, all as direct or as percent of normal values). In contrast, time to OHT (4.6 vs 6.9 vs 10.9 months) and percent of normal vital capacity (72% vs 81% vs 91%) differed significantly among all groups (P < .05). Patients with VO(2)max between 10 and 14 or <10 mL/kg/min are at similar risk of death.

  17. [Distribution Characteristics of Sedimentary Pigments in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coast and its Implications].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jin-peng; Pan, Hui-hui

    2015-08-01

    Compositions and contents of sedimentary pigments were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in order to discuss the spatial distributions of phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton functional type and the preservation efficiency of phytoplankton pigments and their influencing factors. The results showed that: chloropigments [Chlorins, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and pheopigments (Pheo-a), such as pheophytin-a (PHtin-a), pheophorbide-a (PHide-a), pPheophytin-a (pPHtin-a), sterol chlorin esters (SCEs) and carotenol chlorin esters (CCEs)] were the major type of sedimentary pigments. The nutrients inputs from Changjiang Diluted Water and upwelling in the Zhe-Min coastal mud area were the major cause for the patchy distribution with high sedimentary chloropigment contents. Carotenoid contents showed no trending changes and exhibited high values in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coasts. Based on the relative proportions of each diagnostic carotenoid to the total diagnostic carotenoids in the sediments, the relative contributions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias in the phytoplankton fuctional types were 48.8% +/- 17.4%, 10.7% +/- 11.5%, 8.1% +/- 7.2%, 18.6% +/- 8.2%, 9.4% +/- 6.4% and 4.3% +/- 3.2%, respectively. The preference for external environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient level and water salinity) was the main cause for the decreasing trends of diatoms and dinoflagellates proportions and the increasing trends of prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias seawards. Based on the spatial distribution of Chl-a/Pheo-a ratios, the higher preservation efficiencies of sedimentary pigments in the coastal regions (e.g., outer edge of maximum turbidity zone in the Changjiang Estuary, mouth of the Hangzhou Bay and upwelling region in the Zhe-Min Coast) were mainly due to the higher sedimentation rate and seasonal occurrences of hypoxia in bottom water, and these regions with

  18. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  19. Deficiency of long isoforms of Nfe2l1 sensitizes MIN6 pancreatic β cells to arsenite-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qi; Fu, Jingqi; Hu, Yuxin; Li, Yongfang; Yang, Bei; Li, Lu; Sun, Jing; Chen, Chengjie; Sun, Guifan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qiang; Pi, Jingbo

    2017-08-15

    Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inorganic arsenic exposure is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease of growing prevalence. Pancreatic β-cells were targeted and damaged by oxidative stress induced by arsenite. We previously showed that nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2)-deficient pancreatic β-cells were vulnerable to cell damage induced by oxidative stressors including arsenite, due to a muted antioxidant response. Like nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2), NFE2L1 also belongs to the cap 'n' collar (CNC) basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family, and regulates antioxidant response element (ARE) related genes. Our prior work showed NFE2L1 regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells and isolated islets. In the current study, we demonstrated that MIN6 cells with a specific knockdown of long isoforms of Nfe2l1 (L-Nfe2l1) by lentiviral shRNA (Nfe2l1(L)-KD) were vulnerable to arsenite-induced apoptosis and cell damage. The expression levels of antioxidant genes, such as Gclc, Gclm and Ho-1, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were not different in Scramble and Nfe2l1(L)-KD cells, while the expression of arsenic metabolism related-genes, such as Gsto1, Gstm1 and Nqo1, increased in Nfe2l1(L)-KD cells with or without arsenite treatment. The up-regulation of arsenic biotransformation genes was due to activated NFE2L2 in Nfe2l1(L)-KD MIN6 cells. Furthermore, the level of intracellular monomethylarsenic (MMA) was higher in Nfe2l1(L)-KD MIN6 cells than in Scramble cells. These results showed that deficiency of L-Nfe2l1 in pancreatic β-cells increased susceptibility to acute arsenite-induced cytotoxicity by promoting arsenic biotransformation and intracellular MMA levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  1. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  2. 111 sun concentrator photovoltaic module with wide acceptance angle that can efficiently operate using 30-min intermittent tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nawwar; Ota, Yasuyuki; Araki, Kenji; Lee, Kan-Hua; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we propose a new concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system design with a large-acceptance-angle lens, which tracks the sun on the basis of a new 30-min intermittent tracking method that does not require a special high-precision CPV tracking system. This will reduce costs, because a large percentage of the cost of a typical CPV system comes from the expensive accurate tracking system. The present system had a concentration ratio of 111 and an acceptance angle of 4.5°. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the thermal and electrical performances of the system in an outdoor test site in Miyazaki, Japan. The experimental results were compared with optical, thermal, and electrical simulation results. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental ones.

  3. Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Young; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2003-05-08

    Anthocyanins, which are bioactive phytochemicals, are widely distributed in plants and especially enriched in tart cherries. Based on previous observations that tart cherry anthocyanins and their respective aglycone, cyanidin, can inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, we conducted experiments to test the potential of anthocyanins to inhibit intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and growth of human colon cancer cell lines. Mice consuming the cherry diet, anthocyanins, or cyanidin had significantly fewer and smaller cecal adenomas than mice consuming the control diet or sulindac. Colonic tumor numbers and volume were not significantly influenced by treatment. Anthocyanins and cyanidin also reduced cell growth of human colon cancer cell lines HT 29 and HCT 116. The IC(50) of anthocyanins and cyanidin was 780 and 63 microM for HT 29 cells, respectively and 285 and 85 microM for HCT 116 cells, respectively. These results suggest that tart cherry anthocyanins and cyanidin may reduce the risk of colon cancer.

  4. Employing temporal information for cell segmentation using max-flow/min-cut in phase-contrast video microscopy.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Amir; Sowmya, Arcot; Mele, Katarina; Semenovich, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Cell segmentation is a crucial step in many bio-medical image analysis applications and it can be considered as an important part of a tracking system. Segmentation in phase-contrast images is a challenging task since in this imaging technique, the background intensity is approximately similar to the cell pixel intensity. In this paper we propose an interactive automatic pixel level segmentation algorithm, that uses temporal information to improve the segmentation result. This algorithm is based on the max-flow/min-cut algorithm and can be solved in polynomial time. This method is not restricted to any specific cell shape and segments cells of various shapes and sizes. The results of the proposed algorithm show that using the temporal information does improve segmentation considerably.

