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Sample records for minas gerais brasil

  1. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  2. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  3. Histoplasmosis outbreak in Tamboril cave—Minas Gerais state, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-silva, Fabiana; Figueiredo, Sônia M.; Silveira, Thamara T.S.; Assunção, Claudia B.; Campolina, Sabrina S.; Pena-barbosa, João P.P.; Rotondo, Alexandre; Caligiorne, Rachel B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report four cases of Histoplasma capsulatum infection in eight biologists who made an expedition to determine the prevalence of this fungus in a cave localized in the northwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This case report demonstrates the importance of evaluating the H. capsulatum presence in Brazilian caves before opening to public visitations. PMID:24567897

  4. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  5. Composition of monazites from pegmatites in eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Dutra, C.V.; da Costa, M.T.; Branco, J.J.R.

    1959-01-01

    Two zoned pegmatites in south-eastern Minas Gerais were sampled in detail for their content of monazite and xenotime and the monazite was analysed for certain of the rare-earth elements and thorium. The ratio of xenotime to monazite increases in both pegmatites from the wall toward the quartz core. The content of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in monazite rises in the same direction. These variation trends suggest that during the crystallization of these pegmatites there was a fractionation of the elements leading to a more or less steady enrichment of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in the residual fluids. One mode of explaining these observed effects postulates that the rare-earth elements and thorium were present in pegmatitic fluids as co-ordination complexes rather than as simple cations. ?? 1959.

  6. Archetype Development Process of Electronic Health Record of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Abreu Maia, Thais; Fernandes De Muylder, Cristiana; Mendonça Queiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports health systems and aims to reduce fragmentation, which will enable continuity of patient care. The paper's main objective is to define the steps, roles and artifacts for an archetype development process (ADP) for the EHR at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). This study was conducted using qualitative analysis based upon an applied case. It had an exploratory purpose metodologically defined in four stages: literature review; descriptive comparison; proposition of an archetype development process and proof of concept. The proof of concept showed that the proposed ADP ensures the archetype quality and supports the semantic interoperability in SUS to improve clinical safety and the continuity of patient care.

  7. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions.

  8. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  9. Metal pollution in the environment of Minas Gerais State - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Veado, M A R V; Arantes, I A; Oliveira, A H; Almeida, M R M G; Miguel, R A; Severo, M I; Cabaleiro, H L

    2006-06-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil brings out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, which suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the water and sediment contaminated with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km.

  10. Two new species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.

  11. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  12. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  13. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  14. Axonopus graniticola, a new species of A. ser. Suffulti (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paspaleae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pedro Lage; de Paula, Luiza Fonseca Amorim

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Axonopus ser. Suffulti from Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Comparison with morphologically related species, as well as comments on the ecology and the conservation status are provided.

  15. Ultramafic complexes and associated mineral deposits in the Precambrian of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, N.; Choudhuri, A.

    1985-10-01

    Based on field work, prospection and petrographic studies ultramafic complexes and their mineral deposits from eastern Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil are generally outlined to form a basis for future investigations in this region. The bodies dealt with occur at Ipanema, Córrego Novo, Bela Vista de Minas, Rio Pomba and Liberdade. These ultramafic bodies are generally enclosed in high-grade gneisses and consist of serpentinized peridotites and harzburgites which were metamorphosed together with their country rocks in upper amphibolite to granulite facies. Weathering of these rocks gives rise to nickeliferous laterite, while metamorphism has resulted in anthophyllite asbestos and talc deposits.

  16. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works.

  17. Evidence of substantial recombination among Trypanosoma cruzi II strains from Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Rodrigo de Paula; D'Ávila, Daniella Alchaar; Segatto, Marcela; do Valle, Ítalo Faria; Franco, Glória Regina; Valadares, Helder Magno Silva; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Chiari, Egler; Machado, Carlos Renato; Macedo, Andréa Mara

    2014-03-01

    Due to the scarcity of evidence of sexuality in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, it has been general accepted that the parasite reproduction is essentially clonal with infrequent genetic recombination. This assumption is mainly supported by indirect evidence, such as Hardy-Weinberg imbalances, linkage disequilibrium and a strong correlation between independent sets of genetic markers of T. cruzi populations. However, because the analyzed populations are usually isolated from different geographic regions, the possibility of population substructuring as generating these genetic marker imbalances cannot be eliminated. To investigate this possibility, we firstly compared the allele frequencies and haplotype networks using seven different polymorphic loci (two from mitochondrial and five from different nuclear chromosomes) in two groups of TcII strains: one including isolates obtained from different regions in Latin America and the other including isolates obtained only from patients of the Minas Gerais State in Brazil. Our hypothesis was that if the population structure is essentially clonal, Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium and a sharp association between the clusters generated by analyzing independent markers should be observed in both strain groups, independent of the geographic origin of the samples. The results demonstrated that the number of microsatellite loci in linkage disequilibrium decreased from 4 to 1 when only strains from Minas Gerais were analyzed. Moreover, we did not observed any correlation between the clusters when analyzing the nuclear and mitochondrial loci, suggesting independent inheritance of these markers among the Minas Gerais strains. Besides, using a second subset of five physically linked microsatellite loci and the Minas Gerais strains, we could also demonstrate evidence of homologous recombination roughly proportional to the relative distance among them. Taken together, our results do not support a clonal population

  18. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  19. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  20. Congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a neglected infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Carellos, E V M; Caiaffa, W T; Andrade, G M Q; Abreu, M N S; Januário, J N

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil and describe the demographic and socioeconomic profile of the municipalities associated with the disease. An ecological study was conducted using socioeconomic indicators of a database (MGSSRI) created by Fundação João Pinheiro (a government technical support agency of Minas Gerais), in order to show the development of the municipalities in the state. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was the outcome and the items of the MGSSRI were the explanatory variables. Of 146,307 newborns screened (November 2006 to May 2007), 190 had congenital toxoplasmosis, yielding a prevalence of 1·3/1000, ranging from 0 to 76·9/1000 in the municipalities. The multivariate model indicated a higher occurrence of toxoplasmosis in municipalities with smaller populations and worse indexes of tax performance. Congenital toxoplasmosis appears to be a neglected disease in the state of Minas Gerais, given the high prevalence found and its concentration in municipalities with worse socioeconomic indexes.

  1. Spatial modeling of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil using spatial regression.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, F; Freitas, C; Dutra, L; Guimarães, R; Carvalho, O

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas.

  2. Zinc and copper mineralization of the Vazante area, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Samuel L.

    1956-01-01

    A large body of zinc and copper mineralization is exposed in a line of low hills about 5 kilometers east of the small village of Vazante in the northwestern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Vazante area can be reached by roads leading north from the State of Sao Paulo, via Araxa; west from Balo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; and south from Paracatu, Minas Gerais. The deposit is in branching, sub-parallel fault breccia zones. Calamine (H2Zn2SiO5), and willomite (ZnSiO4), along with small quantities of smithsonite (ZnCO3), form the matrix of the fault breccia. The zinc mineralization is cut by narrow veins of chalcocite in platy crystal aggregate thought to be pseudomorphous after covellite. The chalcocite veins contain small quantities of sphalterite, galena, covellite and calamine. Faults that contain breccia zones displace shale and dolomite. The sedimentary rocks are thought to be Silurian in age. The fault breccia zones have a regional trend of N 40 degrees E and crop out over a strike length of more than four kilometers. The mineralization of the fault zones was observed to continue to the north for an additional four kilometers. The mineralized fault breccia zones range from a few meters to 60 meters in width. A large ore body is indicated that from available samples may average 35 percent zinc.

  3. Superficial and subsuperficial features in the Karst Region of Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. The region of Cordisburgo, in the State of Minas Gerais, is developed on the metasediments of the Bambui Group, Lagoa do Jacare Formation (Upper Proterozoic). Its karst is considered to be one of the most significant regions in Minas Gerais State, although less prominent than the features of the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. The region of Cordisburgo, however, presents excellent examples of karst geomorphology. It is distinguished for both the magnificent potential of its endokarst and the important archaeological, paleontological, historical and tourist sites it offers. The region is also of chief historical importance: it is where Paleontology, Archaeology and Speleology were developed together for the first time in the Americas. This was done by the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801-1880). Like other karst scenarios, the exokarst evolved from the primitive endokarst favoring the development of expressive outcrops, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The third largest cave of the State of Minas Gerais is located in Cordisburgo with 4,620 meters. Other 15 caves, some of them which were studied by Lund in the 19th century, complete the intricate endokarst in this region. The importance of the cave Lapa Nova do Maquiné is reinforced by the State Decree n° 44120 (2005), which creates the Peter Lund Natural Monument as a Conservation Unit. It was created in order to protect the historical-scientific site of the Maquiné Cave and its surroundings. There is little research on the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, especially regarding the amount of CaCO3in comparison to the phyllites, quartz veins, etc. It is possible that pure limestone sites associated to non-carbonatic layers can be found there. Studies about the magnitude and the direction of underground water are still insufficient

  4. When a University Opens Itself to Diversity: A Brief Report on the Intercultural Formation Course for Indigenous Teachers, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo de Rezende, Luisa Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG), located in the city of Belo Horizonte in Brazil, has been a committed partner of indigenous communities since 1996. This partnership began with the creation of spaces intended to elaborate and transform the traditional wisdom of these communities in favour of their…

  5. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil’s Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  6. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-03-08

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity.

  7. The Late Cretaceous fauna and flora of the Uberaba area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Santos, Adriano R.; Bergqvist, Lílian P.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos B.; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2008-03-01

    The Uberaba area, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, yields a rich continental fauna and flora from the Late Cretaceous Uberaba and Marília formations. This paper reviews the diversity of the biota recorded from these formations. The most significant taxa from Peirópolis are the frog Baurubatrachus pricei, the turtle Cambaremys langertoni, the lizard Pristiguana brasiliensis, the crocodyliforms Itasuchus jesuinoi, Peirosaurus tormini and Uberabasuchus terrificus, the titanosaurian Baurutitan britoi, Trigonosaurus pricei, Aeolosaurus sp., indeterminate titanosaurians, and abelisaurid, carcharodontosaurid and maniraptoran theropods. Together with faunas of a similar age in Argentina and Madagascar, the assemblages contribute to a better understanding of Late Cretaceous Gondwanan faunas as a whole.

  8. Use of DNA-based diagnostic methods for human leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, A S; Gomes, R F; Fernandes, O; de Melo, M N

    2001-03-30

    DNA hybridisation was used to type 26 samples from lesions of human patients from the Rio Doce Valley (Minas Gerais, Brazil) clinically diagnosed as having cutaneous leishmaniasis, using kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) cloned mini-circle probes specific for the Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes. All samples were found to belong to the L. braziliensis complex. When biopsies were pressed directly onto touch blot membranes 38.5% of the samples were positive. The positivity and specificity obtained were both 100% when cultured blotted parasites were used. The results were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using primers specific for the L. mexicana and L. braziliensis complexes.

  9. [Phlebotomine sandflies in Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo A; Antonini, Yasmine; Gonçalves, Caroline M; Costa, Daniela C; Dias, Edelberto S

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed the phlebotomine fauna in the Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to associate the presence of vector with the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. Field captures were performed with CDC light traps between February and March 2003. A total of 436 sand flies were captured, belonging to 14 species. The predominant species (28.7%) was Lutzomyia ischnacantha Martins, Souza e Falcão, followed by L. renei (27,06%) and L. cavernicola (13,07%). The finding of L. intermedia, a species that is incriminated as vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, has to be taken into account.

  10. Epidemiological Profile and Quality Indicators in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Northern Minas Gerais - Minas Telecardio 2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bárbara Campos Abreu; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Reis Júnior, Rasível dos Santos; França, Ana Luiza Nunes; Passos, Priscilla Fortes de Oliveira; Lemos, Thais Ribeiro; Antunes, Izabella de Oliveira; Ferreira, Camila Gonçalves; Antunes, André Pires; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death in Brazil. In the Brazilian public health system, the in-hospital mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction is high. The Minas Telecardio 2 Project (Projeto Minas Telecardio 2) aims at implementing a myocardial infarction system of care in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais (MG) to decrease hospital morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cared for in the period that preceded the implementation of the system of care. Methods: Observational, prospective study of patients with ACS admitted between June 2013 and March 2014 to six emergency departments in Montes Claros, MG, and followed up until hospital discharge. Results: During the study period, 593 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of ACS (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 67.6% men), including 306 (51.6%) cases of unstable angina, 214 (36.0%) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 73 (12.3%) of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The total STEMI mortality was 21%, and the in-hospital mortality was 17.2%. In the STEMI patients, 46,0% underwent reperfusion therapy, including primary angioplasty in 88 and thrombolysis in six. Overall, aspirin was administered to 95.1% of the patients within 24 hours and to 93.5% at discharge, a P2Y12 inhibitor was administered to 88.7% participants within 24 hours and to 75.1% at discharge. A total of 73.1% patients received heparin within 24 hours. Conclusion: We observed a low reperfusion rate in patients with STEMI and limited adherence to the recommended ACS treatment in the Northern Region of MG. These observations enable opportunities to improve health care. PMID:27355471

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae).

  12. [Occurrence of cysticercosis in autopsies performed in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa-Cruz, J M; Rocha, A; Silva, A M; De Moraes, A T; Guimarães, A H; Salomão, E C; Alcântara, T M

    1995-06-01

    3937 autopsies were performed between 1971 and 1993 in the Serviço de Anatomia Patológica of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Fundação de Assistência, Estudo e Pesquisa de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. At this Service of Pathology are realized all the autopsies of the municipal district of Uberlândia. The analysis of 2862 concluded autopsy reports, of death above the age of one year, disclosed 39 cases (1.4%) of cysticercosis. The age range was 16 to 83 years and 66.6% were males; 82.1% of the patients were from Minas Gerais State, 15.4% were from Goiás State, and in one case (2.5%) the origin was not registered. From these 39 cases, 35 (89.7%) showed central nervous system involvement, isolated or in association to other clinical forms of the disease; in 9 occurred the isolated or associated cardiac form; in 4 the muscular form, isolated or associated, was found; 4 presented the isolated or associated visceral form. In only 7 (17.9%) cases, the cysticercosis was assumed to be the direct cause of the death.

  13. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  14. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  15. Synopsis and keys to the tribes, genera, and species of Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Part I: Bryocorinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper begins a series of synoptic taxonomic treatments of the Miridae known from Minas Gerais, Brazil, by subfamily, beginning with the Bryocorinae. We provide diagnoses, illustrations of most adults and male genitalia, host-plant information, distribution data, and illustrated keys to the fou...

  16. Water Erosion Distribution in the Itutinga/Camargos Hydroelectric Plant Watershed (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using Distributed Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping and assessment of erosion risk is an important tool for planning of natural resources management, allowing researchers to modify land-use properly and implement management strategies more sustainable in the long-term. The Grande River Basin (GRB), located in Minas Gerais State, is one of the...

  17. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Cursino, Luciana; Muro-Abad, Júpiter Israel; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Hungria, Mariangela; Cassini, Sérvio Túlio Alves

    2009-01-01

    We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin) and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin). Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity. PMID:24031433

  18. Occurrences of Eimeria spp. and gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy calves in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Silva Júnior, Fidelis Antônio; Carvalho, André Henrique de Oliveira; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with infection by Eimeria spp. and gastrointestinal nematodes in 356 calves on 20 dairy farms located in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ten species of Eimeria spp. were identified, of which E. bovis (37.6%) and E. zuernii (17.9%) were the most frequent. From fecal cultures, four genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered, of which Cooperia spp. (74.6%) and Haemonchus (19.4%) were the most frequent. Variables relating to higher levels of technology used on dairy farms showed a significant association (p < 0.05) with higher OPG and EPG counts, and are discussed in this study.

  19. [Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; França-Silva, João Carlos; da Silva, Jaime Costa; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; de Paula, Kenia Maria; Gonçalves, Caroline Macedo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Between January and December 2000, systematic monthly capture of phlebotomine sandflies was undertaken by means of light traps of CDC type in Brejo do Mutambal, an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Varzelândia, State of Minas Gerais. Nineteen phlebotomine species were captured, totaling 6,756 specimens. The species correlated with ACL transmission were captured in low numbers, as follows: Lutzomyia intermedia (5.1%), L. migonei (0.4%) and L. whitmani (0.1%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species captured (34.8%), thus also suggesting a risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. The proportion of sandflies captured in areas surrounding homes was 91.7 % while 8.3% were captured inside homes. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall) on phlebotomine population dynamics was evaluated.

  20. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  1. [Another Dante's inferno in a gold mine during the Vargas era: Nova Lima, Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Maia, Andréa Casa Nova

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the control strategies in place at Morro Velho mine in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, and the changes after the implementation of labor legislation during the Vargas administration. The diseases common amongst mine workers, silicosis and arsenicosis, are investigated through statements given by former miners and a book by an anonymous author that discusses the diseases and the power relations between employers and employees, identifying the limitations of the legislation and the workers' struggles. The book presents a striking story of how for many years the British company side-stepped laws such as the insalubrity premium, a right which other mining companies, not only of British ownership, flouted and still flout in different parts of the world.

  2. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  3. Recognition features of felsic pyroclastics of Serra do Tombo formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Paes, Vinícius José; Ozanam Raposo, Frederico; Chaves Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto; Schiazza, Mariangela; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we report a study of poorly exposed, rhyodacitic welded-ignimbrite deposit from Minas Gerais. A petrographic study of textures indicate high temperature of emplacement. Key features include eutaxitic texture, flattened and agglutinated lapilli and glass menisci. Most of the feldspar minerals and glass are extensively altered to clay minerals, which pseudomorph the original volcanic textures. Glass menisci and spherules suggest a possible process of liquid immiscibility. Immobile trace element distribution indicates a possible link with other post-Palaeozoic felsic volcanic rocks in Brazil, a magmatism interpreted as due to basaltic underplating and partial melting of a hydrous continental crust. A peculiar feature is a high Light REE/Heavy REE ratio. Depletion in heavy rare earth elements is possibly due to a residual HREE-bearing phase in the source. The geologic context of these rocks suggests a Lower Cretaceous age and a tectonic relationship with a continental rifting event.

  4. Supergene leaching and formation of platinum in alluvium: evidence from Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, A. R.; Beaudoin, G.; Choquette, M.; Lehmann, B.; Polônia, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Córrego Bom Sucesso alluvial deposit near Serro, Minas Gerais, probably provided the specimens from which the element palladium was first discovered. Its Pt-Pd nuggets are characteristically botryoidal, arborescent and coralloidal, and exhibit an external halo with the composition of palladiferous platinum to virtually pure platinum. X-ray mapping of an arborescent Pt-Pd nugget from the historical occurrence documents selective palladium depletion, similar to the high-fineness gold haloes developed on detrital Au-Ag grains under supergene conditions. The Pd-depleted alteration zone truncates inclusions of crystals stoichiometrically close to PdPt within the Pt-Pd aggregate. Selective metal leaching in the weathering environment can account for the frequently observed Pt-enriched rims on alluvial platiniferous alloys which may lead to the formation of platinum nuggets at an advanced degree of weathering.

  5. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  6. Use of indicator kriging to investigate schistosomiasis in minas gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Drummond, Sandra C; Tibiriçá, Sandra H C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  7. Quantification of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in dairy cows in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raquel Ribeiro Dias; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Gonçalves, Tarcísio de Morais; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of Neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The frequency of cows seropositive for N.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was 39.4% (93/236) for Farm A and 31.4% (32/102) for the Farm B (p > 0.05). The mean vertical transmission rates for N. caninum were 29% and 9% for the herds of Farms A and B, respectively. No negative effects (p > 0.05) from infection by N.caninum were observed regarding milk production and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in herds A and B.

  8. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species.

  9. Trends and predictors of HIV-1 acquired drug resistance in Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Duani, Helena; Aleixo, Agdemir Waleria; Tupinambás, Unaí

    Several studies show that the prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 virus is declining over time. A retrospective cohort study was carried out to evaluate the trends of drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-exposed individuals in a state of a middle-income country, Minas Gerais, southeast region of Brazil. We analyzed 2115 HIV-1 sequences from 2002 up to 2012, from 52 cities of Minas Gerais. The groups were analyzed according to the definitions: "IAS - 3 class mutations", if ≥1 drug resistance mutation from IAS 2015 list (DRM) was present in each class; "No fully susceptible drugs" as the absence of any fully susceptible drug in Stanford algorithm; and "GSS≥2″, when a maximum calculated GSS (genotypic susceptibility score) was ≥2 or ≥3, counting only drugs available in Brazil and USA at given calendar years. Time trends of resistance were analyzed by Cochran-Armitage test. We observed a decrease in the rate resistance mutations for PI, NRTI, "IAS - 3 class mutations", and "No fully susceptible drugs" over these 11 years, from 69.2% to 20.7%, 92.3% to 90.2%, 46.2% to 22.5%, and 12.8% to 5.7%, respectively (p<0.05). Resistance to NNRTI increased from 74.4% to 81.6%, mainly because of K103N mutation. The GSS score ≥2 increased during the years from 35.9% to 87.3% (p<0.001). We demonstrate that resistance to PI and to the three main classes simultaneously are declining, although the number of patients on of antiretroviral therapy has doubled in the last ten years in Brazil (125,000 in 2002 to 400,000 in 2014). Broader resistance testing and the availability of more therapeutic options might have influenced this decline. The increase in NNRTI resistance can limit this class as first line treatment in Brazil in the future.

  10. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  11. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  12. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  13. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  14. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  15. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2013-12-01

    It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF < 4 and TF > 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p < 0.001). This association was not found among adolescents and adults (p > 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  16. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Margonari de; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Costa, Daniela Carmargos; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2004-12-01

    A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7%) were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with asthma in students from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Magna Adaci de Quadros; de Pinho, Lucinéia; Marques, Paula Quadros; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of asthma and factors related to asthma development in schoolchildren aged 6 to 14, living in central and peripheral areas of the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and who were registered with the Family Health Strategy program. Initially, a standard written questionnaire, based on ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), was administered to collect personal data, information regarding income, asthma prevalence, allergic rhinitis and eczema (N = 1,131). Secondly, a case-control study was performed by grouping the patients as either asthmatic (A; N = 172) or non-asthmatic (NA; N = 379). Potential factors associated with the occurrence of asthma were evaluated using the complementary questionnaire from ISAAC phase II. Skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity (STIH) and parasitological tests were also performed. The odds ratio, estimated by multivariate analysis, indicated that asthma cases were related to kindergarten attendance, household smoking, family history of asthma, rhinitis and positive STIH. It was concluded that, in the studied population, the prevalence of asthma was related to genetic predisposition, in addition to individual history, social demographics, exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke and a positive response to allergy testing.

  18. Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Maria Alice Zacarias; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Faccini, João Luiz; Furlong, John; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the nonparasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.

  19. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  20. [The insertion of oral health services in the Family Health Program at Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Eloisio do Carmo; Silva, Ana Cláudia Baladelli; Meneghin, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the administrative and operational aspects of Oral Health Teams (OHT) at the Family Health Program (FHP) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Two types of questionnaire were sent to 310 cities, and 53.5% were answered until June/2004. From the total of the respondents, 66.9% reported unstable forms of hiring and 82.5% of the dental surgeons receive wage 9 times lower than minimum wage for full-time job (8 hours); 75.9% of the cities presented an average of 4000 inhabitants for OHT. In average, 79.6% of all OHTs attended all ages group; 48.9% of dental surgeons reported not having participated in any of the courses offered. The integration between OH and FHP teams could be seen in 76.2 %, however only 54% organize regular meetings. The positive points observed were that FHP teams follow the principle of universality, the eight-hour shift and the quantitative extension allowing a higher access to oral health services. As negative points, it was observed the lack of qualification of the OHT, the excessive demand, the precarious work relations and the lack of involvement between OH and FH teams.

  1. Participation in proficiency programs and promotion of quality in transfusion services of Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ângela Melgaço; Brener, Stela; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at identifying associations between the participation of transfusion services in immunohematology external quality control programs and their accuracy in immunohematology testing and adaptation to technical and legal operational procedures. Methods From 2007 to 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 219 transfusion services of the State of Minas Gerais who participated in this investigation by responding to a questionnaire and conducting a proficiency test comprising: ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular RBC antibody screening and cross-matching. Frequencies and bivariate analysis followed by binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results Transfusion services who participated in external quality control programs (32.4%) and those that did not (67.6%) obtained worrying error percentages in proficiency tests which may significantly increase blood transfusion risks. Shortfalls related to the establishment of protocols, standards and internal quality control were also significant. On comparing the two groups, transfusion services that participated in these programs had a 2.35 times higher chance of correct results in the proficiency panel testing, a 3.16 higher chance of having transfusional records and a 2.81 higher chance of performing preventive maintenance of equipment. Conclusion The study showed that independent factors associated to participation in external quality control programs suggest that more investment in internal quality control procedures is necessary and that more attention should be paid to current legislation. PMID:23049379

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  3. [Variations in tooth decay rates among children 5 and 12 years old in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lucas, Simone Dutra; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Mendonça, Lisette Lobato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to analyze to what extent World Health Organization goals were met in relation to dental caries in 2000 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, identifying factors associated with variation in DMFT and the occurrence of DMFT < or = 3 among 12-year-old children and in the percentage of caries-free 5-year-olds. Secondary data from different sources were used. Linear regression and multiple logistic regression techniques were applied to the analysis of the numerical and dichotomous dependent variables. Socioeconomic and dental services supply/utilization indicators were used as potential explanatory variables. The goals expressed by DMFT < or = 3 at 12 years and a minimum of 50% caries-free 5-year-olds were met by 37% and 9% of the State's municipalities, respectively. In general the dependent variables were associated with socioeconomic level, and no associations were identified with dental care. The results should not be generalized, but they do suggest inequities in oral health and the role played by socioeconomic factors and water fluoridation.

  4. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B.; Barbosa, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  5. Sicarius uncinipenis and Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi in captive greater rheas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Isabela de Oliveira; Almeida, Lara Ribeiro de; Santos, Hudson Andrade Dos; Lima, Walter Dos Santos; Lara, Leonardo Bôscoli; Ecco, Roselene

    2014-01-01

    The present study details the pathological and parasitological findings of parasitic ventriculitis and nematode infections in the large intestines of two female Rhea americana americana birds. The birds were housed in captivity, and both exhibited poor body condition and lethargy. The rheas were sent to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) and, despite medical care, the clinical condition of the birds did not improve. The birds died two days after admission, and were submitted to necropsy. Gross, histopathology and parasitological analysis resulted in the identification of Sicarius uncinipenis, which is associated with parasitic ventriculitis, while Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi was identified in the large intestine of both rheas. The apparent clinical indications, including loss of appetite and death, combined with the discovery of numerous parasites and other pathology changes, supported the conclusion that the death of the birds was caused by the parasitic infection. Further investigations of these infections in free-living and captive rheas are required, such that accurate data on the incidence and pathogenicity of these parasites can be obtained.

  6. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

  7. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  8. Beneficiation of a commercial kaolin from Mar de Espanha, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Chemistry and mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, P. G.; Fabris, J. D.; Mussel, W. N.; Murad, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Garg, V. K.

    2005-12-01

    Raw materials used to produce a commercial kaolin from Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the intermediate and final products after processing were studied to trace the fate of iron during industrial beneficiation. X-ray diffraction shows kaolinite to be the principal phyllosilicate in all samples. Sample treatments include size fractionation and a chemical treatment with sodium bisulfate, metallic zinc, and sulfuric acid, which remove all associated goethite and most hematite but do not significantly affect structural iron in the phyllosilicates. Scanning electron micrographs show that individual kaolinite grains are approximately 0.3 μm in size and have an almost hexagonal morphology in a compact arrangement. Tubular halloysite was also occasionally observed. Mössbauer spectra measured at 298° and 100 K evince the presence of hematite and paramagnetic trivalent iron in all samples, whereas goethite, which is abundant in raw and intermediate samples, is absent in the final kaolin. The industrial processing removes almost two-thirds of the total iron content (essentially iron oxides) of the raw material during size fractionation, so the intermediate sample contains 0.42% Fe 3+. The final marketable material contains 0.12% Fe 3+ in hematite (0.07%) and phyllosilicates (0.05%), rendering it suitable as paper filler.

  9. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  10. Bird ticks in an area of the Cerrado of Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Ferreira, Ildemar

    2012-09-01

    In the present study the tick prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and species were recorded on birds captured between January 2009 and December 2010 in the Ecological Station Pirapitinga-ESEC from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 967 birds, from 15 families and 40 species were captured and 165 (17.1 %) individuals were parasitized by ticks. Of these 160 (97 %) belonged to the order Passeriformes. Five tick species were identified: Amblyomma longirostre (n = 274) was the most common species followed by Amblyomma parvum (n = 43), Amblyomma nodosum (n = 39), Amblyomma ovale (n = 24) and Riphicephalus sanguineus (n = 7). None of 61 unengorged larvae molted to nymph. The mean intensity of infestation was 2.7 ± 2.4 ticks per bird (448 ticks/165 birds) ranging from 1 to 10. Only 19 (11.4 %) birds were infested with one species of tick. The remaining birds were infested by two, three or four species of ticks. Also new hosts for all five ticks were recorded. Only nymphs were recorded throughout the year with two similar peaks during autumn and winter 2009 and 2010.