  5. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    PubMed

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency.

  6. The 2- to 12-min quasi-periodic variation of 50- to 1000-keV trapped electron fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Parks, G. K.; Winckler, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    It was previously shown that trapped electron fluxes of energies in the range from 50 keV to 1 MeV observed in the afternoon magnetosphere during substorms frequently undergo periodic variations. High-resolution electron spectrometer data indicate that these electron variations are periodic in the range of about 2-12 min, correlated with magnetic field variations, organized by the local magnetic field, and dependent on pitch angle. The observations suggest that the electron variations are adiabatic. The study derives quantitative adiabatic expressions of particle flux variations in a model geomagnetic field perturbation to show that the observational features are consistent with effects arising from adiabatic modulation of trapped particle fluxes.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M-dwarfs in Multiples (MinMs) survey. I. (Ward-Duong+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; De Rosa, R. J.; Bulger, J.; Rajan, A.; Goodwin, S. P.; Parker, R. J.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-11-01

    The MinMs sample is derived from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue (van Leeuwen, 2007, Cat. I/311). We selected all stars with parallaxes greater than π>=66.67mas, corresponding to stars located within a distance limit of D<=15pc. In order to obtain precise distances and absolute magnitudes, stars with parallax errors larger than σπ/π>=0.10 were excluded from the sample. Johnson V-band magnitudes were obtained from the original Hipparcos catalogue (Perryman et al., 1997, Cat. I/239), which comprises ground- and space-based photometry with uncertainties <=0.08mag, and KS-band magnitudes were obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al., 2006, Cat. VII/233), providing V-Ks colours. (4 data files).

  8. Droplet-based non-faradaic impedance sensors for assessment of susceptibility of Escherichia coli to ampicillin in 60 min.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Aida; Alam, Muhammad A

    2017-06-01

    Direct antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST) are essential for rapid detection of bacterial infection and administration of appropriate antibiotics. Conventional AST systems are usually slow as they rely on cell growth for an indirect assessment of antibiotics' effectiveness. Therefore, a faster method is desirable, especially for emergency cases. In this work, we studied the performance of label-free, droplet-based impedance sensors for rapid characterization of the effects of ampicillin (Amp) on Escherichia coli. Ampicillin damages cell wall integrity and makes cells permeable (leaky). The leakage results in significant increase of the electrical conductance measured directly by the microfabricated sensing unit. We studied the conductance signal as a function of both antibiotic treatment time and dosage and demonstrated susceptibility testing within 60 min. These findings demonstrate the potential of droplet-based electrical chips for the realization of electrical antibiotic susceptibility testing (e-AST) for early-stage diagnostic/treatment, and consequently, preventing antibiotic misuse/overuse.

  9. Phosphorylation events implicating p38 and PI3K mediate tungstate-effects in MIN6 beta cells.

    PubMed

    Piquer, Sandra; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Julià, Marta; Marzo, Nuria; Nadal, Belen; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon

    2007-06-29

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. Several lines of evidence indicate the pancreatic beta cell as one of the targets of tungstate action. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism by which this compound exerts its effects on the beta cell line MIN6. Tungstate treatment induced phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38 and PI3K which in turn are implicated in tungstate PDX-1 nuclear localization and activation. Although no effect was observed in glucose-induced insulin secretion we found that tungstate activates basal insulin release, a process driven, at least in part, by activation of p38. These results show a direct involvement of p38 and PI3K phosphorylation in the mechanism of action of tungstate in the beta cell.

  10. A new hyperbox selection rule and a pruning strategy for the enhanced fuzzy min-max neural network.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed Falah; Lim, Chee Peng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we extend our previous work on the Enhanced Fuzzy Min-Max (EFMM) neural network by introducing a new hyperbox selection rule and a pruning strategy to reduce network complexity and improve classification performance. Specifically, a new k-nearest hyperbox expansion rule (for selection of a new winning hyperbox) is first introduced to reduce the network complexity by avoiding the creation of too many small hyperboxes within the vicinity of the winning hyperbox. A pruning strategy is then deployed to further reduce the network complexity in the presence of noisy data. The effectiveness of the proposed network is evaluated using a number of benchmark data sets. The results compare favorably with those from other related models. The findings indicate that the newly introduced hyperbox winner selection rule coupled with the pruning strategy are useful for undertaking pattern classification problems.

  11. Phosphorylation events implicating p38 and PI3K mediate tungstate-effects in MIN6 beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Piquer, Sandra; Gomis, Ramon . E-mail: rgomis@clinic.ub.es

    2007-06-29

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. Several lines of evidence indicate the pancreatic beta cell as one of the targets of tungstate action. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism by which this compound exerts its effects on the beta cell line MIN6. Tungstate treatment induced phosphorylation and subsequent activation of p38 and PI3K which in turn are implicated in tungstate PDX-1 nuclear localization and activation. Although no effect was observed in glucose-induced insulin secretion we found that tungstate activates basal insulin release, a process driven, at least in part, by activation of p38. These results show a direct involvement of p38 and PI3K phosphorylation in the mechanism of action of tungstate in the beta cell.