  11. On the natural diet of Daphnia laevis in the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais).

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the major food items ingested by adult specimens of Daphnia laevis within the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The gut content was analyzed after addition of sodium hypochlorite and also through the examination of dissected guts under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Chlorophyceae was the main food item ingested, representing c. 80.5% of the total ingested food. Moreover, Eutetramorus fottii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum and Oocystis lacustris, the dominant phytoplankton species within the reservoir, were the most frequent cells found in the gut contents. Euglenophyta also represented an important food item accounting for 15% of the ingested material, including mainly Trachelomonas volvocina and Euglena oxyuris, although less abundant in the reservoir (< 10% of total phytoplankton). Blue-green algae occurred at much lower percentages in the guts than in the phytoplankton. A small amount of undigested Microcystis aeruginosa colonies were also found in the gut content of D. laevis. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that, besides phytoplankton cells, a great amount of abiogenic material was also ingested. The amount of this inorganic material increased considerably in the tract (from 15% to 75% of the gut content), when a peak of D. laevis was observed in the reservoir. Our assumption is that the ingestion of this inorganic material can be a strategy used by D. laevis to obtain additional food supply.

  12. Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; de Freitas, Fernando A; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Maffia, Vanessa P

    2006-06-01

    Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae) showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae) was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks.

  13. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects.

  14. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Bastos, Mauro Gomes; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze hospitalization rates and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations and to characterize them according to coverage by the Family Health Strategy, a primary health care guidance program. METHODS An ecological study comprising 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, under the purview of 28 regional health care units, was conducted. We used data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations in 2000 and 2010 were compared. Population data were obtained from the demographic censuses. RESULTS The number of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations declined from 20.75/1,000 inhabitants [standard deviation (SD) = 10.42) in 2000 to 14.92/thousand inhabitants (SD = 10.04) in 2010 Heart failure was the most frequent cause in both years. Hospitalizations rates for hypertension, asthma, and diabetes mellitus, decreased, whereas those for angina pectoris, prenatal and birth disorders, kidney and urinary tract infections, and other acute infections increased. Hospitalization durations and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Mean hospitalization rates for sensitive conditions were significantly lower in 2010 than in 2000, but no correlation was found with regard to the expansion of the population coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Hospitalization rates and proportion of deaths were different between the various health care regions in the years evaluated, indicating a need to prioritize the primary health care with high efficiency and quality. PMID:26039399

  15. [Responsibilities of oral health technician in the family health strategy in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2013-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the self-reporting of duties performed by the Oral Health Technicians in the State of Minas Gerais. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted through telephone interviews, with a representative sample of 231 workers. The descriptive analysis involved the calculation of proportions. It was found that 71.6% (95% CI, 64.4 to 77.5) performed coronal polishing, 63.2% (95% CI, 56.1 to 69.7) carried out scaling of dental calculus and 14.7% (95% CI, 10.3 to 15.4) inserted restorative materials. Regarding preventive/collective actions, 100% (95% CI, 97.6 to 100.0) participated in educational activities, 99% (95% CI, 96.1 to 99.8) demonstrated oral hygiene techniques, 96.6% (95% CI, 92.7 to 98.4) administrated topical fluoride, 77.9% (95% CI, 71.5 to 83.3) made home visits, and 96.6 % (95% CI, 92.7 to 98.4) performed collective actions, especially in schools. Oral Health Technicians have spent their more time on preventive/collective activities than on individual clinical care.

  16. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  17. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato

    2013-12-01

    A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.

  18. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  20. Leishmania infantum INFECTION IN DOGS FROM THE SOUTHERN REGION OF MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Juliana Barbosa; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra; KANAMURA, Herminia Yohko; PEREIRA, Alessandro Antônio Costa; COLOMBO, Fabio Antonio; MARQUES, Marcos José

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic and chronic disease and dogs are the main reservoir of the etiologic agent, Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi). A serological and molecular investigation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was performed in the municipality of Alfenas, located in the southern region of Minas Gerais, where the disease is not endemic. Samples from 87 dogs were submitted to serological tests including the Dual Path Platform (DPP(r) ) CVL Bio-Manguinhos rapid test, an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), as well as molecular techniques such as a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the RV1/RV2 primers and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) with the LinJ31, Ldon and DNApol primers. Of the 87 serum samples, eight (9.2%) were positive for Leishmania using the DPP rapid test, but only four (4.6%) were confirmed by ELISA and two (2.3%) by IFAT. In these two serologically confirmed cases, spleen and liver samples were positive by all the employed molecular and parasitological procedures performed on spleen samples. When whole blood samples were used in the molecular assays, two samples (2.3%) were positive only by qPCR. DNA extracted and amplified from the spleens of seropositive dogs was sequenced, showing 100% of similarity with the Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi) sequence. Thus, the first cases of CVL have been confirmed in the Alfenas region, suggesting the importance of canine surveys in non-endemic municipalities for CVL to monitor disease progression and to prevent outbreaks. PMID:27828616

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; da Silva Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  2. High prevalence of intestinal infections and ectoparasites in dogs, Minas Gerais State (southeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Frank, Raphael; Ariza, Liana; de Sousa Lopes, Iris; de Assis E Silva, Alcides; Borges, Ana Cláudia; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, 155 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Unit of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais State (Southeast Brazil) were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs was systematically examined for the presence of helminthic parasites. In total, we isolated 5,155 metazoan parasites of eight species (three intestinal helminth species, five ectoparasite species). The cestode Dipylidium caninum was present in 57 dogs (36.8 %), the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum in 30 (19.4 %) and Toxocara canis in 24 (15.5 %), respectively. Among the ectoparasites, 139 (89.7 %) dogs were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 115 (74.2 %) with Ctenocephalides felis, 5 (3.2 %) with Tunga penetrans and one specimen (0.7 %) with Amblyomma cajennense, while myiasis was found in one dog (0.7 %). In logistic regression analysis, young age (adjusted odds ratio 5.74; 95 % confidence interval 1.18-27.85) and male sex (3.60; 1.24-10.40) were significantly associated with toxocariasis, and crossbreed dogs (8.20; 1.52-44.31), with dipylidiasis. Male (2.23; 1.12-4.43) and crossbreed dogs (5.17; 1.17-22.83) had also a significant higher number of concomitant parasitoses. Spatial distribution of dogs by neighbourhood identified high-risk areas. Our systematic study shows that dogs in Uberlândia carry a high number of parasites which may cause zoonotic diseases in humans; therefore, further specific evidence-based intervention measures are needed.

  3. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  4. Paepalanthusserpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthusserpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthusser.Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status.

  5. Paepalanthus serpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe and illustrate Paepalanthus serpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthus ser. Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status. PMID:25931972

  6. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus.

  7. [The Brazilian School Nutrition Program from the standpoint of students attending state schools in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Marques, Luciana Araújo; Bonomo, Elido; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves; Corrêa, Margareth da Silva; Passos, Letícia Siqueira Falce; de Souza, Anelise Andrade; Barros, Betannya França; de Souza, Débora Maria Soares; so Reis, Joana Almeida; de Andrade, Noemi Gonçalves

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the Brazilian School Nutrition Program from the standpoint of students attending state schools in Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample of 1500 students, representing the population of the state schools of Minas Gerais, involving the administration of a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using simple frequency, mean, standard deviation, Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test and logistic regression (p < 0.05, CI 95%). The effective acceptance of the program was 28.8% and the effective adhesion to the program was 45.1%. Program acceptance was significantly higher among males and students who consumed less extra-institutional food. Acceptance and adhesion to the program was significantly higher among the older students and those who reported participating in activities related to nutritional education. In total, 73.5% of the students suggested improvements in school food. Many of the program's norms and guidelines are not being implemented. The acceptance of school food was negatively influenced by the consumption of extra-institutional foods and positively influenced by food and nutritional education activities.

  8. Reconnaissance geologic study of the Vazante zinc district, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, Charles H.; Nahass, Samir

    1977-01-01

    The Vazante district, Minas Gerais, 130 km south of Paracatu, produces nearly all of Brazil's zinc metal. The district is situated on the western side of the Late Precambrian Bambul basin and along the eastern and leading edge of the north-trending Brazilian orogenic belt (ca. 600-500 m.y. old) that borders the western margin of the basin. Reconnaissance study indicates that bedding and low-angle thrust faulting, folding, and low-grade metamorphism dominated the structural development of the district. The structural trend within the district is northeasterly, and dips 20?-45 ? NW. Three sets of folds developed during the main period of eastward thrusting of older Precambrian rocks over the western margin of the Bambui basin. A fourth fold set is transverse to the regional trend. The rocks in the district are tentatively assigned to the Paraopeba Formation of the Bambui Group and are designated A through C in ascending order. Unit A is phyllite to phyllitic siltstone. Unit B consists of interbedded dolomitic limestone and marl-limestone. Irregularly distributed limestone ledges 20 to 100 m thick have the appearance of boudins. Their origin is attributed to a combination of rapid lateral facies changes and differential movement at different structural levels along bedding and low-angle thrust faults, with the formation of tear faults vertically limited by the thrust faults. Unit C consists of interbedded siltstone, dolomitic limestone, and sandstone. Phyllitic rocks along member interfaces in units B and C and at the base of unit C indicate differential penetrative deformation and bedding faulting. The contacts between units A, B, and C are interpreted to be low-angle or bedding faults, and their original stratigraphic positions with respect to each other is unknown. Zinc silicate minerals (hemimorphite and willemite) occur in a folded breccia zone in the lower part of unit B. The breccia zone is interpreted to be tectonic in origin, having formed along the step of a

  9. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive

  10. Legal and health variations in drug litigation injunctions granted in Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago Lopes; Ferré, Felipe; Campos, Orozimbo Henriques; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors related to the granting of preliminary court orders [injunctions] in drug litigations. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study of drug lawsuits in the State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, was conducted from October 1999 to 2009. The database consists of 6,112 lawsuits, out of which 6,044 had motions for injunctions and 5,167 included the requisition of drugs. Those with more than one beneficiary were excluded, which totaled 5,072 examined suits. The variables for complete, partial, and suppressed motions were treated as dependent and assessed in relation to those that were independent – lawsuits (year, type, legal representation, defendant, court in which it was filed, adjudication time), drugs (level five of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification), and diseases (chapter of the International Classification of Diseases). Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS Out of the 5,072 lawsuits with injunctions, 4,184 (82.5%) had the injunctions granted. Granting varied from 95.8% of the total lawsuits in 2004 to 76.9% in 2008. Where there was legal representation, granting exceeded 80.0% and in lawsuits without representation, it did not exceed 66.9%. In public civil actions (89.1%), granting was higher relative to ordinary lawsuits (82.8%) and injunctions (80.1%). Federal courts granted only 68.6% of the injunctions, while the state courts granted 84.8%. Diseases of the digestive system and neoplasms received up to 87.0% in granting, while diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioral disorders, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue received granting below 78.6% and showed a high proportion of suspended injunctions (10.9%). Injunctions involving paroxetine, somatropin, and ferrous sulfate drugs were all granted, while less than 54.0% of those involving escitalopram, sodium diclofenac, and nortriptyline were granted. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in

  11. Multiscale Analysis of Soil Porosity from Hg Injection Curves in Soils from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2012-04-01

    The soil pore space is a continuum extremely variable in size, including structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores or cracks with millimetres or even centimetres size. Pore size distributions (PSDs) affects important soil functions, such as transmission and storage of water, and root growth. Direct and indirect measurements of PSDs are currently used to characterize soil structure. Mercury injection porosimetry is useful for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in the range from about 0,5 nm to 100 μm. Here, the multifractal formalism was employed to describe Hg injection curves measured in duplicate samples collected on 54 horizons from 19 profiles in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten of the studied profiles were classified as Ferralsols (Latosols, Oxisols). Besides these, other wide different soil groups were sampled, including Nitisol, Acrisol, Alisol, Luvisol, Planosol, Cambisol, Andosol and Leptosol. Clay content varied from 4 to 86% and pore volume in the range from 100 to 0.005 μm was between 5.52 a 53.76 cm3100g-1. All the horizons taken on Ferralsols and Nitisols as well as in Bt argic horizons from Acrisol Alisol, Luvisol and Planosol clearly showed a bimodal pore size distribution. Pore volume in the range from 100 to 0.005 μm and microporosity (0,2-0.005 μm) showed a significant relationship with clay content an Al2O3. All the Hg injection data sets studied soil showed remarkably good scaling trends and could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. The capacity dimensions, D0, was not significantly different from the Euclidean dimension. The entropy dimension, D1, varied from 0.590 to 0.946 , whereas the Hölder exponent of order zero, α0was between 1.027 and 1.451, and these two parameters showed a lineal negatives relationship, as expected. The highest D1 values, ranging from 0.913 to 0.980, were obtained for the Leptosol, whereas the lowest D1 values, ranging from 0.641 to 0.766 corresponded to the Nitisol. This

  12. Analysis of the Representation of Cretaceous Period in Textbooks Used in Schools in the Western Region of the City of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the geography textbooks, which are being used in the public schools of the city of Ituiutaba, Depth of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research also seeks to address the ways and methods being employed by the teachers of these schools for studies that include the teaching of Geology and Geosciences. In this study, survey…

  13. Comparative pollen preferences by africanized honeybees Apis mellifera L. of two colonies in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Cynthia F P; Bacha Junior, Gabriel L; Fonseca, Rafael L S E; Sousa, Priscila R de

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polliniferous floral sources used by Apis mellifera (L.) (africanized) in an apiary situated in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais state, and evaluate the pollen prefences among the beehives. Two beehives of Langstroth type with frontal pollen trap collectors were used. The harvest was made from September 2007 to March 2008, with three samples of pollen pellets colected per month per beehive. The subsamples of 2 grams each were prepared according to the European standard melissopalynological method. A total of 56 pollen types were observed, identifying 43 genus and 32 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Mimosaceae (8), Asteraceae (6), Fabaceae (3), Arecaceae (3), Euphorbiaceae (3), Rubiaceae (3), Caesalpiniaceae (2), Moraceae (2) and Myrtaceae (2). The most frequent pollen types (> 45%) were Mimosa scabrella, Myrcia and Sorocea. The results demonstrated a similarity regarding the preferences of floral sources during the major part of the time. There was a distinct utilization of floral sources among the pollen types of minor frequency. In spite of the strong antropic influence, the region showed a great polliniferous variety, which was an indicative of the potential for monofloral as well as heterofloral pollen production.

  14. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  15. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  16. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  17. [Surveillance of phytotherapeutic drugs in the state of Minas Gerais. Quality assessment of commercial samples of chamomile].

    PubMed

    Brandão, M G; Freire, N; Vianna-Soares, C D

    1998-01-01

    Marketing of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products is spreading all over the world. In order to assess the commercialization of medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products in the State of Minas Gerais, we identified and tested for the presence of adulterants and active ingredients in 27 samples of chamomile. All the samples consisted of Matricaria recutita flowers, but they were badly fragmented, a result of excessive handling and poor preservation. All samples contained contaminants, and insects were observed in 63% of the samples sold in drugstores. Only 50% of the samples in each group had the essential oils needed to produce antiinflammatory activity. Flavonoids and other phenolic constituents with a spasmolytic effect were detected in only 20% of the samples from each group. Results with chamomile indicated the poor quality with which medicinal plants and phytotherapeutic products are marketed and confirm the need for surveillance of such products in Brazil.

  18. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  19. Platiniferous gold-tourmaline aggregates in the gold-palladium belt of Minas Gerais, Brazil: implications for regional boron metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Tupinambá, Miguel; Zeh, Armin; Lehmann, Bernd; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Brauns, Michael; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2017-02-01

    The platiniferous gold-palladium belt of Minas Gerais, Brazil, forms an approximately 240-km-long, roughly north-south-trending domain that includes numerous auriferous lodes and platiniferous alluvium. The belt transects two Precambrian terranes, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the southern part, and the southern Serra do Espinhaço in the northern part. Both terranes were overprinted by regional fluid flow that led to tourmalinisation, with or without hematitisation, and precious-metal mineralisation. Here, we report the occurrence of coarse-grained gold-tourmaline aggregates and integrate recently obtained ages and tourmaline boron-isotope values published elsewhere. One type of aggregate is unique because it has patches that are close to stoichiometric PdPt, in which gold content varies from 2.5 to 33.5 at.%. The gold-tourmaline aggregates seem to be the ultimate expression of the boron metasomatism.

  20. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining.

  1. Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Parque do Sabiá complex, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elisângela de Azevedo Silva; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Paula, Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de

    2011-01-01

    Between April 2003 and May 2009 phlebotomine sandflies were collected in Parque do Sabiá complex, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using CDC and Shannon traps. The objective was to associate the sandfly species captured to the risk of the transmission of leishmaniasis in the municipality. The 126 captured specimens belonging to six species of phlebotomine, among which Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) davisi (Root, 1934) predominated with 113 specimens (89.7%). The remaining captured species were Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) mamedei Oliveira, Afonso, Dias & Brazil, 1994 - five specimens (3.9%); Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) - four specimens (3.2%); Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira, 1938) - two specimens (1.6%); Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932) - one specimen (0.8%); and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) - one specimen (0.8%). The collection of species that may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania reveals the need for continuous entomological surveillance.

  2. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  3. [Epidemics, state and society: the case of Minas Gerais in the second half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Torres Silveira, Anny Jackeline

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristics of historical analyses of epidemic diseases is the notion of crisis: epidemics are generally perceived as events that do not fit within the framework of everyday order and practices and go beyond individual experiences (suffering, threat of death), jeopardizing social structures, public order, economic activities and moral values. However, epidemic events also shed light on how societies organize healthcare in times of normality, including the extent and limits of the action of health authorities and the role of populations in meeting their own daily needs. This article discusses the organization of healthcare in Minas Gerais province of Brazil during two epidemic episodes, i.e., smallpox (from 1873 to 1875) and cholera (from 1855 to 1856), with the aim of identifying the problems experienced by the population of Minas and the actions taken by the public health authorities during these epidemics. We suggest that the difficulties caused by the arrival of cholera and/or intensification of the smallpox epidemic contributed to expose and exacerbate the shortcomings characterizing healthcare in that society. We also observe that the social mobilization of patients during these events was nothing new, given the low participation of the state in public health during this period, which counted on initiatives and support from civil society.

  4. [Diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A and nutritional anemia status in the population of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive

  5. [Occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus (Schneider, 1866) (Nematoda, Oxyuridae) in Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 (Primates, Atelidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Danielle de Paiva; Magalhães, Cecilia Maria da Fonseca Ribeiro; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Souzalima, Sueli de

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to register the occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus in Alouatta guariba clamitans, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two specimens of A. guariba clamitans, died accidentally, have been necropsied for parasitological studies. Only the large intestine and caecum were infected by T. minutus. The parasitism intensity was 6650 parasites and the density was 2.6 parasites/cm3 of large intestine. In the caecum, the mean intensity was 6753 +/- 490.73 parasites, with mean density of 6.23 +/- 5.13 parasites/cm3. The present study supplies information on adult nematodes biometry and this is the first record of T. (T.) minutus in A. guariba clamitans from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

  6. [Health care models: organization of Reference Teams in the health basic network of Secretaria Municipal de Saude of Betim, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S R; Campos, G W

    2000-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a new basic health care system approach termed Reference Teams, or health unit teams accountable for a reference population, organized in Betim, Minas Gerais. Empirical data and other forms of evidence were collected by the authors with the purpose of describing the project's history. Based on this experience and other studies on the subject, some theoretical reflections shaping models for health care reform were formulated.

  7. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2008-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. This paper presents the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  8. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2007-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. The paper will present the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  9. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Thaís Aparecida Vieira; Assis, Andrêssa Silvino Ferreira; do Valle, Daniel Almeida; Barletta, Vívian Honorato; de Carvalho, Iná Pires; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; da Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal

  10. Clinical Profiles and Factors Associated with Death in Adults with Dengue Admitted to Intensive Care Units, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Heringer, Tiago Pires; de Oliveira, Cristina da Cunha Hueb Barata; Fassy, Liliane Boaventura; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Oliveira, Daniela Pagliari; de Oliveira, Claudio Dornas; Botoni, Fernando Otoni; Magalhães, Fernanda do Carmo; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical profile of dengue-infected patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with death. A longitudinal, multicenter case series study was conducted with laboratory-confirmed dengue patients admitted to nine Brazilian ICUs situated in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data; disease severity scores; and mortality were evaluated. A total of 97 patients were studied. The in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 18.6% and 19.6%, respectively. Patients classified as having severe dengue according to current World Health Organization classifications showed an increased risk of death in a univariate analysis. Nonsurvivors were older, exhibited lower serum albumin concentrations and higher total leukocyte counts and serum creatinine levels. Other risk factors (vomiting, lethargy/restlessness, dyspnea/respiratory distress) were also associated with death in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The ICU and in-hospital mortality observed in this study were higher than values reported in similar studies. An increased frequency of ICU admission due to severe organ dysfunction, higher severity indices and scarcity of ICU beds may partially explain the higher mortality.

  11. Clinical Profiles and Factors Associated with Death in Adults with Dengue Admitted to Intensive Care Units, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Heringer, Tiago Pires; de Oliveira, Cristina da Cunha Hueb Barata; Fassy, Liliane Boaventura; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Oliveira, Daniela Pagliari; de Oliveira, Claudio Dornas; Botoni, Fernando Otoni; Magalhães, Fernanda do Carmo; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical profile of dengue-infected patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with death. A longitudinal, multicenter case series study was conducted with laboratory-confirmed dengue patients admitted to nine Brazilian ICUs situated in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data; disease severity scores; and mortality were evaluated. A total of 97 patients were studied. The in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 18.6% and 19.6%, respectively. Patients classified as having severe dengue according to current World Health Organization classifications showed an increased risk of death in a univariate analysis. Nonsurvivors were older, exhibited lower serum albumin concentrations and higher total leukocyte counts and serum creatinine levels. Other risk factors (vomiting, lethargy/restlessness, dyspnea/respiratory distress) were also associated with death in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The ICU and in-hospital mortality observed in this study were higher than values reported in similar studies. An increased frequency of ICU admission due to severe organ dysfunction, higher severity indices and scarcity of ICU beds may partially explain the higher mortality. PMID:26090676

  12. [Socioeconomic conditions, food and nutrition of the urban population in a locality of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Lima, E da S; Euclydes, M P; Cruz, T A; Casali, A D

    1989-10-01

    This study aimed at identifying and characterizing the alimentary and nutritional situation of different socio-economic strata of the urban population of Ponte Nova, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample comprised 161 families stratified according to their earnings in terms of the official minimum wage (salário mínimo--SM), classified in 6 stratum. In addition to socio-economic data, the analysis also takes into consideration the nutritional and caloric adequacy of the ingredients of the basic diet as well as the nutritional state of children up to 6 years old, employing the criteria of Gomez and Seoane-Lathan. The results show that 40% of the sample population earn less than 2 SM, while 12% reach and income level above 10 SM. The population considered has only and indirect relation to production and is employed in the services sector. Access to sanitary services is greater for higher income strata, which also feature better living conditions and health resources. The analysis of the basic diet shows that nutritional adequacy increases with increasing income, reaching more adequate levels only in the highest stratum. The level of perception as to what is "sufficient" in terms of diet supports the results of diet adequacy for each stratum. In so far as the nutritional condition of children is concerned it was observed that the prevalence of malnutrition is consistent with socio-economic condition, decreasing within creased earnings and disappearing altogether above the 10 SM range.

  13. Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Kloos, Helmut; King, Charles; Quites, Humberto Ferreira Oliveira; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Coelho, Kellen Rosa; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village residents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p < 0.001). However, during the 2002-2006 period, only 23.7% of the villagers and 27% of the rural residents obtained tests on their own from health centres, hospitals and private clinics in various nearby towns. In 2007, 63% of the villagers and 70.5% of the rural residents reported never having received treatment for schistosomiasis. This paper reveals considerable variation in the accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services between the central village and the rural area. A combination of low utilisation rates between 2002-2006 and persistently high S. mansoni infection rates suggest that the schistosomiasis control program must be more rapidly incorporated into the primary health services.

  14. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  15. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road.

  16. Substance use and sexual risk among at-risk adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Penelope; Smith, Amy Erica; Akers, Aletha

    2014-04-01

    We examined the difference in prevalence of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk youth participants in programs offered by community-based organizations in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by gender and organization type (governmental vs. non-governmental). 388 adolescents were recruited from 25 intervention-based organizations servicing at-risk youth between the ages of 12 and 17 in Juiz de Fora. Participants completed a 15-item survey assessing substance use and sexual risk behaviors, along with socio-demographic predictors of these behaviors. Males were more likely to report drug and alcohol use associated with homelessness and abandonment. Females were more likely to report sexual risk taking associated with neighborhood crime. Participants from non-governmental organizations were less likely to engage in all measured risk behaviors. The present analysis points to the need to understand how Brazil's Child and Adolescent Act is being applied and the implications this has for intervention and the promotion of positive health outcomes for young people.

  17. [Tooth decay and associated factors among adolescents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a hierarchical analysis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional population-based study (n = 763) conducted in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of tooth decay among adolescents and to identify the potential determinants of same. Probability sampling by conglomerates in multiple stages was used. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the data collection by means of intraoral examination and interviews in the previously selected households. In the analysis of the determinant factor for the presence of tooth decay, hierarchical binary logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of tooth decay, decayed, missing and filled teeth were 71.3%, 36.5%, 55.6% and 16%, respectively. The following averages were observed: DMFT (3.4 teeth), number of decayed (0.8 teeth), restored (2.4 teeth) and missing (0.2 teeth). The incidence of tooth decay was higher among adolescents who stated they were black/indigenous/brown (OR = 1.76), lived in crowded households (OR = 2.4), did not regularly visit or had never been to a dentist (OR = 1.9), used public or philanthropic services (OR = 1,8), had smoking habits (OR = 4.1), consumed alcohol (OR = 1.8), perceived their oral health negatively (OR = 5.9 and OR = 1.9) and had toothac in the last six months (OR = 2.0).

  18. Quantification and speciation of mercury in soils from the Tripuí Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Helena E L; Nalini, Hermínio A; Leonel, Liliam V; Windmöller, Cláudia C; Santos, Regis C; de Brito, Walter

    2006-09-01

    Contents of total mercury, organic carbon, total sulfur, iron, aluminum and grain size and clay mineralogy were used along with Pearson's correlation and Hg thermal desorption technique to investigate the presence, distribution and binding behavior of Hg in soils from three depths from the Tripuí Ecological Station, located near Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils studied had predominantly medium and fine sand texture (0.59-0.062 mm), acid character and Hg contents ranging from 0.09 to 1.23 microg/g. The granulometric distribution revealed that Hg is associated with coarse sand (2-0.59 mm) and silt and clay (<0.062 mm) and presents similar Hg concentrations in both fractions. Mercury distribution in soil profiles showed that Hg was homogeneously distributed throughout the depths at most sites. Hg thermal desorption curves show that mercury occurs not only as Hg2+ predominantly bound to organic components in most of the samples, but also in the form of cinnabar in some. Pearson's correlation confirmed that mercury is associated with organic matter and sulfur and possibly with sulfur-bearing organic matter in most samples.

  19. [Factors associated with waiting time and access to kidney transplants in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil'].

    PubMed

    Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; César, Cibele Comini; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with access to kidney transplants from living and cadaver donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The authors conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of patients on the waiting list for kidney transplants from 2000 to 2004 and followed until transplantation, death, exclusion, or continued presence on the line at the end of the study on December 31, 2005. The Cox model was used for competing risks. Of the 835 patients, 22.7% were transplanted. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors and cadavers was observed in patients with more time on dialysis and blood type O. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors was observed in residents in a high health risk area and in recipients with diabetes. The greatest disparity in access was observed in transplants from living donors, since there were no significant socio-demographic differences in transplants from cadaver donors. One can infer that the organ allocation system contributed to mitigating socio-demographic inequalities, and that clinical issues were more relevant in access to transplants from cadaver donors.

  20. Petrographic and microthermometrical studies of emeralds in the `Garimpo' of Capoeirana, Nova Era, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, J. L.; Mendes, J. C.; da Silveira Bello, R. M.; Svisero, D. P.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1992-03-01

    Petrographic investigations in the area of the Capoeirana emerald deposit, Minas Gerais State, revealed two main lithostructural units. The first unit is comprised of gneissic rocks of granitic composition belonging to the basement complex, and the second is composed of a highly weathered metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence represented by metapelitic schists, amphibolites, schists derived from ultramafic rocks, and quartzites. Quartz and pegmatoid veins appear near the contacts between the gneissic rocks and the mineralization metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence. The emerald mineralization is dominantly concentrated within the intercalations of meta-ultramafic schists near the contact of the pegmatoid veins. Microthermometric studies of the fluid inclusions of the emerald grains indicate that crystallization occurred in the pressure and temperature ranges of 2000 to 2750 bar and 450 to 650 °C, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralizing solutions have had a late hydrothermal-pneumatolytic origin characterized by low pressures, suggestive of the paragenesis talc + tremolite + carbonate + biotite-phlogopite + chlorite of the emerald wall rocks.

  1. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  2. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing.

  3. [Screening methodology application to evaluate cancer mortality in selected cities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Otero, Ubirani B; Antoniazzi, Berenice N; Veiga, Lene H S; Turci, Silvana R; Azevedo, Gulnar; Mendonça, Silva

    2007-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was launched in several cities in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, considering the possibility of increased cancer incidence due to high exposure to natural radiation. First, the cancer mortality patterns were assessed to determine whether there was an increase in cancer deaths and to discuss the possible risk factors related to such an increase. The study proposed the use of a screening methodology based on standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in order to classify priority areas for future studies. Cities considered high priority for further investigation were: Andradas, for lung cancer in men (SMR = 208 (106-310)) and liver cancer in women (SMR = 403 (104-701)); Poços de Caldas, leukemia in men and women (SMR = 284 (156-412)) and SMR = 211 (111-312), respectively); Pouso Alegre, leukemia in men (SMR = 333 (127-540)) and hematological cancers in women (SMR = 257 (188-396)). Epidemiological studies are necessary to evaluate the role of radiation and other risk factors in these cancers and thus to support future preventive and control measures.

  4. [Anthropometric evaluation and food intake of preschool children at municipal educational centers, in South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Ferreira, Andreza Campos; Pereira, Cristina Novack Amaral; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate socioeconomic conditions, nutritional status and food intake of preschool children assisted at Municipal Educational Centers (CEMs) of Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A transverse study involving 186 children was performed. The socioeconomic profile, weight, height, age, sex and food intake by a direct weighting tool were evaluated. It was observed an income family of one to three minimum wages, incomplete fundamental learning, private house with basic sanitation, four to five inhabitants per house of whom two worked at most. The average age was 49.2 +/- 12.9 months. The stunting rates were more prevalent among the children (20.5%). The whole, 72.6% of children have energy intake below Estimated Energy Intake (EER). However, when stratifying for age group, 78.4% of the children from 1 to 3 years old have high energy intake and 74.1% from 4 to 6 years old have inadequate energy intake. All children presented consumption below the Adequate Intake (AI) of calcium and most of them below to Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron. Despite some biosocioeconomic factors be favorable to the nutritional status, malnutrition, and inadequate nutrient intake were present, which demanded the implementation of nutritional programs in CEMs.

  5. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  6. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edvânia Beatriz Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; Bahia-DE-Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-07-11

    Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health.

  7. Audit of primary care electrocardiograms sent as emergency to a telehealth service - the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Milena S; Carvalho, Bárbara C; Lucena, Aline M; França, Ana Luiza N; Pessoa, Cristiane G; Neves, Daniel S; Alkmim, Maria Beatriz M

    2015-01-01

    The Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais (TNMG) is a public telehealth service in Brazil that has performed electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis since 2005. From February to March 2014, 28% of ECGs were classified as "emergency" by the primary care tele-health sites. This quasi-experimental study aimed to investigate the reasons behind the high number of emergency ECGs being sent in, the implementation of corrective actions, and an assessment of the impact of these actions. In the 1st phase, primary care units that sent >70% of ECGs as emergency from February to March 2014 were selected. The 2nd phase consisted of the intervention. In the 3rd phase, the proportion of ECGs sent as an emergency during the 1st and 2nd months post intervention were assessed. Of the 63 cities selected during the 1st phase, 50% of the practitioners did not know the proper definition of emergency. After the intervention, 67% of the cities had a significant reduction in the proportion of ECGs sent as an emergency during the 1st month, and 17% had a significant reduction during the 2nd month.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  9. Iron-containing pigment from an archaeological rupestrian painting of the Planalto Tradition in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Ardisson, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Archaeological rupestrian arts of the Planalto Tradition are of relatively widespread occurrence all over the land area of the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. They are typically composed by monochromic zoomorphic figures, especially of cervids, mainly in red or orange color. A fragment of a rock wall containing an archaeological painting was collected at the Itanguá site, in the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves (geographical coordinates, 17° 56' 51″ S 43° 13' 22″ W), MG. The rock piece was covered with an archaeological painting with pigments of two different hues of red. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed only a slight difference in Fe and P content for the two different color zones. The pigment materials on this small fragment of rock were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on the conventional incidence mode (XRD) and on grazing incidence X-ray mode (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray detector (SEM/EDS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature. Results indicated the occurrence of mainly hematite but also of diopside in the pigment. CEMS at RT reveal the presence of hematite and (super)paramagnetic ferric components. In order to confirm these results a small amount of powder from the painting pigments was also analyzed by transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 20 K.

  10. [Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors.

  11. Energy reserves of Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, B E S; Barros, M S; Carvalho, T F; Amaral, T S; Freitas, M B

    2012-02-01

    Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass) in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation.

  13. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Edvânia Beatriz dos Santos; RODRIGUES, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; BAHIA-DE-OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Henrique; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  14. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  15. Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A M; Dos Santos, C L C; Stumpp, R; Da Silva, L H D; Maia, R A; Paglia, A P; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy season and in the dry season. Samples were collected every 12 h and separated between photophase and scotophase periods. In total, 1,777 sand flies of 23 species were collected. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia renei (Martins, Falcão, and Silva) (44%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (15%), Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira) (11%), and Micropygomyia quinquefer (Costa Lima) (6%). The richness and abundance of total sand flies and the abundance of male and female sand flies in the aphotic zone of the caves did not differ between the photophase and scotophase, but differed between photoperiods at the entrance and at sites surrounding the caves. From our study of the daily activity of these insects in this ecotope, it will be possible to know which period of the day is of greatest risk of exposure of vertebrates who visit or live in these environments, including the human population.

  16. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    PubMed

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  17. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  18. Zinc- and Y-group-bearing senaite from St Peters Dome, and new data on senaite from Dattas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Sharp, W.N.; Adams, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    'Mineral Y', an unidentified phase described in association with murataite from a pegmatite in the Pikes Peak granite, El Paso County, Colorado (A.M. 59-172) is now found to be a senaite containing ZnO 7.05% and RE2O3 + Y2O3 5.24%, with the Zn and Y-group REE entering the (Ti,Fe,Mn) position. A Zn-bearing senaite from Dattas, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, has ZnO 7.7%.-R.A.H.

  19. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  20. Genotype and mating type distribution within clinical Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from patients with cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mora, Delio José; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Leite Maffei, Claudia Maria; Trilles, Luciana; Dos Santos Lazéra, Márcia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2010-06-01

    We molecularly characterized 81 cryptococcal isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid samples of 77 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2007 as having cryptococcal meningitis in Uberaba Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fifty-seven (74%) were male with a mean age 35.6 years. Seventy-two (88.9%) of the isolates were from 68 AIDS patients and cryp-tococcosis was the first AIDS-defining condition in 38 (55.9%) patients. Cryptococcosis and AIDS were simultaneously diagnosed in 25 (65.8%) of these 38 patients. Genotypes were characterized through the use of URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis, the genetic variability was determined using PCR-fingerprinting with the minisatellite-specific primer M13, and the mating type and serotypes were established by PCR. Seventy-six of the 81 isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans (93.8%), while the remaining five were C. gattii (6.1%), but all were mating type alpha. C. neoformans isolates were genotype VNI (serotype A), while C. gattii isolates were VGII. Four of the latter isolates were identical, but only two were from AIDS patients. Six of the nine isolates from non-AIDS patients were VNI. PCR fingerprints of the isolates from two of the three AIDS patients with clinical relapse were 100% identical. The predominance of VNI and mating type alpha is in accordance with data from other parts of the world. The occurrence of VGII in Minas Gerais indicates a geographical expansion within Brazil.

  1. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  2. Diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil by parasite, antibody and DNA detection assays.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E S; van der Meide, W F; Schoone, G J; Gontijo, C M F; Schallig, H D F H; Brazil, R P

    2006-08-01

    Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) is found throughout the South American continent, including Brazil, and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir host for this parasite. To support the implementation of a diagnostic protocol for surveillance of the disease in the region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil) we have compared the sensitivity and specificity of two serological tests, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT), with the combination of direct microscopy-culture-PCR as the gold standard, using samples obtained from 103 dogs in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The currently used standard serodiagnostic test, IFAT, had a sensitivity of 100% and its specificity was 74% compared to the gold standard of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of the DAT were 100% and 91%, respectively. On the basis of this study it is recommended to change from the IFAT to DAT for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis because of the superior specificity of the test combined with its user-friendliness.

  3. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Rosa, Marina Helena Figueredo; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Garcia, Adriana de Mello; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2016-06-07

    The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.

  4. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  5. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).

  6. Characterization and origin of spongillite-hosting sediment from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Gomes, N. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.

    2010-03-01

    Spongillite from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil is mainly known for its use in brick production and in the refractory industry. Very few studies have focused on its geological context. Spongillite-rich deposits occur in shallow ponds on a karstic planation surface developed on rocks of the Neoproterozoic São Francisco Supergroup. Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments are related to this surface. A field study of these deposits and analysis of multispectral images showed a SE-NW preferential drainage system at SE, suggesting that Mesozoic Areado Group sandstones were the source area of the spongillite-hosting sediments. Mineralogical and textural characterization by optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA-GTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of seven open-pit spongillite-rich deposits (Avião, Carvoeiro, Vânio, Preguiça, Divisa, Severino, Feijão) showed a sedimentological similarity between the deposits. They are lens-shaped and are characterized at the bottom by sand facies, in the middle by spicules-rich muddy-sand facies and at the top by organic matter-rich muddy-sand facies. Petrographically, the spongillite-hosting sediments and the siliclastic sediments of the Areado Group show detrital phases with similar mineralogical and textural features, such as the presence of well-sorted quartz grains and surface features of abrasion typical of aeolian reworking that occurred in the depositional environment in which the sandstones of the Areado Group were formed. Detrital heavy minerals, such as staurolite, zircon, tourmaline, and clay minerals, such as kaolinite, low amounts of illite, scarce chlorite and mixed-layer chlorite/smectite and illite/smectite occur in the spongillite-hosting sediments and in sandstones from the Areado Group. In both formations, staurolite has similar chemical composition. These mineralogical and textural features show that the

  7. The patterns of fracture and the conditioning tectonics in the region of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and part of the Migmatitic-Gnanulitic Complex in Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeirodossantos, Athos; Schorscher, Hans D.

    1989-07-01

    The structural evolution of the SE portion of Minas Gerais State, including the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and adjacent parts of the Migmatitic-Granulitic Complex are described. The area of complex policiclic evolution is composed of pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, arquean to upper proterozoic in age. In phanerozoic times basaltic magmatism and related tectonism took place principally in the Mesozoic Era, and restricted lacustric sedimentary basins developed in the tertiary and quaternary periods. This study is based on the interpretation of remote sensing products (MSS, RBV, TM and SLAR images) and geological data form literature and field work. An integrated geological map (1:250.000) and a statistical analysis of the patterns of fracturing show the importance of NNE-SSW and E-W directed events of ruptile and ruptile-ductile tectonics in the Archean and in the conditioning of the younger fracture-generations. Further evidences regarding the structural evolution of the Minas Supergroup in the Quadrilaterio Ferrifero revealed different fracture patterns in the Minas - cover in respect to its underlying basement.

  8. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  9. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alda Maria Soares; Costa, Emanuele Gama Dutra; Ray, Debalina; Suzuki, Brian M.; Hsieh, Michael H.; Fraga, Lucia Alves de Oliveira; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz (KK) stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT) has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high. Methods and Findings The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130) were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test): 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble (adult) worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r

  10. [Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in community-dwelling elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: data from the FIBRA study].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Vasconcelos, Karina Simone de Souza; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of frailty varies greatly and has received insufficient attention in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among the elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical, functional, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. An ordinal regression model was used to verify conditions associated with frailty and to determine odds ratios ( α= 0.05). Prevalence rates were 46.3% for pre-frailty was 8.7% for weakness. Pre-frail and frail elderly, respectively, showed higher and increasing odds ratios for dependency in instrumental activities of daily living; restrictions in advanced activities of daily living; use of walking aids; comorbidities; falls; depressive symptoms; lower self-efficacy in preventing falls; hospitalization; and advanced age. The study identified a high percentage of frail states associated with higher odds of adverse health conditions, especially related to disability.

  11. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  12. [Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of anemia in the elderly of the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Milagres, Clarice Santana; de Moraes, Keila Bacelar Duarte; Franceschini, Sylvia Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira Rocha; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological problem encountered in the elderly population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in the elderly in Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais). Data were collected by means of a household survey and conducting biochemical tests on 349 elderly between June and December 2009. The prevalence of anemia was 11.7% (95% CI 8.3% -15.1%) and was found to be higher among men (15.4%) among those aged 80 years and older (30%) and those who practiced polypharmacy (16.8%). The results obtained indicate anemia determinants similar to those observed in developed countries. The real need of polypharmacy should be evaluated in health care for the elderly, in order to prevent iatrogenic complications, of which anemia is one such complication.

  13. Highlights from the fifth international symposium of thrombosis and anticoagulation (ISTA V), October 18-19, 2012, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato D; Becker, Richard C; Newby, L Kristin; Peterson, Eric D; Hylek, Elaine M; Giugliano, Robert; Granger, Christopher B; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Carvalho, Antonio C; Berwanger, Otavio; Giraldez, Roberto R; Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Barbosa, Marcia M; da Consolacao V Moreira, Maria; Kalil, Renato A K; Freitas, Marildes; de Campos Guerra, Joao Carlos; Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; da Rocha Rodrigues, Thiago; Lopes, Antonio C; Garcia, David A

    2013-07-01

    To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fifth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, on October 18-19, 2012. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

  14. [Risk of contamination from exposure to Rio Doce water: a case study on the population's perceptions in Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Simão, Andréa Branco; Dias, Carlos Alberto; Braga, Eliza de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The close relationship between local residents and the Rio Doce and the river's recurrent flooding lead to continuous exposure of the population to waterborne diseases. Given the epidemiological importance of such diseases in the region, this study analyzes the association between risk perception of contamination and river water use, as well as the heuristic mechanisms used by individuals to shape their personal perception of risk. Regression models coupled with thematic network analysis were applied to primary data from 352 households in 2012. The data are representative of urban residents of Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results show that while 92.6% of respondents perceived high risk of waterborne diseases, only 11.4% reported not making direct use of the river. This apparent paradox is explained by the lack of information on transmission mechanisms, underestimating the perception of contamination. Public campaigns to promote preventive behavior should stress how waterborne diseases are transmitted, using simple examples to reach a wider local audience.

  15. [Health behaviors and preventive tests in adults with and without health insurance in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2003-2010].

    PubMed

    Valle, Estevão Alves; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2017-04-03

    This study analyzed indicators for health behaviors and use of preventive services in two probabilistic samples of adults, one in 2003 (n = 13,757) and the other in 2010 (n = 12,983), with and without private health insurance in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. After adjusting for demographic variables, temporal variation, and source of care, there was a reduction in smoking prevalence, similar between individuals with and without private health insurance, from 2003 to 2010. During this same period the prevalence of excessive alcohol intake and sedentary lifestyle increased in both groups; with the same magnitude, there was a decrease in the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. No changes were observed in the prevalence of blood pressure measurement, but the prevalence of cholesterol testing, mammogram, and Pap smear increased more sharply in individuals without health insurance.

  16. Intestinal parasites and commensals among individuals from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Cec lia; Silva, Claudio Vieira da; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children and adults from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October to November 2001. Stool samples from 78 individuals were examined by both the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Fifty-one (65.4%; CI 54.8 - 76.0) individuals were found to be infected, 23 (45.1%) children and 28 (54.9%) adults, of whom 34 (66.7%) were mono-infected, 9 (17.6%) bi-infected, and 8 (15.7%) poly-infected. In conclusion, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals suggests that parasitological exams should be periodically carried out in addition to the sanitation education and health special care in this population.

  17. Pre-Columbian Chagas disease in Brazil: Trypanosoma cruzi I in the archaeological remains of a human in Peruaçu Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alexandre; Iñiguez, Alena M; Lima, Valdirene S; Souza, Sheila M F Mendonça de; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Jansen, Ana M

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the presence and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a mummy presenting with megacolon that was dated as approximately 560 +/- 40 years old. The mummy was from the Peruaçu Valley in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All samples were positive for T. cruzi minicircle DNA, demonstrating the presence and broad dissemination of the parasite in this body. From one sample, a mini-exon gene fragment was recovered and characterized by sequencing and was found to belong to the T. cruzi I genotype. This finding suggests that T. cruzi I infected humans during the pre-Columbian times and that, in addition to T. cruzi infection, Chagas disease in Brazil most likely preceded European colonization.

  18. Mercury fractionation in stream sediments from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold mining region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Varejão, Eduardo V V; Bellato, Carlos R; Fontes, Maurício P F

    2009-10-01

    The Iron Quadrangle (IQ) region, located in the state of Minas Gerais, has been the most important gold producing area in Brazil since the end of seventeenth century. The use of mercury for gold amalgamation in small scale mines has been responsible for large release of Hg to aquatic and terrestrial environments during 300 years of mining. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of Hg in stream sediments is the southern region of the IQ by utilizing sequential extraction. Since mobility and availability of Hg are related to its distribution among sediment partitions, fractionation methods provide detailed information on the ecotoxicological impact and risks associated to the presence of Hg in sediments. The total Hg concentration varied from 179.3 to 690.1 microg kg( - 1) and Hg(0) accounted for the majority at all sample sites, ranging from 42% to 56% of the total.

  19. Perceived neighborhood characteristics and the functional performance of elderly people in the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Area, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a quantile regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Renzo Joel Flores; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and the functional performance of elderly people living in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data of a representative sample of 2,033 elderly were analyzed using quantile regression. Functional performance was measured by the number of activities of daily living (ADL) the elderly had difficulty to perform. The neighborhood characteristics evaluated were: maintenance, trust, insecurity and defective sidewalks. Functional performance was found positively associated with the characteristic defective sidewalks, whose effect increased as the number of ADL the elderly had difficulty to perform increased. The results suggest that inadequate sidewalk conditions can contribute to functional losses in elderly people, especially among those who are functionally more compromised.

  20. Health education and social representation: an experience with the control of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Dener Carlos; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Silva, Carolina Angélica de Brito; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2006-11-01

    This study was developed in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of analyzing a health education process based on the social representations theory. The educational model was developed in two phases with 34 local residents. In the first phase, social representations of leishmaniasis were identified and analyzed. The second phase was based on the interaction between social representations and scientific knowledge. The results showed that social representations were structured in a central core by the terms "wound" and "mosquito" and in the peripheral system by the terms "mountains", "standing water", and "injection" related respectively to place, transmission, and treatment of the disease. We concluded that tegumentary leishmaniasis is viewed as a wound caused by a mosquito, portrayed by metaphors. The results of the second phase showed that social representations are systems that favor adherence to scientific knowledge, at times more rigidly in the central core, other times more flexibly when linked to the peripheral systems.

  1. [Involvement of workers from municipal outpatient services in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the reorganization of services under the Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted in two specialized municipal outpatient clinics in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study analyzes the involvement of professionals in their work and the reorganization of health services from their perspective, considering the participatory management recommended by the Unified National Health System (SUS). The study included nine workers with or without specific health training, all involved in health sector activities. Participants were selected according to profession or job (groups: dentistry, infrastructure, medicine, social work, psychology, coordination, nursing, pharmacy, and biochemistry), with one participant per "category" for each clinic. The content was submitted to structural narrative analysis. Three analytical categories were identified: management, involvement in work, and involvement in the SUS proposals. The study was not intended to generalize results on health workers' involvement, but it does highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between the management model and the reorganization of services as recommended under the SUS.

  2. Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance. Results The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940). Conclusions The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae. PMID:21827682

  3. High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners. Results We assessed the seroprevalence of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in 805 sheep from 23 sheep farms that supply slaughterhouses in the state of Minas Gerais; we also analyzed management practices that could be associated with CLA occurrence, used on these and nearby farms that also supplied animals to the slaughterhouse (n = 60). The serum samples for assaying CLA infection were taken at the slaughterhouse. Frequency of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis was estimated at 43.7%, and farm frequency was estimated at 100%. Management practices were analyzed through a questionnaire. All farmers (60/60) had extensive/semi-extensive rearing system; 70.0% (42/60) identified sheep individually; 11.7% (7/60) had periodical technical assistance; 41.7% (25/60) disinfected the facilities; 86.7% (52/60) used barbed wire fences and did not implement adequate CLA control measures; only 11.7% (7/60) of breeders reported vaccination against C. pseudotuberculosis; 13.3% (8/60) took note of animals with clinical signs of CLA; 1.7% (1/60) opened and sanitized abscesses, and isolated the infected animals; 10.0% (6/60) knew the zoonotic potential of this disease and 1.7% (1/60) of the farmers culled animals in case of recurrence of abscesses. Conclusions It can be concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widely spread in sheep flocks in Minas Gerais state in Brazil and that there is a lack of good management measures and vaccination, allowing transmission of this infectious agent throughout the production network. PMID:22067701

  4. Molecular analysis of the GYPB gene to infer S, s, and U phenotypes in an admixed population of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Marina Alves; Martins, Marina Lobato; Schmidt, Luciana Cayres; Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To implement genotyping for S, s and U antigens of the MNS blood group system at the Fundação Hemominas and to evaluate the occurrence of GYPB gene polymorphisms associated with the U- and U+var phenotypes and deletion of the GYPB gene for the first time in an admixed population of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The S, s and U antigens can cause transfusion reactions and perinatal hemolytic disease. Genotyping is a useful tool in immunohematology, especially when phenotyping cannot be performed. Methods Ninety-six samples from blood donors and patients with sickle cell disease previously phenotyped for the S, s and U antigens were selected. Allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays were employed to identify the GYPB*S and GYPB*s alleles and the GYPB(P2) and GYPB(NY) variants, as well as deletion of the GYPB gene. Results The results of allele-specific genotyping (GYPB*S and GYPB*s) were totally in agreement with the phenotyping of S+ (n = 56), s+ (n = 60) and s- (n = 35) samples. However, the GYPB*S allele, in association with the GYPB(P2) variant, was detected in 17.5% of the S- samples (n = 40), which shows the importance of assessing this variant in the Brazilian population. Of the S-s- samples (n = 10), 60% had the deletion of the GYPB gene and 40% were homozygous or hemizygous for the GYPB(P2) variant. Conclusion Genotyping was an effective strategy to infer the S, s, and U phenotypes in the admixed population from Minas Gerais (Brazil) and may contribute to transfusion safety. PMID:23049422

  5. Synopsis of the bee genus Thygater Holmberg 1884 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, with the description of a new species and a key to all Brazilian species.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Felipe V; Silveira, Fernando A

    2017-03-02

    Thygater Holmberg 1884, a Neotropical bee genus distributed from Argentina to Mexico, was last revised almost 50 years ago. Considering the species recognized then, and a few others described subsequently, 30 species are currently included in the genus. The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais is a large, environmentally heterogeneous territory, including areas in the phytogeographic domains of the Atlantic Tropical Rain Forest, the semiarid Caatinga and the highly seasonal Cerrado. The state insect fauna has been poorly sampled and studied. As part of a taxonomic and phylogenetic study of the genus, a synopsis of Thygater occurring in the state of Minas Gerais was produced, including the description of a new species (Thygater danunciae Freitas & Silveira, sp. n.), the recognition of two new synonymies, and an identification key for all 15 species of Thygater recorded for Brazil.

  6. Availability of hospital dental care services under sedation or general anesthesia for individuals with special needs in the Unified Health System for the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jacqueline Silva; Valle, Déborah Andrade; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; do Amaral, João Henrique Lara; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    This study identified the demographic characteristics of individuals and dental treatment care under sedation/general anesthesia in a hospital environment in the Unified Health System in the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG). All Hospitalization Authorizations (AIHs) for Dental Treatment for Patients with Special Needs procedures were evaluated between July 2011 and June 2012. Demographic and health care variables for treatment were also assessed. Hospitalization rates per 10,000 inhabitants, and health care coverage provided in the state of Minas Gerais and in each of the Broader Health Regions were calculated. Descriptive analysis of data was carried out by calculating the central trend and variability frequency and measurements. All 1,063 AIHs paid during the study period were evaluated, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.54 hospitalizations per 10,000 individuals. The majority of the patients were adult, male, diagnosed with mental or behavioral disorders and resident in 27.7% of the municipalities in Minas Gerais. The procedures were performed in 39 municipalities and the care coverage was equal to 1.58%. The study reveals a classic demographic and clinical profile of patient attendance. Difficulties in establishing a network of dental care were identified.

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and phylotyping profile of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Monalisa S M; Coura, Fernanda M; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Stynen, Ana Paula R; Alves, Telma M; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Guedes, Roberto M C; Viott, Aline M; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the profiles of phylogroup and (ii) the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves, and of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sixty-one pathogenic E. coli strains and Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves and Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains previously isolated from fecal samples of growing/finishing pigs were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method was determined for nalidixic acid, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Tetracycline was the antimicrobial that presented the higher frequency of resistance among E. coli strains, followed by ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, gentamicin, and cefoxitin. E. coli (n = 61) strains isolated from calves belonged to different phylogroup namely, phylogroup A (n = 26), phylogroup B1 (n = 31), phylogroup E (n = 3), and phylogroup F (n = 1). Phylogroups B2, C, and D were not identified among the E. coli in the present study. All Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to nalidixic acid and cefoxitin was detected in 16.66 and 8.33 % of the Salmonella spp. strains, respectively. Among the Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs, the higher frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, followed by amoxicillin, gentamicin, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, cefoxitin, and norfloxacin. All strains were susceptible to amikacin. Forty-eight (78.68 %) of the E. coli strains

  9. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  10. Evaluation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species richness using two sampling methods in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Viviane Soares; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Morone, Fernanda; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-04-01

    We compared two types of light traps used for monitoring mosquito abundance in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Além Paraíba - Minas Gerais. Mosquitoes were captured bimonthly using automatic CDC and Shannon traps before the filling of the hydroelectric plant reservoir from December 2008 to December 2009. In total, 1474 specimens from 13 genera were captured. Among the captured specimens, several species known to be vectors of disease-causing agents for humans and/or animals were identified, including Anopheles aquasalis, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Aedes scapularis. Sampling efficacy between the four capture sites was not found to be significantly different, irrespective of species captured or type of trap used. Poor correlation (r (x, y) = -0.0444) between the number of mosquito species and capture site was observed when not influenced by the type of trap used. Among the installation sites of the CDC and Shannon traps in the areas investigated, CDC traps fixed in livestock shelters obtained an overall higher abundance of species captured.

  11. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement.

  12. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results.

  13. [Nutritional status of patients with breast cancer attended in the Mastology Service of Belo Horizonte's Hospital das Clínicas in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dirce Ribeiro; Carvalho, Erika Simone Coelho; Campos, Liliane Cunha; Leal, José Adalberto; Sampaio, Estela Viana; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the nutritional status, body composition and tumor characteristics of 31 patients with breast cancer attended at the Mastology Service of Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Dietary data were obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall in the pre-operative state and analyzed by the DietWin Professional 2008 Nutrition Software. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The tumor characterization data were collected from medical records. The mean age of patients was 50.75 ± 14.34 years. Excess body weight was found in 58% and waist circumference greater than 80 cm in 64.5% of patients Excessive consumption of oils and sugars was observed in 90.3% and 83.8%, respectively. Most had low intakes of calcium and vitamins B6, B12 and A. The predominant diagnosis was type II histological grade invasive ductal carcinoma in stage II or III. The prevalence of overweight and inadequate dietary intake demonstrate the need for individualized nutritional guidance and monitoring to improve the prognosis and quality of the life of patients.

  14. [Nutritional profile of the Xukuru-Kariri indigenous people in the state of Minas Gerais in accordance with different anthropometric and body composition indicators].

    PubMed

    Simões, Bárbara dos Santos; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Pena, João Luiz; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33) were male and 43.1% (n =25) were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body fat in relation to BMI and WC. Studies need to be conducted with different ethnic groups in order to construct indicators for specific nutritional guidance of indigenous health services.

  15. Long-term (∼57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-03

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ∼57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core.

  16. Molecular detection of Rickettsia rhipicephali and other spotted fever group Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks infesting wild birds in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeringóta, Viviane; Maturano, Ralph; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Daemon, Erik; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; McIntosh, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated parasitism of wild birds by ticks in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and examined the ticks for rickettsial agents. Birds were captured during 2014 and 2015 and ticks were identified by sequencing fragments of the 16S and 12S ribosomal DNA. Among 260 birds representing 19 families and 52 species, a total of 69 (26.5%) were found to be infested by larvae (LL) and/or nymphs (NN) of Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844) (45 LL, 4 NN), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899 (9 LL, 15 NN), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, 1899 (2 NN), Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca and Aragão, 1952 (21 LL), Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré (77 LL), and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard, 1869) (17 LL, 1 NN). The use of PCR and sequencing of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB, revealed the presence of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in A. longirostre (13/49; 26%) and Rickettsia parkeri (strain ApPR) in both A. parkeri (1/21; 5%) and haplotype Nazaré (42/77; 55%) ticks. In addition, we detected Rickettsia rhipicephali in 31 (40%) of the 77 haplotype Nazaré ticks. This is the first record of this rickettsial agent in a species of the genus Amblyomma. The pathogenic potential of this bacterium is undetermined, but the unprecedented association with Amblyomma ticks may represent a cause for concern for public and/or animal health.