  12. Most probable number - loop mediated isothermal amplification (MPN-LAMP) for quantifying waterborne pathogens in <25min.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farhan; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Waseem, Hassan; Williams, Maggie R; Cupples, Alison M; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting a most probable number approach integrated to loop mediated isothermal technique (MPN-LAMP) focusing on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis bacterial cells without nucleic acids extraction. LAMP assays for uidA from E. coli and gelE from E. faecalis were successfully performed directly on cells up to single digit concentration using a commercial real time PCR instrument. Threshold time values of LAMP assays of bacterial cells, heat treated bacterial cells (95°C for 5min), and their purified genomic DNA templates were similar, implying that amplification could be achieved directly from bacterial cells at 63°C. Viability of bacterial cells was confirmed by using propidium monoazide in a LAMP assay with E. faecalis. To check its functionality on a microfluidic platform, MPN-LAMP assays targeting <10CFU of bacteria were also translated onto polymeric microchips and monitored by a low-cost fluorescence imaging system. The overall system provided signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios up to 800, analytical sensitivity of <10CFU, and time to positivity of about 20min. MPN-LAMP assays were performed for cell concentrations in the range of 10(5)CFU to <10CFU. MPN values from LAMP assays confirmed that the amplifications were from <10CFU. The method described here, applicable directly on cells at 63°C, eliminates the requirement of complex nucleic acids extraction steps, facilitating the development of sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and field-deployable systems. This rapid MPN-LAMP approach has the potential to replace conventional MPN method for waterborne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of microRNAs in resveratrol-mediated mitigation of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Altamemi, Ibrahim; Murphy, E Angela; Catroppo, James F; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Jiajia; McClellan, Jamie L; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2014-07-01

    The pleiotropic effects of resveratrol include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, and thus unique possibilities exist to explore mechanistic pathways of chemoprevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations induced by resveratrol in the context of chemopreventive mechanisms against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis-associated tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse. To that end, Apc(Min/+) mice were exposed to 2% DSS to enhance intestinal inflammation and polyp development. Concurrently, mice received either vehicle or resveratrol treatment via oral gavage for 5 weeks. Interestingly, treatment of DSS-exposed mice with resveratrol resulted in decreased number and size of polyps, fewer histologic signs of cell damage, and decreased proliferating epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa compared with vehicle. Resveratrol treatment dramatically reversed the effects of DSS on the numbers of specific inflammatory CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Resveratrol treatment also decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and reduced IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. Microarray analysis revealed 104 miRNAs exhibiting >1.5-fold differences in expression in the intestinal tissue of resveratrol-treated mice. Among them, two miRNAs with anti-inflammatory properties, miRNA-101b and miRNA-455, were validated to be upregulated with resveratrol treatment by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathway analysis revealed that numerous differentially regulated miRNAs targeted mRNAs associated with inflammatory processes with known roles in intestinal tumorigenesis. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-inflammatory properties and suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis through miRNA modulation.

  14. Oral perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) lessens tumor development in the APC(min) mouse model of spontaneous familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Villers, Meghan; Thomas, Laurel; Kamarec, Stacey; Montgomery, Caitlin; Yeung, Leo W Y; Hu, Yanqing; Innes, Kim

    2016-12-08

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths for both men and women, and the third most common cause of cancer in the U.S. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer, and emergence of drug resistance underscore the need to develop new, potentially less toxic alternatives. Our recent cross-sectional study in a large Appalachian population, showed a strong, inverse, dose-response association of serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) levels to prevalent colorectal cancer, suggesting PFOS may have therapeutic potential in the prevention and/or treatment of colorectal cancer. In these preliminary studies using a mouse model of familial colorectal cancer, the APC(min) mouse, and exposures comparable to those reported in human populations, we assess the efficacy of PFOS for reducing tumor burden, and evaluate potential dose-response effects. At 5-6 weeks of age, APC(min) mice were randomized to receive 0, 20, 250 mg PFOS/kg (females) or 0, 10, 50 and 200 mg PFOS/kg (males) via their drinking water. At 15 weeks of age, gastrointestinal tumors were counted and scored and blood PFOS levels measured. PFOS exposure was associated with a significant, dose-response reduction in total tumor number in both male and female mice. This inverse dose-response effect of PFOS exposure was particularly pronounced for larger tumors (r(2) for linear trend = 0.44 for males, p's <0.001). The current study in a mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis offers the first experimental evidence that chronic exposure to PFOS in drinking water can reduce formation of gastrointestinal tumors, and that these reductions are both significant and dose-dependent. If confirmed in further studies, these promising findings could lead to new therapeutic strategies for familial colorectal cancer, and suggest that PFOS testing in both preventive and therapeutic models for human colorectal cancer is warranted.

  15. NO-donating aspirin inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB in human cancer cell lines and Min mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennie L; Ji, Ping; Ouyang, Nengtai; Liu, Xiaoping; Rigas, Basil

    2008-02-01

    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a promising agent for the control of cancer, whose mechanism of action remains unclear. NF-kappaB is an important signaling molecule in the pathogenesis of cancer. We studied in several human colon (HT-29, HCT-15, LoVo, HCT116 and SW-480), pancreatic (BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2) and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) cancer cell lines, the effect of NO-ASA on NF-kappaB activation, determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses of nuclear proteins. NO-ASA inhibited NF-kappaB activation, as early as 30 min and with IC(50)s ranging between 0.83 and 64 microM. Such inhibition was also observed at NO-ASA concentrations that had an insignificant or marginal effect on cell growth. The effect of NO-ASA on NF-kappaB binding to DNA was significantly correlated with its effect on cell growth (P < 0.05) indicating that the growth inhibitory effect of NO-ASA may be mediated by its effect on NF-kappaB. Compared with control, NO-ASA decreased NF-kappaB activation in intestinal epithelial cells of APC(min+/-) mice by 38.4% (P < 0.01). Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the nuclear levels of the p50 and p65 NF-kappaB subunits were virtually unaffected, suggesting an inhibitory mechanism different from suppressed subunit translocation into the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by NO-ASA may account, at least in part, for its chemopreventive efficacy.

  16. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 1032 erg to 1036 erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100-1000 seconds which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30 min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE ∝ E-α) with α=1.5 for 1033

  17. Effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken and salmon on intestinal carcinogenesis in A/J Min/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Sødring, Marianne; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Kirkhus, Bente; Oostindjer, Marije; Alvseike, Ole; Gangsei, Lars Erik; Hovland, Ellen-Margrethe; Pierre, Fabrice; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A). In mechanistic studies exploring the link between intake of red meat and CRC, heme iron, the pigment of red meat, is proposed to play a central role as a catalyzer of luminal lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. In the present work, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse was used to investigate the effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken, or salmon (40% muscle food (dry weight) and 60% powder diet) on Apc-driven intestinal carcinogenesis, from week 3–13 of age. Muscle food diets did not differentially affect carcinogenesis in the colon (flat ACF and tumors). In the small intestine, salmon intake resulted in a lower tumor size and load than did meat from terrestrial animals (beef, pork or chicken), while no differences were observed between the effects of white meat (chicken) and red meat (pork and beef). Additional results indicated that intestinal carcinogenesis was not related to dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, intestinal formation of lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), or cytotoxic effects of fecal water on Apc-/+ cells. Notably, the amount of heme reaching the colon appeared to be relatively low in this study. The greatest tumor load was induced by the reference diet RM1, underlining the importance of the basic diets in experimental CRC. The present study in A/J Min/+ mice does not support the hypothesis of a role of red meat in intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:28426718

  18. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Marrelli, Sean P

    2014-01-15

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (T(core)) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in T(core) (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion.