  17. [From guidelines to practice: evaluation of the pediatric care provided by a service of secondary reference in the north of the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Bueno, Mariana de Caux; de Moraes, Erica Furtado

    2013-06-01

    In the State of Minas Gerais, the Secondary Reference Viva Vida Centers (CVVRS) are one of the strategies deployed to tackle the problems in child health. This study sought to evaluate pediatric care provided in a CVVRS, using the guidelines defined when it was set up as a benchmark. A quantitative-qualitative approach was adopted, which included a cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling of 385 medical records of children registered with the program between 2007 and 2009, and analysis of focus groups with strategic actors of the initiative. There were divergences between the user profiles and the target audience in terms of age, hometown and clinical characteristics. Access and use of the service differed depending on the town, due to problems of misinformation concerning the proposal, difficulty of transportation and the fragility of the health network. The centers are considered an innovative and important initiative for the expansion and organization of the health network, though the intended logic is not effectively seen in practice. Interventions for articulation between the network services and adaptation of the agreed guidelines to the regional specificities are necessary.

  18. Assessment of the management of the Family Health Strategy via the tool Assessment for Quality Improvement in municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreza Viana Lopes; Chain, Ana Paula Nascimento; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2015-04-01

    The self-assessment of the quality ofthe Family Health Strategy(FHS) was assessed in the context ofmanagement and its correlation with characteristics of FHS and of the municipality. Managers, coordinators and Family Health Unit managers of municipalities in the Northeast region of Minas Gerais replied with tools 1, 2 and 3 of the Assessment for Improving the Quality of Family Health Strategy (AIQ). Scores were defined for each subdimension, according to the number of features compliant with the standards of the AIQ. We tested the correlation of this score with coverage and the deployment time of the FHS, with the municipal population and the HDI (Human Development Index). The lowest scores were for Work Management, Permanent Education and Inputs, Immunobiologicals and Medicines. There was a positive correlation between the municipal population and Strengthening of Coordination, Support for Teams, Permanent Education Management and Standardization and a negative one with Infrastructure and Equipment. The use of the AIQ tools permitted the identification of subdimensions and municipalities which will require greater attention and intervention by the municipal management.

  19. Biomonitoring air quality during and after a public transportation strike in the center of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; de Campos, Edimar Olegário; de Lima, Euclides Antônio Pereira; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio Souza; Morelli, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to address the lack of information concerning the air quality in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this study, we conducted an unprecedented experiment involving the in situ biomonitoring of air genotoxicity in the city center during and after a public transportation strike using the Tradescantia micronucleus test. The frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher in the city center compared with the reference site (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05), with the highest MN levels being observed during public transport stoppage (Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn p < 0.01). In addition, the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the low circulation of buses during public transport stoppage and the increase in the concentration of particulate matter from the increased flow of vehicles in the city center during the strike positively influenced the MN frequency. The climatic factors did not change during the biomonitoring period, reflecting the fact that climatic factors did not influence the MN frequency.

  20. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  1. Factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community of the southern triangle macro-region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Michelle Helena Pereira de; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Nascimento, Janaína Santos; Santos, Álvaro da Silva

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to establish the socioeconomic and health factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community. An analytical study with a cross-sectional and quantitative approach was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with 3430 senior citizens in 24 municipalities in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used for socioeconomic and health variables, as well as the Katz scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Descriptive, bivariate statistical analysis was performed and a multiple linear regression model (p < 0.05) was created. Lower quality of life (QoL) scores were found in the environment and autonomy domains associated with advanced age, lack of schooling and income, a negative perception of health and functional disability. The salient key factor was negative health perception. The conclusion drawn was that socioeconomic and health factors were associated with the quality of life of the elderly, highlighting the lowest scores in the environmental domain and from the aspect of autonomy, a key influencing factor being negative health perception.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra R S; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Castro, Jacqueline R; Guimarães, Ednaldo C; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M C

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6-26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans.

  3. Global burden of diarrheal disease attributable to the water supply and sanitation system in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2005.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Valente, Joaquin Gonçalves

    2015-04-01

    Advances have occurred in relation to the coverage of water supply and sanitation in Brazil, however inequalities are still observed in relation to the coverage of these services, reflecting the importance of diarrheal disease in the Brazilian epidemiological context. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of the water supply and sanitation system on diarrheal diseases among children aged under five. The global burden of diarrhea was calculated based on the attributable population fraction, using information on prevalence and relative risks from the 2000/2010 censuses and a study by Pruss et al. The north of the State of Minas Gerais, the Northeast and Jequitinhonha regions had the highest disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates and ratios. The fraction of diarrhea attributable to the water supply and sanitation system was 83%, decreasing to 78.3% where sanitation had 100% coverage. An inverse relationship was found between DALY rates and attributable fractions and per capita GDP. Broadening the scope and coverage of services and improving the quality of water available in homes is an urgent requirement. These measures will bring economic and social benefits related to the reduction of diarrheal diseases and consequent improvement of the quality of life of children aged under five.

  4. Acute schistosomiasis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: alert about the risk of unnoticed transmission increased by growing rural tourism.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Amorim, Amanda; Schall, Virginia T

    2003-09-01

    The present article describes the occurrence of 17 cases of acute schistosomiasis in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All individuals affected took a bath in a swimming pool of a holiday resort that was provided with water from a nearby brook. The apparently clean water and the absence of snails in the pool gave the wrong impression that there was no risk for infection. During a malacological survey at the site snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata were found and tested positive for Schistosoma mansoni. All the patients live in the middle-class area of Barreiro, metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte and have medium grade school education. The difficulties in establishing the right diagnosis is expressed by the search for medical attention in 17 different medical facilities, the wide range of laboratory test and the inadequate treatment administration. A lack of knowledge about the disease was found in all groups studied. The booming rural tourism in endemic areas is identified as a probable risk factor for infection, especially for individuals of the non-immune middle and upper class parts of the society in urban centers. Special attention is given to a multidisciplinary approach to the complex issue of disease control and prevention.

  5. [Decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and inter-municipal flow of hospital admissions in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Reis, Cláudia Tartaglia; Czeresnia, Dina; Barcellos, Christovam; Tassinari, Wagner Souza

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (a shift towards rural areas or away from the coast) and to investigate access to HIV/AIDS services from 1988 to 2002 in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An ecological study was performed using temporal and spatial approaches. A hospital admissions flow between municipalities developed, and the reference group was AIDS patients over 15 years of age admitted in 1996 and 2004, residing in municipalities in the Zona da Mata. There were 2,469 reported AIDS cases in individuals over 15 during the period. Mean incidence and mortality rates were calculated and recalculated by a local empirical Bayesian method in order to more clearly represent the municipalities with the highest concentration of cases and deaths. Decentralization of the epidemic was observed. Juiz de Fora was the municipality with the most cases and may have acted as a hub for spread of HIV in the region. Hospital care for AIDS cases in the Zona da Mata was concentrated in that municipality. There is a strong need to further investigate why referral hospitals in other municipalities in the region have not participated in providing management and care for HIV/AIDS patients.

  6. [Evaluation of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) in food and nutritional management services in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rolim, Mara Diana; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the SISVAN as a tool for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the Unified Health System (SUS). It involved a cross-sectional study composed of a stratified random sample of the municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. The subjects of the research were municipal officials of SISVAN who filled out a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed with the construction of simple and bivariate tables. It was observed that those responsible for SISVAN, collect (50%) and input (55%) weight, height, and food consumption data; whereas 53%, 59% and 71% do not analyze and do not recommend or perform nutrition actions, respectively. This being the case, most of those responsible do not use the information for planning, management and evaluation of food and nutrition traits. The findings show that the SISVAN is not used to its full potential; the data generated have not been used for planning, management and evaluation of nutrition services in primary healthcare in the SUS.

  7. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Montandon, Carlos E; Freitas, Renata N; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvão, Márcio A M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region.

  8. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elizângela; Leite, Romário C; Prata, Márcia C A; Pacheco, Richard C; Walker, David H; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2005-12-01

    The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp), ompA (457-bp), and ompB (720-bp). The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks). The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  9. [Work conditions and professional profiles of nutritionists who graduated from the Ouro Preto Federal University, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: 1994 - 2001].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; Peres, Frederico; Waissmann, William

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the professional profiles and work conditions of nutritionists who graduated from the Ouro Preto Federal University, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in their various spheres of action. A quanti-qualitative approach was adopted through questionnaires completed by all professionals graduating from this University between 1994 and 2001 (N=356), in addition to semi-structured interviews with fourteen professionals selected from the universe of the respondents (n=90). An analysis of these questionnaires showed that 67% of them work with Clinical Nutrition, 44% with Collective Nutrition, 14% with Education Programs and 11% with Social Nutrition. Most (57%) of the respondents expressed the desire to remain in the field where they were working. Among those wishing to move into a different area, 44.5% work with Collective Nutrition. Despite clearly precarious employment links, Clinical Nutrition is the field with the largest number of professionals satisfied with their work conditions. The findings of this study explore the work conditions of a group of nutritionists for whom job stability is not always the main factor for professional satisfaction.

  10. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica SA; Kitron, Uriel; de Filippis, Thelma; de Alcântara, Marcelo H; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. METHODS Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. FINDINGS A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. CONCLUSIONS The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas. PMID:28327791

  11. EVIDENCE OF Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum INFECTION IN DOGS FROM JUIZ DE FORA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL, BASED ON IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC DUAL-PATH PLATFORM (DPP®) AND PCR ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Júnior, José Geraldo; Freire, Mariana Lourenço; Campos, Samantha Priscila Silva; Scopel, Kezia K.G.; Porrozzi, Renato; Da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Colombo, Fabio A.; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Viveiros; Marques, Marcos José; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, domestic dogs are branded as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, due to the clear positive correlation observed between human and canine infection rates. This study aimed to carry out a serological survey of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in dogs housed at a public kennel in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the immunochromatographic TR DPP® CVL rapid test. Additionally, conventional and/or real time PCR assay was used to detect and confirm L. infantum infection in the DPP positive dogs only. Of the 400 dogs studied, most did not present clinical signs for CVL (p < 0.05), and fifteen (3.8%) were seropositive in the DPP test. There was no statistically significant difference between the DPP seropositive dogs and the clinical signs of the disease (p > 0.05). Both conventional and real time PCR tests confirmed L. infantum infection in nine (75.0%) of the twelve DPP seropositive dogs that remained alive during the follow-up period. This study is the first seroepidemiologic survey of CVL held in the city of Juiz de Fora, and the results reinforce the idea that this disease is currently in a process of expansion and urbanization in Brazil. Furthermore, this study highlights the use of the DPP test as an alternative for diagnosing CVL in large and mid-sized cities, due to its ease of implementation. PMID:24879001

  12. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.

  13. Contamination of the environment by the current disposal methods of mercury-containing lamps in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raposo, C; Roeser, H M

    2001-01-01

    This survey describes the degree of environmental contamination resulting from the current disposal methods of mercury-containing lamps. The territory studied for this purpose is the federal state of Minas Gerais, one of the most populated areas in the Brazilian federation of states. The results of this survey derive in part from answers received to a questionnaire mailed out to industrial firms, commercial business enterprises, hospitals and departments of public work. The sampling technique used was a nonprobabilistic (purposive sampling). Three types of disposal were found to prevail: (1) as an addition to corporate waste disposal (garbage), (2) recycling and (3) disposal by other methods. Overall, our study shows that the majority of mercury lamps are being disposed in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, primarily by the public sector, followed by industrial, commercial and hospital sectors. Although recycling constitutes a relatively high fraction of the disposal methods, we find Federal regulations in Brazil regarding the disposal of hazardous, mercury-containing lamps to be far behind the state of technological achievement. This gap has permitted the adoption of disposal measures that are obsolete, incorrect, and a primary cause for the extensive contamination of the ecosystems with harmful effects to human health.

  14. [Voice disorder clinic in the speech therapy outpatient unit at "Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais"].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Letícia Neiva de; Behlau, Mara; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This study set out to describe the profile of the patients with voice complaints and/or alterations who were attended between July 2003 and December 2006 at the speech therapy outpatient unit of "Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais." This was analyzed according to age, sex, profession, schooling, origin, treatment performed and factors that interfere in medical care evolution. This was a retrospective study based on the analysis of the recorded data of the individuals according to a specifically prepared Protocol. The results showed that the individuals included in this study were predominantly young women, referred by a specialist from Belo Horizonte, who do not work and also have incomplete elementary school education. Attendance of those patients was on an individual basis, and almost half of them were discharged by the speech therapist. The elderly patients, who have functional or psychogenic dysphonia and a neutral or wheezy type of voice, showed a close correlation with the discharge rate by speech therapist. The younger individuals with organo-functional dysphonia bore a statistical correlation with abandoning treatment. The individuals who eventually abandoned treatment did not bear any correlation with the crossed variables.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salaberry, Sandra R.S.; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F.C.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Guimarães, Ednaldo C.; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6–26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans. PMID:24031773

  16. Capybaras and ticks in the urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil: ecological aspects for the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Queirogas, V L; Del Claro, K; Nascimento, A R T; Szabó, M P J

    2012-05-01

    In Brazil capybara, the biggest existing rodent species, and associated tick species, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum, are undergoing an unplanned host and parasite population expansion in both urban and rural areas. However, scientific information about such issue, particularly in urban areas, is scanty. Such rodent and ticks are associated in some municipalities, particularly in southeastern Brazil, with the transmission of the highly lethal Rickettsia rickettsia caused spotted-fever. In this study ecological aspects related to the establishment and expansion of capybaras and ticks in urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were evaluated. For this purpose, capybara and tick abundance in four urban areas and an ecological reserve was determined. Abundance of capybaras varied between areas and over the sampling period and these differences were related to human activities. A positive correlation was found between capybara and tick abundance, however, the tick species had an uneven distribution within the municipality and environmental factors rather than host availability were blamed for such. On the whole these observations show that capybara populations in urban areas are associated to high environmental infestation of ticks and the increased risk of bites and of pathogen transmission to humans. At the same time the uneven distribution of tick species might implicate in an unequal risk of tick-borne diseases within the same urban area.

  17. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  18. Molecular Detection of Leishmania DNA in Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From a Cave in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G M L; Brazil, R P; Rêgo, F D; Ramos, M C N F; Zenóbio, A P L A; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais. Detection of Leishmania in female sand flies was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP (internal transcribed spacer 1) using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSUrRNA target. The survey of Leishmania DNA was carried out on 232 pools and the parasite DNA was detected in four: one pool of Lutzomyia cavernicola (Costa Lima, 1932), infected with Le. infantum (ITS1 PCR-RFLP), two pools of Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), both infected with Leishmania braziliensis complex (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis), and one pool of Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927), infected with subgenus Leishmania (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis). The present study identified the species for Leishmania DNA detected in four pools of sand flies, all of which were captured inside the cave. These results represent the first molecular detection of Lu cavernicola with Le infantum DNA, Sc sordellii with subgenus Leishmania DNA, and Ev sallesi with Leishmania braziliensis complex DNA. The infection rate in females captured for this study was 0.17%.

  19. Detection of Theileria and Babesia in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2011-04-19

    Intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera Theileria and Babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family Ixodidae. The prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living Mazama gouazoubira, two captive M. gouazoubira and four captive Blastocerus dichotomus from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). The cervid population was inspected for the presence of ticks and any specimens encountered were identified alive under the stereomicroscope. Blood samples were collected from all 21 animals, following which blood smears were prepared, subjected to quick Romanowsky staining and examined under the optical microscope. DNA was extracted with the aid of commercial kits from cervid blood samples and from tick salivary glands. The nPCR assay comprised two amplification reactions: the first was conducted using primers specific for a 1700 bp segment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia and Theileria species, whilst the second employed primers designed to amplify a common 420 bp Babesia 18S rRNA fragment identified by aligning sequences from Babesia spp. available at GenBank. The ticks Amblyomma cajennense, Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens were identified in various of the cervids examined. Of the animals investigated, 71.4% (15/21) were infected with hemoprotozoa, including Theileria cervi (47.6%), Theileria sp. (14.3%), Babesia bovis (4.8%) and Babesia bigemina (4.8%). However, only one of the infected wild cervids exhibited accentuated anaemia (PCV=17%). This is first report concerning the occurrence of Theileria spp. in Brazilian cervids.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  1. [Evaluation of a program for the control of schistosomiasis in municipalities located on the basin of the Sao Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima e Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Pimenta, F G; Firmo, J O; Uchoa, E

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the control program on schistosomiasis (PCE/PCDEN) was performed in the region of São Francisco river in MInas Gerais. The study area comprises six municipalities, with 130,000 inhabitants and 916 localities situated in an area with 10,722 km2. The activities initiated in 1983-85 in four municipalities and in 1987 in the other two. The main measures of control were repeated treatment with oxamniquine and use of niclosamide. The prevalence of infection by Schistosoma mansoni in the first four municipalities, that was initially around 18 and 32%, dropped abruptly after the first intervention (1983/85) and remained in levels below the initial ones until the last assessment (1990-94); similar trends were observed for the proportion of infected snails. In these municipalities, the proportion of localities without infection or with prevalence below 5% increased in relation to those with higher prevalence. In the other two municipalities, with initial prevalence below 5%, there were no substantial changes in S. mansoni prevalence or proportion of infected snails; the cost benefit of the program in these municipalities need to be assessed and the priorities redirected to eradicate focal areas and prevent spread to non infected localities. The authors call attention to the difficulties in the long term of a control program based on repeated treatments. Information on factors associated with S. mansoni infection in each locality, or in groups of similar localities, would allow to develop additional measures to treatment that could last longer and be less dependent on the continuous use of chemotherapy.

  2. The Natural History of Hb S/Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin in 13 Children from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André R; Sales, Rahyssa R; Silva, Célia M; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2016-06-01

    Children with Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T)/hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb S/HPFH) have a mild clinical phenotype, but some complications have been reported. The natural history of Hb S/HPFH in children from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil newborn cohort is described. Clinical and hematological data regarding participants' phenotypes were retrieved from medical records. The HPFH-1, HPFH-2, and HPFH-3 and α-thalassemia (α-thal) deletions were detected by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Thirteen children were included, nine (69.2%) had the Hb S/HPFH-2 deletion, and four (30.8%) had Hb S/HPFH-1 deletion; 11 children (84.6%) had αα/αα, and two (15.4%) carried the αα/-α(3.7) (rightward) deletion. The mean concentration of total hemoglobin (Hb) and Hb F was 12.52 ± 0.56 g/dL and 42.31% ± 1.97%, respectively. Mild microcytosis and hypochromia were observed. We found acute clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease, such as acute chest syndrome (ACS) and acute pain crisis in four children; nine (69.2%) children were completely asymptomatic during the follow-up period. All children were classified as having low-risk transcranial Doppler (TDC). In conclusion, children with Hb S/HPFH have a mild clinical phenotype of sickle cell disease, although acute clinical manifestations may occur. High Hb F levels and absence of anemia are common hematological characteristics.

  3. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  4. Oxidation states of iron as an indicator of the techniques used to burn clays and handcraft archaeological Tupiguarani ceramics by ancient human groups in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Ardisson, J. D.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics of the Tupiguarani Tradition typically have in common the burning characteristics, their forms and decoration motifs. Dating such ceramic pieces with the radiocarbon method indicate that these artifacts were probably handcrafted between 1,500 and 500 years before the present. Fragments ceramic utensils were collected in the archaeological site of Beltrão, in the municipality of Corinto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A fragment of about 50 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick, with a color gradation across the ceramic wall ranging from red, on one side, grayish, in the middle, and orange, on the opposite side, was selected for a more detailed examination. The fragment was transversely cut and a series of subsamples were separated from different points along the piece wall, in layer segments of ~3 mm. All subsamples were analyzed with Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 80 K. Results reveal that hematite is the magnetically ordered phase. A Fe2 + component (relative spectral area, 50 %) appears for the grayish subsample. According to these first results, the red subsample seems to be the side that had direct contact with fire used to burn the precursor clay in air. The grayish middle layer is probably due to the clay mixed with some ashes. Mössbauer data reveal that the orange layer, corresponding to the opposite side of the ceramic relatively to the direct fire, does contain about the same Fe2 + :Fe3 + ratio but much lower proportion of α-Fe2O3 than the red layer.

  5. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature.

  6. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  7. Essential Oil Composition, Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Activities of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) From São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; de Oliveira, Lanussy Porfiro; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Fiuza, Tatiana de Sousa; Costa, Elson Alves; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an antiseptic, and it is usually applied topically on skin, mucous membranes, mouth, and throat, or used for vaginal washings. Objectives: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from L. sidoides collected in São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais and grown in Hidrolândia, Goiás; to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, crude ethanol extract, and hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions (AFs); to study the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system activities of the crude ethanol extract. Materials and methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity in vitro was performed by broth microdilution method. The pharmacological tests were performed using female Swiss albino mice. Results: The major components of the essential oil were isoborneol (14.66%), bornyl acetate (11.86%), α-humulene (11.23%), α-fenchene (9.32%), and 1.8-cineole (7.05%), supporting the existence of two chemotypes of this species. The hexane fraction (HF) had good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. ATCC D (MIC = 31.25 μg/mL) and Cryptococcus gatti L48 (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL). In the pharmacological tests, the crude ethanol extract presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusion: Given that the ethanol extract of L. sidoides is included in the Formulary of Phytotherapeutic Agents of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as an anti-inflammatory for oral cavities, the present work provides scientific evidence to back this use and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate chemotype on the basis of the expected biological response. SUMMARY The major components of the essential oil of L. sidoides were isoborneol bornyl acetate, α-humulene, α-fenchene, and 1.8-cineole. The HF had good antifungal activity against

  8. Information system and geographic information system tools in the data analyses of the control program for visceral leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the sanitary district of venda nova, belo horizonte, minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers.

  9. The chemical composition of specular hematite from Tilkerode, Harz, Germany: implications for the genesis of hydrothermal hematite and comparison with the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Rosière, Carlos Alberto

    2013-10-01

    The black shale-hosted selenide vein-type deposit at Tilkerode, eastern Harz, Germany, has specular hematite enclosed in clausthalite (PbSe). The specular hematite has Ti and V in amounts of up to ˜1 wt.% TiO2 and ˜3 wt.% V2O5, and subordinate, but important, contents of Mo (22-372 ppm) and B (up to 68 ppm). The Tilkerode hematite serves as a reference for hydrothermal hematite formed at relatively low temperatures (<150 °C). The composition of the Tilkerode hematite is compared with that of two generations of specular hematite from itabirite-hosted iron-ore deposits in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first generation of specular hematite represents an early tectonic hematitisation of dolomitic itabirite at Águas Claras and occurs as fine-grained crystals. Reconnaissance data indicate that the Águas Claras hematite is poorer in Ti and V, relative to the Tilkerode hematite, but has ˜5-10 ppm B and ˜7-11 ppm Li. The second generation of specular hematite defines the pervasive tectonic foliation of the Gongo Soco iron ore. This hematite has Ti contents of up to ˜2 wt.% TiO2 and subordinate amounts of V (62-367 ppm); its B and Li concentrations are mostly below <2 ppm B and <1 ppm Li. The presence of Ti and B in the Tilkerode hematite can be explained by highly saline, B-bearing fluids that were capable of mobilising otherwise immobile Ti. The Mo signature of the Tilkerode hematite suggests that Mo was derived from the host black shale. In Minas Gerais, B and Li were incorporated into the early tectonic hematite from saline fluids at relatively low temperatures (Águas Claras) and then released during metamorphic hematite growth at higher temperatures, as suggested by the foliation-defining hematite without B-Li signature (Gongo Soco).

  10. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)∑1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)∑0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)∑4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22ṡ2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ν2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  11. Species Diversity and Temporal Variation of the Orchid-Bee Fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a Conservation Gradient of a Rocky Field Area in the Espinhaço Range, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viotti, M A; Moura, F R; Lourenço, A P

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the orchid-bee community in a conservation gradient of the high-altitude rocky fields in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sampling was performed at two sites with different anthropic influences: a disturbed area (DA), with exotic plant species, and a preserved area (PA). From September 2009 through February 2011, males of euglossine bees were sampled using aromatic bait-traps. We collected a total of 819 specimens belonging to 11 species and three genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, and Eufriesea Cockerell. Despite the proximity of DA and PA (about 1.2 km), differences in orchid-bee abundance and richness were observed. Higher abundance was observed in the PA (n = 485) compared with the DA (n = 334). Eight species were common to both sites, and only the DA showed exclusive species. The DA showed higher diversity and higher estimated species richness. Euglossa leucotricha Rebêlo & Moure was the most abundant species at both sites followed by Euglossa melanotricha Moure. Higher abundance and richness were found in the warm rainy season. This study contributes to the knowledge of the orchid-bee fauna in the rocky fields and suggests that the greater resource availability in the DA was responsible for the higher orchid-bee diversity.

  12. Evaluation of a linear spectral mixture model and vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) in a study of schistosomiasis mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata distribution in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the associations between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) on the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Additionally, vegetation, soil and shade fraction images were created using a Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) from the blue, red and infrared channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spaceborne sensor and the relationship between these images and the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of B. glabrata was analysed. First, we found a high correlation between the vegetation fraction image and EVI and second, a high correlation between soil fraction image and NDVI. The results also indicate that there was a positive correlation between prevalence and the vegetation fraction image (July 2002), a negative correlation between prevalence and the soil fraction image (July 2002) and a positive correlation between B. glabrata and the shade fraction image (July 2002). This paper demonstrates that the LSMM variables can be used as a substitute for the standard vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) to determine and delimit risk areas for B. glabrata and schistosomiasis in MG, which can be used to improve the allocation of resources for disease control.

  13. Leisure-time physical activity in the vicinity of Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: the impact of a health promotion program on the community.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Amanda Paula; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Ramos, Cynthia Graciane Carvalho; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This study analyzed leisure-time physical activity among 1,621 adults who were non-users of the Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, but who lived in the vicinity of a fitness center in operation (exposed Group I) or in the vicinity of two sites reserved for future installation of centers (control Groups II and III). The dependent variable was leisure-time physical activity, and linear distance from the households to the fitness centers was the exposure variable, categorized in radial buffers: < 500m; 500-1,000m; and 1,000-1,500m. Binary logistic regression was performed with the Generalized Estimation Equations method. Residents living within < 500m of the fitness center gave better ratings to the physical environment when compared to those living in the 1,000 and 1,500m buffers and showed higher odds of leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.03-1.30), independently of socio-demographic factors; the same was not observed in the control groups (II and III). The findings suggests the program's potential for influencing physical activity in the population living closer to the fitness center and thus provide a strategic alternative for mitigating inequalities in leisure-time physical activity.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  15. Population demography of Northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/Reserva particular do Patrimônio Natural-Felìciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B; Boubli, Jean P; Possamai, Carla B; Mendes, Sérgio L

    2006-06-01

    The 957-ha forest at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Felìciano Miguel Abdala, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, supports one of the largest known populations of the critically endangered northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). We combine long-term data on one group that has been monitored since 1982 with new data obtained on the other three groups since 2002 and 2003 to describe the demographic structure of this population, evaluate its potential for future growth, and predict how dispersal and competitive regimes may change in response to current demographic conditions. As of January 2005, the 226 individuals in the population were divided into four mixed-sex groups with 37-77 members, and an all-male unit whose eight males maintained transient associations with two of the mixed-sex groups. Although 51.77% of the population was female, the sex ratio among adults and subadults was female-biased (0.75), while that among immatures was male-biased (1.47). Consistent with expectations from mean interbirth intervals, 64.18% of adult females gave birth in 2003 and 2004. However, by January 2005, only 52.31% of adult females were still carrying infants <24 months of age due to unusually high infant mortality. First-year survivorship among the 25 infants born in the population in 2003 was only 76%, considerably lower than previously documented in the longest-studied group. High female fecundity is indicative of a healthy population, but the current male bias in births will result in a decline in the population growth rate within two decades, and may increase levels of male reproductive competition and alter dispersal patterns.

  16. Highlights of the XXI annual meeting of the Brazilian Society of Protozoology, the XXXII annual meeting on Basic Research in Chagas' disease & an international symposium on vesicle trafficking in parasitic Protozoa – 7 to 9 November 2005, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Schenkman, Sergio; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the 2005 Annual meeting held in Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was convened and organized by the Brazilian Society of Protozoology . This is an annual event and details of these meetings can be found on the Society's website. Within the space available it has been impossible to cover all the important and fascinating contributions and what is presented are our personal views of the meetings scientific highlights and new developments. The contents undoubtedly reflect each author's scientific interests and expertise. Fuller details of the round tables, seminars and posters can be consulted on line at . PMID:16916462

  17. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  18. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  19. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  1. Phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Timóteo, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2014-06-01

    This work is characterized by an entomological research and an investigation on whether seasonal behaviours can be associated to the phlebotomine fauna found in the urban area of Timóteo-MG - an endemic focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). The analysis of the seasonal behaviour of sand flies has taken into account the following climatic variables: rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. Automatic light traps were installed in households between 2009 and 2010. The sand fly species with the highest number captured was Lutzomyia whitmani (66.5%), a TL vector species, whose abundance has provided strong evidences that this species is the main vector of TL in the municipality of Timóteo, with its cycle of transmission developing in its urban area. Amongst the results observed in the analyses of seasonal behaviour, only temperature conveyed particular association between seasonal occurrence of sand flies and climate variables. The findings of this study may assist the local epidemiological surveillance agency in defining strategies and directing efforts for controlling these insects.

  2. Trends in Animal Rabies Surveillance in the Endemic State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E.; Oliveira, Camila S. F.; Capanema, Renato O.; Nicolino, Rafael R.; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J.; Haddad, João Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies. PMID:25774775

  3. Ecohydrological modeling and environmental flow regime in the Formoso River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo A S; Silva, Demetrius D; Dergam, Jorge A; Elesbon, Abrahão A A

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at determining the environmental flow regime in a 1 km stretch of the Formoso River, MG, using River2D model. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following information was used: bathymetry, physical and hydraulic features, and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the Hypostomus auroguttatus. In the River2D, the Weighted Usable Areas were determined from the average long-term streamflows with percentage from 10% to 100%. Those streamflows were simulated for the later construction of optimization matrices that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For H. auroguttatus Juvenile, higher values of Weighted Usable Area were associated with the percentage of 60% and 70% of the average long-term streamflows in October and September, respectively. For H. auroguttatus Adult, the highest value of Weighted Usable Area was associated with the percentage of 100% of the average long-term streamflow in September. The environmental flows found for this stretch of the Formoso River varied over the year. The lowest environmental flow was observed in December (2.85 m3 s-1), while the highest was observed in May (4.13 m3 s-1). This paper shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resources management actions.

  4. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  5. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIV - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Conquista, Minas Gerais, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Kirchner, E.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Murta, R. L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Conquista chondrite is described and classified as an H4. The mineral composition is reported. H-group classification is based on described microscopic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. The evidence for petrologic type 4 classification includes the pronounced well-developed chondritic texture; the slight compositional variations in constituent phases; the high Ca contents of pyroxene and the presence of pigeonite; glassy to microcrystalline interstitial material rich in alkalis and SiO2; and twinned low-Ca clinopyroxene.

  6. Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques Pessanha; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Brandão, Silvana Tecles; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the dengue occurrence in the city of Belo Horizonte over the last fifteen years. Approximately 186,000 cases registered from 1996 to 2011 were analyzed. The home address of individuals whose dengue case was notified was used as a proxy for exposure location. For determining possible outbreaks of disease and the specific patterns of dengue cases, spatial statistics used included Kernel's estimation. The occurrence of waves of dengue outbreaks was correlated with climatic and vector presence data. Outbreaks had different durations and intensities: case clustering, thinned out both spatially and temporally. These findings may be useful for public health professionals responsible for fighting the disease providing some tools for improving evaluation of interventions such as vector control and patient care, minimizing the collective and individual burden of the disease. PMID:22536269

  7. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this segment of the population, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:27143611

  8. Occurrence of ectoparasites on dogs in rural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Junior, Livio Martins; Rembeck, Karina; Mendonça, Filipe Lucas de Melo; Azevedo, Sandro Coelho; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Mucio Flavio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined occurrences of ectoparasites and identified them on dogs in rural regions in Brazil, and assessed the influence of climate on these parasites. Ectoparasites were randomly collected from 194 dogs living on farms located in Lavras (n = 92) and Nanuque (n = 102) during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, the same dogs in Lavras (n = 71) and Nanuque (n = 66) were resampled. During the experiment, fleas, ticks, lice and fly larvae were collected. The flea species Ctenocephalides felis was the most common ectoparasite collected from these dogs. The main tick species that infested the dogs in rural areas of Nanuque and Lavras was Amblyomma cajennense. In Lavras, the dogs had high levels of flea infestation (80.4 and 88.7% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and low levels of tick infestation (19.6 and 28.2% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively), without any significant differences in infestation rates between the seasons. In Nanuque, moderate levels of flea infestation (68.6 and 43.9% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and A. cajennense (65.7 and 47.0% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were observed, with significantly lower prevalence in the rainy season (p < 0.05). The presence of ectoparasites was evident at both times of the year, but the different temperatures may have influenced the occurrences of parasites in Lavras and Nanuque.

  9. [Persistence of dengue symptoms in patients in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Lopes, Juliana Salviano Mendonça; Martins, André Guilherme da Costa; Campos, Fernando Augusto Batista; Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira

    2010-03-01

    The clinical picture of dengue is characterized by a maximum duration of 14 days despite frequent complaints of longer symptoms. This study evaluated the occurrence of persistent symptoms (> 14 days) and its impact on daily life. A hundred eighteen patients were interviewed, and the main symptoms at diagnosis were mialgia (98.3%), fever (97.5%) and weakness (95.8%). The presence of at least a persistent symptom was related by 77 (65.2%) individuals of wich 10 (8.5%) described it as intense and lasting for 30 days or more. The most persistent symptoms mentioned were weakness (58 cases), hiporexia (49) and sleepiness (40), occurring mostly in women, with odds ratio: 5.4 (IC95%: 2.3-12.3). A significant association between the persistence of the symptoms and the history of extra expenses (p = 0,02) was found, as well as a delay to return to normal activities (p < 0.001). Thus, it was verified that dengue presented a relevant impact on every day life, even after 14 days, a fact wich was associated with the presence of persistent symptoms of the illness.

  10. Analysis of the Approach of Paleontology in Geography Textbooks in Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is currently one of the driving instruments of teaching and learning. In the analysis of the contents of paleontology in geography textbooks, these books are important because they reveal problems embedded in these works and allow a more informed choice of books for the approach. In this work we performed an analysis of the approach…

  11. Associated factors of overweight in adolescents from public schools in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Pinho, Lucinéia; Botelho, Ana Cristina de C.; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to support plans and actions that combat the local increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents, the factors associated to weight excess in public school students from Montes Claros, MG, Southeast Brazil, were studied. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of adolescents from the public schools of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated and an inquiry was carried out in the schools to determine food consumption and practice of physical activities. Factors associated to weight excess were assessed by bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Weight excess prevalence was detected in 18.5% of the 535 adolescents evaluated. The factors associated to weight excess were: per capita income above half minimum wage (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.01-3.93), candy consumption above two daily portions (OR 1.94; 95%CI 1.13-3.32) and absence of sport activity during leisure time (OR 2.54; 95%CI 1.15-5.59). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of weight excess in adolescents from public schools is relevant and associated with socioeconomic condition of the family, bad eating habits and sedentary life. PMID:25119756

  12. FREQUENCY OF Candida SPECIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; FERREIRA, Joseane Cristina; de SÁ, Walkiria Machado; MOREIRA, Tomaz de Aquino; MALVINO, Lucivânia Duarte Silva; de ARAUJO, Lucio Borges; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito; PENATTI, Mario Paulo Amante; CANDIDO, Regina Celia; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitroresistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker. PMID:26200956

  13. [Feminization of the odontology course at the State University of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State].

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Durães, Sarah Jane Alves; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2010-06-01

    This article substantiates the feminization of the odontology course starting from the case study of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros - Unimontes, Brazil, and its relation with some explanations that can be found at specialized literature. Its subject of analysis is the empirical data about the number of people, by gender, enrolled in the entrance examination and that has concluded the course at the university during the period of 1997 and 2006. Since its establishment, the odontology course of Unimontes has been having a higher percentage of women since the number entrance examination or entering, and also that has been concluded it. The analyzed literature source is according to the empirical data from the present case study. It was concluded that the feminization phenomena also occurs in the odontology course of Unimontes.

  14. A new Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-10-31

    Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  16. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  17. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation.

  18. Geotechnologies for the Characterization of Specialty Coffee Environments of Mantiqueira de Minas in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Lacerda, M. P. C.; Borém, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region's tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the "terroirs" where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region's coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality were evaluated. The results

  19. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given. PMID:26312053

  20. Antifungal susceptibility, enzymatic activity, PCR-fingerprinting and ITS sequencing of environmental Cryptococcus laurentii isolates from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Pedrosa, André Luiz; da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2012-07-01

    Cryptococcus laurentii has been classically considered a saprophytic species, although several cases of human infection have been already reported. This study aimed to evaluate the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysins activity, the antifungal susceptibility profile, the genetic variability by M13 and (GACA)(4) fingerprinting and the internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing of 38 C. laurentii isolates recovered from captive bird droppings and surrounding hospital areas. All of them exhibited phospholipase activity, while the hemolytic activity was evidenced in 34 (89.4%) isolates. None of them exhibited proteinase activity. Twenty-seven isolates (71.1%) presented susceptibility dose dependent to fluconazole. Most isolates (94.7%) were susceptible to voriconazole, while one (2.65%) was resistant to this drug. Twenty-one (55.3%) isolates showed reduced susceptibility to itraconazole while nine (23.7%) were resistant. Three (7.9%) and five (13.1%) isolates exhibited resistance to ketoconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Most C. laurentii fingerprinting obtained with M13 and (GACA)(4) showed high heterogeneity. By using the two primers, seven (18.4%) isolates grouped as A (CL2, CL7, and CL8), B (CL35, CL38) and C (CL29, CL30) with 100% similarity. Different from most variable surrounding hospital isolates, all but one of the pet shops strains clustered with the two primers, although they had been recovered from different neighborhoods. All isolates were identified as C. laurentii phylogenetic group I by ITS sequencing. Thus, the presence of virulence factors, a decreased antifungal susceptibility and a heterogeneous molecular pattern of the C. laurentii isolates here described suggests this species can be a potential pathogen in the context of the immunocompromised population.

  1. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dulgheroff, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves de; Domingues, André Luiz da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*), VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM) region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3), G1 (sublineage I-A), G9 (lineage III), G12 (lineages II and III), G8 (lineage II), G3 (lineage III), P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb), P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1), I2 (lineage VII), E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X), and H2 (lineage III) were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination). Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context.

  2. A method for prioritization of areas for pesticides surveillance on surface waters: a study in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, C T; Heller, L

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticides in drinking water is a matter of growing concern in several parts of the world, mainly in developing countries, due the possible adverse effects on human health. Pesticides applied in the agriculture are an important source of contamination and are rarely monitored in surface water in developing countries, either by water supply operators or health authorities, often not accomplishing the legal issues regarding the quality control of raw waters. The paper discusses a method for prioritization of surveillance actions of pesticides in surface waters, through multicriteria analysis. Five criteria were defined and a range of weight was established for each criterion. For validation of the method, it was applied in five sub-basins of Grande River Basin - MG. This application allowed ordering priority sub-basins for pesticides surveillance, suggesting two sub-basins as priorities. The validation performed enabled the evaluation and adjustment of the method, mainly regarding the availability of information. The method showed a practical alternative for the environmental surveillance, targeting priority areas. Moreover, its structure allows the application in other different areas and for other pollutants.

  3. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  4. Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Christiane Santos; dos Santos, José Eloy; Medeiros, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso; Furtado, Eliana; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years. PMID:24831551

  5. Levels of volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples commercialized in Belo Horizonte, Mina Gerais, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gloria, M.B.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Several reports have been published describing the occurrence of volatile N-nitrosamines in rubber products. The first evidence of the presence of these compounds in baby bottle nipples was published by Ireland et al. Their study showed the presence of N-nitrosamines in elastomers compounded with dialkylamine accelerators and stabilizers. Several countries, through active cooperation with industry, have made considerable progress in eliminating or significantly reducing the levels of N-nitrosamines in baby bottle nipples. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples in the market of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

  6. Susceptibility profile of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Mora, Delio Jose; Da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Araujo, Natalia Evelyn; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2013-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Antifungal resistance has been evaluated using different methods, breakpoints, and sizes of test populations and it is an emerging as a significant issue worldwide. A total of 176 (95 clinical and 81 environmental) C. neoformans and eight clinical C. gattii isolates were evaluated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method. A total of 10.5% of the C. neoformans clinical isolates were resistant to amphotericin B (AMB), and 6.2% of the environmental isolates were resistant to fluconazole (FLZ). Environmental and clinical isolates presented epidemiologic cut-off values (ECVs) of 64 and 16 to FLZ and 1 and 2 to AMB, respectively. All of the C. gattii isolates showed high susceptibility to most drugs evaluated. Clinical isolates had lower susceptibility than environmental isolates to AMB and itraconazole whereas environmental isolates had lower susceptibility than the clinical isolates to FLZ, voriconazole, and ketoconazole. However, no difference was found in the susceptibility of the two species. The MICs and ECVs to antifungals can help to select the best therapeutic option for tracking epidemiological resistance among clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus spp. around the world.

  7. Raising awareness about soil diversity: The Education Programme of the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are usually overlooked as part of geodiversity and geoheritage. Increasing the public awareness about soils is a key issue in our changing world. Furthering public awareness involves developing a better understanding of soils, their functions, importance for environment and society, as well as a personal and collective commitment in the stewardship and protection from degradation and loss. This presentation describes the Soil and Environmental Education and Outreach Programme of the Alexis Dorofeef Earth Sciences Museum of the Soil University Department in Viçosa, Brazil. The program has developed different activities linked to formal and non formal education and its main audience are basic education teachers, school children and the general public. The museum acts in different and diverse fronts, supported on a pedagogical background based on Paulo Freire's educational approach, the social-constructivism, which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. In its early years, the museum was mainly focused on formal education and this changed with time as our action was reshaped into a broader outreach action stimulated by the new Brazilian government. The museum's indoor activities consist of accompanied thematic visits, hands on experiments, basic school teacher's courses, development of learning materials and methods and professional training. Beyond of the Museum space local interdisciplinary projects with basic education schools are run along with temporary expositions coupled with short courses and workshops with farmers and social movements. We present the results of the changes in awareness about soils among three main groups: school teachers, basic education children and general public. After 10 years of activities, the Soil Education action of the Museum is recognized and well spread among school communities in the town and its neighbourhood. Many school teachers approach the contents and methodologies they learned at the museum, as well as many of the students that did their practical's at the museum do. As a side result, the Soil Education Program triggered the broadening of the museum themes into three main conceptual lines: Earth's dynamics, Natural resources: use and environmental impacts and, Soils: know to conserve. Today the Museum is spreading its knowledge about soil throughout the region, by means of temporary expositions and educational activities. Despite its achievements, the Museum still faces the challenge to broaden its action, reaching different and wider publics, making both the idea of visiting a museum and the knowledge about soils more popular.

  8. Wet deposition and soil content of Beryllium - 7 in a micro-watershed of Minas Gerais (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Esquivel L, Alexander D; Moreira, Rubens M; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G; Dos Santos, Anômora A Rochido; Juri Ayub, Jimena; Valladares, Diego L

    2017-04-01

    Beryllium-7 ((7)Be) is a natural radionuclide of cosmogenic origin, normally used as a tracer for several environmental processes; such as soil redistribution, sediment source discrimination, atmospheric mass transport, and trace metal scavenging from the atmosphere. In this research the content of (7)Be in soil, its seasonal variation throughout the year and its relationship with the rainfall regime in the Mato Frio creek micro-watershed was investigated, to assess its potential use in estimating soil erosion. The (7)Be content in soil shows a marked variation throughout the year. Minimum (7)Be values were observed in the dry season (from April to September) and were between 7 and 14 times higher in the rainy season (from October to March). The seasonal oscillations in (7)Be soil content could be explained by the asymmetric rainfall regime. A highly linear relationship between rainfall amount and (7)Be deposition was observed in rain water. A good agreement between (7)Be soil content and (7)Be atmospheric deposition was noticed, mainly in wet months. (7)Be penetration in soil reaches a 5 cm depth, this could be explained by the soil type in the region. The soils are Acrisol type, characterized by low pH values and clay illuviation in deeper layers of the soil. In some regions of Brazil special attention should be paid if this radionuclide will be used as soil erosion tracer, taking into account the soil origin and its particular properties.

  9. [Equity in the health sector: evaluation of public policy in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1993-1997].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Virginia; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Kayano, Jorge; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Terence, Marcelo Fernando; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Heimann, Luiza Sterman

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates government measures to reduce inequity in the health sector in Belo Horizonte from 1993 to 1997. Our hypothesis is that a municipal administration committed to equity can reduce disparities in health with the support of the Unified National Health System (SUS). The methodology used an urban quality of life index in Belo Horizonte to detect social inequalities in living conditions, as well as differences between the component indices in the infant mortality rate. Other municipal measures were assessed according to the investment resulting from the implementation of a participatory local budget and open planning process. The urban quality of life index appeared to be an appropriate measure for orienting municipal administration. The infant mortality rate proved to be a good indicator for measuring inequality in health. There was a reduction in IMR and mortality reducing gaps in the districts studied. We observed greater investment of physical and financial resources in the districts with the lowest urban quality of life index, and it can thus be stated that the municipal administration reduced the prevailing inequalities.

  10. Natural Leishmania sp. reservoirs and phlebotomine sandfly food source identification in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania spp are distributed throughout the world and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. However, leishmaniasis is thought to be confined to areas of the world where its insect vectors, sandflies, are present. Phlebotomine sandflies obtain blood meals from a variety of wild and domestic animals and sometimes from humans. These vectors transmit Leishmania spp, the aetiological agent of leishmaniasis. Identification of sandfly blood meals has generally been performed using serological methods, although a few studies have used molecular procedures in artificially fed insects. In this study, cytochrome b gene (cytB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in DNA samples isolated from 38 engorged Psychodopygus lloydi and the expected 359 bp fragment was identified from all of the samples. The amplified product was digested using restriction enzymes and analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). We identified food sources for 23 females; 34.8% yielded a primate-specific banding profile and 26.1% and 39.1% showed banding patterns specific to birds or mixed restriction profiles (rodent/marsupial, human/bird, rodent/marsupial/human), respectively. The food sources of 15 flies could not be identified. Two female P. lloydi were determined to be infected by Leishmania using internal transcribed spacer 1 and heat shock protein 70 kDa PCR-RFLP. The two female sandflies, both of which fed on rodents/marsupials, were further characterised as infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. These results constitute an important step towards applying methodologies based on cytB amplification as a tool for identifying the food sources of female sandflies.

  11. The Statherian itabirite-bearing sequence from the Morro Escuro Ridge, Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira Braga, Flávia Cristina; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Queiroga, Gláucia Nascimento; Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal Jesse

    2015-03-01

    The itabirite-bearing metasedimentary sequence from Morro Escuro Ridge comprises the basal units of the Espinhaço Supergroup and makes up a small tectonic inlier developed during one of the Brasiliano orogenic events (800-500 Ma), amongst horses of the Archean TTG gneisses, including sheared granites of the anorogenic Borrachudos Suite (˜1700 Ma). The metasedimentary rocks are comprised of low-to intermediate-amphibolite facies schists, quartzites, conglomerates and banded iron formation (itabirite) correlatable with the sequences of the Serro Group, which underlies the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Serra da Serpentina Ridge. A maximum Statherian deposition age (1668 Ma) was established using SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic constraints on zircon grains from conglomerate and quartzite units overlying the itabirite. The itabirite is predominantly hematitic and its geochemical characteristics are typical of a Lake Superior-type BIF deposited in a platformal, suboxic to anoxic environment distant from Fe-bearing hydrothermal vents. Close to the contact zone with amphibolites of the Early Neoproterozoic Pedro Lessa mafic suite, an increase of the magnetite content and crystallization of metasomatic Mg-hornblende and Ce-allanite can be observed. These mineralogical changes developed preferentially along the igneous contact zone but are probably co-genetic with the formation of alteration haloes in zircon grains during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (506 ± 6 Ma).

  12. Financial impact of nosocomial infections in the intensive care units of a charitable hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nangino, Glaucio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Cláudio Dornas; Correia, Paulo César; Machado, Noelle de Melo; Dias, Ana Thereza Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective Infections in intensive care units are often associated with a high morbidity and mortality in addition to high costs. An analysis of these aspects can assist in optimizing the allocation of relevant financial resources. Methods This retrospective study analyzed the hospital administration and quality in intensive care medical databases [Sistema de Gestão Hospitalar (SGH)] and RM Janus®. A cost analysis was performed by evaluating the medical products and materials used in direct medical care. The costs are reported in the Brazilian national currency (Real). The cost and length of stay analyses were performed for all the costs studied. The median was used to determine the costs involved. Costs were also adjusted by the patients' length of stay in the intensive care unit. Results In total, 974 individuals were analyzed, of which 51% were male, and the mean age was 57±18.24 years. There were 87 patients (8.9%) identified who had nosocomial infections associated with the intensive care unit. The median cost per admission and the length of stay for all the patients sampled were R$1.257,53 and 3 days, respectively. Compared to the patients without an infection, the patients with an infection had longer hospital stays (15 [11-25] versus 3 [2-6] days, p<0.01), increased costs per patient in the intensive care unit (median R$9.763,78 [5445.64 - 18,007.90] versus R$1.093,94 [416.14 - 2755.90], p<0.01) and increased costs per day of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (R$618,00 [407.81 - 838.69] versus R$359,00 [174.59 - 719.12], p<0.01). Conclusion Nosocomial infections associated with the intensive care unit were determinants of increased costs and longer hospital stays. However, the study design did not allow us to evaluate specific aspects of cause and effect. PMID:23917933

  13. Evaluation of the conjunctival swab for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; de Melo, Maria Norma; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2008-04-15

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) and dogs are considered to be the main domestic reservoir. The epidemiological control involves the elimination of infected dogs. Therefore, the correct diagnosis is very important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Recently, an antileishmanial vaccine for dogs was licensed and commercialized in Brazil. Vaccinated dogs test positive in the conventional serological tests, rendering these assays useless for control programs involving vaccinated animals. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating the conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis by the PCR-hybridization procedure. Two groups of 23 seropositive dogs were used. CS samples were obtained from both eyes of each animal. The DNA extraction from CS was performed by the phenol chloroform method in group 1 and by boiling in group 2. In addition, blood was collected from each animal so that 30 microl was spotted onto filter paper (FP) and 1.0 ml was treated to obtain the buffy coat (BC). The DNA extraction from the BC and FP was accomplished by identical procedures in both groups using commercial kits. The PCR positivities for both groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: 73.9% and 52.2% (CS), 13% and 30.4% (BC), 8.7% and 17.4% (FP). The hybridization step increased the positivities for: 91.3% and 65.2% (CS), 21.7% and 34.8% (BC), 30.4% and 43.5% (FP), respectively. The highest frequency of positivity was obtained by the association between CS and DNA extraction by phenol chloroform. This approach can be very useful for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and could be applied to the follow-up and regular screening of vaccinated dogs.

  14. Detection of toxins A/B and isolation of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Santos, Renata Lara Resende; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Pereira, Luiz Carlos; Pereira, Silvia Trindade; Duarte, Marina Carvalho; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect C. difficile A/B toxins and to isolate strains of C. perfringens and C. difficile from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 57 dogs, 35 of which were apparently healthy, and 22 of which were diarrheic. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected by ELISA, and C. perfringens and C. difficile were identified by multiplex PCR. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected in 21 samples (36.8%). Of these, 16 (76.2%) were from diarrheic dogs, and five (23.8%) were from non-diarrheic dogs. Twelve C. difficile strains (21.1%) were isolated, of which ten were A+B+ and two were A−B−. All non-toxigenic strains were isolated from non-diarrheic animals. The binary toxin gene cdtB was found in one strain, which was A+B+ and was derived from a non-diarrheic dog. C. perfringens strains were isolated from 40 samples (70.2%). Of these, 18 (45%) were from the diarrheic group, and 22 (55%) belonged to the non-diarrheic group. All isolates were classified as C. perfringens type A and there was an association between the detection of the cpe gene and the presence of diarrhea. Interestingly, ten strains (25%) were positive for the presence of the cpb2 gene. The high rate of detection of the A/B toxins in non-diarrheic dogs suggests the occurrence of subclinical disease in dogs or carriage of its toxins without disease. More studies are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of C. difficile and C. perfringens in dogs and to better our understanding of C. difficile as a zoonotic agent. This is the first study to report the binary toxin gene in C. difficile strains isolated from dogs in Brazil. PMID:24159295

  15. Tres Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais State: Study of the dispersion of suspended sediments in surface waters using orbital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer compatible tapes from LANDSAT were used to compartmentalize the Ires Marias reservoir according to respective grey level spectral response. Interactive and automatic, supervised classification, was executed from the IMAGE-100 system. From the simple correlation analysis and graphic representation, it is shown that grey tone levels are inversely proportional to Secchi Depth values. It is further shown that the most favorable period to conduct an analysis of this type is during the rainy season.

  16. Heavy Metals and Histopathological Alterations in Salminus franciscanus (Lima & Britski, 2007) (Pisces: Characiformes) in the Paraopeba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savassi, Lourenço Almeida; Arantes, Fabio Pereira; Gomes, Marcos Vinicius Teles; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-04-01

    Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the liver, spleen and muscle, of the fish Salminus franciscanus, from two sections of Paraopeba River, highly affected by anthropogenic influences, was detected in levels above those recommended for human consumption. Positive correlations between fish size and levels of metals were detected for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn. In the livers, areas with lipid accumulation and pigmented macrophages were also observed, as was fibrosis of the spleen in the parenchymal area through the presence of pigmented macrophages. The diameter of vitellogenic follicles was less and the frequency of atresia was higher in fish from section A. Thus, our study showed that beyond the risk to the population that eats S. franciscanus from the Paraopeba River, we should also consider the risk to the conservation of this species, since histopathological changes were detected in target organs and in some reproductive parameters.

  17. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMERCIO 21 Aug] 23 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA EGYPT Agreements Signed to Develop Domestic Uranium [AL-JUMHURIYAH 2 Aug] 24 INDIA Two Large...Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock...96.622 authorizes the establishment of Uranium of Brasil S.A. as a subsidiary of INB, with headquarters in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais State

  18. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed.

  19. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  20. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  1. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gallão, Jonas Eduardo; von Schimonsky, Diego M; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae (Amblypygi) and Iandumoema uai (Opiliones), both from Olhos d’Água cave, located at Peruaçu Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cipó cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km2. New information This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or there are several possibilities of dispersion in the karst of Peruaçu. Indeed, a revision of their categorical status at IUCN Red List is necessary. We herein report a new distribution range (Lapa do Cipó cave) of the troglobitic species I. uai and C. eleonorae, which are, to date, known to occur in the Olhos d’Água cave, located at the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP). PMID:26696758

  2. [Determinants of food and nutrition insecurity: a study conducted in Low-budget Restaurants in Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Yara Cardoso; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the condition of household food and nutrition (in)security (IAN) of the users of low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte (BH). This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out on all low-budget restaurants and cafeteria in BH with a sample of 1613 users. The IAN was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and cross-checked with the socioeconomic profile of the users. The Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were applied. All p-value < 0.25 variables were included in the multivariate analysis. The groups most exposed to IAN among users of low-budget restaurants are those with a lower socioeconomic level and per capita income class and those with a large number of residents in the household. Also affected are those who admit to having different kinds of wants and needs, and those for whom price and living alone are the main reasons for frequenting low-budget restaurants. The factors affecting the IAN are varied and multifactorial, thus representing a major challenge for public policy makers and for those who live directly with these dietary restrictions. The low-budget restaurants serve as a strategy for promoting healthy eating habits.

  3. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  4. Magnetic fabrics, rock magnetism, cathodoluminescence and petrography of apparently undeformed Bambui carbonates from São Francisco Basin (Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil): An integrated study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; McReath, Ian; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.

    2006-05-01

    Magnetic measurements were performed on apparently undeformed limestones and carbonate shales from 44 sites in nearly horizontal stratigraphic layers mainly from the basal units of the Neoproterozoic Bambui Group in the southern part of the São Francisco Basin. Rock magnetism, cathodoluminescence, transmitted and reflected light microscopy analyses reveal that there is a mix of ferromagnetic minerals, mainly magnetite and pyrrhotite, in most sites. In some sites, however, the ferromagnetic minerals are magnetite and hematite. Fine-grained pyrrhotite and pyrite accompany rare fine-grained graphite and probably amorphous carbon in some of stylolites, while pyrrhotite is also present as larger interstitial masses in coarse-grained domains outside, but close to the stylolites. Magnetic fabrics were determined applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence magnetization (AAR). The AAR tensor was less well defined than the AMS fabric due to the low ferromagnetic mineral content. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines three AMS fabric types. The first type (two sites) shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane, while Kmax and Kint are scattered within bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of totally undeformed sediments. The second type shows the three well-clustered AMS axes with Kmin still perpendicular to the bedding plane. This fabric is the most important since it was found in the majority of the sites. The third type (two sites) is characterized by well-clustered Kmax in the bedding plane, while Kmin and Kint are distributed along a girdle. The second and third fabric types are interpreted as combinations of sedimentary-compactional and tectonic contributions at the earliest, and at a slightly later stage of deformation, respectively. AMS represents the contribution of all the rock-forming minerals, while AAR isolates the contribution of remanence-bearing minerals from the matrix minerals. However, rock magnetism shown that anhysteretic remanence only reaches grains with coercivity < 100 mT because the maximum AF in the majority of the available instruments is 100 mT. Therefore, hematite and pyrrhotite probably do not contribute to AAR, which is due to the shape-preferred orientation of magnetite grains. For some sites, the AMS and AAR fabric orientations are different, mainly with respect to the lineation orientations ( Kmax and Amax, respectively). In general, Kmax is well developed and follows the trend of the main regional thrusts, fold axes and faults generated in the first deformational phase, while Amax follows both this trend and that of structural lineaments formed during the second deformational phase. These deformation phases arose from the compression, which occurred during the evolution of the Brasília fold belt during the last stages of the Brasiliano event. The magnetic fabrics of the apparently undeformed Bambui limestones are typical of very weakly deformed sediments, in which the depositional-compaction fabric has been partly overprinted by a tectonic one, with minimum susceptibility direction remaining perpendicular to bedding. This result is in agreement with the textures given by the petrographic observations.