  19. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Ni; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Kuang, Tu-Guang; Xie, Wan-Mu; Miao, Ran; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction. However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected. Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment. All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period. Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died. Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.001, P = 0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR = 0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR = 1.074, P = 0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR = 1.001, P = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR = 4.755, P = 0.007) and 6MWD (HR = 0.994, P = 0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients. Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μmol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia. Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH. PMID:26612283

  20. Palmatine from Mahonia bealei attenuates gut tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    MA, WEI-KUN; LI, HUI; DONG, CUI-LAN; HE, XIN; GUO, CHANG-RUN; ZHANG, CHUN-FENG; YU, CHUN-HAO; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2016-01-01

    Mahonia bealei is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat various ailments, in particular gastrointestinal inflammation-related illnesses, and palmatine is one of its active constituents. In this study, ApcMin/+ mice, a genetically engineered model, were used to investigate the effects of palmatine on the initiation and progression of gut inflammation and tumorigenesis enhanced by a high-fat diet. The in vitro antiproliferation and anti-inflammation effects of palmatine were evaluated on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cell lines. The concentration-related antiproliferative effects of palmatine on both cell lines (P<0.01) were observed. Palmatine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 levels in the HT-29 cells (P<0.01). In the in vivo studies with ApcMin/+ mice, after 10 or 20 mg/kg/day oral palmatine treatment, tumor numbers were significantly reduced in the small intestine and colon in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01 compared with the model group). The results were supported by tumor distribution data, body weight changes and organ index. The effect on survival was also dose-dependent. Both the low- and high-dose palmatine treatments significantly increased the life span of the mice (P<0.01). The gut histology from the model group showed a prominent adenomatous change along with inflammatory lesions. With palmatine treatment, however, the dysplastic changes were greatly reduced in the small intestine and colon tissue. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL1-β, IL-8, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the gut tissue showed that these inflammatory cytokines were reduced significantly following treatment (all P<0.01); serum cytokine levels were also decreased. Data suggests that palmatine has a clinical value in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and this action is likely linked to the

  1. Uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using clearance-sealed piston provers in the range from 0.0012 g min-1 to 60 g min-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobovnik, G.; Kutin, J.; Bajsić, I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with an uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using a compact, high-speed, clearance-sealed realization of a piston prover. A detailed methodology for the uncertainty analysis, covering the components due to the gas density, dimensional and time measurements, the leakage flow, the density correction factor and the repeatability, is presented. The paper also deals with the selection of the isothermal and adiabatic measurement models, the treatment of the leakage flow and discusses the need for averaging multiple consecutive readings of the piston prover. The analysis is prepared for the flow range (50 000:1) covered by the three interchangeable flow cells. The results show that using the adiabatic measurement model and averaging the multiple readings, the estimated expanded measurement uncertainty of the gas mass flow rate is less than 0.15% in the flow range above 0.012 g min-1, whereas it increases for lower mass flow rates due to the leakage flow related effects. At the upper end of the measuring range, using the adiabatic instead of the isothermal measurement model, as well as averaging multiple readings, proves important.

  2. Prediction of Future Overt Pulmonary Hypertension by 6-Min Walk Stress Echocardiography in Patients With Connective Tissue Disease.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Hotchi, Junko; Bando, Mika; Nishio, Susumu; Hirata, Yukina; Ise, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Kishi, Jun; Sata, Masataka

    2015-07-28

    Early detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in connective tissue disease (CTD) is crucial to ensuring that patients receive timely treatment for this progressive disease. Exercise stress tests have been used to screen patients in an attempt to identify early-stage PH. Recent studies have described abnormal mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP)-cardiac output (Q) responses as having the potential to assess the disease state. This study hypothesized that pulmonary circulation pressure-flow relationships obtained by 6-min walk (6MW) stress echocardiography would better delineate differential progression of PH and predict development of PH during follow-up. We prospectively performed 6MW stress echocardiographic studies in 78 CTD patients (age 58 ± 12 years; 9% male) at baseline and follow-up. All patients underwent yearly echocardiographic follow-up studies for up to 5 years. During a median period of 32 months (range: 15 to 62 months), 16 patients reached the clinical endpoint of development of PH and none died during follow-up. PH was confirmed by right heart catheterization in all 16 patients (mPAP ≥25 mm Hg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg). In a Cox proportional-hazards survival model, 6MW distance (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.99; p = 0.010), early diastolic tricuspid annulus motion velocity (HR: 0.79; p = 0.025), and ΔmPAP/ΔQ by 6MW stress (HR: 1.10; p = 0.005) were associated with development of PH. In sequential Cox models, a model on the basis of 6MW distance (chi-square, 6.6) was improved by ΔmPAP/ΔQ (chi-square: 14.4; p = 0.019). Using a receiver-operating characteristic curve, we found that the best cutoff value of ΔmPAP/ΔQ for predicting development of pulmonary hypertension was >3.3 mm Hg/l/min. The 6MW stress echocardiography noninvasively provides an incremental prognostic value of PH development in CTD. This is a single-center prospective cohort study. Larger multicenter studies are warranted to confirm this result

  3. Submaximal exercise testing may be superior to the 6-min walk test in assessing pulmonary arterial hypertension disease severity.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer E; Lee, Augustine S; Burger, Charles D