  5. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records.

  6. [Control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the kennel of the UFMG Veterinary School, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo F; Leite, Romário C; de Oliveira, Paulo R

    2008-01-01

    The present work was aimed at proposing a control measure for Rhipicephalus sanguineus in a naturally infected kennel of 72 m(2) of the UFMG Veterinary School with 25 dogs of different breeds. A sensitivity test to acaricide products was applied in a sample of R. sanguineus. Out of the acaricide products tested: 12.5% Amitraz (product 1); 2% Alfamethrin and 60% Dichlorvos association (product 2); 5% Deltamethrin (product 3) and the association between 77.6% Trichlorfon, 1.0% Coumaphos and 1.0% Cyfluthrin (product 4); only 1 and 4 products showed 100% efficacy. Amitraz (12.5%) was used for controlling R. sanguineus in the surrounding of the kennel, on which four treatments every seven days were carried out in the facilities. For parasitic R. sanguineus, a single topical treatment was used: Flumetrin 1.0% pour-on on all the 25 dogs. This control measure significantly reduced the population of R. sanguineus within the kennel. A slight infestation was observed in the seventh month after treatment. A new application of 12.5% Amitraz was done in the kennel as well as a new topical treatment with Flumetrin 1.0% pour-on on the dogs. The control procedure proposed in the present study was an emergency measure and its effectiveness was checked through environmental surveys throughout a one-year period.

  7. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk.

  8. Hourly activity and natural infection of sandflies (Diptera: psychodidae) captured from the aphotic zone of a cave, minas gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Saraiva, Lara; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; de Almeida Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo; e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra; de Castilho Sanguinette, Cristiani; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Sandflies are holometabolous insects that are of great epidemiological importance in the neotropical region as vectors of leishmaniases. Caves are ecotopes that significantly differ from external environments and, among the insects that live or visit their internal area and adjacent environment, sandflies are commonly found. Based on this context, the objective of this work was to examine the period of activity of sandflies in the cave environment in the aphotic zone. Thus, four sandfly captures were conducted, one in each season of the year, in a cave where studies on the bioecological aspects of sandfly fauna have been conducted since 2008. In this same study, we have also noticed the presence of flagellates in some captured females. Catches were carried out for 24 hours using a Shannon trap, light bait, and cave walls were actively searched. We collected a total of 638 sandflies, representing 11 species. The most abundant species and with more intense period of activity were, in descending order: Lu. cavernicola (62%), Ev. spelunca (16%) and Ev. sallesi (14%). A total of 69 females were dissected to check for natural infection, and in five specimens we found living flagellated forms: two Ev. spelunca, two Ev. sallesi and one Sc. sordellii. This study shows that the activity of some species caught in the aphotic zone of the cave, especially Lu. cavernicola, differs from what has already been reported in previous sandfly captures, which are almost always conducted at night and during twilight. The existence of sandflies that were naturally infected with flagellates and the lack of awareness regarding the behaviour of sandflies in cave environments are strong indicators of the need for further study on this group of insects in this ecotope, as a safety measure to protect the visitors of such environment.

  9. Hourly Activity and Natural Infection of Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Captured from the Aphotic Zone of a Cave, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Saraiva, Lara; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; de Almeida Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo; e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra; de Castilho Sanguinette, Cristiani; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Sandflies are holometabolous insects that are of great epidemiological importance in the neotropical region as vectors of leishmaniases. Caves are ecotopes that significantly differ from external environments and, among the insects that live or visit their internal area and adjacent environment, sandflies are commonly found. Based on this context, the objective of this work was to examine the period of activity of sandflies in the cave environment in the aphotic zone. Thus, four sandfly captures were conducted, one in each season of the year, in a cave where studies on the bioecological aspects of sandfly fauna have been conducted since 2008. In this same study, we have also noticed the presence of flagellates in some captured females. Catches were carried out for 24 hours using a Shannon trap, light bait, and cave walls were actively searched. We collected a total of 638 sandflies, representing 11 species. The most abundant species and with more intense period of activity were, in descending order: Lu. cavernicola (62%), Ev. spelunca (16%) and Ev. sallesi (14%). A total of 69 females were dissected to check for natural infection, and in five specimens we found living flagellated forms: two Ev. spelunca, two Ev. sallesi and one Sc. sordellii. This study shows that the activity of some species caught in the aphotic zone of the cave, especially Lu. cavernicola, differs from what has already been reported in previous sandfly captures, which are almost always conducted at night and during twilight. The existence of sandflies that were naturally infected with flagellates and the lack of awareness regarding the behaviour of sandflies in cave environments are strong indicators of the need for further study on this group of insects in this ecotope, as a safety measure to protect the visitors of such environment. PMID:23284957

  10. Prevalence and monthly distribution of head lice using two diagnostic procedures in several age groups in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Silva, Juliana J; Rodrigues, Rosângela M; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Some epidemiological characteristics of head lice, Pediculus capitis, were studied using two procedures: cut hair analysis and head inspection. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the middle and at the end of the school terms. Both procedures indicated that children were the main reservoir for this type of pediculosis in Uberlândia.

  11. The gap between knowledge on HIV/AIDS and sexual behavior: a study of teenagers in Vespasiano, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Luciana Ramos de; Lamounier, Joyce Romano; Guimarães, Patrícia Regina; Duarte, Júlia Mesquita; Beling, Maria Tereza Cordeiro; Pinto, Jorge Andrade; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos de Andrade; Grillo, Cristiane de Freitas Cunha

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gaps between knowledge on HIV/AIDS and sexual behavior among teenagers. The study used a cross-sectional design with a representative random sample of 1,158 teenagers (14 to 19 years of age) enrolled in nine public secondary schools and who answered validated questionnaires. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and tests of hypotheses (chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Kendall, and Fisher's exact test). The vast majority of the teenagers (98.7%) expressed doubt on at least one question. Condom use during first sexual intercourse was significantly associated with condom use in sexual relations in the previous six months. There was no statistical association between knowledge on HIV/AIDS and frequency of condom use or number of sexual partners. Health actions are needed that link schools to health services, in addition to not only elaborating appropriate information but also valorizing teenagers' individuality in the development of proposals.

  12. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Letícia Azevedo; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ. Methods Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype. Results Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite. Conclusions There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus, further studies are needed as a basis for a more adequate toxoplasmosis treatment. PMID:28118394

  13. [Occupational activity and prevalence of osteomuscular pain among dentists in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a contribution to the debate on work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, S B; Barreto, S M

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of upper-limb and back pain among dentists (n = 358) and factors associated with these symptoms. Dentists were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire containing data on sociodemographic, occupational, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and presence, site, and characteristics of pain. Participation rate was 92.3%. 58% reported upper limb pain, with 22, 21, 20, and 17% for the arm, back, neck, and shoulder, respectively. 26% reported daily frequency and 40% classified pain as moderate or severe. In the multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression), the factors associated with pain were: neck: anxiety/depression (OR = 2.3; CI95%: 1.2-4.5), compressor in the office (OR = 2.1; CI95%: 1.2-3.7), job satisfaction (OR = 0.3; CI95%: 0.1-0.9), and use of indirect vision (OR = 0.5; CI95%: 0.3-0.9); shoulder: income > 20 minimum wage (OR = 2.9; CI95%: 1.2-6.7), greater productivity (OR = 3.3; CI95%: 1.3-8.4), height > or = 160cm (OR = 0.3; CI95%: 0.2-0.7), and age 30-49 years (OR = 0.3; CI95%: 0.1-0.8); back: anxiety/depression (OR = 2.3; CI95%: 1.2-4.5), manual activity (OR = 0.4; CI95%: 0.2-0.9), and being married (OR = 0.5; CI95%: 0.3-0.9); arms: manual activity (OR = 1.8; CI95%: 1.0-3.2).

  14. Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis among healthy population in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves; Brigatte, Marcos Emilio; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

    2005-12-01

    Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published. We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community. The serum samples were tested by indirected micro-immunoflourescence technique and a cutoff titer of 1:64 was used. The seroprevalence rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis were respectively 1.6% (7 samples); 1.1% (5 samples); 3.9% (17 samples); 13.7% (60 samples); 12.8% (56 samples), and 10.5% (46 samples). Frequent multiple/cross-reactivity was observed in this study. Age over 40 years old, urban profession, and rural residence were significantly associated with some but not all infections rate. Low seropositivity rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, and C. burnetii contrasted with higher rates of seropositivity for B. quintana, B. henselae, and E. chaffeensis. These results show that all tested rickettsial species or antigenically closely related possible exist in this particular region.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  16. The integration of physical rock properties, mineralogy and geochemistry for the exploration of large zinc silicate deposits: A case study of the Vazante zinc deposits, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGladrey, Alexandra J.; Olivo, Gema Ribeiro; Silva, Adalene Moreira; Oliveira, Gustavo Diniz; Neto, Basilio Botura; Perrouty, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The Vazante deposit, which is the world's largest zinc silicate deposit, occurs in brecciated dolomite and comprises mainly willemite with various proportions of hematite, Fe-carbonate, minor franklinite and magnetite. Exploration for this type of deposit is more challenging than zinc sulfide deposits, as they do not exhibit similar geophysical anomalies. To improve the application of geophysical surveys to the exploration of hypogene silicate zinc deposits, data from 475 samples were investigated from drill holes representative of the various types of ore and host rocks as well as barren zones of known geophysical anomalies in the Vazante District. Lithogeochemical and mineralogical (optical, SEM and MLA) data were integrated with physical rock properties (density, magnetic susceptibility and Ksbnd Usbnd Th gamma-ray spectrometry) to assist in exploring for this type of deposit. The most distinct physical property of the ore is density, compared with the host rocks due to high proportion of denser minerals (hematite and willemite). However, barren hematite breccias also have high densities. The zinc ore and hematite breccias yielded higher magnetic susceptibilities than the surrounding host rocks, with the highest values associated with greater proportions of franklinite and magnetite. The density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts are a result of hydrothermal fluids interacting with and altering the carbonate host rocks. Zinc ore also yielded elevated U concentrations relative to the various host rocks, yielding higher gamma-ray spectrometric values. The results of this investigation indicate that an integration of magnetic, gravimetric and radiometric surveys would be required to identify zinc silicate ore zones.

  17. Civilise the People, Build the Nation: Scientific and Literary Association and Education in Minas Gerais (Brazil) at the Beginning of the Brazilian Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Luciano Mendes de Faria; Inacio, Marcilaine Soares

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 200 years in Brazil, the notion of "public" has been established to mean the same as the notion of "state". Sergio Buarque de Holanda and, more recently, Marilena Chaui point out that the very old tradition of the appropriation of public goods by the private sector has been updated. However, the understanding of…

  18. Realisation d'un Centre de Fonderie dans l'Etat de Minas Gerais, Bresil. Resultats du projet et recommandations en decoulant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The document reports the findings and suggestions produced by a study of the needs for on-the-job training of foundry workers and for management development in foundries in Brazil. The researchers propose the creation of working foundries to serve as vocational training centers and laboratories, where experienced workers could upgrade their…

  19. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  20. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  1. [Association between household solid waste disposal and health, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil].

    PubMed

    Catapreta, C A; Heller, L

    1999-02-01

    There are few published studies about the effects of inadequate solid waste collection on the health of the population exposed to this situation. The objective of the present work was to describe this association in a sample of children under 5 years of age living in seven low-income neighborhoods and favelas in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We defined as "exposed" those children whose families were not served by waste collection; "not-exposed" were children who lived in areas with waste collection. The study employed data collected in 1994 and organized as a database by the municipal department of health. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which a "case" was defined as a child whose outpatient clinic record indicated a diagnosis of diarrheal, parasitic, or dermatological disease. Other diagnoses for the same age group composed the control group. Our epidemiological study revealed an association between the absence of domestic solid waste collection and public health. Our results suggest that the children exposed to the absence of solid waste collection have a 40% higher odds (OR = 1.40) of presenting diarrheal, parasitic, and dermatological diseases than not-exposed children. In addition, the calculation of attributable risk revealed that the presence of waste collection could prevent (based on the 1995 situation) 512 cases in the neighborhoods studied and (based on the 1994 conditions) 2316 cases among children in the entire city of Belo Horizonte.

  2. Diagenetic nanometric ferrihydrite clusters in 2.4 Ga carbonate banded iron formations from the Minas Supergroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, R. R.; Wirth, R.; Orberger, B.

    2011-12-01

    Iron (oxyhydr)oxides, abundant on the Martian surface, can be formed via magmatic, hydrothermal, diagenetic or weathering processes. At present their formation are poorly understood. The study of Precambrian samples may be key to better understanding the Martian environmental conditions, past and present. Our FIB-TEM study of iron oxides from a banded iron formation (Gandarela Formation (2.4 Ga), Minas Supergroup, Minas Gerais, Brazil) provides a Precambrian terrestrial analogue for the formation of diagenetic ferrihydrite. A detailed mineralogical, petrological and FIB-TEM study of a carbonate banded iron formation (known locally as carbonate itabirites-CI) has revealed the presence of previously unknown nano-platelets of ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite hosted within dolomite. The CI are millimetrically alternating bands of pink dolomite and grey hematite. The fine sedimentary laminations, micritic sized dolomite crystals and nano (oxyhydr)oxide inclusions in the dolomite grains likely reflect a primary origin during deposition. The pink colour of the dolomite is a result of the nano inclusions of euhedral hematite (≤1 μm) and nano platelets of ferrihydrite and gothite (≥10 nm). The smallest ferrihydrites (~10 nm) are mostly rounded with a hint of a euhedral shape whereas the larger ferrihydrites (400 nm) are euhedral platelets. Clinochlore and talc indicate that the CI have experienced greenschist facies metamorphism at two major intervals; the Transamazonian at 2.1 Ga and the Brasiliano at 0.8 Ga. The ferrihydrites occur either as individual droplets or as clusters of up to 30 crystals. A common feature of all the ferrihydrite platelets is their close association with porosity indicating that the ferrihydrite platelets are a result of precipitation from fluid inclusions trapped within the dolomite during its formation. Deciphering the relative time of precipitation of the ferrihydrite is key in understanding the overall history of the rock. Dislocations

  3. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-02

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (p<0.05). The interaction of nisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption.

  4. Causes and Consequences of Water Flux on the Example of Transverse Heading Mina in the Salt Mine "Wieliczka" / Przyczyny i Skutki Dopływu Wody na Przykładzie Poprzeczni Mina w Kopalni Soli "Wieliczka"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonet, Andrzej; Stryczek, Stanisław; Brudnik, Krzysztof

    2012-11-01

    The causes of disastrous water flux in the historical Salt Mine "Wieliczka" have been presented on the example of transverse heading Mina at the IV level at a depth of 175 m bsl. The complex geological setting of direct environment of the transverse heading Mina has been described paying attention to unfavorable hydrogeological conditions in the northern part of the salt deposit. The main activities oriented to limiting the water hazard in the Salt Mine "Wieliczka" and the reconstruction of inner safety pillar, which had been seriously damaged by mining activities, have been analyzed. A selection of objects inside the mine, saved from flooding thanks to protection works has been visualized in photos.

  5. Characterization of Minaçu virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus) and pathological changes in experimentally infected newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia C; Diniz, José A P; Silva, Eliana V P; Barros, Vera L R S; Monteiro, Hamilton A O; Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Quaresma, Juarez A S; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2007-01-01

    Minaçu virus was isolated from Ochlerotatus scapularis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Minaçu, Goiás State, Brazil, in 1996. In attempting characterization of virus serological (hemagluttination inhibition, HI; indirect immunofluorescence assay, IFA), physicochemical [test for deoxycholate acid (DCA) sensitivity; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)] tests and ultrastructural studies were made. Virus was also assayed in suckling mice after intracerebral inoculation of 0.02 ml and in VERO and C6/36 cells with 0.1 ml of viral suspension containing 105 LD50/ml. Inoculated and control systems were observed daily. Every 24 h, one control and two inoculated animals were killed for tissue testing, including histopathological changes by haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections, which were semi-quantified. Research into viral antigen in the tissues of mice [central nervous system (CNS), liver, heart, lungs, spleen and kidneys] was carried out by the immunohistochemical technique using the peroxidase system. The virus only replicated in VERO cells, with antigen positive by IFA. Positive complement fixation tests were only obtained using antiserum of Minaçu virus. Minaçu virus is DCA resistant; haemagglutinating activity was negative. By electronic microscopy non-enveloped virus particles were 75 nm in diameter. PAGE analysis showed Minaçu virus genome profile with 10 RNA segments. Infected, non-killed animals died 7 days after inoculation. Tissue lesions were observed in all organs, except the lungs. Intense lesions were observed in the CNS and the heart, where neurone and cardiocyte necroses, respectively, were noted. The liver, spleen and kidneys had moderate tissue changes. Viral antigens were more abundant in the CNS and the heart, and absent in the lungs. In conclusion, Minaçu virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. PMID:17244340

  6. Using oxygen isotope chemistry to track hydrothermal processes and fluid sources in itabirite-hosted iron ore deposits in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Brown, Philip E.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2014-03-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, is presently the largest accumulation of single itabirite-hosted iron ore bodies worldwide. Detailed petrography of selected hypogene high-grade iron ore bodies at, e.g. the Águas Claras, Conceição, Pau Branco and Pico deposits revealed different iron oxide generations, from oldest to youngest: magnetite → martite (hematite pseudomorph after magnetite) → granoblastic (recrystallised) → microplaty (fine-grained, <100 μm) → specular (coarse-grained, >100 μm) hematite. Laser-fluorination oxygen isotope analyses of selected iron ore species showed that the δ18O composition of ore-hosted martite ranges between -4.4 and 0.9 ‰ and is up to 11 ‰ depleted in 18O relative to hematite of the host itabirite. During the modification of iron ore and the formation of new iron oxide generations (e.g. microplaty and specular hematite), an increase of up to 8 ‰ in δ18O values is recorded. Calculated δ18O values of hydrothermal fluids in equilibrium with the iron oxide species indicate: (1) the involvement of isotopically light fluids (e.g. meteoric water or brines) during the upgrade from itabirite-hosted hematite to high-grade iron ore-hosted martite and (2) a minor positive shift in δ18Ofluid values from martite to specular hematite as result of modified meteoric water or brines with slightly elevated δ18O values and/or the infiltration of small volumes of isotopically heavy (metamorphic and/or magmatic) fluids into the iron ore system. The circulation of large fluid volumes that cause the systematic decrease of 18O/16O ratios from itabirite to high-grade iron ore requires the presence of, e.g. extensive faults and/or large-scale folds.

  7. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  8. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  9. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  10. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  11. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  12. Hematite mining in the ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 year old Peruvian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Kevin J.; Grados, Moises Linares; Eerkens, Jelmer W.; Edwards, Matthew J.

    2007-12-01

    Mina Primavera, a hematite (Fe2O3) mine located in southern Peru, was exploited beginning approximately 2,000 years ago by two Andean civilizations, the Nasca and Wari. Despite the importance of hematite in the material culture of the ancient Americas, few hematite mines have been reported in the New World literature and none have been reported for the Central Andes. An estimated 3,710 tonnes of hematite were extracted from the mine for over 1,400 years at an average rate of 2.65 tonnes per year, suggesting regular and extensive mining prior to Spanish conquest. The hematite was likely used as a pigment for painting pottery, and the mine demonstrates that iron ores were extracted extensively at an early date in the Americas.

  13. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  14. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  15. Soil Temperature Variations on a Tidal Flat in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. C.; Perillo, G. M. E.; Daborn, G. R.

    1993-04-01

    The thermal features of the air (and water) over a tidal flat and within the sediments are described. Data were collected at Starrs Point, Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy in July 1989 as part of a multidisciplinary study of sediment properties. Temperature in the intertidal sediments exhibits rapid changes which occur principally during tidal inundation. Vertical gradients of 0·5 10 -2 °C m -1 were found in the upper 0·25 m layer. Thermal diffusivity were calculated by two methods, the amplitude equation and a numerical approach. Observed rates of temperature change were compared with theoretical rates. The results show that, if sufficient data is available the numerical method is preferred. The presence of large populations of Corophium Volutator increases thermal diffusivity because of their vertical migrations. Therefore, the heat is distributed faster and through a greater depth. FFT analysis of air-water temperatures time series presented spectrum peaks at 24, 6, 2·7 and 1·8 h. Sediment temperature spectra show peaks at 24 and 6 h, confirming that radiation and tides are the driving mechanisms of the thermal behaviour over and within the tidal flat. An empirical orthogonal function analysis was performed on the temperature time series over the tidal flats. Modes 1 and 2 explain about 99·6% of the total variance. Mode 1 reflects the mean pattern of the temperature and mode 2 shows the abrupt changes produced when the water arrives or leaves the flat.

  16. A control method to inspect the compositional authenticity of Minas Frescal cheese by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magenis, Renata B; Prudêncio, Elane S; Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor

    2014-08-20

    This study introduces a qualitative method to inspect the compositional authenticity of white nonripened cheeses like Minas Frescal, a typical Brazilian cheese, especially when irregular replacement of milk by whey is suspected. A sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method, followed by image densitometry, was validated. Cheeses were freeze-dried to electrophoresis, and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) was chosen as the adulteration marker. In gel trypsin digestion followed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry provided its identification. Cheeses with a minimum of 14 mg·g(-1) of β-LG are considered to be adulterated. The method shows satisfactory precision with a detection limit of 7 mg·g(-1). Forty-two commercial samples from inspected establishments were then assessed and subjected to cluster analysis. Compliant and noncompliant groups were set with 24 (57%) authentic samples and 18 (43%) adulterated samples, respectively, showing that proper analytical monitoring is required to inhibit this practice.

  17. A structural analysis of the Minas da Panasqueira vein network and related fracture generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Minas da Panasqueira is a world-class W-Cu-Sn vein-type deposit, situated within the Central Iberian Zone of the Palaeozoic Iberian Massif (Portugal). The deposit consists of a network of subhorizontal, sill-like massive quartz veins situated above the southwestern extremity of a greisen cupola, within regionally metamorphosed, isoclinally folded, lower-greenschist slates and greywackes. The greisen cupola is part of a larger intrusive complex, emplaced during the late- to post-tectonic stage of the Variscan orogeny. The late-Variscan granitoid(s) underlying the Panasqueira deposit is considered to have served as a major metal source. The structure of the network of subhorizontal extension veins, consists of numerous planar vein lobes that are separated by host-rock bridges and merge at branch-points. A structural analysis demonstrates that not only within the Panasqueira mine, but also on a more regional scale, one or more generations of flat-lying fractures are present. The veins clearly exploited these pre-existing discontinuities, as confirmed by (1) the vein geometry being directly influenced by variations in the orientation of the initial fracture sets and (2) the geometry of the rock bridges and overlapping vein morphologies, consistently showing straight-line propagating crack tips. If veining is governed by a preferential, strongly developed anisotropy in the host rock, the hypothesis of vein lobes and rock bridges forming during propagation of the parent crack by tip-line bifurcation and confinement processes (Foxford et al., 2000) does not seem plausible. Instead, we propose that the rock bridges formed from several, initially separate and small veinlets that eventually overlapped in an en echelon arrangement during progressive propagation and inflation. Bending of the rock bridges and incipient vein rotation indicate that veining occurred near the brittle-ductile transition. Using a quantitative analysis of bridge orientations, vein aspect ratios

  18. Clinical cutaneous leishmaniasis rates are associated with household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F; Rigg, Chystrie A; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E; Calzada, Jose E

    2013-03-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile.

  19. Clinical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Rates Are Associated with Household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi Abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F.; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E.; Calzada, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile. PMID:23339202

  20. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  1. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  2. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands.

  3. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  4. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  5. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  6. Two new troglobiotic palpigrades (Palpigradi: Eukoeneniidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Maysa F V R; Ferreira, Rodrigo L

    2016-09-28

    Two new species of troglobiotic Brazilian palpigrades are described: Eukoenenia jequitinhonha sp. n., found in Lapa do Córrego do Vieira cave (Caraí, Minas Gerais) and E. cavatica sp. n., found in Cazanga cave (Arcos, Minas Gerais). The importance of documenting the occurrence of troglobiotic species, even if they are represented by only a single specimen, is discussed.

  7. Mollusks of the Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-lower Kimmeridgian) shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation, northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Beckmann, Seija; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Götte, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We present the first systematic description of Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) invertebrates from the shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation of northeastern Mexico. The unit was generally considered to be extremely poor in fossils, due to an overall evaporitic character. The collection described here includes three taxa of ammonites, 10 taxa of bivalves and five taxa of gastropods. The fossils were discovered near Galeana and other localities in southern Nuevo León and northeastern San Luis Potosí, in thin-bedded marly limestones intercalated between gypsum units. Due to complex internal deformation of the sediments, fossils used for this study cannot be assigned to precise layers of origin. However, the taxa identified suggest a Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) age for these fossil-bearing layers and allow us, for the first time, to assign a biostratigraphic age to Upper Jurassic strata in the region underlying the La Caja and La Casita formations.

  8. Fault Slip Partitioning in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt: Pliocene to Late Pleistocene Contraction Across the Mina Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.; Gosse, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed for fault slip transfer between the subparallel NW-striking dextral- slip faults that dominant the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ)-Walker Lane Belt (WLB). In the northern WLB, domains of sinistral-slip along NE-striking faults and clockwise block rotation within a zone of distributed deformation accommodated NW-dextral shear. A somewhat modified version of this mechanism was also proposed for the Mina deflection, southern WLB, whereby NE-striking sinistral faults formed as conjugate faults to the primary zone of NW-dextral shear; clockwise rotation of the blocks bounding the sinistral faults accommodated dextral slip. In contrast, in the northern ECSZ and Mina deflection, domains of NE-striking pure dip-slip normal faults, bounded by NW-striking dextral-slip faults, exhibited no rotation; the proposed mechanism of slip transfer was one of right-stepping, high angle normal faults in which the magnitude of extension was proportional to the amount of strike-slip motion transferred. New geologic mapping, tectonic geomorphologic, and geochronologic data from the Queen Valley area, southern Mina deflection constrain Pliocene to late Quaternary fault geometries, slip orientations, slip magnitudes, and slip rates that bear on the mechanism of fault slip transfer from the relatively narrow northern ECSZ to the broad deformation zone that defines the Mina deflection. Four different fault types and orientations cut across the Queen Valley area: (1) The NE-striking normal-slip Queen Valley fault; (2) NE-striking sinistral faults; (3) the NW-striking dextral Coyote Springs fault, which merges into (4) a set of EW-striking thrust faults. (U-Th)/He apatite and cosmogenic radionuclide data, combined with magnitude of fault offset measurements, indicate a Pliocene to late Pleistocene horizontal extension rate of 0.2-0.3 mm/yr across the Queen Valley fault. Our results, combined with published slip rates for the dextral White Mountain

  9. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic).

  10. Analysis of the histomorphologic profile of invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma from 2002 to 2011 in a pathology laboratory in the region of Campos Gerais, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Magri; Baroni, Eloina Do Rocio Valenga; Montemór Netto, Mário Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of malignant skin cancer. It is also quite aggressive. The increasing incidence of the disease can be altered given its connection with sun exposure. The aim of this study was to establish the clinical and histomorphological profile of squamous cell carcinoma in the region of Campos Gerais, State of Paraná, Brazil and analyze and compare the features of the disease found in the literature. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in a pathology laboratory with selected invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma reports issued after excisional biopsy from January 2002 to December 2011. We selected 374 cases of head and neck SCC, mean age 71.53 years, with a predominance of male patients, moderate degree of histological differentiation, Clark level IV, and absence of perineural, neural, or angiolymphatic invasions. Our results differ on some points from those found in the literature. PMID:28225961

  11. Identification and molecular phylogeny of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from Minas Frescal cheese in southeastern Brazil: Superantigenic toxin production and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Casaes Nunes, Raquel Soares; Pires de Souza, Camilla; Pereira, Karen Signori; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret

    2016-04-01

    Minas Frescal is a typical Brazilian fresh cheese and one of the most popular dairy products in the country. This white soft, semiskimmed, nonripened cheese with high moisture content is obtained by enzymatic coagulation of cow milk using calf rennet or coagulants, usually in industrial dairy plants, but is also manufactured in small farms. Contamination of Minas Frescal by several staphylococci has been frequently reported. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains are maybe the most harmful, as they are able to produce heat-stable enterotoxins with super antigenic activities in food matrices, especially in dairy products such as soft cheeses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of CNS strains in Minas Frescal marketed in southeastern Brazil concerning the risk of staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured cheese and the possibility of these food matrices being a reservoir of staphylococcal resistance to antimicrobials. Ten distinct CNS strains were found in 6 cheeses from distinct brands. The most frequent species were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (40%), Staphylococcus xylosus (30%), Staphylococcus sciuri (20%), and Staphylococcus piscifermentans (10%). Three strains were identified to the Staphylococcus genera. Three major species groups composed of 3 refined clusters were grouped by phylogenetic analyses with similarities over to 90%. All CNS strains carried multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of sea and seb (90 and 70%, respectively), followed by sec/see, seh/sei, and sed with intermediate incidence (60, 50, and 40%, respectively), and, finally, seg/selk/selq/selr and selu with the lowest incidence (20 and 10%, respectively). Real-time reverse transcription PCR and ELISA assays confirmed the enteroxigenic character of the CNS strains, which expressed and produced the enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to antimicrobial agents such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and

  12. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  13. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    PubMed

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese.

  14. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-02-09

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given.

  15. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  16. Entropies of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite: additional constraints on the pressure and temperature of the Al2SiO5 triple point.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The low-T heat capacities of kyanite (Minas Gerais, Brazil), andalusite (Espirito Santo, Brazil), and sillimanite (Reinbolt Hills, Antarctica) were measured with an automatic, adiabatically shielded calorimeter between approx 10 and 380 K. -J.A.Z.

  17. A New Species of the Genus Scybalocanthon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) from Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernando Augusto Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    A new species of the genus Scybalocanthon Martínez 1948, Scybalocanthon korasakiae sp. nov., from Atlantic forest ecosystem, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is described based on external and genital morphology. PMID:22110761

  18. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  19. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157(®)) Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rosangela Nunes; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Minafra e Rezende, Cíntia Silva; de Mesquita, Adriano Queiroz; Romero, Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157(®), bioMérieux, Lyon, France) test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection.

  20. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®) Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Rosangela Nunes; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Minafra e Rezende, Cíntia Silva; de Mesquita, Adriano Queiroz; Romero, Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®, bioMérieux, Lyon, France) test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection. PMID:24948907

  1. Contrasting fluids and reservoirs in the contiguous Marcona and Mina Justa iron oxide-Cu (-Ag-Au) deposits, south-central Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huayong; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Clark, Alan H.

    2011-10-01

    The Marcona-Mina Justa deposit cluster, hosted by Lower Paleozoic metaclastic rocks and Middle Jurassic shallow marine andesites, incorporates the most important known magnetite mineralization in the Andes at Marcona (1.9 Gt at 55.4% Fe and 0.12% Cu) and one of the few major iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits with economic Cu grades (346.6 Mt at 0.71% Cu, 3.8 g/t Ag and 0.03 g/t Au) at Mina Justa. The Middle Jurassic Marcona deposit is centred in Ica Department, Perú, and the Lower Cretaceous Mina Justa Cu (Ag, Au) prospect is located 3-4 km to the northeast. New fluid inclusion studies, including laser ablation time-of-flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-ICPMS) analysis, integrated with sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope analyses of minerals with well-defined paragenetic relationships, clarify the nature and origin of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for these contiguous but genetically contrasted deposits. At Marcona, early, sulphide-free stage M-III magnetite-biotite-calcic amphibole assemblages are inferred to have crystallized from a 700-800°C Fe oxide melt with a δ18O value from +5.2‰ to +7.7‰. Stage M-IV magnetite-phlogopite-calcic amphibole-sulphide assemblages were subsequently precipitated from 430-600°C aqueous fluids with dominantly magmatic isotopic compositions (δ34S = +0.8‰ to +5.9‰; δ18O = +9.6‰ to +12.2‰; δD = -73‰ to -43‰; and δ13C = -3.3‰). Stages M-III and M-IV account for over 95% of the magnetite mineralization at Marcona. Subsequent non-economic, lower temperature sulphide-calcite-amphibole assemblages (stage M-V) were deposited from fluids with similar δ34S (+1.8‰ to +5.0‰), δ18O (+10.1‰ to +12.5‰) and δ13C (-3.4‰), but higher δD values (average -8‰). Several groups of lower (<200°C, with a mode at 120°C) and higher temperature (>200°C) fluids can be recognized in the main polymetallic (Cu, Zn, Pb) sulphide stage M-V and may record the involvement of

  2. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  4. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products. PMID:26221109

  5. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    PubMed

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  6. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  7. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mina Deflection (MD) region of the central Walker Lane of eastern California and western Nevada, is a complex zone of northeast-trending normal, and primarily left-lateral strike-slip to oblique-slip faulting that separates the Southern Walker Lane (SWL) from a series of east-tilted normal fault blocks in the Central Walker Lane (CWL) (Faulds and Henry, 2008; Surpless, 2008). The MD accommodates the transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion from northwest-striking faults in the SWL to a series of left-stepping northwest-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults in the CWL, east of the Wassuk Range near Hawthorne, NV. The ~50 km wide ~80 km long right-step is a distinct transition in regional physiography that has been attributed to strain accommodation through pre-Cenozoic lithospheric structures. Several slip transfer mechanisms have been proposed within the MD, from clockwise rotation of high-angle fault blocks (Wesnousky, 2005), to low-angle displacement within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain complex (Oldow et al., 2001), and curved fault arrays associated with localized basins and tectonic depressions (Ferranti et al., 2009). The region has been a regular source of M4+ events, the most recent being an extended sequence that included twenty-seven M 3.5+ earthquakes (largest event M 4.6) south of Hawthorne in 2011. These earthquakes (< 5 km depth) define shallow W-dipping (dip ~56°) and NW-dipping (dip ~70°) normal faulting constrained by moment tensor (MT) solutions and earthquake relocations. Temporary stations deployed in the source area provide good control. A distributed sequence in 2004, between Queen Valley and Mono Lake, primarily associated with the Huntoon Valley fault, included three M 5+ left-lateral strike-slip faulting events. A 1997 sequence in northern Fish Lake Valley (east of the White Mountains), with mainshock Mw 5.3 (Ichinose et al., 2003), also showed high-angle northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip motion. Historical events

  8. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  9. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  10. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  11. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  12. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  13. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  14. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  15. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  16. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  17. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  18. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  19. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  20. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  1. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  2. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  3. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  4. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  5. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  6. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  7. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  8. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  9. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  10. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  11. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  12. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Wesley Melo; Thijs, Sofie; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Rineau, Francois

    2016-03-10

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands.

  14. The Impact of Periodontal Disease on the Quality of Life of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Ana Cristina Amaral; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; da Costa, Jose Eustaquio

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and the possible repercussions of such pathology in the quality of life of the group in question. Method: The sample consists of 93 individuals with Down syndrome 6-20 years old, living in Brazil (Minas Gerais).…

  15. Two new species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera, Tephritidae) closely related to Anastrepha pickeli Lima.

    PubMed

    Canal, N A; Uramoto, K; Zucchi, R A

    2013-02-01

    Anastrepha entodonta n. sp. and Anastrepha hadropickeli n. sp. are described and illustrated. The new species belong to the spatulata group. Both species occur sympatrically with Anastrepha pickeli Lima in the semiarid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anastrepha hadropickeli occurs also in the semiarid of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, where it was misidentified as A. pickeli.

  16. Brazilian uranium mine decommissioning-chemical and radiological study of waste rock piles

    SciTech Connect

    Wiikmann, L. O.

    1996-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas plateau is a high-natural-radioactivity area in the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. Uranium occurrence in the plateau was first observed in 1948. Mining started in 1977 with mine scouring, and the first ore pile was constructed in 1981. Waste rocks are derived from the mine material. The analysis of core samples is discussed.

  17. NOAA-AVHRR image mosaics applied to vegetation identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Maria d. G.; Ruddorff, Bernardo F.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the maximum-value composite of images procedure from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is used to get a cloud free image mosaic. The image mosaic is used to identify vegetation targets such as tropical forest, savanna and caatinga as well to make the vegetation cover mapping of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  18. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  19. New species of Mesenopsis Godman & Salvin, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) from southeastern Brazil, with an illustrated key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-02-25

    A new species, Mesenopsis jordana sp. nov., from southeastern Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo is described and a taxonomic dichotomous key for species of the genus Mesenopsis is provided. Additionally, mimetic models for species of Mesenopsis are suggested and a new distribution record for M. albivitta is provided.

  20. Saprophytic fungus collection by Africanized bees in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Modro, Anna F H; Silva, Izabel C; Message, Dejair; Luz, Cynthia F P

    2009-01-01

    Cladosporium sp. collection by bees (Apis mellifera L.) was observed in Brazil at an apiary located in Minas Gerais, during November 10-23, 2005, characterized by high air relative humidity and low availability of food resources (pollen and nectar).The nutritional composition of the fungi pellets presented high protein value, ethereal extract and organic matter.

  1. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  2. Epidemiology of Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsial Infection in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Brazilian spotted ...65: 329-334. 9. de Lemos ER, Machado RD, Coura JR. 1994. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem lnst Oswaldo...P, Carrillo P, Hernandez J, Parra E, Keng C. Small M, Olano JP, Bouyer D, Castaneda E, Walker D, Valbuena G. 2007. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  3. Widespread presence of human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotypes in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 151 fecal specimens from chickens were randomly collected from local markets in Uberlandia and Belo in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified in 24 fecal samples (15....

  4. Cognitive Sex Differences in Reasoning Tasks: Evidence from Brazilian Samples of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith F.; Rindermann, Heiner; Primi, Ricardo; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Pena, Carla Couto

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N=6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a…

  5. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  6. [The occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on an aquaculture farm of IBAMA in Uberlândia, MG. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente a dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, E de P; Marçal Júnior, O; Machado, M I

    1997-01-01

    This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but further investigation should be done in the area.

  7. Schooling, Organisation of the Constitutional Monarchy and the Education of Citizens (Brazil, 1822-1889)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Cynthia Greive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the process of institutionalisation of public elementary schooling associated with the political organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the legislation regarding citizen rights and prerogatives in Brazil, especially in the province of Minas Gerais, during the nineteenth century. During this…

  8. Esperanzaite, NaCa(2)Al(2)(As(5+)O(4))[As(5+)O(3)(OH)](OH)(2)F(4)(H(2)O), A New Mineral From Mina La Esperanza, Mexico: Descriptive Mineralogy and Atomic Arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cureton, F.; Falster, A.U.; Foord, E.E.; Hlava, P.F.; Hughes, J.M.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1998-11-09

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCazA12(As5+0.i)[As5+03 (OH)] (OH)2FJH20), Z =2, is a new mineral from the Mina h Esperarq Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm Y Deceased in diameter. Mobs hardness is 4.5, specific gravity 3.240h, and 3.36( 3)C.IC. Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), .Y= Y = Z= colorless, a 1.580(1), ~ 1.588( 1), and y 1.593(1 ); 2V0hs is 74(1 ~ and 2 }'CUIC is 76.3". Dispersion is medium, r < v, and optic axes are oriented as a A Z = +50.5o, b = Y, c P. X = +35". The five strongest X-ray diffraction maxima in the powder pattern are (~ /, hk~: 2.966,100, 13 i, 31 i, 031 ; 3.527,90, 220; 2.700,90,221,002, 040; 5.364>80, 001, 020; 4.796,80,011. Esperanzaite is monoclinic, u 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7)& ~ 105.32( 1 )", space group P21/nz. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by Direct Methods and Fourier analysis (R= 0.03 1). The Fundamental Building Block is formed of stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedral and two Al octahedra, comer-linked in 4-member rings. The Fundamental Building Blocks are linked by irregular lda~j and Ca@ polyhedra.

  9. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr., César L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  10. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  11. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  12. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  13. Developing active noise control systems for noise attenuation in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Rosely V.; Ivo, Rodrigo C.; Medeiros, Eduardo B.

    2002-11-01

    The present work describes some of the research effort on Active Noise Control (ANC) being jointly developed by the Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MINAS) and the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Considerations about the implementation of Digital Signal Processing for noise control in ducts has been presented. The objective is to establish a study on Active Noise Control in ducts combining geometry and acoustic parameters modification together with adaptive digital filtering implementation. Both algorithm and digital signal processing details are also discussed. The main results for a typical application where real attenuation has been obtained are presented and considered according to their use in developing real applications. The authors also believe that the present text should provide an interesting overview for both designers and students concerned about Active Noise Control in ducts. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  14. Dombrock genotyping in Brazilian blood donors reveals different regional frequencies of the HY allele

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Fabiana Chagas Camargos; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; de Castilho, Lilian Maria; Baleotti Júnior, Wilson; Suzuki, Rodrigo Buzinaro; da Cunha, Débora Moura

    2013-01-01

    Background Dombrock blood group system genotyping has revealed various rearrangements of the Dombrock gene and identified new variant alleles in Brazil (i.e., DO*A-SH, DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL). Because of the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population, interregional differences are expected during the investigation of Dombrock genotypes. Objective The present study aims to determine the frequencies of Dombrock genotypes in blood donors from Minas Gerais and compare the frequencies of the HY and JO alleles to those of another population in Brazil. Methods The frequencies of the DO alleles in Minas Gerais, a southeastern state of Brazil, were determined from the genotyping of 270 blood donors. Genotyping involved polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the 323G>T, 350C>T, 793A>G, and 898C>G mutations, which are related to the HY, JO, DO*A/DO*B, and DO*A-WL/DO*B-WL alleles, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of rare HY and JO alleles were statistically compared using the chi-square test with data from another Brazilian region. Results The HY allele frequency in Minas Gerais (2.4%) was almost twice that of the JO allele (1.5%). The frequency of the HY allele was significantly higher (p-value = 0.001) than that in another Brazilian population and includes a rare homozygous donor with the Hy- phenotype. In addition, the DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL alleles, which were first identified in Brazil, were found in the state of Minas Gerais. Conclusions The data confirm that the frequencies of DO alleles differ between regions in Brazil. The population of Minas Gerais could be targeted in a screening strategy to identify the Hy- phenotype in order to develop a rare blood bank. PMID:24478605

  15. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  16. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  17. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  18. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  19. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  20. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  1. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  2. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food. PMID:28030625

  3. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  4. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  5. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  6. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This

  7. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  8. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Silva, Teane M A; Silva, Fabiana L; Motta, Rafael O C; Miranda, Ildikó; Ecco, Roselene; Santos, Renato L

    2008-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Leishmania sp. can naturally infect several species of mammals, and the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of the disease in South America. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids. Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), two animals, a bush dog (Spheotos venaticos) and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) had positive serological results without clinical signs.

  10. Taxonomic notes on Holcobunus Roewer, 1910, with descriptions of three new species, and new records for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Sclerosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele

    2015-10-05

    Three new Brazilian species of Holcobunus Roewer, 1910 are described, thus increasing the total number of species in the genus to five: Holcobunus bicornutus Mello-Leitão, 1940, H. nigripalpis Roewer, 1910, Holcobunus dissimilis sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Reserva Biologia Augusto Ruschi), Holcobunus ibitirama sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Ibitirama, Santa Marta, close to Parque Nacional Caparaó), and Holcobunus uaisoh sp. nov. (type locality: Minas Gerais, Fervedouro, Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro). A new record for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 from Minas Gerais is also provided and the morphological variation in both penis and somatic morphology in the genus are presented and discussed. These observations enhance our understanding of both the diversity and distribution of Holcobunus.

  11. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Araujo, Thiago Q; Lourenço, Anete P; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-10-07

    Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought.

  12. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garraffoni, André R. S.; Araujo, Thiago Q.; Lourenço, Anete P.; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  13. Taxonomic review of the Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) assifer (Eschscholtz) species-group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Carvalho, Marcela S G; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-02-09

    The Dichotomius assifer species-group, a component of Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) is taxonomically revised. The group now contains five species: D. angeloi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Vargem Bonita, Parque Nacional Serra da Canastra. Mata de Galeria, 28º18'39"S, 46º31'30"W. 865 m a.s.l., 02.XI.2011, MF Souza leg.), and D. louzadai sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Lima Duarte, Parque Estadual Ibitipoca, VI.2001, FZ Vaz-de-Mello leg.) are described; D. assifer and D. affinis are redescribed and lectotypes are designated. D. machadoi is diagnosed. Illustrations, distributional records, diagnosis and a key for identification of the species in the group are provided. Some aspects of the natural history and biogeography of species in the assifer group are also discussed.

  14. A comparative study of the effect of multiple immersions on Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito eggs with emphasis on sylvan vectors of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda; Morone, Fernanda; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2014-02-01

    The effect of multiple immersions on Haemagogus janthinomys , Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus terrens eggs was studied. Eggs were collected in April, June, October and December of 2011 in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Most of the Aedes and Ochlerotatus eggs hatched upon the first immersion, while Haemagogus eggs showed a varied instalment hatching response. The number of immersions required for hatching increased for eggs collected closer to the dry winter season.

  15. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Judicial Reforms (Virgilio Barco Vargas ; EL TIEMPO, 22 May 87) 31 - a - Recent Cabinet Changes Analyzed (Rodrigo Pardo; EL TIEMPO, 24 May 87...PTB; Siqueira Campos , of the PCD [as published]; Arnaldo Prieto and Alysson Paulinelli, of the PFL; Virgilio Tavora, Lavoisser Maia, and Achiles...characteristics or social or economic demands. Its coordinators, however, are not so young: Helio Costa (Minas Gerais) and Wilson Campos (Pernambuco). The

  16. Latin America Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-09

    20 foreign air traffic controllers should Bahamian controllers go on strike, President Henry Dean warned Tuesday night. Addressing the Trade...Excerpt] . AFTER causing a week of inconvenience to the travelling public, airline union president Henry Dean took to the air last night to announce...gether solemnly and come out saying that the alliance must be preserved in Minas Gerais to be preserved nationally. A little later, Mauricio Campos , PFL

  17. Longivena, a new robber-fly genus from Brazil (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rodrigo; Rafael, José Albertino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Longivena gen. n. and five new species are described and illustrated from caatinga and cerrado habitats from Brazil: Longivena digitata sp. n., type–species (Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul states), Longivena bilobata sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena flava sp. n. (Mato Grosso do Sul state), Longivena limeiraoliverai sp. n. (Maranhão state), Longivena spatulata sp. n. (Maranhão state). An illustrated key is also provided. PMID:25349498

  18. [Coccus species affecting Coffea arabica in Brazil (Coccoideae: Coccidae) and the redescription of two species].

    PubMed

    de Willink, Maria C Granara; Pirovani, Victor D; Ferreira, Paulo S F

    2010-01-01

    Five Coccus on Coffea arabica from the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais were studied. Females were prepared and mounted in Canada balsam. Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca and Coccus lizeri (Fonseca) were redescribed and Coccus alpinus De Lotto, Coccus celatus De Lotto and Coccus viridis (Green) were characterized. A key to species and illustration of all of them are included. Coccus alpinus and C. celatus are new records for Brazil and the Neotropical Region.

  19. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  20. Dengue virus serotype 4 in a highly susceptible population in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amâncio, Frederico F; Ferraz, Marcela L; Almeida, Maria Cristina de M; Pessanha, José Eduardo M; Iani, Felipe C M; Fraga, Gabriela L; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    In Minas Gerais, Brazil, almost 500,000 dengue fever cases were reported to the State Surveillance System between November 2012 and July 2013. An analysis of the laboratory-confirmed cases revealed a higher age-specific incidence in adults and a higher case fatality rate in people aged ≥50. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 4 (the latter of which is an emerging serotype in Brazil) were responsible for the outbreak.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  2. Disjunct Occurrence of Trichadenotecnum s.str. in Southeastern Brazil (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae), with Description of a New Species.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, K; Souza-Silva, M; Ferreira, R L

    2017-04-01

    A new barklouse species belonging to the Trichadenotecnum s.str. clade (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae) was described from southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais state). This locality is highly isolated (about 3400 km) from the closest known distributional range of this clade. It also represents the southernmost distributional record of Trichadenotecnum s.str. Phylogenetic placement of the species and biogeography of Neotropical Trichadenotecnum were briefly discussed. Trichadenotecnum punctipenne New, 1972 described from Brazil was synonymized with Trichadenotecnum pardus Badonnel, 1955.

  3. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  4. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  5. Standardization of Information about Birth in the Obstetric Discharge Summary.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Reis, Zilma S; Gaspar, Juliano S; Oliveira, Isaias J R; de Souza, Andreia C; Maia, Thais A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical information about the birth composes an important set of data to the documentation about the care provided during childbirth. Formalized in the document Obstetric Impatient Discharge Summary (OIDS), such information are essential for continuity of mother and child attention, in the health care network. The main paper's objective is to propose an Information Model for this document based on ISO Standard 13606 for interoperability between health information systems in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  6. Shuttle Experimental Radar for Geological Exploration (SERGE) project: Field work relating to the Shuttle Experimental Radar A (SIR-A) in Brazil (phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balieiro, M. G.; Martini, P. R.; Dossantos, J. R.; Demattos, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The ground observations undertaken over the northern position of Minas Gerais State, and part of Distrito Federal from 7 to 12 December 1982, along the Space Shuttle 2 flying orbit 22 of November 1981 are described. Field data related mostly with lithology, geological structures and forest cover, and specific geomorphological and pedological aspects were collected. Ground data are applied to evaluate the SIR-A Experiment, developed in the Space Shuttle-2 mission for natural resources mapping and prospecting.

  7. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A

    2011-01-01

    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  8. First identification of the F200Y SNP in the β-tubulin gene linked to benzimidazole resistance in Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Bello, Ana Cristina Passos de Paiva; dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite

    2014-12-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in codons 167, 198 and 200 have been associated with benzimidazole resistance in some nematodes, although no polymorphisms in this gene have been described in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to date. This study aimed to screen for SNPs in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codons 198 and 200 associated with benzimidazole resistance in A. caninum worms recovered from naturally infected dogs from two Brazilian states (Minas Gerais and Piauí). To perform this analysis, a molecular technique based on the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) was standardized. A total of 110 individual worms recovered from 9 dogs in Piauí and 124 individual worms recovered from 10 dogs in Minas Gerais were analyzed using this methodology. The presence of a SNP at position 200 was observed at a low frequency (0.8%), which was only detected in the worm population from Minas Gerais State. A total of 75 randomly selected samples were sequenced to validate this technique, and the presence of the SNP was confirmed. Furthermore, SNP at position 198 were evaluated by sequencing, and none were detected in this region. This is the first report of the presence of a SNP in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene associated with benzimidazole resistance in an A. caninum population.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    PubMed

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  10. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Cleandson Ferreira; SILVA, Alex Chavier; RODRIGUES, Raquel Andrade; de JESUS, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; BORGES, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state. PMID:26200963

  11. Co-circulation in a single biome of the Juquitiba and Araraquara hantavirus detected in human sera in a sub-tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Jansen; Duré, Ana I L; Negrão, Raquel; Ometto, Tatiana; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease. Although HCPS has been reported in several regions of Brazil, more cases of HCPS have recently been reported in Minas Gerais than in any other state. In 2009, we analyzed 27 samples presenting antibodies against hantaviruses. These samples originated from 688 symptomatic patients, as determined based on the Hemorrhagic Fever Protocol. A subsequent SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the virus in 22 of the samples. Among the RT-PCR-positive samples, 17 were analyzed using DNA sequencing; these sequences were compared with others deposited in GenBank and showed similarity with the Araraquara and Juquitiba virus clusters. This work describe the detection of Juquitiba virus, including three fatal cases, in Minas Gerais state, furthermore, showed that it is feasible to characterize the circulating strains using a small fragment of S segment. Finally, the results suggest the co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba virus in a single biome in Minas Gerais state.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna. PMID:26066508

  13. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  14. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  15. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  16. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  18. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  19. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  20. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  1. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  2. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  3. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  4. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  5. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão de; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.32) and 'Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality-as measured by different indicators-are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access.

  6. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Summary Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients. PMID:26413213

  7. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  8. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  9. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogal, Aline Siqueira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2014-10-16

    Introducción: La estatura es una variable importante en varios índices del estado nutricional que son aplicables a las personas mayores. Sin embargo, la estatura es difícil o imposible de medir en la edad avanzada, ya que a menudo son incapaces de mantener la posición de pie. Una alternativa es el uso de altura estimada a partir de mediciones de medida de altura de la rodilla. Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la exactitud de la fórmula propuesta por Chumlea et al. (1985), basado en la altura de la rodilla de una población caucásica para estimar la altura y su aplicación en el cálculo del índice de masa corporal en las personas mayores residentes en la comunidad de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: La muestra incluyó a 621 adultos mayores de 60 anõs y más, que viven en la comunidad. Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla y altura de la rodilla (AR) y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) se calculó con el peso medido y estimado. Se utilize la prueba T del estudiante para la comparación de las mediciones de altura entre los géneros. Para la comparación de los valores estimados y medidos se utilizó la prueba T pareada y también la metodología propuesta por Bland y Altman para comparar la diferencia entre las mediciones. Para evaluar el acuerdo entre las clasificaciones para el IMC se utilizó el Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Los valores medios obtenidos a partir de AR fueron más altos que los medidos en la muestra completa y mujeres. Hay subestimación de IMC en mujeres y también en el conjunto. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la ecuación Chumlea no era adecuado para estimar la altura de la muestra en cuestión, especialmente para las mujeres.

  10. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  11. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  12. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  13. Geotourism in the "Estrada Real", Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.; Barbosa, F. M. Da C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Many natural landscapes are preserved throughout the World due to their cultural and historical values as well as for their environmental importance. The Way of Saint James of Compostela (Camino de Santiago de Compostela), located in Europe, is a well known example of this. It was the inspiration source for the development of a tourist route in the Brazilian States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, although it has no pilgrimage connotation. The Estrada Real (literally translated as the Royal Route) is made of a series of roads or routes that were formerly used by the Portuguese colonizers to control the flow of gold, silver, diamonds and other precious stones and minerals. The tourist activities, particularly in the State of Minas Gerais, are experiencing an accelerated growth, benefiting the local and traditional communities economically. The existence of various geomorphological and geological sites in the Estrada Real has also favored the increase of the ecotourism and the Brazilian incipient geotourism. However, the uncontrolled touristic activities can damage the natural environment and some historical heritage sites. This research basically consisted in a preliminary identification of important geomorphosites such as caves and mountains that need to be protected for a rational and sustainable use. Out of the 4,632 known Brazilian caves, approximately 1,655 caves developed in limestone, dolomite, quartzite and granite are located in the State of Minas Gerais. For this reason, the authors strongly recommend that studies on the importance of such geomorphosites should take place in the municipalities of the Estrada Real in order to guide the regional development of tourism and sustainable development. Keywords: ecotourism, Estrada Real, sustainability.

  14. Use Of The Gpr To Characterize Sedimentary Structures Of Lakes In Sub-Humid Drainage System, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, P. A.; Augustin, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    PAULO ROBERTO ANTUNES ARANHA IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL CRISTINA ROCHA AUGUSTIN - IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL System of lakes located in the sandstones domains of Supergrupo Urucuia, in the State Park Veredas do Peruaçu, north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are common features in ecosystems of the Veredas, a biome of the Cerrado (Savanna-Open pasture). The linearity of these lakes suggests that they could have, in the past, belonged to the same drainage system, that would have been disconnected throughout the evolution of the Vereda system. The objective of this research is with the help of the GPR and using 100 MHz antennaes to obtain radargram images that could assist in the interpretation of the structures occurring at the bottom of these lakes. It is possible do identify on the radargrams reflectors that can be correlated with depositional system. These reflectore have the concave form. The results of these radargrames indicate great conformity between the concave form of the sediments and that of the bottom of the lake, allowing to assume that this deposition has been occurring since a long time ago. Therefore, if there was a connection between the study lake and those located in its proximity it has occurred a long time, before the deposition of the sedimentary sequences had been deposited. The thickness of the sediments, that varies since 2m until 5m, indicates that or either this deposition was either a very rapid one so that could generate a fast deposition, or it has been taking place during a considerable geologic long time.; Data acquisitiont;

  15. Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii Genotypes Circulating in Domestic Animals and Humans in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Letícia A.; Andrade, Renata O.; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A. V.; Vitor, Ricardo W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5′+3′SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment. PMID:24587295

  16. Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals and humans in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Letícia A; Andrade, Renata O; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A V; Vitor, Ricardo W A

    2014-01-01

    Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5'+3'SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment.

  17. The astronomy education through interactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-11-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs

  18. Vocal sequential exchanges and intragroup spacing in the Northern Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Francisco D C; Ades, César

    2004-06-01

    Sequential exchanges of vocalizations (staccatos and neighs) emitted by Northern Muriquis Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus were recorded at the Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Staccatos and neighs containing larger proportion of short elements were preferentially produced during short-range exchanges; neighs, produced by a larger number of participants, were typical of long-range exchanges. Staccatos emitted by animals feeding in a dispersed manner contained a larger proportion of tonal elements than those emitted by muriquis feeding in a cohesive manner. Sequential exchanges seem thus to be constituted by two inter-related subsystems of calls that aid muriquis to coordinate intragroup spacing, despite the poor visibility of the habitat.

  19. The entomopathogenic potential of Aspergillus spp. in mosquitoes vectors of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, A M; da Costa, G L; Barcellos, M Z; de Oliveira, R L; de Oliveira, P C

    2001-01-01

    Eleven strains of the most frequent Aspergillus species found in a survey of Brazilian mosquitoes collected in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used for bioassays in second-stage larvae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Aspergillus ochraceus, A. kanagawaensis and one strain of A. sulphureus were most effective, causing mortality in at least 80% of the larvae of the two mosquito species tested. Variations in entomopathogenic capacity were observed in the experiments with strains of A. sulphureus, A. flavus and A. ochraceus.

  20. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain

    PubMed Central

    Almado, Roosevelt P; Miazaki, Angela S; Diniz, Écio S; Moreira, Luis C B; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 3417 trees and treelets identified during three censuses in both areas. PMID:27660529

  1. Infestation by Pyemotes tritici (Acari, Pyemotidae) causes death of stingless bee colonies (Hymenoptera: Meliponina).

    PubMed

    Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary.

  2. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Emília de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Durães, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-01-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF groupRickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the speciesR. amblyommii. PMID:26676317

  3. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emília de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Durães, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-12-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the species R. amblyommii.