    2014-10-01

    Submaximal exercise testing (SET) assesses functional exercise capacity in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients and provides additional physiologic information compared with the 6-min walk test (6MWT). The relative correlations of the 6MWT and SET using SHAPE-HF™ with other markers of PAH severity, particularly echocardiogram (ECHO)-derived mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), have not been investigated. (i) Examine the correlation between SHAPE measures with the 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and (ii) Compare SHAPE parameters and the 6MWD to clinical measures of PAH severity. Fifty-five consecutive group 1 PAH outpatients were evaluated in a single pulmonary hypertension referral center from March 2011 to June 2012. World Health Organization (WHO) functional class (FC), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), ECHO, 6MWD and SHAPE results. Data are reported using mean ± standard deviation and Spearman correlation coefficients (r). Nine patients were excluded. Of the 46 remaining patients, 78% were women and the average age was 61 ± 13 years. PAH characteristics: WHO FC III-IV 48%; idiopathic PAH 52%; BNP 198 ± 277 pg/mL; 6MWD 399 ± 97 m; ECHO right atrial pressure (RAP) 7 ± 4, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) 63 ± 29 and MPAP 45 ± 17 mmHg. SET with SHAPE results: mean partial pressure of end-tidal (PET ) CO2 31 ± 6 mmHg at end-exercise; ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 ) 43 ± 16. Significant correlations were found between the 6MWD and SHAPE variables: VE/VCO2 (r = -0.57, P < 0.0001) and end-exercise PET CO2 (r = 0.42, P = 0.004). VE/VCO2 correlated with WHO FC, BNP, RAP, MPAP and PASP and 6MWD only with WHO FC, BNP and PASP. SHAPE outperformed 6MWD in comparison with other measures of PAH disease severity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise.

  5. A meta-analysis of the success rates of heartbeat restoration within the platinum 10 min among outpatients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiang-Min; Li, Zhi-Hui; He, Zhong-Jie; Zhao, Zhe-Wei; Liu, Shuang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The optimal time to save a person who has had a sudden cardiac arrest is within the first few minutes of the incident. Early compression and early defibrillation should be performed at this time. Timeliness is the key to successful CPR; as such, Prof. He proposed the "platinum 10 min" system to study early CPR issues. This paper systematically evaluates the success rates of heartbeat restoration within the "platinum 10 min" among patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest. The clinical data of outpatients suffering from a cardiac arrest were retrieved from the China Knowledge Network (January 1975-January 2015), the Chongqing VIP database (January 1989-January 2015), and the Wanfang database (January 1990-January 2015). The success of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed at different times after the patients had cardiac arrests was analyzed. Two researchers screened the literature and extracted the data independently. A meta-analysis was conducted using Stata12.0. A total of 57 papers met the inclusion criteria, including 29,269 patients. Of these patients, 1776 had their heartbeats successfully restored. The results showed high heterogeneity (X (2)  = 3428.85, P < 0.01, I(2) = 98.4 %). The meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. The combined effect size was 0.171 (0.144-0.199). (1) The success rate of heartbeat restoration did not differ among the four emergency treatment methods that patients received: the methods described in the 2000 Guidelines for CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, that described in the 2005 version, 2010 version, and another CPR method. (2) The patients were divided into five groups based on the time when CPR was performed: the ≤1 min group, the 1- ≤ 5 min group, the 5- ≤ 10 min group, the 10- ≤ 15 min group and the >15 min group. The CPR success rates of these five groups were 0.247 (0.15-0.344), 0.353 (0.250-0.456), 0.136 (0.109-0.163), 0.058 (0.041-0.075), and 0

  6. Exendin-4 Protects MIN6 Cells from t-BHP-Induced Apoptosis via IRE1-JNK-Caspase-3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jia; Wang, Lin-Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Li-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to explore the effect of exendin-4 on t-BHP-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β cells and the mechanism of action. Methods. Murine MIN6 pancreatic β cells were treated with exendin-4 in the presence or absence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Cell survival was assessed by MTT staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy analysis after Hoechst/PI staining and flow cytometric assay after Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The activity of caspase-3 was determined using a caspase-3 activity kit. Expression of P-IRE1α, IRE1α, C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P-JNK, C-JUN, and P-C-JUN was detected by western blotting. Results. Exendin-4 was found to inhibit t-BHP-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells by downregulating caspase-3 activity. Exendin-4 also inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein IRE1, the apoptosis-related signaling molecule JNK, and c-Jun activation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that exendin-4 ultimately reduces t-BHP-induced β-cell apoptosis. IRE1-JNK-c-Jun signaling is involved in the exendin-4-mediated modulation of β-cell apoptosis.

  7. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  8. Detection of neuronal spikes using an adaptive threshold based on the max-min spread sorting method.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Lin, Ming-An; Wu, Tony; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Tsai, Yu-Tai; Chao, Pei-Kuang

    2008-07-15

    Neuronal spike information can be used to correlate neuronal activity to various stimuli, to find target neural areas for deep brain stimulation, and to decode intended motor command for brain-machine interface. Typically, spike detection is performed based on the adaptive thresholds determined by running root-mean-square (RMS) value of the signal. Yet conventional detection methods are susceptible to threshold fluctuations caused by neuronal spike intensity. In the present study we propose a novel adaptive threshold based on the max-min spread sorting method. On the basis of microelectrode recording signals and simulated signals with Gaussian noises and colored noises, the novel method had the smallest threshold variations, and similar or better spike detection performance than either the RMS-based method or other improved methods. Moreover, the detection method described in this paper uses the reduced features of raw signal to determine the threshold, thereby giving a simple data manipulation that is beneficial for reducing the computational load when dealing with very large amounts of data (as multi-electrode recordings).

  9. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting.

  10. Massively parallel classification of single-trial EEG signals using a min-max modular neural network.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bao-Liang; Shin, Jonghan; Ichikawa, Michinori

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a method for classifying single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using min-max modular neural networks implemented in a massively parallel way. The method has three main steps. First, a large-scale, complex EEG classification problem is simply divided into a reasonable number of two-class subproblems, as small as needed. Second, the two-class subproblems are simply learned by individual smaller network modules in parallel. Finally, all the individual trained network modules are integrated into a hierarchical, parallel, and modular classifier according to two module combination laws. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we perform simulations on fifteen different four-class EEG classification tasks, each of which consists of 1491 training and 636 test data. These EEG classification tasks were created using a set of non-averaged, single-trial hippocampal EEG signals recorded from rats; the features of the EEG signals are extracted using wavelet transform techniques. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method has several attractive features. 1) The method is appreciably faster than the existing approach that is based on conventional multilayer perceptrons. 2) Complete learning of complex EEG classification problems can be easily realized, and better generalization performance can be achieved. 3) The method scales up to large-scale, complex EEG classification problems.