  4. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae) on non-passerine birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like) bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  5. Coagulase gene typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with mastitis in southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A typing procedure based on polymorphism of the coagulase gene (coa) was used to discriminate Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Minas Gerais dairy cows with mastitis. Amplification of the gene from the 64 S. aureus isolates produced 27 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products; 60 isolates showed only 1 amplicon, and 4 showed 2 amplicons. The isolates were grouped into 49 types by analyzing the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the coa gene; the 10 most common types accounted for 39% of the isolates. The results demonstrate that many variants of the coa gene are present in the studied region, although only a few predominate. PMID:16479723

  6. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  7. Prehistoric Pathoecology as Represented by Parasites of a Mummy from the Peruaçu Valley, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the transmission ecology of the site.

  8. New species of Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 from Southeast of Brazil (Collembola, Isotomidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça, Maria Cleide; Abrantes, Eduardo A.; Neves, Ana Carolina R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 are described and illustrated, the first: Isotomiella macedoi sp. n., based on males and females, from the “Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos” (Teresópolis municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro) differs from the other by tibiotarsus III thickened and blunt and two antero-lateral chaetae of labrum strongly thickened. The second species Isotomiella uai sp. n. from “Serra da Gandarela”, (Caeté municipality, State of Minas Gerais) differs from the other by presence of short sensilla on antennal IV and tergites, two anterolabral chaetae thickened and falcate mucro. PMID:23226958

  9. Prehistoric Pathoecology as Represented by Parasites of a Mummy from the Peruaçu Valley, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto

    2016-01-01

    Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the transmission ecology of the site. PMID:27853115

  10. A new species of Neocarus Chamberlin & Mulaik, 1942 (Opilioacarida, Opilioacaridae) from Brazil, with remarks on its postlarval development

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Klompen, Hans; Zacarias, Mauricio Sergio; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Neocarus proteus sp. n., is described from caves and the surrounding epigean environment of ferruginous outcrops (Cangas) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, some notes about development in this species are presented. Neocarus proteus is the only species in the genus that has smooth or barbed genital setae and that carries coronidia on the basitarsi, tibiae and genua of legs II–III. Females carry additional setae with rounded tips on the subcapitulum, and are, on average, larger than males. This distinct sexual dimorphism appears in the tritonymphal instar and is maintained in the adults. PMID:24363585

  11. [New migratory flows of the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Sales, T

    1991-01-01

    "This article focuses [on] the recent emigration of Brazilians abroad. In the post World War II period, a new type of international migration was observed, caused by demands for labor in the receiving countries, where immigrants are integrated into the secondary labor market. The programs created to stimulate temporary foreign migrations resulted in the recent illegal migrations of Brazilians, most of them working in unskilled jobs. The study is based on data from a preliminary survey on the migratory flow from the city of Governador Valadares in the State of Minas Gerais, to Boston, in the U.S." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Intraspecific variation in the venoms of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    PubMed

    Francischetti, I M; Gombarovits, M E; Valenzuela, J G; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    2000-08-01

    The venom of eight individual Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in addition to pooled venom from Butantan Institute, were compared. Snakes were captured in distinct locations, some of them 600 km apart: Conselheiro Lafaiete, Entre Rios de Minas, Itauna, Itapecerica, Lavras, Patos de Minas, Paracatu, and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The crude venoms were tested for proteolytic, phospholipase A2, platelet aggregating, and hemagglutinating activities. The venoms were also analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Chromatographic patterns of venom proteins on both gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatographies were also performed. All venoms presented high phospholipase A2 and platelet-aggregating activities, but only minimal hemagglutinating or proteolytic activities were found. Gel-filtration chromatography showed a characteristic profile for most venoms where four main peaks were separated, including the typical ones where convulxin and crotoxin were identified; however, peaks with high amounts of lower molecular weight proteins were found in the venoms from the Santo Antonio do Amparo location and Butantan Institute, characterizing these venoms as crotamine positive. Anion-exchange chromatographies presented a similar protein distribution pattern, although the number of peaks (up to ten) distinguished some venom samples. Consistent with these results, polyacrylamide gels that were silver stained after venom separation by PAGE or IEF presented a similar qualitative band distribution, although a quantitative heterogeneity was detected among venoms. Our results suggest that the variability found in venom components of C. d. terrificus venoms captured in Minas Gerais State may be genetically inherited and/or environmentally induced.

  13. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with frugivorous larvae in a Brazilian caatinga-cerrado ecotone.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A R; Lopes-Mielezrski, G N; Lopes, E N; Querino, R B; Corsato, C D A; Giustolin, T A; Zucchi, R A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate native species of parasitoids of frugivorous larvae and their associations with host plants in commercial guava orchards and in typical native dry forests of a caatinga-cerrado ecotone in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nine species of parasitoids were associated with larvae of Anastrepha (Tephritidae) and Neosilba (Lonchaeidae) in fruit of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae), Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae), Spondias dulcis Forst. (Anacardiaceae), Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), and Randia armata (Sw.) DC. (Rubiaceae). Doryctobracon areolatus was the most abundant species, obtained from puparia of Anastrepha zenildae, An. sororcula, An. fraterculus, An. obliqua, and An. turpiniae. This is the first report of Asobara obliqua in Brazil and of As. anastrephae and Tropideucoila weldi in dry forests of Minas Gerais State. The number of species of parasitoids was higher in areas with greater diversity of cultivated species and lower pesticide use. The forest fragments adjacent to the orchards served as shelter for parasitoids of frugivorous larvae.

  14. The rate of recurrent BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 mutations in the general population, and unselected ovarian cancer cases, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schayek, Hagit; De Marco, Luiz; Starinsky-Elbaz, Sigal; Rossette, Mariana; Laitman, Yael; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, several recurring mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and a TP53 mutation (R337H) have been reported in high risk breast cancer cases. We hypothesized that these recurring mutations may also be detected in the general population and ovarian cancer cases in the state of Minas Gerais. To test this notion, participants were recruited from the outpatient and the Gynecological clinic in the UFMG Medical Center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. BRCA1 (c.68_69delAG, c.5266dupC, c.181T>G, c.4034delA, c.5123C>A), BRCA2 (c.5946delT, c.8537_8538delAG, 4936_4939delGAAA), the c.156_157insAlu* BRCA2 and the c.1010G>A *TP53 mutation were genotyped using validated techniques. Overall, 513 cancer free participants (273 men) (mean age 47.7 ± 15.1 years) and 103 ovarian cancer cases (mean age at diagnosis 58.7 ± 9.6 years) were studied. None of the participants were found to carry any of the genotyped mutations. We conclude that the recurring mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 cannot be detected in the general population or consecutive ovarian cancer cases in this geographical region in Brazil.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis: Brazilian ENT Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Tania; Godinho, Ricardo; Franco, Leticia Paiva; Piltcher, Otávio

    2012-01-01

    Most published studies about Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are European or North American. There are still few publications about the characteristics of fibrocystic populations in developing countries. The incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF) in Brazil varies among different regions (1 : 10,000 in Minas Gerais, 1 : 9,500 in Paraná, 1 : 8,700 in Santa Catarina, and 1 : 1600 in Rio Grande do Sul). The prevalence of the DF508 mutation also varies according to population: 33% in Sao Paulo, 49% in Rio Grande do Sul, 27% in Santa Catarina, and 52% in Minas Gerais. Cough and nasal obstruction are the most common symptoms. The variation in nasal polyposis prevalence may be explained by population genotypic characteristics in a country that spans a continent. Findings on nasal endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) have better correlation than do this information compared with surgical and clinical history. Microbiologic studies suggest a high level of early contamination of the airways. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurs in these patients as a result of ototoxic antibiotics. The data compiled in this paper is useful, but also lead to the general agreement that more research would be welcome due to the unique characteristics of this country. PMID:22611403

  16. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-03-09

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  17. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    PubMed

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss.

  18. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-02-09

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed.

  19. Use of geostatistics to determine the spatial distribution and infestation rate of leaf-cutting ant nests (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Lasmar, O; Zanetti, R; dos Santos, A; Fernandes, B V

    2012-08-01

    One of the fundamental steps in pest sampling is the assessment of the population distribution in the field. Several studies have investigated the distribution and appropriate sampling methods for leaf-cutting ants; however, more reliable methods are still required, such as those that use geostatistics. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution and infestation rate of leaf-cutting ant nests in eucalyptus plantations by using geostatistics. The study was carried out in 2008 in two eucalyptus stands in Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. All of the nests in the studied area were located and used for the generation of GIS maps, and the spatial pattern of distribution was determined considering the number and size of nests. Each analysis and map was made using the R statistics program and the geoR package. The nest spatial distribution in a savanna area of Minas Gerais was clustered to a certain extent. The models generated allowed the production of kriging maps of areas infested with leaf-cutting ants, where chemical intervention would be necessary, reducing the control costs, impact on humans, and the environment.

  20. Chronic non-communicable diseases, risk and health promotion: social construction of VIGITEL participants.

    PubMed

    Mássimo, Erika de Azevedo Leitão; de Souza, Hercília Najara Ferreira; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2015-03-01

    The dimension of choice and adherence to healthy lifestyles is in the area of social constructions made in representations of individuals and had not yet been included in the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) analysis systems. This article aims to understand, in individual narratives, representations contained in the trajectories of people's lives selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative study based on Social Representation Theory. Thirty in-depth and open interviews with subjects selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample were conducted in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais. The Structural Analysis of Narrative technique was used to reveal the content of speeches. Age and heredity representations related to NCDs are part of the spectrum of current scientific information. Learning from childhood onwards is the basis of care. The lack of comprehension of the pathophysiology of NCDs, and the depth of representations of illness and death related to communicable diseases, is partly responsible for the difficulty of preventing NCDs.

  1. Frequency of species of Eimeria in females of the Holstein-Friesian breed at the post-weaning stage during autumn and winter.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Lopes, Marcos Aurélio; Demeu, Fabiana Alves; Perazza, Caio Augusto; Pedrosa, Marcos Ferrazani; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in a dairy herd in the municipality of Boa Esperança, Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais was assessed. From 37 females of the Friesian breed aged three to seven months, 259 feces samples were analyzed between May and September 2008. The examinations to quantify oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and identify Eimeria species were conducted at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. Eleven species of Eimeria were identified, namely: E. bovis (23.2%), E. zuernii (22.6%), E. ellipsoidalis (20.3%), E. cylindrica (14.1%), E. subspherica (5.4%), E. canadensis (3.5%), E. alabamensis (2.4%), E. auburnensis (2.4%), E. pellita (2.1%), E. brasiliensis (2%) and E. bukidnonensis (1.9%). E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. ellipsoidalis were the most frequent and the ones with the highest oocyst shedding over time (p < 0.05). Differences in OPG counts were found between most months studied (p < 0.05). The large number of Eimeria species found, in particular E. bovis and E. zuernii, indicates that Eimeria sp. has significant pathogenic potential in dairy cattle in the South of Minas Gerais.

  2. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  3. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners

    PubMed Central

    de Navarro, Pedro Daibert; de Almeida, Isabela Neves; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Ceccato, Maria das Graças; Maciel, Mônica Maria Delgado; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; de Miranda, Silvana Spindola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Conclusions: Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system. PMID:27812634

  4. Reinterpreting features of the advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885; Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio; Vo, Pacific; Herche, Jesse; Tang, Justine Nicole; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2015-06-13

    The advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri was originally described by Nelson (1973) in a brief section of a review on the mating calls of the Microhylinae. He used two calls from São Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil to determine that they have i) dominant frequency between 1.500-2.200 kHz (mean 1.854 + 0.216 kHz), and ii) harmonic intervals between 0.140 and 0.150 kHz (0.146 +/- 0.005 kHz). Nelson (1973) based his description on an audiospectrogram produced with high frequency resolution and did not quantify the pulse structure of the calls. More recently, Giaretta and colleagues (2013) expanded on the original description using a larger set of calls recorded from Gurinhat, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. They quantified the temporal structure of the call and confirmed that the dominant frequency is around 1.8 kHz. In addition, they identified a secondary low frequency band at 667 Hz.

  5. The Tropical Biominer Project: mining old sources for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Artiguenave, François; Lins, André; Maciel, Wesley Dias; Junior, Antonio Celso Caldeira; Nacif-Coelho, Carla; de Souza Linhares, Maria Margarida Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Guilherme Correa; Barbosa, Luis Humberto Rezende; Lopes, Júlio César Dias; Junior, Claudionor Nunes Coelho

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Biominer Project is a recent initiative from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) and the Oswaldo Cruz foundation, with the participation of the Biominas Foundation (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil) and the start-up Homologix. The main objective of the project is to build a new resource for the chemogenomics research, on chemical compounds, with a strong emphasis on natural molecules. Adopted technologies include the search of information from structured, semi-structured, and non-structured documents (the last two from the web) and datamining tools in order to gather information from different sources. The database is the support for developing applications to find new potential treatments for parasitic infections by using virtual screening tools. We present here the midpoint of the project: the conception and implementation of the Tropical Biominer Database. This is a Federated Database designed to store data from different resources. Connected to the database, a web crawler is able to gather information from distinct, patented web sites and store them after automatic classification using datamining tools. Finally, we demonstrate the interest of the approach, by formulating new hypotheses on specific targets of a natural compound, violacein, using inferences from a Virtual Screening procedure.

  6. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  7. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  8. Genetic structure from the oldest Jatropha germplasm bank of Brazil and contribution for the genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Santos, Dalilhia N Dos; Ferreira, Juliano L; Setotaw, Tesfahun A; Cançado, Geraldo M A; Pasqual, Moacir; Londe, Luciana C N; Saturnino, Heloisa M; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha is a potential oilseed crop, which requires mitigating factors such as the low genetic variability of the species. The solution runs through the research of Brazilian germplasm. Attention should be given to the germplasm of jatropha the north of Minas Gerais, because this is the oldest national collection and because this region may be a regions of jatropha diversity due to selection pressure arising from environmental adversities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of 48 accessions of collection from Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), using SSR and ISSR markers. The results showed low genetic diversity, but some individuals stood out as J. mollissima (48), J. podagrica (47), Mexican accessions (42, 43, 44 and 45) and some national accessions (28, 29, 41 and 46). Therefore, aiming to increase the genetic variability and improve the effectiveness of jatropha breeding programs, it is suggested to explore such as parental accessions to generate commercial hybrids. This fact implies the possibility to support future production of jatropha, since this culture may be an important source of income, especially for small farmers living in semiarid regions of Brazil.

  9. A Lagrangian identification of major sources of moisture for Southeastern Brazil during anomalous dry periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L. A.; Ambrizzi, T.; Gimeno, L.; Drumond, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil (SEB) comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. Its rainy season occurs in the Austral summer.. Although less rain is registered during the winter, spring and autumn, there are years that negative precipitation anomalies were recorded in these seasons. In preliminary studies, the SEB was divided into homogenous regions with respect to precipitation. Five regions were determined: R1 (south-central state of São Paulo), R2 (north of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais), R3 (central Minas Gerais and south-central state of Rio de Janeiro), R4 (north of the state of Minas Gerais) and R5 (north of Rio de Janeiro, the central-eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). For each region, extreme dry events were identified based on the method of consecutive dry periods. In this study, the method developed by Stohl and James (2004,2005), which use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al.,1998), was applied with the objective to calculate and track the air particles and the atmospheric moisture backward in time to produce information on the spatial distribution of moisture sources. In this approach, the atmosphere is divided homogeneously into a large number of particles that are transported by the model which register their positions and specific humidity (q) every 6h. Increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in (q) with time. Adding thes changes for all particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we obtain (E-P) (E is the evaporation an P the precipitation per unit area).Where (E-P) is positive, the particles gain humidity and these are sources regions. For (E-P) negative, the particles lose humidity and these are sink regions. We analyzed the winter, autumn and spring from 1982 to 2009. FLEXPART were forced by ERA Interim dataset available every 6h with a 1 degree resolution. For each homogenous region in SEB (E

  10. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  11. A Cratera de Colônia (São Paulo - SP) Aspectos Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Paulo Gomes; Atulim, Regina Auxiliadora

    2006-06-01

    Despite the studies carried out during the last five decades, Colônia crater, situated at the south of São Paulo (SP), is not much known to the Brazilian scientific community (including astronomers) let alone to the population at large. For this paper, we have selected the main characteristics of that crater, such as size, age, geographic location, geological features of the area, and items in favor of its description as an impact crater, since, up to our days, many researchers have been still uncertain as to its origin. We have also established, a comparison between Colônia crater and other similar Brazilian craters, in order to single it out as a very important site for astronomical, paleoclimatic, geological, and geophysical research. It has also been our aim to provide some subsidy to science teachers who wish to approach this subject in the classroom, and stress (emphasize) the importance of this crater as a Brazilian patrimony, considering that this topic, save for a few distinguished exceptions, is not regularly taught at school. Lastly, (finally) we describe, briefly, the current condition of the crater, pointing out the protection initiatives taken by CONDEPHAAT (Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Artístico, Arqueológico e Turístico do Estado de São Paulo) and the creation of APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) Capivari-Monos to refrain the disastrous occupation while propitiating a preservative action to protect the important fountainhead area of São Paulo as well as the crater itself.

  12. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  13. Distribution and origin of diamonds in Brazil: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svisero, Darcy P.

    1995-12-01

    Brazil was the first western country to produce diamonds from the washing of alluvial deposits found in central Minas Gerais in the early 1700s. For a century the country remained the world's greatest producer, losing its position only after the discovery of the Kimberley field in South Africa. Currently there are placer deposits (garimpos) scattered throughout the majority of the states with official production averaging 1,000,000 ct/y. Mechanized exploitation using modern dredges has succeeded in only two distinct localities: along the Jequitinhonha River (Diamantina) and at the Fazenda Camargo (Mato Grosso). Large diamonds of several hundred carats have been found periodically in the area of the municipalities of Abaeté and Coromandel in western Minas Gerais State. Carbonado, a polycrystalline variety of diamond, was intensively mined in several localities of the Chapada Diamantina in central Bahia State, mainly in the second half of the last century. Kimberlite-type rocks, on the other hand, were discovered only in the late 1960s, first in the Coromandel area in Minas Gerais and later in Goiás, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Piauí States. Little is yet known about these intrusions, mainly because the discoveries have been made by foreign companies operating in the country. Detailed studies reported during the Kimberlite Conference of Araxá in 1991 revealed that some intrusions of the Coromandel area have mineralogical and petrographical characteristics, as well as major chemical element compositions, similar to worldwide kimberlites. However, their isotopic signatures in terms of Sr and Nd are intermediate between Groups I and II kimberlites of South Africa. As to mineral inclusions, Brazilian diamonds contain the common phases of olivine, garnets, pyroxenes, sulphides and oxides as observed in diamonds elsewhere. Furthermore, diamonds from the São Luis River in northern Mato Grosso contain, in addition to garnet and pyroxene, periclase, ferripericlase, w

  14. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  15. The effects of Brazilian propolis on etiological agents of mastitis and the viability of bovine mammary gland explants.

    PubMed

    Fiordalisi, Samira A L; Honorato, Luciana A; Loiko, Márcia R; Avancini, César A M; Veleirinho, Maria B R; Machado Filho, Luiz C P; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis from Urupema, São Joaquim, and Agua Doce (Santa Catarina State) and green propolis from Minas Gerais State, and the effects of propolis on bovine mammary gland explant viability. The propolis samples differed in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Green propolis showed the highest content of flavonoids, followed by the sample from São Joaquim. The propolis from Urupema showed the lowest flavonoid content along with the lowest antioxidant activity. The total phenolics were similar across all studied samples. Despite phytochemical differences, the propolis samples from Minas Gerais, São Joaquim, and Urupema presented the same level of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. The reduction in S. aureus growth was, on average, 1.5 and 4 log10 times at 200 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. At concentrations of 1,000 μg/mL, all propolis reduced bacterial growth to zero. On the other hand, when the propolis were tested against strains of Escherichia coli, the samples presented weak antimicrobial activity. Mammary explants were maintained in culture for 96h without a loss in viability, demonstrating the applicability of the model in evaluating the toxicity of propolis. The origin and chemical composition of the propolis had an effect on mammary explant viability. We encountered inhibitory concentrations of 272.4, 171.8, 63.85, and 13.26 μg/mL for the propolis from Água Doce, Urupema, São Joaquim, and Mina Gerais, respectively. A clear association between greater antimicrobial activity and toxicity for mammary explants was observed. Of all propolis tested, the Urupema sample was noteworthy, as it showed antimicrobial activity at less toxic concentrations than the other samples, reducing bacterial growth to an average of 9.3 × 10(2) cfu/mL after 6h of contact using 200 μg/mL of extract. The results demonstrate the potential for Brazilian

  16. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  17. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  18. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  19. [Bachelor and teaching degree in nursing: experiences and expectations of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deíse Moura; da Silva, Marcelo Henrique; Carneiro, Carla Toscano; Aquino, Priscila Sanches

    2011-12-01

    This is a phenomenological study that aimed to understand the experience of the student enrolled in both the Bachelor and the teaching undergraduate degree in nursing at the same time. Interviews with eight nursing students from a public university of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were undertaken. Analyses were conducted based on the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. Results showed that according to the pupils, there is no connection between the teaching courses and the Bachelor ones, but they also highlighted that the teaching degree helps educational activities in nursing. The students have interest in working with health education and to become nursing teachers. They also consider that the dual degree allows the expansion of knowledge and generates better expectations related to professional practice. However, it has gaps which need to be reviewed by those who work in nursing education, addressing the specific theoretical and practical needs of nursing students.

  20. [Adolescent abortions experience and care needs].

    PubMed

    de Faria, Ester Correa Rodrigues; Domingos, Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Ferreira, Leidiane Maria Gomes

    2012-09-01

    This is a qualitative research based on the social phenomenology approach, performed in 2010 with eight adolescents who experienced abortion and were assisted in a philanthropic hospital institution in the state of Minas Gerais. This research aimed at understanding the experience and care needs regarding adolescents in an abortion situation. The results show that the pregnancy impact led to the fear of non acceptance by the family and at the same time, the feeling of happiness for the possibility of being a mother. The abortion experience was marked by suffering and the care provided was considered satisfactory, being highlighted the need for more attention and information. The adolescents plan to continue their studies and have in mind the possibility of a new pregnancy. The planning of preventive actions aimed at this audience, and the development of new scientific investigations that include the perspective of family members and health professionals begin to emerge.

  1. [Conflict situations experienced at hospital: the view of nursing technicians and auxiliaries].

    PubMed

    Spagnol, Carla Aparecida; Santiago, Gislene Rodrigues; Campos, Bruna Mendes de Oliveira; Badaró, Maria Tereza Melo; Vieira, Jackeline Soares; Silveira, Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    This study was developed at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital with the purpose to analyze how nurses deal with the conflicts that occur in the work environment. The research was developed in two data collection stages. Authors applied a questionnaire, followed by a semi-structured interview. Data was organized according to their thematic content. According to the interviewed workers, the term conflict has a negative denotation. Some subjects pointed out the following types of conflict: intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup. Some of them also reported that nurses are prepared to face conflict situations using dialogue and negotiation. However, others answered that nurses are not prepared, due to professional inexperience and the lack of interaction with the team. Authors considered that these results must encourage nurses towards reflecting about their management practice.

  2. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

    2004-10-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia) and Corinto (N. neivai) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26 masculineC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  3. Astronomy education through interactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Antunes de Macêdo, Josué

    2015-08-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  4. Characterization of a soil ilmenite developed from basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, A. T.; de Jesus Filho, M. F.; Fabris, J. D.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1994-12-01

    A natural ilmenite was extracted from the silt fraction of a soil developed from basalt of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectrum at 293 K shows two doublets: a major subspectrum of Fe2+ (relative area 74%) and a minor one of Fe3+ (26%). An incipient magnetic structure appears at 85 K, with a broadline sextet. These results may be explained by supposing that the separate is a solid solution xFeTiO3 · (1- x)Fe2O3, with x=0.85, which is magnetically ordered at low temperature. The lattice parameters for this hexagonal structure are a=0.5082±0.0001 nm and c=1.398±0.001 nm.

  5. The first Strigocis Dury (Coleoptera, Ciidae) from the southern Neotropical region and a provisional key to world species

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Strigocis vicosensis Lopes-Andrade, sp. n. is described based on specimens from a single locality (type locality: Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil), being the southernmost record of a Strigocis Dury species. Diagnostic to this new species are the dorsal vestiture consisting of stout yellowish bristles, pronotal punctures separated from each other by at least 0.75× puncture-width and sutural flange of elytra not diverging near apex. Males have both frontoclypeal ridge and anterior pronotal margin produced forward and emarginated at middle forming two small subtriangular plates, and a small abdominal sex patch. Among the New World Strigocis, it most resembles Strigocis bilimeki (Reitter), of which images of male terminalia, as far as ventral and dorsal SEM images of males are also provided. The morphological limits of Strigocis are briefly discussed and redefined, and a provisional key to the world species is provided. PMID:21594159

  6. [Primary healthcare and underreporting and (in)visibility of violence against women].

    PubMed

    Kind, Luciana; Orsini, Maria de Lourdes Pereira; Nepomuceno, Valdênia; Gonçalves, Letícia; Souza, Gislaine Alves de; Ferreira, Monique Fernanda Félix

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to map indicators of violence against women as recorded by primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to identify difficulties experienced by health professionals in reporting such violence. Epidemiological data on this type of notification were collected in the information system of the Municipal Health Department. Data were produced with a semi-structured questionnaire and three focus group sessions with participation by 270 primary care professionals. The data were submitted to content analysis and were coded, categorized, and discussed in light of a literature review. A central analytical axis was called (in)visibility of violence against women. The data revealed both the recognition of violence as a public health problem and the invisibility that prevents dealing with it properly. Notification of such violence is often viewed as a fuss or commotion, which hampers progress in discussing and acting on the problem.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of head lice in children attending day care centres, urban and rural schools in Uberlândia, central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Mendes, Júlio

    2002-03-01

    From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.

  8. Establishing tobacco origin from pollen identification: an approach to resolving the debate.

    PubMed

    Williams, Shane; Hubbard, Shelby; Reinhard, Karl J; Chaves, Sergio Miranda

    2014-11-01

    Previous research into pollen content of tobacco resulted in a debate. We address this debate and determine that pollen analysis may be able to assist with identifying geographical origin of tobacco. However, the value of any results should be assessed on a case-by-case regional basis until sufficient database information is available for an objective interpretation to be undertaken on a global basis. As a first step toward developing comparative data for South America, we analyzed a tobacco sample from Brazil in an effort to identify signature taxa from the state of Minas Gerais. We also assessed the role of honey additives to tobacco to assess this issue. Comparing the data to previously published data, we conclude that pollen signatures can distinguish broad geographic areas. We conclude that this forensic interpretation framework needs to be developed in context of the National Academy of Sciences recommendations for tightening methods in forensic science.

  9. Comment on "A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite - A mid-infrared and near-infrared study" and "Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite" by Hongfei Cheng et al. (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloprogge, J. Theo

    2015-02-01

    In two papers Cheng et al. (2010) reported in this journal on the mid-infrared, near-infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of a halloysite from Hunan Xianrenwan, China. This halloysite contains around 8% of quartz (SiO2) and nearly 9% gibbsite (Al(OH)3). In their interpretation of the spectra these impurities were completely ignored. Careful comparison with a phase pure halloysite from Southern Belgium, synthetic gibbsite, gibbsite from Minas Gerais, and quartz show that these impurities do have a marked influence on the mid-infrared and infrared emission spectra. In the near-infrared, the effect is much less pronounced. Quartz does not show bands in this region and the gibbsite bands will be very weak. Comparison still show that the presence of gibbsite does contribute to the overall spectrum and bands that were ascribed to the halloysite alone do coincide with those of gibbsite.

  10. Representation of nurse's managerial practice in inpatient units: nursing staff perspective.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Silva; Lourenço, Eliana Bernardes; Rosado, Sara Rodrigues; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Sanches, Roberta Seron; Dázio, Eliza Maria Rezende

    2016-03-01

    Objective To understand the meanings that nursing staff gives to nurse's managerial practice in the inpatient unit. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive research with qualitative approach, conducted in a general hospital in a Southern city of Minas Gerais State. We used the Theory of Social Representations as theoretical framework. The study sample were composed by 23 nursing technicians and five nursing assistants. Data collection was conducted through semi-structured interviews, from December 2011 to January 2012. For data analysis we used the discourse analysis, according to social psychology framework. Results The meanings attributed to management occurred from the closeness/distance to staff and to patients` care actions. Conclusions The managerial nurse, perceived as a process apart from care, is classified as non familiar practice, of hard understanding and valuation.

  11. [Between desire and fear: female adolescents' social representation on sexual initiation].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marta Araújo; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses one of the emergent themes of a qualitative research carried out with female adolescents in the neighborhood of Acaba Mundo, in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, and aims at understanding their social representations on sexual initiation concerning gender. The data was collected in four workshops and analyzed on the basis of the social representation theory by means of the discourse analysis technique. Two empirical categories and their consequences emerged from the discourse: leaving childhood behind and fear of pregnancy. The understanding of the social representations and of the gender relationships made the values, ideas and practices of the adolescents and their family clear. It also made clear that those values, ideas and practices were in frequent transformation in the social field.

  12. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-M