  11. Dietary olive oil induces cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in adipose tissue of ApcMin/+ transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Notarnicola, Maria; Tutino, Valeria; Tafaro, Angela; Bianco, Giusy; Guglielmi, Emilia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid- 2 (CB2) receptor is known for its anti-obesity effects silencing the activated immune cells that are key drivers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Nutritional interventions in experimental models of carcinogenesis have been demonstrated to modulate tissue inflammation state and proliferation. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to test, in ApcMin/+ mice, whether a diet enriched with olive oil, omega- 3 and omega-6- PUFAs affects the adipose tissue inflammation status. METHODS: Four groups of animal were studied: ST group, receiving a standard diet; OO group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil (source of fats) was replaced with olive oil; OM-3 group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil was replaced with salmon oil; OM-6 group, receiving the standard diet in which soybean oil was replaced with oenothera oil. Gene and protein expression, in adipose tissue, were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western Blotting, respectively. Enzymatic activities were assayed by fluorescent and radiometric method, where appropriated. RESULTS: The diet enriched with olive oil significantly induced CB2 receptor expression and it was able to control inflammatory and proliferative activity of mice adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies considering olive oil a key ingredient of a healthy dietary pattern. PMID:28035344

  12. 3D Culture of MIN-6 Cells on Decellularized Pancreatic Scaffold: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Wan, Jian; Huang, Yan; Guo, Yibing; Xu, Tianxin; Zhu, Mingyan; Fan, Xiangjun; Zhu, Shajun; Ling, Changchun; Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jingjing; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Pengcheng; Lu, Yuhua; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is due to the lack of β cells. The ideal therapy to cure the disease is pancreas transplantation, but its application is confined to a limited number of people due to the shortage of organ and the need for life-long immunosuppression. Regenerative medicine methods such as a tissue engineered pancreas seem to provide a useful method. In order to construct a microenvironment similar to the native pancreas that is suitable for not only cell growth but also cellular function exertion, a decellularized mouse pancreas was used as a natural 3D scaffold in this experiment. MIN-6 β cells were planted in the bioscaffold. The cell engraftment was verified by HE staining and SEM. Immunostaining procedures were performed to confirm the normal function of the engrafted cells. qRT-PCR demonstrated that insulin gene expression of the recellularized pancreas was upregulated compared with conventional plate-cultured cells. In vivo experiment was also accomplished to further evaluate the function of the recellularized bioscaffold and the result was inspiring. And beyond doubt this will bring new hope for type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:26688810

  13. Profiling of volatile compounds in APC(Min/+) mice blood by dynamic headspace extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Shoji; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-10-15

    Various volatile compounds as well as hydrophilic compounds exist in the blood. For example, 2-alkenals, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, and ketoaldehydes have been reported as oxidized lipid-derived volatiles in blood. These specific volatiles have been associated with diseases; however, multi-volatile analyses have not been performed. In this study, volatile profiling of APC(Min/+) mouse plasma by dynamic headspace extraction was performed for multi-volatile analysis. In total, 19 volatiles were detected in the plasma of mice, based on information regarding oxidized lipid-derived volatile compounds, and eight of these compounds differed significantly between normal and diseased mice. 2-Methyl-2-butanol and benzyl alcohol were previously unreported in blood samples. Furthermore, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was only detected in normal mice. 5-Methyl-3-hexanone and benzaldehyde have been detected in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases and lung cancer, respectively. Therefore, volatile profiling can be used to detect differences between samples and to identify compounds associated with diseases.

  14. Identification of critical intensity from a single lactate measure during a 3-min, submaximal cycle-ergometer test.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Federico Y; Colosio, Alessandro L; Keir, Daniel A; Murias, Juan M; Pogliaghi, Silvia

    2016-12-06

    We tested the hypothesis that critical intensity in cycling can be determined from a single delta blood lactate in the third minute of a submaximal cycle ergometer trial. Fourteen healthy young men performed four to six constant-power-output trials on a cycle ergometer to the limit of tolerance. Critical intensity was calculated via a linear model and subsequently validated. Lactate was measured at baseline and at 3 min from exercise onset. Delta lactate was the difference between these measures. Based on individual trials, we obtained the delta lactate-% validated critical intensity relationship and thereafter an estimate of critical intensity was computed. Validated and estimated critical intensity were compared by effects sizes, paired-sample t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Delta lactate was a linear function of the intensity of exercise, expressed as % validated critical intensity (R(2) = 0.89). Estimated critical intensity was not different from (d = 0.03, P = 0.98) and highly correlated with (R(2) = 0.88) validated critical intensity. The bias between measures was 0.03 W (≠0) with a precision of 7 W. The results suggest that critical intensity in cycling can be accurately and precisely determined from delta lactate during a sub-maximal trial and so provides a practical and valid alternative to direct determination.

  15. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Kelly S; Cliffe, Laura J; Bancroft, Alison J; Forman, Simon P; Thompson, Seona; Booth, Cath; Grencis, Richard K

    2017-06-01

    Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  16. Effects of two 15-min naps on the subjective sleepiness, fatigue and heart rate variability of night shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Oriyama, Sanae; Miyakoshi, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two 15-min naps on nurses who work at night in a three-shift system. Of the 15 nurses who were included as study subjects on a night shift, eight took two short naps (the Nap condition), and seven worked without taking a nap (the No-nap condition) during the night shift. We measured sublingual temperature and the bispectral index (BIS), obtained heart rate and heart rate variability measures from an electrocardiogram (ECG), and evaluated sleepiness and fatigue levels every hour using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Both subjective sleepiness and fatigue increased between 4:00 and 5:00, with no significant differences observed between the two groups. However, the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF) in the Nap condition group was found to be significantly lower than in the No-nap condition group. Furthermore, a sudden, brief increase in HF values was observed in the No-nap condition group in the morning. The results of this study suggest that taking two short naps may effectively reduce tension and prevent a brief increase in HF values by suppressing sympathetic nervous activity in the morning.

  17. Detection and Characterization of Flat Aberrant Crypt Foci (Flat ACF) in the Novel A/J Min/+ Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sødring, Marianne; Gunnes, Gjermund; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-06-01

    Flat aberrant crypt foci (flat ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) have previously been described as preneoplastic colonic lesions. We used the novel A/J Min/+ mouse model, that demonstrates extensive spontaneous colon carcinogenesis to refine the method of detection of flat ACF and further characterize and define them as early lesions by histological examination and comparison with MDF. Colons were stained with methylene blue (MB) for flat ACF detection and restained with high-iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB) for MDF detection. Optimal flat ACF recognition required at least 24 h of storage post-MB staining and adherence to a set of characteristics. The fraction of flat ACF corresponding with MDF was 93%. Flat ACF/MDF displayed the same picture of severe dysplasia, lack of mucus and goblet cells and accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin. The easily detectable flat ACF are reliable surface biomarkers of Apc-driven colon carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Involvement of trefoil factor family 2 in the enlargement of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kyoko; Fujii, Gen; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yasuda, Kaori; Matsuo, Yuta; Hashiyama, Airi; Mutoh, Michihiro; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Wada, Morimasa

    2015-08-07

    It is assumed that tumor size may be associated with malignant tumor conversion. However, the molecules responsible for determination of tumor size are not well understood. We counted the number of intestinal tumors in 8, 12 and 30-week-old Apc(Min/+) mice and measured tumor sizes, respectively. Genes involved in determining tumor size were examined using microarray analysis. Cultured cells were then, transfected with a mammalian expression vector containing a candidate gene to examine the functional role of the gene. The effect of forced expression of candidate gene on cell growth was evaluated by measuring the doubling time of the cultured cells and the growth of grafted cells in nude mice. Unexpectedly, microarray analysis identified trefoil factor family 2 (Tff2) rather than growth related genes and/or oncogenes as a most variable gene. Overexpressing Tff2 in cultured cells reduced doubling time in vitro and rapidly increased xenograft tumor size in vivo. We found Tff2 as a novel important factor that to be able to enlarge an intestinal tumor size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adrenal Hormone and Metabolic Biomarker Responses to 30 min of Intermittent Cycling Exercise in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Evans, E S; Hackney, A C; Pebole, M M; McMurray, R G; Muss, H B; Deal, A M; Battaglini, C L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of one bout of aerobic exercise on epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid (FFA) responses in breast cancer survivors and healthy controls. 9 female breast cancer survivors and 9 women without a history of cancer completed 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise at 60% of VO2peak. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 2 h post-exercise from which plasma concentrations of study variables were measured. Immediately and 2 h post-exercise, increases were observed in epinephrine (control group only) norepinephrine (both groups), lactate (both groups), and FFA (both groups immediately post-exercise; breast cancer survivor group only at 2 h post-exercise) (p<0.05). Cortisol decreased immediately and 2 h post-exercise in the control group while glucose decreased immediately post-exercise in the breast cancer survivor group (p<0.05). In conclusion, breast cancer survivors appeared to display attenuated epinephrine, cortisol, and lactate responses while displaying larger magnitude changes in glucose and FFA responses compared to controls. These preliminary findings may have implications for the regulation of metabolism during exercise in breast cancer survivors.

  20. Comparison of 10- and 20-min hepatobiliary phase images on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI T1 mapping for liver function assessment in clinic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Peng; Long, Li-Ling; Qiu, Wei-Jia; Cheng, Ge; Huang, Li-Juan; Yang, Teng-Fei; Huang, Zhong-Kui

    2017-04-10

    To compare hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images obtained 10 and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for liver function assessment in clinic on 3.0 T MR imaging. 103 patients were separated into four groups: 38 patients for the normal liver function (NLF) group, 33 patients for the liver cirrhosis with Child-Pugh A (LCA) group, 21 patients for the liver cirrhosis with Child-Pugh B group, and 11 patients for a liver cirrhosis with Child-Pugh C group. T1 relaxation times (T1rt) were measured on T1 mapping and reduction rates of T1rt (rrT1rt) were calculated. HBP images were obtained at the 10- and 20-min mark after Gd-EOB-DTPA enhancement. T1rt on pre-enhancement imaging showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) among all four groups. T1rt for both the 10-min HBP and the 20-min HBP showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) among all groups, but showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the NLF group and the LCA group. T1rt and rrT1rt showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between 10-min HBP and 20-min HBP among all groups. The ROC analysis on 10-min HBP and 20-min HBP showed a lower diagnostic performance between NLF group and LCA group (AUC from 0.532 to 0.582), but high diagnostic performance (AUC from 0.788 to 1.000) among others group. In comparing 10-min HBP and 20-min HBP T1 mapping after Gd-EOB-DTPA enhancement, our results suggest that 10-min HBP T1 mapping is a feasible option for quantitatively assessing liver function.

  1. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  2. Effects of Gender on Stroke Rates, Critical Speed and Velocity of A 30-Min Swim in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Camila C.; Pelarigo, Jailton G.; Figueira, Tiago R.; Denadai, Benedito S.

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze the effect of gender on the relationship between stroke rates corresponding to critical speed (SRCS) and maximal speed of 30 min (SRS30) in young swimmers. Twenty two males (GM1) (Age = 15.4 ± 2.1 yr., Body mass = 63.7 ± 12.9 kg, Stature = 1.73 ± 0.09 m) and fourteen female (GF) swimmers (Age = 15.1 ± 1.6 yr., Body mass = 58.3 ± 8.8 kg, Stature = 1.65 ± 0.06 m) were studied. A subset of males (GM2) was matched to the GF by their velocity for a 30 min swim (S30). The critical speed (CS) was determined through the slope of the linear regression line between the distances (200 and 400 m) and participant’s respective times. CS was significantly higher than S30 in males (GM1 - 1.25 and 1.16 and GM2 - 1.21 and 1.12 m·s-1) and females (GF - 1.15 and 1.11 m·s-1). There was no significant difference between SRCS and SRS30 in males (GM1 - 34.16 and 32.32 and GM2 - 34.67 and 32.46 cycle·s-1, respectively) and females (GF - 34.18 and 33.67 cycle·s-1, respectively). There was a significant correlation between CS and S30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.94 and GM2 - r = 0.90) and between SRCS and SRS30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.80 and GM2 - r = 0.88). Thus, the relationship between SRCS and SRS30 is not influenced by gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels. Key pointsThe main finding of this study was that the relationship between SRCS and SRS30, which is not dependent on gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels.In swimmers who had different S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls, and CS and S30 were higher in boys than girls, but SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.In swimmers who had similar S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls. However, boys still presented higher values of CS than girls. SRCS was higher than SRS30 in boys, but these variables were similar in girls. SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.Girls presented lower submaximal

  3. Characterization of the MUC1.Tg/MIN Transgenic Mouse as a Model for Studying Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy of Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Akporiaye, Emmanuel T.; Bradley-Dunlop, Deborah; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Madsen, Cathy S.; Hahn, Tobias; Besselsen, David G.; Dial, Sharon M.; Cui, Haiyan; Trevor, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    A bigenic MUC1.Tg/MIN mouse model was developed by crossing Apc/MIN/+ (MIN) mice with human MUC1 transgenic mice to evaluate MUC1 antigen-specific immunotherapy of intestinal adenomas. The MUC1.Tg/MIN mice developed adenomas at a rate comparable to that of MIN mice and had similar levels of serum MUC1 antigen. A MUC1-based vaccine consisting of MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, a MHC class II-restricted pan-helper peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and GM-CSF caused flattening of adenomas and significantly reduced the number of large adenomas. Immunization was successful in generating a MUC1-directed immune response evidenced by increased MUC1 peptide-specific anti-tumor cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes. PMID:17707958

  4. Fast MinMax energy-based phase correction method for NMR spectra with linear phase distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Tomasz P.; Duda, Krzysztof; Ostrowska, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of phase correction of dense NMR spectra on the example of the etoxy derivative of the fused heterocyclic system 5,6,10b-triazaacephenanthrylene (TAAP-OEt). A new estimation method for the linear phase correction coefficients is proposed that successfully extends the min-max (minimization of maximum errors) approach of Siegel (1981). Distinctive to the Siegel method, the smallest values of the real part of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spectrum are maximized, not for the whole spectrum but only for DFT bins near the peaks selected by a new energy-based criterion. Additionally, the method makes use of two one-parameter optimizations for finding the phase correction line coefficients and not the single two-parameter search. The new method is demonstrated to be precise, fast and robust against additive noise. The method's properties are verified in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms of Chen et al. (2002) and Bao et al. (2013) for laboratory recorded TAAP-OEt FID data and for simulated TAAP-OEt signal consisting of the sum of more than 100 complex damped exponentials. Extensive simulations were also conducted on the set of test signals derived from the TAAP-OEt signal by deterministic and pseudorandom manipulation of its content. The components of the signal model were identified by the Bertocco-Yoshida Interpolated DFT (IpDFT) algorithm with a spectral leakage correction. Simulated signals were embedded in the additive Gaussian noise, and the noise-robustness of all of the algorithms was evaluated. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Chen and the Bao algorithms, being more than 100 times faster than the Bao method (for a signal having 216 samples).

  5. Propagation of short period (10-40 min) atmospheric gravity waves from troposphere to mesosphere over Gadanki, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2015-09-01

    The Indian MST radar at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) has been utilised to conduct a detailed study of the close coupling between the troposphere and the mesosphere through the vertically propagating atmospheric gravity waves. For this purpose two cases from a special campaign dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the fluctuations in the UTLS (Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and in the mesosphere during 2001 and one case from a follow up observation in 2002 have been investigated. By using both the FFT and wavelet techniques, the near simultaneous tropospheric and mesospheric data of radar return signal strengths and tropospheric wind fields are analysed. The signatures of relatively high frequency gravity waves with periods between ~10 and 40 min have been clearly traced as propagating waves from the tropospheric turbulent layer heights (~8-18 km) to the lower mesospheric heights (65-80 km). Significant peak correlation coefficients of 0.56 and 0.45 have been found between the SNR time series of pairs of troposphere and mesosphere levels indicating the propagation of high speed gravity waves. The time series of wavelet spectra determined for the tropospheric SNR/zonal winds and the mesospheric SNR show that the detectability of the gravity waves increases at mesospheric heights. It is shown that the continuous SNR values received from the mesosphere can be used as an effective parameter for studies featuring mesospheric wave dynamics. Based on the observed values of vertical wavelengths and wave amplitudes, the horizontal wavelengths, wave phase and group velocities have been estimated for different wave periods. These results have implications on monitoring of the ubiquitous atmospheric gravity waves generated mainly by the tropospheric weather system of the tropical region from their imprint on the mesospheric turbulence structures.

  6. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  7. Comparison of 1-min rain rate derived from TRMM satellite data and raingauge data for microwave applications in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, J. S.; Omotosho, T. V.

    2013-09-01

    A comparative statistical study of derived 1-min rain rate using data obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite (3A12 V6 and 3B43V6) and raingauge measurements are presented. 30-years data of rainfall intensities obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency rain-gauge network and 9-years rainfall data obtained from TRMM satellite are used. Cumulative distributions of rain rate were obtained using a combination of an improved version of the Moupfouma-Martin model for rain rate prediction in the tropical regions. Variations of rain rate of different integration time are compared for 28 stations across Nigeria. The Kriging interpolation method was used for spatial interpolation of rain accumulation values into a regular grid in order to obtain a highly consistent and predictable inter-gauge rainfall variation. Noticeable differences between rain rate estimated from rain-gauge and TRMM data were found to be a function of period and location. From quantitative comparison over each of the region, there are reasonably positive correlations between the two sets of data for different percentages of time with correlation coefficient varying from 0.84 to 0.99 at 99.99% availability of time. Comparison with ITU-R 837-5 shows that, ITU model underestimates rain rate as high as 51% from the mean value depending on the percentages of at which time rain rate is exceeded. The overall result shows that the gauge data perform better than TRMM data in most of the sites located in the SW, SE, SS, MB and NE regions, while TRMM data provided better results for sites in the NW region from the statistical perspective with the lower RMS values.

  8. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on jump performance after 15 min of reconditioning shooting phase in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Annino, Giuseppe; Ruscello, Bruno; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Mauro; Padua, Elvira; Verdecchia, Luca; Tancredi, Virginia; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase