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Sample records for minas gerais em

  1. Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

  2. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  3. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  4. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  5. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

    2002-07-01

    Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations. PMID:12219123

  6. Archetype Development Process of Electronic Health Record of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Abreu Maia, Thais; Fernandes De Muylder, Cristiana; Mendonça Queiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports health systems and aims to reduce fragmentation, which will enable continuity of patient care. The paper's main objective is to define the steps, roles and artifacts for an archetype development process (ADP) for the EHR at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). This study was conducted using qualitative analysis based upon an applied case. It had an exploratory purpose metodologically defined in four stages: literature review; descriptive comparison; proposition of an archetype development process and proof of concept. The proof of concept showed that the proposed ADP ensures the archetype quality and supports the semantic interoperability in SUS to improve clinical safety and the continuity of patient care.

  7. Composition of monazites from pegmatites in eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Dutra, C.V.; da Costa, M.T.; Branco, J.J.R.

    1959-01-01

    Two zoned pegmatites in south-eastern Minas Gerais were sampled in detail for their content of monazite and xenotime and the monazite was analysed for certain of the rare-earth elements and thorium. The ratio of xenotime to monazite increases in both pegmatites from the wall toward the quartz core. The content of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in monazite rises in the same direction. These variation trends suggest that during the crystallization of these pegmatites there was a fractionation of the elements leading to a more or less steady enrichment of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in the residual fluids. One mode of explaining these observed effects postulates that the rare-earth elements and thorium were present in pegmatitic fluids as co-ordination complexes rather than as simple cations. ?? 1959.

  8. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions. PMID:26503827

  9. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions.

  10. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  11. Two new species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.

  12. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  13. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  14. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  15. Axonopus graniticola, a new species of A. ser. Suffulti (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paspaleae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pedro Lage; de Paula, Luiza Fonseca Amorim

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Axonopus ser. Suffulti from Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Comparison with morphologically related species, as well as comments on the ecology and the conservation status are provided.

  16. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-10-30

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits.

  17. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  18. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works.

  19. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits. PMID:26535718

  20. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935].

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out.

  1. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935.

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out.

  2. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  3. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  4. Zinc and copper mineralization of the Vazante area, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Samuel L.

    1956-01-01

    A large body of zinc and copper mineralization is exposed in a line of low hills about 5 kilometers east of the small village of Vazante in the northwestern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Vazante area can be reached by roads leading north from the State of Sao Paulo, via Araxa; west from Balo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; and south from Paracatu, Minas Gerais. The deposit is in branching, sub-parallel fault breccia zones. Calamine (H2Zn2SiO5), and willomite (ZnSiO4), along with small quantities of smithsonite (ZnCO3), form the matrix of the fault breccia. The zinc mineralization is cut by narrow veins of chalcocite in platy crystal aggregate thought to be pseudomorphous after covellite. The chalcocite veins contain small quantities of sphalterite, galena, covellite and calamine. Faults that contain breccia zones displace shale and dolomite. The sedimentary rocks are thought to be Silurian in age. The fault breccia zones have a regional trend of N 40 degrees E and crop out over a strike length of more than four kilometers. The mineralization of the fault zones was observed to continue to the north for an additional four kilometers. The mineralized fault breccia zones range from a few meters to 60 meters in width. A large ore body is indicated that from available samples may average 35 percent zinc.

  5. When a University Opens Itself to Diversity: A Brief Report on the Intercultural Formation Course for Indigenous Teachers, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo de Rezende, Luisa Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG), located in the city of Belo Horizonte in Brazil, has been a committed partner of indigenous communities since 1996. This partnership began with the creation of spaces intended to elaborate and transform the traditional wisdom of these communities in favour of their…

  6. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil’s Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  7. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  8. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario.

  9. Three new species and a new record of Smicridea McLachlan 1871 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Isabela Cristina; Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2016-05-03

    Three new species of Smicridea McLachlan 1871 are described and illustrated based on specimens collected in Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra and its surrounding area, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) necator sp. nov. possibly belongs to the S. (R.) dispar Group, but its placement in this group is weakly supported; S. (Smicridea) franciscana sp. nov. belongs to the S. (S.) nigripennis Group based on morphology of the phallus; S. (S.) sepala sp. nov. is a member of the S. (S.) fasciatella Group, also based on the morphology of the phallus. A new record of S. (S.) sattleri Denning & Sykora 1968 is provided for Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  10. Epidemiological Profile and Quality Indicators in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Northern Minas Gerais - Minas Telecardio 2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bárbara Campos Abreu; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Reis Júnior, Rasível dos Santos; França, Ana Luiza Nunes; Passos, Priscilla Fortes de Oliveira; Lemos, Thais Ribeiro; Antunes, Izabella de Oliveira; Ferreira, Camila Gonçalves; Antunes, André Pires; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death in Brazil. In the Brazilian public health system, the in-hospital mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction is high. The Minas Telecardio 2 Project (Projeto Minas Telecardio 2) aims at implementing a myocardial infarction system of care in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais (MG) to decrease hospital morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cared for in the period that preceded the implementation of the system of care. Methods: Observational, prospective study of patients with ACS admitted between June 2013 and March 2014 to six emergency departments in Montes Claros, MG, and followed up until hospital discharge. Results: During the study period, 593 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of ACS (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 67.6% men), including 306 (51.6%) cases of unstable angina, 214 (36.0%) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 73 (12.3%) of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The total STEMI mortality was 21%, and the in-hospital mortality was 17.2%. In the STEMI patients, 46,0% underwent reperfusion therapy, including primary angioplasty in 88 and thrombolysis in six. Overall, aspirin was administered to 95.1% of the patients within 24 hours and to 93.5% at discharge, a P2Y12 inhibitor was administered to 88.7% participants within 24 hours and to 75.1% at discharge. A total of 73.1% patients received heparin within 24 hours. Conclusion: We observed a low reperfusion rate in patients with STEMI and limited adherence to the recommended ACS treatment in the Northern Region of MG. These observations enable opportunities to improve health care. PMID:27355471

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361

  12. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae).

  14. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  15. [Diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A and nutritional anemia status in the population of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive

  16. Physiographic, stratigraphic, and structural development of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorr, J.V.N.

    1969-01-01

    The Quadrilatero Ferrifero is an area of some 7,000 square kilometers in central Minas Gerais, Brazil centered about lat. 20°15' S, long. 43°30' W.  For 250 years the region has poured forth a variety of mineral riches, now totaling more than $2 billion, and future production will undoubtedly be even greater.  The main products are iron ore, manganese ore, and gold.  To assist this development, the Braziliam and American Governments in 1946 jointly undertook the first detailed geologic study of the region: this report is a synthesis of the results of work and mapping by 17 Brazilian and American geologists under this program; other reports discussing the economic geology, the metamorphic geology, and the igneous geology of the region as a whole are being prepared.

  17. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  18. Populational dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in three biocenosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Batista, Z; Leite, R C; Oliveira, P R; Lopes, C M L; Borges, L M F

    2005-06-30

    Populational flux of the adult phase of Stomoxys calcitrans was observed in the municipal district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three biocenoses were selected for the study: stable agrobiocenosis, pastural agrobiocenosis and eubiocenosis. The occurrence and the populational flux of the insects, using the Magoon trap for their capture, were established. For each trap located in different biocenoses, a crossbred calf (Bos taurusxBos indicus) approximately 6-month-old was used as "live bait," exposed weekly for 48h in the traps. Of the three agrobiocenoses studied, the stable agrobiocenosis contributed the greatest number of specimens of. S. calcitrans captured, corresponding to 96.9% of the total flies of this species collected. S. calcitrans shows seasonal behavior for approximately 6 months (spring and summer being the rainiest months of the year). The population peaked during the months of November and December. During the months of July and August, there was no capture of flies. PMID:15908125

  19. [Another Dante's inferno in a gold mine during the Vargas era: Nova Lima, Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Maia, Andréa Casa Nova

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the control strategies in place at Morro Velho mine in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, and the changes after the implementation of labor legislation during the Vargas administration. The diseases common amongst mine workers, silicosis and arsenicosis, are investigated through statements given by former miners and a book by an anonymous author that discusses the diseases and the power relations between employers and employees, identifying the limitations of the legislation and the workers' struggles. The book presents a striking story of how for many years the British company side-stepped laws such as the insalubrity premium, a right which other mining companies, not only of British ownership, flouted and still flout in different parts of the world.

  20. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  1. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  2. [Scientific research in nursing education: Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais research groups].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Lino, Mônica Motta; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the scientific production of the Research Groups in Nursing Education (RGNE) of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil. This is a documentary quantitative descriptive retrospective research, conducted by searching the CVs of all researchers who are part of the RGNEs in the Lattes database, followed by the search, organization, and evaluation of their scientific production according to Qualis/CAPES. The period studied was from 1995 to 2009 (the last five CAPES triennia) and included articles, books, book chapters, and full papers in conference proceedings. Results show that Rio de Janeiro has the higher number of articles in Nursing Education, highlighting the qualification of researchers at doctorate level. Both states present historic and socio-economic factors that favor scientific development.

  3. The species of Colletinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Rafael R; Silveira, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais is a species-rich territory about as large as France, which houses the headwaters of some of the most important rivers in Brazil, as well as a variety of phytogeographic domains, with a poorly known insect fauna. Here, a synopsis of the bee species included in the genera Colletes Latreille, 1802 and Rhynchocolletes Moure, 1943 (Colletidae: Colletinae) occurring in this state is presented, including synonymies, diagnoses, redescriptions and identification keys to females and males of the eight recognized species, including one described as new. These species are Rhynchocolletes albicinctus Moure, 1943; Colletes altimontanus Ferrari & Silveira sp. nov.; C. argentinus Friese, 1908 stat. rev., C. meridionalis Schrottky, 1902; C. ornatus Schrottky, 1902; C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, 1896; C. rufipes Smith, 1879; and C. rugicollis Friese, 1900. Colletes extensicornis Vachal, 1909 is here proposed to be a junior synonym of C. meridionalis. PMID:25661943

  4. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  5. Recognition features of felsic pyroclastics of Serra do Tombo formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Paes, Vinícius José; Ozanam Raposo, Frederico; Chaves Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto; Schiazza, Mariangela; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we report a study of poorly exposed, rhyodacitic welded-ignimbrite deposit from Minas Gerais. A petrographic study of textures indicate high temperature of emplacement. Key features include eutaxitic texture, flattened and agglutinated lapilli and glass menisci. Most of the feldspar minerals and glass are extensively altered to clay minerals, which pseudomorph the original volcanic textures. Glass menisci and spherules suggest a possible process of liquid immiscibility. Immobile trace element distribution indicates a possible link with other post-Palaeozoic felsic volcanic rocks in Brazil, a magmatism interpreted as due to basaltic underplating and partial melting of a hydrous continental crust. A peculiar feature is a high Light REE/Heavy REE ratio. Depletion in heavy rare earth elements is possibly due to a residual HREE-bearing phase in the source. The geologic context of these rocks suggests a Lower Cretaceous age and a tectonic relationship with a continental rifting event.

  6. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  7. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  8. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  9. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  10. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Bastos, Mauro Gomes; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze hospitalization rates and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations and to characterize them according to coverage by the Family Health Strategy, a primary health care guidance program. METHODS An ecological study comprising 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, under the purview of 28 regional health care units, was conducted. We used data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations in 2000 and 2010 were compared. Population data were obtained from the demographic censuses. RESULTS The number of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations declined from 20.75/1,000 inhabitants [standard deviation (SD) = 10.42) in 2000 to 14.92/thousand inhabitants (SD = 10.04) in 2010 Heart failure was the most frequent cause in both years. Hospitalizations rates for hypertension, asthma, and diabetes mellitus, decreased, whereas those for angina pectoris, prenatal and birth disorders, kidney and urinary tract infections, and other acute infections increased. Hospitalization durations and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Mean hospitalization rates for sensitive conditions were significantly lower in 2010 than in 2000, but no correlation was found with regard to the expansion of the population coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Hospitalization rates and proportion of deaths were different between the various health care regions in the years evaluated, indicating a need to prioritize the primary health care with high efficiency and quality. PMID:26039399

  11. [Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-04-01

    Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

  12. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B.; Barbosa, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  13. Speciation, distribution, and transport of mercury in contaminated soils from Descoberto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Durão Júnior, Walter Alves; Palmieri, Helena Eugênia Leonhardt; Trindade, Mauro Campos; de Aquino Branco, Otávio Eurico; Filho, Carlos Alberto Carvalho; Fleming, Peter Marschall; da Silva, José Bento Borba; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2009-05-01

    This work describes an investigation of mercury contamination in an abandoned gold mining site in the rural area of Descoberto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose inhabitants have reported "silver balls" present in the soil. Different granulometric fractions of soil samples and sedimented material from rainwater retention tanks in this area were analyzed for total mercury, organic matter, and mercury speciation by thermodesorption/atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed mercury concentrations in the soils in the range of (0.0371-161) mg kg(-1), and the occurrence of Hg(0) oxidation. Some samples had concentrations as high as 90 mg kg(-1) with the majority as Hg(2+), which is important information in order to understand the biogeochemical behavior of mercury in contaminated sites and to apply the appropriate remediation technology. The retention boxes and tank samples showed that fine particles with high mercury content (3.3-90) mg kg(-1) are leached from the contaminated area, which reveals the need for efficient control of this material to prevent the contamination of stream waters. This study is an example that may be useful for other contaminated sites.

  14. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  15. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

  16. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers. PMID:26578019

  17. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects.

  18. The impact of diamond extraction on natural denudation rates in the Diamantina Plateau (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 10Be method was used to investigate the effect of mining activities on the natural denudation rates in alluvial sediments from catchments of the Southern Espinhaço Range (SER) in Minas Gerais State (Brazil). In this region, which is predominantly composed of quartzites, the 10Be concentrations were measured in alluvial sediments from catchments in a preserved natural area of the Serra do Cipó National Park and on the Diamantina Plateau, which was subjected to diamond extraction from beginnings of XVIII century until the end of the XX. Two types of drainage were identified in the Diamantina Plateau area: (i) reworked drainage (alluvial sediments reworked by panning) and (ii) overloaded drainage (alluvial sediments originating from panning processes on saprolites located upstream). The mean denudation value for the natural drainages (˜4.4 m.My-1) is similar to that of the reworked drainages (˜4.3 m.My-1) However, the denudation rates obtained for eleven samples from three sites in overloaded basins range from ˜6.4 m My-1 to ˜22.8 m My-1 and are thus higher than those determined for the reworked and natural basins. These results show that despite the alluvium deposits have been intensely reworked by panning, the values of denudation rates were not changed, they are similar to denudation rates from the natural drainages. However, the natural rates are lower than those affected by panning processes on saprolites.

  19. [Remuneration and productivity: the case of the Minas Gerais Hospital Foundation, Brazil, 1992-1995].

    PubMed

    Cherchiglia, M L; Girardi, S N; Vieira, R de C; Marques, R B; Mendes, P; da Rocha, W; Pereira, L A

    1998-08-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Minas Gerais State Hospital Foundation immediately after the introduction in its health services units in early 1993 of a new system of rewards for good performance and productivity, as a complement to salaried remuneration. Analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of changes in indicators of production and productivity in the Foundation during the 1992-1995 period. Data were obtained from hospitalization authorization forms, payment authorization guides, and bulletins from the Human Resource Administration. The strategy of conditional remuneration and incentives was adopted not only to step up production and productivity, but also to increase the employees' commitment to the institution. Analysis of the selected indicators appears to confirm other study results in that remuneration based on results (conditional incentives) leads to a positive change in the production level of services and productivity, even if it does not last for the long term. Study results also support the notion that such alternatives may be deliberately used as part of a more general strategy of organizational development and not only as an isolated element for concrete improvements in productivity.

  20. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. PMID:25791252

  1. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  3. Evaluating karst geotechnical risk in the urbanized area of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Paulo; Halihan, Todd; Hirata, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    An increase in groundwater consumption in the municipality of Sete Lagoas (Minas Gerais, Brazil) has induced subsidence and collapse in the last three decades. The area is associated with natural karst conditions. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate and identify the potential subsidence or collapse risk zones. Aerial photographs, lithologic well profiles, optical well logs, and geologic mapping were utilized to categorize risk factors influencing karst subsidence and collapse, which were then applied to an index system. The study showed that the majority of the urbanized area overlies mantled limestone from the Sete Lagoas Formation covered with unconsolidated sediments, contained within a graben, resulting in barrier boundaries for groundwater flow. This structure, together with natural karst processes, explains the location of solutionally enlarged bedding-plane conduits and high hydraulic conductivity in the limestone. Five risks zones in the municipality were identified (negligible, low, moderate, considerable, and high risks) related to geologic and hydrologic risk factors. The urbanized area is located largely in the high risk zone where the majority of the collapse features are located. Additional intensive groundwater extraction in that area will likely generate additional events.

  4. On the natural diet of Daphnia laevis in the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais).

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the major food items ingested by adult specimens of Daphnia laevis within the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The gut content was analyzed after addition of sodium hypochlorite and also through the examination of dissected guts under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Chlorophyceae was the main food item ingested, representing c. 80.5% of the total ingested food. Moreover, Eutetramorus fottii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum and Oocystis lacustris, the dominant phytoplankton species within the reservoir, were the most frequent cells found in the gut contents. Euglenophyta also represented an important food item accounting for 15% of the ingested material, including mainly Trachelomonas volvocina and Euglena oxyuris, although less abundant in the reservoir (< 10% of total phytoplankton). Blue-green algae occurred at much lower percentages in the guts than in the phytoplankton. A small amount of undigested Microcystis aeruginosa colonies were also found in the gut content of D. laevis. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that, besides phytoplankton cells, a great amount of abiogenic material was also ingested. The amount of this inorganic material increased considerably in the tract (from 15% to 75% of the gut content), when a peak of D. laevis was observed in the reservoir. Our assumption is that the ingestion of this inorganic material can be a strategy used by D. laevis to obtain additional food supply.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Ana Paula Cunha; Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and regional spread of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to identify herd-level risk factors, and to provide guidance for disease control and mitigation of its impact in public health. The study comprised a large-scale random sample survey of 22,990 animals and 1586 herds, distributed in seven regions. A questionnaire was applied on each farm to collect epidemiological and herd management data. Overall, 5.04 % of herds and 0.81 % of animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis. The highest herd prevalence was found in Alto Paranaíba, an expanding dairy region. The more technologically advanced dairy herds showed a prevalence ratio of 2.83 compared to others and are obvious candidates for risk-based surveillance and herd accreditation schemes. Small farms cannot be left out of disease control efforts because they are the vast majority of herds, albeit with lower individual risk. With regard to public health, there is widespread practice of producing homemade fresh cheese with raw milk and of slaughtering culled cows in places without sanitary inspection. This poses a risk to consumers and limits the efficacy of surveillance at slaughter. PMID:26584941

  6. [Equity in coverage by the Family Health Strategy in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Silva, Núbia Cristina da; Calazans, Júlia Almeida; Souza, Michelle Nepomuceno; Carvalho, Lucas Resende de; Souza, Aline

    2015-06-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) plays an important role in prevention and in monitoring families in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. This study aims to analyze equity in the coverage of these services in the urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research is unprecedented and analyzes several markers for four target groups: women, pregnant women, children, and the elderly. The study is representative of the various health macro-regions. In 2012, 6,797 households were surveyed, with 5,820 women, 1,758 children, and 3,629 elderly. To analyze equity, FHS coverage rates were calculated according to family income, and concentration indices and curves were estimated. The results show that the FHS is an equitable policy. The indicators show that poorer households have higher visitation rates under the FHS. Coverage of the eligible population is quite high: 88% of households received at least one visit from FHS professionals in the previous 12 months, resulting in a concentration index near zero.

  7. [Association between air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Procópio, Marly; André, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m(3) in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8), at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5) on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age). For cardiovascular diseases, the effect was acute (4%; 95%CI: 0.8-8.5) and mainly for the 45 to 64 age group. These results show that PM10 generated by open pit mining can lead to health problems in the exposed population. PMID:18038038

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with asthma in students from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Magna Adaci de Quadros; de Pinho, Lucinéia; Marques, Paula Quadros; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of asthma and factors related to asthma development in schoolchildren aged 6 to 14, living in central and peripheral areas of the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and who were registered with the Family Health Strategy program. Initially, a standard written questionnaire, based on ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), was administered to collect personal data, information regarding income, asthma prevalence, allergic rhinitis and eczema (N = 1,131). Secondly, a case-control study was performed by grouping the patients as either asthmatic (A; N = 172) or non-asthmatic (NA; N = 379). Potential factors associated with the occurrence of asthma were evaluated using the complementary questionnaire from ISAAC phase II. Skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity (STIH) and parasitological tests were also performed. The odds ratio, estimated by multivariate analysis, indicated that asthma cases were related to kindergarten attendance, household smoking, family history of asthma, rhinitis and positive STIH. It was concluded that, in the studied population, the prevalence of asthma was related to genetic predisposition, in addition to individual history, social demographics, exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke and a positive response to allergy testing.

  9. [Association between air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Procópio, Marly; André, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m(3) in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8), at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5) on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age). For cardiovascular diseases, the effect was acute (4%; 95%CI: 0.8-8.5) and mainly for the 45 to 64 age group. These results show that PM10 generated by open pit mining can lead to health problems in the exposed population.

  10. Self-perceived health among 'quilombolas' in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Stéphany Ketllin Mendes; Pereira, Mayane Moura; Guimarães, Luiz Sena; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2015-09-01

    Over a century has passed since slavery was abolished in Brazil, yet quilombola communities remain socially vulnerable, especially when it comes to health. The goal of this study was to understand self-perceived health (SPH) in quilombola communities in Northern Minas Gerais, and the factors associated with their negative -perceived their own health. A household survey of a representative sample of quilombola communities in the study region. Validated tools were used to gather data about SPH, socioeconomic conditions, demographics, lifestyle and self-referred morbidity. Following a bivariate analysis, we proceeded to conduct a hierarchical logistics regression analysis. The prevalence of negative SPH was 46.0%. The following variables were statistically associated with negative SPH: age and years of schooling as distal variables, and high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, depression and back problems as proximal variables. SPH is associated with demographic and socioeconomic dimensions, and in particular with self-referred morbidity. The concept of health among the quilombola communities included in this study seems to be intimately linked to the absence of disease, especially chronic disease. PMID:26331519

  11. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  12. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato

    2013-12-01

    A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; da Silva Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  14. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  16. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  17. Analysis of time series of cattle rabies cases in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Edna; Sáfadi, Thelma; Da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhaes; Cardoso, Denis Lucio

    2015-04-01

    Vampire bats are potential transmitters of rabies in rural areas. Cattle rabies is relevant in the state of Minas Gerais due to the increasing cattle herds and geographical features of the area, which are favorable to bat populations. This study evaluated the occurrence of rabies in state cattle by analyzing the time series of monthly values, 2006-2012, describing some aspects of the areas and species affected. The study also pointed out the disease prediction for January-December 2013. We used monthly data of cases reported to the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply (MAPA), January 2006-March 2013. We also collected data on municipalities and other animal species affected by rabies for a descriptive analysis of the disease. The results indicate that cattle rabies is endemic in the State, with different intensities in different regions. The variables frequency of notifications and bat shelters had a positive and regular correlation (P = 0.035; r = 0.567) between them. With respect to data series, there was a fluctuation of the number of cases (5 to 29 cases per month) over 2006 and 2013, without trend or seasonality, although there would visually appear to be a downward trend. The results also suggest that the forecasting method is suitable for predicting future cases. Bovine species had the highest number of reporting, with 1007 cases (88.88 %), followed by equine species with 112 (9.89 %). The information provided by this study may help understand disease occurrence and find the most effective measures for rabies control in endemic areas. PMID:25698529

  18. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  20. Paepalanthusserpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthusserpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthusser.Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status.

  1. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus.

  2. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

  3. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais.

  4. Reconnaissance geologic study of the Vazante zinc district, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, Charles H.; Nahass, Samir

    1977-01-01

    The Vazante district, Minas Gerais, 130 km south of Paracatu, produces nearly all of Brazil's zinc metal. The district is situated on the western side of the Late Precambrian Bambul basin and along the eastern and leading edge of the north-trending Brazilian orogenic belt (ca. 600-500 m.y. old) that borders the western margin of the basin. Reconnaissance study indicates that bedding and low-angle thrust faulting, folding, and low-grade metamorphism dominated the structural development of the district. The structural trend within the district is northeasterly, and dips 20?-45 ? NW. Three sets of folds developed during the main period of eastward thrusting of older Precambrian rocks over the western margin of the Bambui basin. A fourth fold set is transverse to the regional trend. The rocks in the district are tentatively assigned to the Paraopeba Formation of the Bambui Group and are designated A through C in ascending order. Unit A is phyllite to phyllitic siltstone. Unit B consists of interbedded dolomitic limestone and marl-limestone. Irregularly distributed limestone ledges 20 to 100 m thick have the appearance of boudins. Their origin is attributed to a combination of rapid lateral facies changes and differential movement at different structural levels along bedding and low-angle thrust faults, with the formation of tear faults vertically limited by the thrust faults. Unit C consists of interbedded siltstone, dolomitic limestone, and sandstone. Phyllitic rocks along member interfaces in units B and C and at the base of unit C indicate differential penetrative deformation and bedding faulting. The contacts between units A, B, and C are interpreted to be low-angle or bedding faults, and their original stratigraphic positions with respect to each other is unknown. Zinc silicate minerals (hemimorphite and willemite) occur in a folded breccia zone in the lower part of unit B. The breccia zone is interpreted to be tectonic in origin, having formed along the step of a

  5. Legal and health variations in drug litigation injunctions granted in Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago Lopes; Ferré, Felipe; Campos, Orozimbo Henriques; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors related to the granting of preliminary court orders [injunctions] in drug litigations. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study of drug lawsuits in the State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, was conducted from October 1999 to 2009. The database consists of 6,112 lawsuits, out of which 6,044 had motions for injunctions and 5,167 included the requisition of drugs. Those with more than one beneficiary were excluded, which totaled 5,072 examined suits. The variables for complete, partial, and suppressed motions were treated as dependent and assessed in relation to those that were independent – lawsuits (year, type, legal representation, defendant, court in which it was filed, adjudication time), drugs (level five of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification), and diseases (chapter of the International Classification of Diseases). Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS Out of the 5,072 lawsuits with injunctions, 4,184 (82.5%) had the injunctions granted. Granting varied from 95.8% of the total lawsuits in 2004 to 76.9% in 2008. Where there was legal representation, granting exceeded 80.0% and in lawsuits without representation, it did not exceed 66.9%. In public civil actions (89.1%), granting was higher relative to ordinary lawsuits (82.8%) and injunctions (80.1%). Federal courts granted only 68.6% of the injunctions, while the state courts granted 84.8%. Diseases of the digestive system and neoplasms received up to 87.0% in granting, while diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioral disorders, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue received granting below 78.6% and showed a high proportion of suspended injunctions (10.9%). Injunctions involving paroxetine, somatropin, and ferrous sulfate drugs were all granted, while less than 54.0% of those involving escitalopram, sodium diclofenac, and nortriptyline were granted. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in

  6. Two new species of genus Joruma McAtee (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luci Boa Nova; Da-Silva, Elidiomar Ribeiro; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Fiuza

    2016-01-01

    Joruma abernardesi sp.nov. and Joruma phrolfsi sp.nov. (Typhlocybinae: Jorumini) are described based on specimens from Mata do Paraíso, an Atlantic Forest reserve located at Viçosa municipality. This is the first record of the genus Joruma McAtee in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

  7. Analysis of the Representation of Cretaceous Period in Textbooks Used in Schools in the Western Region of the City of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the geography textbooks, which are being used in the public schools of the city of Ituiutaba, Depth of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research also seeks to address the ways and methods being employed by the teachers of these schools for studies that include the teaching of Geology and Geosciences. In this study, survey…

  8. Two new species of genus Joruma McAtee (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luci Boa Nova; Da-Silva, Elidiomar Ribeiro; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Fiuza

    2016-01-01

    Joruma abernardesi sp.nov. and Joruma phrolfsi sp.nov. (Typhlocybinae: Jorumini) are described based on specimens from Mata do Paraíso, an Atlantic Forest reserve located at Viçosa municipality. This is the first record of the genus Joruma McAtee in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. PMID:27615975

  9. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  10. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  11. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  12. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  13. Amphimerus bragai n. sp. (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae), a parasite of the rodent Nectomys squamipes (Cricetidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, A H; Thatcher, V E; Lanfredi, R M

    1998-01-01

    Amphimerus bragai n.sp. (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) from the bile ducts of a rodent from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Nectomys squamipes (Cricetidae), is described. The new species as studied by both light and scanning electron microscopy. A table is presented comparing the measurements of the new species with those of A. lancea (Diesing, 1850) and A. vallecaucensis Thatcher; 1970, parasites of dolphins and marsupials, respectively. The new species is similar in size and body form to A. vallecaucensis from which it differs in having a vitellarium that extends to the acetabulum while that of the former species are limited to the posterior one-third of the body. Additionally, the new species is from a rodent.

  14. The municipal solid waste and the quality of life of collectors of recyclable materials in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    de Barros Pimenta, Aline; Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Borges, Marcos Mantins; de Oliveira Marques, Geraldo Luciano; Abdalla, E José Gustavo Francis

    2012-01-01

    The generation growing and diversified of Municipal Solid Waste is configured as an environmental problem, economic and social deterioration, especially, by application of inappropriate management of them. Faced with this urban context, the research in development presents as specific objective assessment of the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials were active in the city of Juiz de Fora, in the brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the objective is, still, the recognition of the activity of sorting performed by "scavengers" in order to maximize the reduction, reuse and recycling energy and material waste daily. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the questionnaire Word Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100), prepared by the World Health Organization, in order to value the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials, involved, even in educational workshops in order to discuss and organize strategies of health care and scouting to the basement to public policies.

  15. [The interdiction of disease: a cultural construction of schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Santos, Regiane Veloso; Gonçalves, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in a rural area endemic for schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective was to determine the relationship between an environmental and health education program for schistosomiasis, implemented for teachers and students from the state secondary school in the village of Boa União, and the subsequent actions of its participants in regards to the environment and the illness. An important difference in this program is its perspective that it is not merely the implementation of instrumental and cognitive knowledge of the environment and illness, but an approach in which subjects are asked to question and investigate their perception of reality, the environment, and the illness. The study demonstrated that a change in attitude could occur from reflection on one's experience in relation to both the environment and diseases endemic it.

  16. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  17. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining. PMID:24554136

  18. [Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40 kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82) and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%), decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%), increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies that favor lifestyle changes and healthy eating habits.

  19. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining.

  20. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  1. How Stakeholder Engagement is Evolving at the Caldas Uranium Mining Site in Minas Gerais, Brazil - 13223

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Peter M.; Da Silva, Nivaldo Carlos; Pereira de Oliveira, Alexandre; Cioffi Batagini, Regina Maria; Rangel, Heraldo Junior; Da Conceicao Estrella Abad, Maria

    2013-07-01

    The Caldas site is located in the Federal State of Minas Gerais in Brazil about 25 km from the city of Pocos de Caldas. While the city itself has 150,000 inhabitants there is a total population of around 0.5 million people living in an area that could potentially be influenced by the site. Uranium ore was mined and milled here between the years of 1982 and 1995, with ore extraction taking place from an open pit. Of the material removed, aside from that extracted for uranium, some was used on-site for road construction and building embankments while the remainder was disposed of onto two major rock piles. There are a number of potential historical and current environmental impacts to groundwater as a consequence of discharges into streams which then flow off site. The site is now undergoing a phase of decommissioning which includes the formulation and substantiation of a site remediation strategy. As part of a wider International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Project aimed at providing practical guidance for implementing a decommissioning and remediation plan at the site, WSP E and E were invited to lead a mission in order to provide advice on the importance and merits of stakeholder engagement and how to ultimately build an engagement program. In November 2011, WSP E and E met with personnel from the site operators, the Brazilian regulatory bodies and representatives from the local stakeholder community and explained the principles of stakeholder engagement and how the process had internationally evolved principally from a decide-announce-defend approach to a more formal two way mechanism of engagement. Historically there had been insufficient liaison between the site operator, the nuclear regulator and the environmental regulator. All parties had recognized that greater interaction was necessary. There had also been very little engagement with local stakeholders about the various activities on the site and the potential implications of these

  2. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus.

  3. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus. PMID:27396001

  4. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Thaís Aparecida Vieira; Assis, Andrêssa Silvino Ferreira; do Valle, Daniel Almeida; Barletta, Vívian Honorato; de Carvalho, Iná Pires; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; da Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal

  5. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2008-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. This paper presents the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  6. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2007-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. The paper will present the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  7. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road. PMID:22534851

  8. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments).

  9. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L C; Barros, F V; Lemos-Filho, J P

    2009-08-01

    'Canga' is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the 'Quadrilátero Ferrífero' of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae), Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae), and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae). Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  10. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation. PMID:26642864

  12. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  13. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages.

  14. [Access to medicines for Alzheimer's disease provided by the Brazilian Unified National Health System in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Brasil, Celline Cardoso; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Aguiar, Viviane Celestino Ferreira Dos Santos; Moreira, Daniela Pena; Moraes, Edgar Nunes de; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Álvares, Juliana

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated barriers to access to treatment for Alzheimer's disease based on administrative cases involving cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and submitted to the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat in Brazil in 2012 and 2013. Drawing on data from 165 randomly selected cases, the study addressed the following dimensions of access: geographic accessibility, accommodation, acceptability, availability, and affordability. The administrative processing to supply ChEIs took an average of 39 days and was influenced by characteristics of the path taken by the user. The majority of the prescribers met less than 80% of the required criteria in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (CPTG) for Alzheimer's disease. As a result, 38% of requests for medication were denied. Private treatment with ChEIs cost the equivalent of 21 days of the monthly minimum wage. In conclusion, bureaucratic administrative procedures and prescribers' difficulty in following the CPTG hindered access to treatment of Alzheimer's disease and imposed a heavy burden on patients' pockets. PMID:27505179

  15. [Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors.

  16. Application of the Köppen classification for climatic zoning in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá Júnior, Arionaldo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; da Silva, Fábio Fernandes; de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of the climatic conditions of a region is crucial for its agricultural development. It is also extremely important for understanding the fact that certain cultures have to develop under prevailing temperature and humidity conditions and assist in the adoption of a suitable irrigation technique, as well as its management and operationalization. The Köppen system of climate classification is widely used for the identification of homogeneous climate zones as it considers only rainfall and temperature as the meteorological elements for classification. For this study, we used climatic databases of rainfall and temperature in a raster format, with a spatial resolution of 30″ of arc (an approximate area of 0.86 km2 pixel-1), from 1961 to 1990. Through geoprocessing techniques, we obtained a map of climatic classification for the state of Minas Gerais. We found that the state has the following three major climatic groups: A, B and C, which correspond to tropical rainy, dry and warm temperate climates, respectively. The climate classes obtained were Aw, Am, BSh, Cwa and Cwb, with Aw, Cwa and Cwb classes occupying 99.89% of the territorial area of the state. The validation of the results showed a satisfactory agreement, with 93.75% reliability.

  17. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature.

  18. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community. PMID:19142436

  19. [Factors associated with waiting time and access to kidney transplants in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil'].

    PubMed

    Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; César, Cibele Comini; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with access to kidney transplants from living and cadaver donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The authors conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of patients on the waiting list for kidney transplants from 2000 to 2004 and followed until transplantation, death, exclusion, or continued presence on the line at the end of the study on December 31, 2005. The Cox model was used for competing risks. Of the 835 patients, 22.7% were transplanted. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors and cadavers was observed in patients with more time on dialysis and blood type O. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors was observed in residents in a high health risk area and in recipients with diabetes. The greatest disparity in access was observed in transplants from living donors, since there were no significant socio-demographic differences in transplants from cadaver donors. One can infer that the organ allocation system contributed to mitigating socio-demographic inequalities, and that clinical issues were more relevant in access to transplants from cadaver donors.

  20. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. PMID:22041638

  1. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edvânia Beatriz Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; Bahia-DE-Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-07-11

    Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  2. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir.

  3. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  4. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Pequi) by "quilombolas" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: subsidies for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, L C L; Morais, L M O; Guimarães, A Q; Almada, E D; Barbosa, P M; Drumond, M A

    2016-06-01

    Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. The most relevant uses of Pequi were family food (97%), soap production (67%), oil production (37%), medical treatments (17%), and trade (3%). Bees were the floral visitors with the highest Salience Index (S=0.639). Among frugivores that feed on unfallen fruits, birds showed a higher Salience (S=0.359) and among frugivores who use fallen fruits insects were the most important (S=0.574). Borers (folivorous caterpillars) that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income. PMID:27058602

  5. [Tooth decay and associated factors among adolescents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a hierarchical analysis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional population-based study (n = 763) conducted in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of tooth decay among adolescents and to identify the potential determinants of same. Probability sampling by conglomerates in multiple stages was used. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the data collection by means of intraoral examination and interviews in the previously selected households. In the analysis of the determinant factor for the presence of tooth decay, hierarchical binary logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of tooth decay, decayed, missing and filled teeth were 71.3%, 36.5%, 55.6% and 16%, respectively. The following averages were observed: DMFT (3.4 teeth), number of decayed (0.8 teeth), restored (2.4 teeth) and missing (0.2 teeth). The incidence of tooth decay was higher among adolescents who stated they were black/indigenous/brown (OR = 1.76), lived in crowded households (OR = 2.4), did not regularly visit or had never been to a dentist (OR = 1.9), used public or philanthropic services (OR = 1,8), had smoking habits (OR = 4.1), consumed alcohol (OR = 1.8), perceived their oral health negatively (OR = 5.9 and OR = 1.9) and had toothac in the last six months (OR = 2.0). PMID:26602713

  6. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  7. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature. PMID:17952303

  8. Petrographic and microthermometrical studies of emeralds in the `Garimpo' of Capoeirana, Nova Era, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, J. L.; Mendes, J. C.; da Silveira Bello, R. M.; Svisero, D. P.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1992-03-01

    Petrographic investigations in the area of the Capoeirana emerald deposit, Minas Gerais State, revealed two main lithostructural units. The first unit is comprised of gneissic rocks of granitic composition belonging to the basement complex, and the second is composed of a highly weathered metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence represented by metapelitic schists, amphibolites, schists derived from ultramafic rocks, and quartzites. Quartz and pegmatoid veins appear near the contacts between the gneissic rocks and the mineralization metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence. The emerald mineralization is dominantly concentrated within the intercalations of meta-ultramafic schists near the contact of the pegmatoid veins. Microthermometric studies of the fluid inclusions of the emerald grains indicate that crystallization occurred in the pressure and temperature ranges of 2000 to 2750 bar and 450 to 650 °C, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralizing solutions have had a late hydrothermal-pneumatolytic origin characterized by low pressures, suggestive of the paragenesis talc + tremolite + carbonate + biotite-phlogopite + chlorite of the emerald wall rocks.

  9. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  10. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Edvânia Beatriz dos Santos; RODRIGUES, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; BAHIA-DE-OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Henrique; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  11. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir. PMID:25271458

  12. Evaluation of schistosomiasis control activities in the Family Health Strategy in municipalities in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quites, Humberto Ferreira de Oliveira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Observational study that examined the quality of the preventive actions for schistosomiasis control in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS) in an endemic area. Structured questionnaires were used to interview 97 health professionals of the FHS and the Secretary of Health of 25 municipalities belonging to the State Health Department of Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Models of latent variables were used to define a score to evaluate the quality of the process. The results showed that 57.8% of the FHS teams' actions were unsatisfactory or critical. The professionals did not perform effective activities for the control of the infection and 8.1% did not use the diagnostic methods required by the government. Similarly, the professionals did not receive adequate training for the development of schistosomiasis prevention and control. There was a lack of educational materials to carry out health education activities, and the FHS teams conducted educational activities in only 48% of the schools of municipalities. Less than half of the professionals interviewed knew about the Schistosomiasis Control Program. We concluded that it is necessary to integrate this Program's practices to the FHS, and seek a suitable support of municipal management through pacts and social control. PMID:27532760

  13. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  15. Quality assessment of sulfurous thermal waters in the city of Poços de caldas, Minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Adriana Moneira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the quality of the water consumed by the population, and also the water used for both leisure and therapeutic bathing, are known. In the city of Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the population has two sources of sulfurous thermal water, with free access for various purposes, including drinking. Since 1882, the system has retained the same structural characteristics, and at this time, there appears to be a risk of anthropogenic contamination due to population increase near the springs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the sulfurous hot springs distributed in Pedro Botelho fountain, located in Thermas Antônio Carlos, and Monkey fountain, located in Mario Mourao bathhouse, for microbiological and bacteriological components, physical and chemical composition, and radionuclides for a period of 12 months and to compare their quality with Brazilian water quality laws. The results showed that all the values are within the prescribed water quality parameters, except fluoride and sodium, whose levels are above those permitted by law. Excess fluoride in consumed water can cause dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. As for sodium, which exceeded the permissible limits by 20 to 25 %, it can be detrimental to hypertensive individuals. An important fact to consider is that water from sulfurous hot springs cannot be consumed without medical supervision because its chemical characteristics may cause damage to health, and it should only be used as medicinal mineral water. PMID:26255269

  16. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    PubMed

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  17. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  18. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C; Carmo, Luiz S; Silva, Maria Crisolita C; Oliveira, Afonso L; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1), but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens.

  19. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  20. Insects breeding in pig carrion in two environments of a rural area of the state of minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, L S; Paseto, M L; Franco, F T; Perdigão, V C; Capel, G; Mendes, J

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify potential forensic indicators in the insect fauna associated with pig carrion and the pattern of insect succession during the decomposition process in two environments of a rural area in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was conducted at two locations: in a pasture and in a fragment of a semi-deciduous forest (vegetation profile of the Cerrado biome) in two different seasons (rainy and dry) of 2010. The decomposition process was more rapid in the rainy season. More than 32,000 insects belonging to 17 species of 6 families of Diptera and 2 species of Coleoptera bred in the carcasses. The majority of Diptera bred in the first three stages of decomposition. However, Phoridae and Coleoptera bred mainly in the last two stages. The insects bred more abundantly in the pasture and in the humid season. The exceptions were the Fanniidae (Diptera), which bred more abundantly in the forest and the Dermestidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera), which did not demonstrate any preference in terms of environments and were more abundant in the dry season, respectively. Species such as Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Peckia (Patonella) intermutans (Walker), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer), and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) may be potential indicators of post-mortem interval. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius) and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) may be indicators of localization of the natural environment, while Musca domestica Linnaeus may be an indicator of the anthropic environment. The study thus presented many species of potential forensic indicators in rural areas of this region.

  1. Zinc- and Y-group-bearing senaite from St Peters Dome, and new data on senaite from Dattas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Sharp, W.N.; Adams, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    'Mineral Y', an unidentified phase described in association with murataite from a pegmatite in the Pikes Peak granite, El Paso County, Colorado (A.M. 59-172) is now found to be a senaite containing ZnO 7.05% and RE2O3 + Y2O3 5.24%, with the Zn and Y-group REE entering the (Ti,Fe,Mn) position. A Zn-bearing senaite from Dattas, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, has ZnO 7.7%.-R.A.H.

  2. Lutzomyia diamantinensis sp. nov., a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a quartzite cave in Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Brazilian phlebotomine sandfly found in Brazil, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, is described based on males and females collected in a quartzite cave. The body of spermathecae is continuous to the individual duct, lanky and tapering at the end, with conical shaped, not striated and presenting the head with dense setae. The male presents gonostyle with four spines and a small subterminal seta and gonocoxite with one group of persistent setae. The paramere is simple with a group of small setae on the dorsal apex. The morphological features of this new species permit its inclusion in the migonei group.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease viruses in water buffaloes in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lage, A P; Castro, R S; Melo, M I; Aguiar, P H; Barreto Filho, J B; Leite, R C

    1996-01-01

    A serological survey to detect water buffaloes with antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus (BVD/MDV) was performed in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Precipitating antibodies against BTV were detected by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in 54.4% of the serum samples tested. Microplate serum-neutralization tests revealed that 14.7% and 52.7% of the water buffaloes had antibodies to BHV 1 and BVD/MDV, respectively. The prevalence of antibodies to BTV in water buffaloes under two years old was significantly lower than in adults.

  4. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  5. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  6. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  7. Characterization and origin of spongillite-hosting sediment from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Gomes, N. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.

    2010-03-01

    Spongillite from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil is mainly known for its use in brick production and in the refractory industry. Very few studies have focused on its geological context. Spongillite-rich deposits occur in shallow ponds on a karstic planation surface developed on rocks of the Neoproterozoic São Francisco Supergroup. Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments are related to this surface. A field study of these deposits and analysis of multispectral images showed a SE-NW preferential drainage system at SE, suggesting that Mesozoic Areado Group sandstones were the source area of the spongillite-hosting sediments. Mineralogical and textural characterization by optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA-GTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of seven open-pit spongillite-rich deposits (Avião, Carvoeiro, Vânio, Preguiça, Divisa, Severino, Feijão) showed a sedimentological similarity between the deposits. They are lens-shaped and are characterized at the bottom by sand facies, in the middle by spicules-rich muddy-sand facies and at the top by organic matter-rich muddy-sand facies. Petrographically, the spongillite-hosting sediments and the siliclastic sediments of the Areado Group show detrital phases with similar mineralogical and textural features, such as the presence of well-sorted quartz grains and surface features of abrasion typical of aeolian reworking that occurred in the depositional environment in which the sandstones of the Areado Group were formed. Detrital heavy minerals, such as staurolite, zircon, tourmaline, and clay minerals, such as kaolinite, low amounts of illite, scarce chlorite and mixed-layer chlorite/smectite and illite/smectite occur in the spongillite-hosting sediments and in sandstones from the Areado Group. In both formations, staurolite has similar chemical composition. These mineralogical and textural features show that the

  8. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).

  9. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alda Maria Soares; Costa, Emanuele Gama Dutra; Ray, Debalina; Suzuki, Brian M.; Hsieh, Michael H.; Fraga, Lucia Alves de Oliveira; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz (KK) stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT) has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high. Methods and Findings The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130) were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test): 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble (adult) worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r

  10. [Involvement of workers from municipal outpatient services in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the reorganization of services under the Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted in two specialized municipal outpatient clinics in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study analyzes the involvement of professionals in their work and the reorganization of health services from their perspective, considering the participatory management recommended by the Unified National Health System (SUS). The study included nine workers with or without specific health training, all involved in health sector activities. Participants were selected according to profession or job (groups: dentistry, infrastructure, medicine, social work, psychology, coordination, nursing, pharmacy, and biochemistry), with one participant per "category" for each clinic. The content was submitted to structural narrative analysis. Three analytical categories were identified: management, involvement in work, and involvement in the SUS proposals. The study was not intended to generalize results on health workers' involvement, but it does highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between the management model and the reorganization of services as recommended under the SUS.

  11. The Unique Karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a Critically Endangered Fish Living in a Fast-Developing Region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Priscilla C.; Santos, Udson; Travenzoli, Natália M.; Zanuncio, Jose C.; Cioffi, Marcelo de B.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR) banding, chromomycin A3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species. PMID:22848754

  12. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning. PMID:16862307

  13. Assessment of sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae) control using cypermethrin in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2011-11-01

    Montes Claros in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was considered an intense transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis. This study evaluated sand fly fauna after insecticide application. Captures were performed in 10 districts from September 2005 to August 2006 with CDC light traps inside and outside each residence. Cypermethrin was sprayed in two cycles during November/2005 and May/2006. The 636 specimens collected, belonging to 10 species, were predominantly Lutzomyia longipalpis (79%), and most frequently males (70%). The highest percentage of specimens were captured in areas surrounding domiciles (85.8%). The main species were observed to be sensitive to treatment with the insecticide. The results showed a reduction in the number of sand flies collected after use of cypermethrin in homes and annexes, and with residual effect lasting from two to four months.

  14. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999.

    PubMed

    Souza Lima, S; Marun, B; Alves, P V; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  15. Functional performance and social relations among the elderly in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a population-based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Lustosa; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a probabilistic sam- ple of 2,055 elderly in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to examine components of social network (conjugal status and visits by the children, other relatives, and friends) and social support (satisfaction with personal relations and having persons on whom to rely) associated with limitations in performing basic activities of daily living (ADL). Multivariate analysis used the Hurdle model. Performance of ADL showed independent and statistically significant associations with social network (fewer meetings with friends and not having children) and personal support (dissatisfaction/indifference towards personal relations). These associations remained after adjusting for social and demographic characteristics, health status, and other indicators of social relations. Our results emphasize the need for greater attention to social network and social support for elderly with functional limitations and those with weak social networks and social support.

  16. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  17. Pre-Columbian Chagas disease in Brazil: Trypanosoma cruzi I in the archaeological remains of a human in Peruaçu Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alexandre; Iñiguez, Alena M; Lima, Valdirene S; Souza, Sheila M F Mendonça de; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Jansen, Ana M

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the presence and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a mummy presenting with megacolon that was dated as approximately 560 +/- 40 years old. The mummy was from the Peruaçu Valley in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All samples were positive for T. cruzi minicircle DNA, demonstrating the presence and broad dissemination of the parasite in this body. From one sample, a mini-exon gene fragment was recovered and characterized by sequencing and was found to belong to the T. cruzi I genotype. This finding suggests that T. cruzi I infected humans during the pre-Columbian times and that, in addition to T. cruzi infection, Chagas disease in Brazil most likely preceded European colonization.

  18. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  19. [Risk of contamination from exposure to Rio Doce water: a case study on the population's perceptions in Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Simão, Andréa Branco; Dias, Carlos Alberto; Braga, Eliza de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The close relationship between local residents and the Rio Doce and the river's recurrent flooding lead to continuous exposure of the population to waterborne diseases. Given the epidemiological importance of such diseases in the region, this study analyzes the association between risk perception of contamination and river water use, as well as the heuristic mechanisms used by individuals to shape their personal perception of risk. Regression models coupled with thematic network analysis were applied to primary data from 352 households in 2012. The data are representative of urban residents of Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results show that while 92.6% of respondents perceived high risk of waterborne diseases, only 11.4% reported not making direct use of the river. This apparent paradox is explained by the lack of information on transmission mechanisms, underestimating the perception of contamination. Public campaigns to promote preventive behavior should stress how waterborne diseases are transmitted, using simple examples to reach a wider local audience.

  20. Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance. Results The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940). Conclusions The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae. PMID:21827682

  1. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston,1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina Almeida; Mittherofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Mattos, Ana Márcia Menezes de; Pinheiro, Liliane Sena; Sacramento e Silva, Dirany; Bastos, Fabiana Oliveira; Andreoli, Gabriela Quirino; Bonato, Glauco Resende; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2006-09-01

    This study focuses on the geographic distribution of the snail of the genus Biomphalaria and evaluates its infectivity by Schistosoma mansoni in 5264 specimens collected in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Of the 31 locations studied, 6 were reservoirs, 11 rudimentary holding ponds, 7 irrigation ditches, 5 lakes, 1 ornamental pond, and 1 waterfall. Intermediate hosts were found only in the rudimentary ponds and ditches, which were 100% positive. Using morphological and molecular analysis techniques, B. tenagophila, B. peregrina, and B. straminea were identified. This is the first report of B. stramínea in the municipality, and evaluation of its infective potential revealed susceptibility of 25.4%. Although we did not find specimens of Biomphalaria infected by S. mansoni, the data obtained indicate the presence of intermediate hosts, especially in the irrigation ditches in Juiz de Fora, and their proximity to contaminated areas.

  2. Genetic variability among natural populations of Zaprionus indianus (Drosophilidae) in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braganholi, D; Bélo, M; Bertoni, B W; Fachin, A L; Beleboni, R O; Zingaretti, S M

    2010-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to detect polymorphisms among Zaprionus indianus fly populations collected from six municipalities in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. This species is an important, recently introduced fruit fly pest of figs and other fruit. Among 21 primers, 16 produced 73 reproducible polymorphic fragments; primer AM-9 produced the greatest number of polymorphic bands (nine), with 52% genetic variability among populations. Genetic divergence analysis of the Z. indianus populations demonstrated two major groups, named Western and Eastern groups. There was greater gene flow within than between groups. The correlation coefficient for genetic and geographic distances (Mantel test) was significant, demonstrating isolation by distance.

  3. [Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in community-dwelling elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: data from the FIBRA study].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Vasconcelos, Karina Simone de Souza; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of frailty varies greatly and has received insufficient attention in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among the elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical, functional, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. An ordinal regression model was used to verify conditions associated with frailty and to determine odds ratios ( α= 0.05). Prevalence rates were 46.3% for pre-frailty was 8.7% for weakness. Pre-frail and frail elderly, respectively, showed higher and increasing odds ratios for dependency in instrumental activities of daily living; restrictions in advanced activities of daily living; use of walking aids; comorbidities; falls; depressive symptoms; lower self-efficacy in preventing falls; hospitalization; and advanced age. The study identified a high percentage of frail states associated with higher odds of adverse health conditions, especially related to disability.

  4. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  5. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type. PMID:20069185

  6. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation. PMID:26701555

  7. Schistosomiasis risk mapping in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a decision tree approach, remote sensing data and sociological indicators.

    PubMed

    Martins-Bedê, Flávia T; Dutra, Luciano V; Freitas, Corina C; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is not just a physical disease, but is related to social and behavioural factors as well. Snails of the Biomphalaria genus are an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and infect humans through water. The objective of this study is to classify the risk of schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais (MG). We focus on socioeconomic and demographic features, basic sanitation features, the presence of accumulated water bodies, dense vegetation in the summer and winter seasons and related terrain characteristics. We draw on the decision tree approach to infection risk modelling and mapping. The model robustness was properly verified. The main variables that were selected by the procedure included the terrain's water accumulation capacity, temperature extremes and the Human Development Index. In addition, the model was used to generate two maps, one that included risk classification for the entire of MG and another that included classification errors. The resulting map was 62.9% accurate.

  8. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-12-21

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation.

  9. Clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1992.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R N; Murta, C; Teixeira Júnior, M A; Cury, G C; Rocha, M O

    1995-01-01

    A clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni was conducted in the population of Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Faecal parasitology by the Kato-Katz method and clinical examination were performed in 93.8% and 82.8% of the local population, respectively. A socioeconomic survey was also made and the signs and symptoms presented by the patients were recorded, as well as their contacts with natural waters. The rate of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 50.3%; the peak of infection occurred during the second decade of life; there was a predominance of low egg counts in faeces (85.89% of positive patients eliminated less than 500 eggs per gram of faeces); the splenomegaly rate was 1.23%. When the risk factors for S. mansoni infection were studied, significant risks were detected in activities such as fetching water, washing dishes, bathing, and crossing streams. PMID:7569646

  10. Assessing the relationship between the δ18O signatures of siliceous sponge spicules and water in a~tropical lacustrine environment (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteuzzo, M. C.; Alexandre, A.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.; Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.; Miche, H.

    2013-08-01

    Siliceous sponge spicules constitute an important siliceous component of lacustrine sediments, together with widespread diatom frustules. In contrast to diatom frustules, siliceous spicules are formed in sponges in an enzymatic way. Previous attempts to use their oxygen isotopic signature (δ18Osilica) as a paleoenvironmental proxy have led to contradictory conclusions. These attempts demonstrated the need to further assess whether sponges form their silica in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with water. For this reason, we measured the δ18O signature of sponge spicules from a single freshwater species (Metania spinata) grown on natural and artificial supports over nine months in a small Brazilian pond (Lagoa Verde, northwestern Minas Gerais). The δ18Osilica values were obtained using the infrared (IR) laser-heating fluorination technique following a controlled isotopic exchange (CIE). The δ18O values (δ18Owater) and temperature of the pond water were periodically measured and reconstructed over the course of the sponge growth. Assuming that silica may form continuously in the spicules, temperature and δ18Owater values over the months of growth were weighted using a sponge growth coefficient previously established for Metania spinata. The δ18Osilica values of sponges grown simultaneously and on similar substrates were scattered. No relationships were observed between the Δ18Osilica-water and water temperature when the reconstructed values were considered. Conversely, a positive correlation was obtained, with a coefficient of 0.3‰ °C-1 (R2 = 0.63), when δ18Owater values and water temperature at the time of sample collection were considered. Such a positive temperature coefficient clearly indicates that the freshwater sponge Metania spinata does not form its siliceous spicules in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the pond water. Instead, one or several biologically controlled kinetic fractionation mechanisms may be in play during the various steps of silica

  11. Capybaras and ticks in the urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil: ecological aspects for the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Queirogas, V L; Del Claro, K; Nascimento, A R T; Szabó, M P J

    2012-05-01

    In Brazil capybara, the biggest existing rodent species, and associated tick species, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum, are undergoing an unplanned host and parasite population expansion in both urban and rural areas. However, scientific information about such issue, particularly in urban areas, is scanty. Such rodent and ticks are associated in some municipalities, particularly in southeastern Brazil, with the transmission of the highly lethal Rickettsia rickettsia caused spotted-fever. In this study ecological aspects related to the establishment and expansion of capybaras and ticks in urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were evaluated. For this purpose, capybara and tick abundance in four urban areas and an ecological reserve was determined. Abundance of capybaras varied between areas and over the sampling period and these differences were related to human activities. A positive correlation was found between capybara and tick abundance, however, the tick species had an uneven distribution within the municipality and environmental factors rather than host availability were blamed for such. On the whole these observations show that capybara populations in urban areas are associated to high environmental infestation of ticks and the increased risk of bites and of pathogen transmission to humans. At the same time the uneven distribution of tick species might implicate in an unequal risk of tick-borne diseases within the same urban area.

  12. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel de; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Paiva, Nívia Carolina Noguieira; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; Lana, Marta de

    2015-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region. PMID:25742267

  13. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L) to the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and methoprene in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Junqueira de; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) was reared in several concentrations of diflubenzuron and methoprene under laboratory conditions in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Characteristics such as LC50 and LC95, the susceptibility of immature stages of different ages to these insect growth regulators and their residual effects were studied. The LC50 and LC95 of diflubenzuron and methoprene were 5.19 and 12.24 ppb; 19.95 and 72.08 ppb, respectively. While diflubenzuron caused great mortality in all larval instars, methoprene was more effective when the mosquito was exposed from the start of the fourth larval instar onwards. Commercial concentrations of these two insect growth regulators close to LC95 presented greater residual activity than did their respective technical formulations. The parameters were compared with those obtained elsewhere. The characteristics investigated here indicate that these insect growth regulators are effective alternatives for controlling the dengue vector in the Uberlândia region.

  14. Effect of diflubenzuron on immature stages of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Junqueira da; Mendes, Júlio

    2002-07-01

    Horn fly immatures were raised in media containing different concentrations of diflubenzuron in order to verify their susceptibility to this insect growth regulator (IGR). The 50% and 95% lethal concentrations of diflubenzuron for the population (LC50, LC95) were determined as well as the effect of this IGR on the different immature horn fly stages. The tests were performed using the progeny of adults collected in the field. The immatures were maintained in a growth chamber at 25.0 +/- 0.5oC and 12-12 h photoperiod. IGR concentrations of 300 ppb, 100 ppb and 50 ppb were lethal for 100% of the sample. Pupae malformation occurred in the breeding media containing different diflubenzuron concentrations. Values for LC50, LC95 (+/- 95% fiducial limits) and the slope of the regression line were respectively, 25.521 +/- 1.981 ppb, 34.650 +/- 2.001 ppb and 12.720 +/- 1.096. The third larval instar was more sensitive to the sub-lethal concentration of the product than the first and second ones were. The results indicate that this IGR can be an important tool for controlling horn fly populations as well as for managing horn fly resistance to conventional insecticides against Haematobia irritans in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

  15. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city.

  16. [From guidelines to practice: evaluation of the pediatric care provided by a service of secondary reference in the north of the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Bueno, Mariana de Caux; de Moraes, Erica Furtado

    2013-06-01

    In the State of Minas Gerais, the Secondary Reference Viva Vida Centers (CVVRS) are one of the strategies deployed to tackle the problems in child health. This study sought to evaluate pediatric care provided in a CVVRS, using the guidelines defined when it was set up as a benchmark. A quantitative-qualitative approach was adopted, which included a cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling of 385 medical records of children registered with the program between 2007 and 2009, and analysis of focus groups with strategic actors of the initiative. There were divergences between the user profiles and the target audience in terms of age, hometown and clinical characteristics. Access and use of the service differed depending on the town, due to problems of misinformation concerning the proposal, difficulty of transportation and the fragility of the health network. The centers are considered an innovative and important initiative for the expansion and organization of the health network, though the intended logic is not effectively seen in practice. Interventions for articulation between the network services and adaptation of the agreed guidelines to the regional specificities are necessary. PMID:23752544

  17. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  18. [Low weight and functional disability in institutionalized elderly interns in Uberlândia in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Kamilla Tavares de; Mesquita, Laura Anália Silva de; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Azeredo, Catarina Machado

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to identify the association between nutritional status and functional dependence in institutionalized elderly interns in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It involved a cross-sectional study with 233 elderly interns in which sociodemographic variables, nutritional status and degree of dependency were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to assess the association between nutritional status and functional dependence of these senior citizens. Low weight by the Body Mass Index was associated with functional dependence after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables. The elderly with low weight had a prevalence ratio of dependence of 1.2 times the prevalence rate of dependence of well nourished elderly interns. As reported in the literature, age was also associated with dependence with a prevalence ratio of 1.19 for the longest living. Low weight is an important factor associated with functional disability. Thus, the need for evaluation, monitoring and recovery of nutritional status in the institutionalized elderly is stressed, as in addition to reducing morbidity and mortality from several diseases and improve quality of life, it can also prevent and delay functional dependency.

  19. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Roux, Ana V Diez

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America. PMID:26648373

  20. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Coelho, R M; Bezerra-Neto, J F; Miranda, F; Mota, T G; Resck, R; Santos, A M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Mello, N A S T; Marques, M M; Campos, M O; Barbosa, F A R

    2008-11-01

    The present study deals with the ecological impacts of the introduction of two alien species of piscivorous fish in several lakes of the Middle Rio Doce lake district in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was demonstrated that these effects were not restricted only to the fish community. The introduction of the predatory red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and the tucunaré Cichla cf. ocellaris caused not only a sharp decrease in the number of native fish species, but also major shifts in other trophic levels. Just after the fish were introduced, most lakes began to show conspicuous changes in phytoplankton species composition, in which Cyanophyceae gradually came to dominate. The zooplankton community lost several species, and in some cases, such as Lake Carioca, all the cladoceran species disappeared. On the other hand, invertebrate predators, represented by the dipteran Chaoboridae, boomed in the lake, with higher densities of exotic species, probably as a result of the 'ecological release' by reduction of the original fish fauna. There was a general trend of species loss in different trophic levels. All these changes are apparently associated with decreases in water quality. The present situation in these lakes demands new approaches to the management and conservation of these ecosystems. PMID:19197473

  1. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  2. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.

  3. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  4. Long-term (∼57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ∼57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core.

  5. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  6. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  7. Evaluation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species richness using two sampling methods in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Viviane Soares; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Morone, Fernanda; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-04-01

    We compared two types of light traps used for monitoring mosquito abundance in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Além Paraíba - Minas Gerais. Mosquitoes were captured bimonthly using automatic CDC and Shannon traps before the filling of the hydroelectric plant reservoir from December 2008 to December 2009. In total, 1474 specimens from 13 genera were captured. Among the captured specimens, several species known to be vectors of disease-causing agents for humans and/or animals were identified, including Anopheles aquasalis, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Aedes scapularis. Sampling efficacy between the four capture sites was not found to be significantly different, irrespective of species captured or type of trap used. Poor correlation (r (x, y) = -0.0444) between the number of mosquito species and capture site was observed when not influenced by the type of trap used. Among the installation sites of the CDC and Shannon traps in the areas investigated, CDC traps fixed in livestock shelters obtained an overall higher abundance of species captured.

  8. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  9. Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Koglin, Nikola; Lehmann, Bernd; de Abreu, Francisco R.

    2012-05-01

    Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our δ11B data are in the range between - 15‰ and 4‰. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite.

  10. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  11. EVIDENCE OF Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum INFECTION IN DOGS FROM JUIZ DE FORA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL, BASED ON IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC DUAL-PATH PLATFORM (DPP®) AND PCR ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Júnior, José Geraldo; Freire, Mariana Lourenço; Campos, Samantha Priscila Silva; Scopel, Kezia K.G.; Porrozzi, Renato; Da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Colombo, Fabio A.; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Viveiros; Marques, Marcos José; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, domestic dogs are branded as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, due to the clear positive correlation observed between human and canine infection rates. This study aimed to carry out a serological survey of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in dogs housed at a public kennel in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the immunochromatographic TR DPP® CVL rapid test. Additionally, conventional and/or real time PCR assay was used to detect and confirm L. infantum infection in the DPP positive dogs only. Of the 400 dogs studied, most did not present clinical signs for CVL (p < 0.05), and fifteen (3.8%) were seropositive in the DPP test. There was no statistically significant difference between the DPP seropositive dogs and the clinical signs of the disease (p > 0.05). Both conventional and real time PCR tests confirmed L. infantum infection in nine (75.0%) of the twelve DPP seropositive dogs that remained alive during the follow-up period. This study is the first seroepidemiologic survey of CVL held in the city of Juiz de Fora, and the results reinforce the idea that this disease is currently in a process of expansion and urbanization in Brazil. Furthermore, this study highlights the use of the DPP test as an alternative for diagnosing CVL in large and mid-sized cities, due to its ease of implementation. PMID:24879001

  12. Estimation of the degree of soil P saturation from Brazilian Mehlich-1 P data and field investigations on P losses from agricultural sites in Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P; Pöthig, R; Gücker, B; Venohr, M

    2016-01-01

    The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827). Measured soil DPS values amounted to 63 ± 14% and resulted in relatively low dissolved P concentrations measured in a surface runoff study in MG. However, fertilizer grains on the soil surface led to high WSP values (>30 mg/kg) indicating high risks of dissolved P losses. We suppose that small Oxisol particles with Fe and Al hydroxides sorbed most of the dissolved fertilizer P in runoff so that P was mainly exported in particulate form. In soils with lower contents of P sorption and binding partners, e.g. Entisols in PE, this effect may be less dominant. Consequently, superficial fertilizer effects have to be considered in addition to DPS in risk assessment of P losses from agricultural areas in Brazil. PMID:27508374

  13. Texture development during progressive deformation of hematite aggregates: Constraints from VPSC models and naturally deformed iron oxides from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Filippe; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Oliveira, Claudinei G. de; Barbosa, Paola; Ávila, Carlos; Cavalcante, Geane C. G.

    2016-09-01

    We show that naturally-deformed hematite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil, develops CPOs by dislocation creep, strongly influenced by basal plane parallel glide, even when this is not the favored slip system. Characterization of microstructure and texture, particularly intragranular misorientations, of naturally deformed hematite aggregates by EBSD allowed us to determine the importance of different slip systems, and confirm dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) models were constructed to constrain the slip systems required to operate for the observed CPO to develop, and its rheological implications. Changes in the CRSS ratio of hematite prism and basal slip systems and deformation regime lead to the development of distinct patterns of hematite crystallographic orientations. The basal slip-dominated simple shear model is the only one that can develop quasi-single-crystal CPO of the kind observed in highly deformed rocks from Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Comparison between naturally deformed hematite aggregates and VPSC models shows that CPO development of hematite is strongly influenced by a highly viscoplastic anisotropy through dislocation creep on hematite basal plane. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that even the unfavorable slip systems should be regarded when the bulk rheology of mineral aggregates is evaluated.

  14. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-11-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range). 

  15. [Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Alquimim, Andréia Farias; Barral, Ana Beatris Cezar Rodrigues; Gomes, Kênnya Caroline; Rezende, Mayra Costa de

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4%) were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%), fat (64.2%), coffee (69.8%), salt (60.4%), coca cola (64.2%) and soft drinks (54.7%). Among reports of chronic diseases, no diabetic (98.1%) or hypertensive (94.3%) drivers were observed. Most of the sample (69.7%) had normal stress levels. With respect to laboratory data, the vast majority of drivers had hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. HDL levels were satisfactory, and the LDL revealed normal and desirable levels in more than half of the sample. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was low. PMID:22899155

  16. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  17. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Paiva, Nívia Carolina Noguieira; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; de Lana, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region. PMID:25742267

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salaberry, Sandra R.S.; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F.C.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Guimarães, Ednaldo C.; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6–26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans. PMID:24031773

  19. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  20. Xenotime-hematite aggregates on opaline filaments: evidence for biomineralization in weathered siliciclastic rocks, Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Seabra Gomes, Antônio Augusto; Lehmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Dissolution cavities in weathered pebbly quartzite of the ~2.5-Ga Moeda Formation at Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are decorated with suspended filaments of opaline silica. The filaments sustain xenotime-hematite aggregates in the open space. Xenotime occurs as inclusions in buds and botryoidal aggregates of hematite. The filamentous structures consist of strand-forming buds, hypha-like extensions, and thin strands that compose mat-like arrangements. They resemble microbial filaments that were replaced by opaline silica and fossilized. The occurrence of spherical hematite as protuberances on hematite-free opaline hyphae is interpreted as accretion of dissolved iron onto extracellular polymers. Phosphate sites in polymeric substances expelled from the microbial filaments might have adsorbed yttrium and heavy rare-earth elements from groundwater to the iron-accreting polymers. These would have resulted in botryoidal aggregates of hematite with xenotime inclusions. The presence of authigenic xenotime in the weathering zone opens a new possibility to constrain the evolution of lateritic profiles by xenotime geochronology.

  1. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature.

  2. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature. PMID:22317432

  3. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  4. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Ângela Melgaço; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Souza, Helio Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008) performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. Results The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%), clinical pathology technicians (44.1%) and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001). This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293). Conclusion These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil. PMID:23049397

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite - (Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm-1 assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO42- units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm-1 are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm-1 are attributed to the ν1PO43- symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm-1 are assigned to the ν3PO43- antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm-1 are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  7. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood. PMID:23434550

  9. [Evaluation of a program for the control of schistosomiasis in municipalities located on the basin of the Sao Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima e Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Pimenta, F G; Firmo, J O; Uchoa, E

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the control program on schistosomiasis (PCE/PCDEN) was performed in the region of São Francisco river in MInas Gerais. The study area comprises six municipalities, with 130,000 inhabitants and 916 localities situated in an area with 10,722 km2. The activities initiated in 1983-85 in four municipalities and in 1987 in the other two. The main measures of control were repeated treatment with oxamniquine and use of niclosamide. The prevalence of infection by Schistosoma mansoni in the first four municipalities, that was initially around 18 and 32%, dropped abruptly after the first intervention (1983/85) and remained in levels below the initial ones until the last assessment (1990-94); similar trends were observed for the proportion of infected snails. In these municipalities, the proportion of localities without infection or with prevalence below 5% increased in relation to those with higher prevalence. In the other two municipalities, with initial prevalence below 5%, there were no substantial changes in S. mansoni prevalence or proportion of infected snails; the cost benefit of the program in these municipalities need to be assessed and the priorities redirected to eradicate focal areas and prevent spread to non infected localities. The authors call attention to the difficulties in the long term of a control program based on repeated treatments. Information on factors associated with S. mansoni infection in each locality, or in groups of similar localities, would allow to develop additional measures to treatment that could last longer and be less dependent on the continuous use of chemotherapy.

  10. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  11. Oxidation states of iron as an indicator of the techniques used to burn clays and handcraft archaeological Tupiguarani ceramics by ancient human groups in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Ardisson, J. D.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics of the Tupiguarani Tradition typically have in common the burning characteristics, their forms and decoration motifs. Dating such ceramic pieces with the radiocarbon method indicate that these artifacts were probably handcrafted between 1,500 and 500 years before the present. Fragments ceramic utensils were collected in the archaeological site of Beltrão, in the municipality of Corinto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A fragment of about 50 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick, with a color gradation across the ceramic wall ranging from red, on one side, grayish, in the middle, and orange, on the opposite side, was selected for a more detailed examination. The fragment was transversely cut and a series of subsamples were separated from different points along the piece wall, in layer segments of ~3 mm. All subsamples were analyzed with Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 80 K. Results reveal that hematite is the magnetically ordered phase. A Fe2 + component (relative spectral area, 50 %) appears for the grayish subsample. According to these first results, the red subsample seems to be the side that had direct contact with fire used to burn the precursor clay in air. The grayish middle layer is probably due to the clay mixed with some ashes. Mössbauer data reveal that the orange layer, corresponding to the opposite side of the ceramic relatively to the direct fire, does contain about the same Fe2 + :Fe3 + ratio but much lower proportion of α-Fe2O3 than the red layer.

  12. Fractionation and leachability of heavy metals from aged and recent Zn metallurgical leach residues from the Três Marias zinc plant (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-04-01

    Various mineral processing operations to produce pure metals from mineral ores generate sludges, residues, and other unwanted by-products/wastes. As a general practice, these wastes are either stored in a reservoir or disposed in the surrounding of mining/smelting areas, which might cause adverse environmental impacts. Therefore, it is important to understand the various characteristics like heavy metal leaching features and potential toxicity of these metallurgical wastes. In this study, zinc plant leach residues (ZLRs) were collected from a currently operating Zn metallurgical industry located in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and investigated for their potential toxicity, fractionation, and leachability. Three different ZLR samples (ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3) were collected, based on their age of production and deposition. They mainly consisted of Fe (6-11.5 %), Zn (2.5 to 5.0 %), and Pb (1.5 to 2.5 %) and minor concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, and Mn, depending on the sample age. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results revealed that these wastes are hazardous for the environment. Accelerated Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction clearly showed that potentially toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn can be released into the environment in high quantities under mild acidic conditions. The results of the liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH showed that pH plays an important role in the leachability of metals from these residues. At low pH (pH 2.5), high concentrations of metals can be leached: 67, 25, and 7 % of Zn can be leached from leach residues ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3, respectively. The release of metals decreased with increasing pH. Geochemical modeling of the pH-dependent leaching was also performed to determine which geochemical process controls the leachability/solubility of the heavy metals. This study showed that the studied ZLRs contain significant concentrations of non-residual extractable fractions of Zn and can

  13. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  14. Information System and Geographic Information System Tools in the Data Analyses of the Control Program for Visceral Leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers. PMID:22518168

  15. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

    2006-09-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east.

  16. Species Diversity and Temporal Variation of the Orchid-Bee Fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a Conservation Gradient of a Rocky Field Area in the Espinhaço Range, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viotti, M A; Moura, F R; Lourenço, A P

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the orchid-bee community in a conservation gradient of the high-altitude rocky fields in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sampling was performed at two sites with different anthropic influences: a disturbed area (DA), with exotic plant species, and a preserved area (PA). From September 2009 through February 2011, males of euglossine bees were sampled using aromatic bait-traps. We collected a total of 819 specimens belonging to 11 species and three genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, and Eufriesea Cockerell. Despite the proximity of DA and PA (about 1.2 km), differences in orchid-bee abundance and richness were observed. Higher abundance was observed in the PA (n = 485) compared with the DA (n = 334). Eight species were common to both sites, and only the DA showed exclusive species. The DA showed higher diversity and higher estimated species richness. Euglossa leucotricha Rebêlo & Moure was the most abundant species at both sites followed by Euglossa melanotricha Moure. Higher abundance and richness were found in the warm rainy season. This study contributes to the knowledge of the orchid-bee fauna in the rocky fields and suggests that the greater resource availability in the DA was responsible for the higher orchid-bee diversity.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  18. Highlights of the XXI annual meeting of the Brazilian Society of Protozoology, the XXXII annual meeting on Basic Research in Chagas' disease & an international symposium on vesicle trafficking in parasitic Protozoa – 7 to 9 November 2005, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Schenkman, Sergio; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the 2005 Annual meeting held in Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was convened and organized by the Brazilian Society of Protozoology . This is an annual event and details of these meetings can be found on the Society's website. Within the space available it has been impossible to cover all the important and fascinating contributions and what is presented are our personal views of the meetings scientific highlights and new developments. The contents undoubtedly reflect each author's scientific interests and expertise. Fuller details of the round tables, seminars and posters can be consulted on line at . PMID:16916462

  19. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  20. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  1. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Cintra, Eduardo do Nascimento; do Carmo, Rafaela Andrade; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia Benedita de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie's method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie's method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  3. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; do CARMO, Rafaela Andrade; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; de OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides(0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  4. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese.

  5. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  6. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  7. Schistosomiasis risk estimation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using environmental data and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2008-01-01

    The influence of climate and environmental variables to the distribution of schistosomiasis has been assessed in several previous studies. Also Geographical Information System (GIS), is a tool that has been recently tested for better understanding the spatial disease distribution. The objective of this paper is to further develop the GIS technology for modeling and control of schistosomiasis using meteorological and social variables and introducing new potential environmental-related variables, particularly those produced by recently launched orbital sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Three different scenarios have been analyzed, and despite of not quite large determination factor, the standard deviation of risk estimates was considered adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected as important for modeling purposes was topographic elevation, summer minimum temperature, the NDVI vegetation index, and the social index HDI91. PMID:18692017

  8. Tunga penetrans and further parasites in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frank, Raphael; Melaun, Christian; Martins, Maria Marlene; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Heukelbach, Jörg; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian savannah-like area, the Cerrado region, covers large areas of the country and provides a habitat for a multitude of different animal species. The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is geographically widespread and one of the typical inhabitants of the Cerrado. They are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A population loss of at least 30 % over the past 10 years has been estimated based on local extinctions, habitat loss and deaths caused by fires, roadkills and hunting. Little is known about ecological and in particular parasitic conditions of this highly specialised insectivore species. During September and November 2010 we examined three roadkilled giant anteater for the presence of metazoan ecto- and endoparasites. Besides the cestode species Oochoristica tetragonocephala and the tick species Amblyomma nodosum, we found for the first time the flea Tunga penetrans. Beside morphological flea species identification, we compared a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of eggs, a molecular method utilised for the first time in this combination. The identification of T. penetrans in M. tridactyla represents a new host record and expands the host and distribution range of the zoonotic flea species. PMID:22814770

  9. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  10. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sales, Camila F; Domingos, Fabrício Flávio T; Brighenti, Ludmila S; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Santos, Hélio B; Thomé, Ralph G

    2016-07-11

    Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male) was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners. PMID:27411068

  11. [The Museums of Morphological Sciences: a different place at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria das Graças

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces a new science museum, one that works actively to engage its audience in learning about the structure and functioning of the human organism, so that it can be understand life and thus protect its quality. PMID:16680875

  12. Trends in Animal Rabies Surveillance in the Endemic State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E.; Oliveira, Camila S. F.; Capanema, Renato O.; Nicolino, Rafael R.; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J.; Haddad, João Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies. PMID:25774775

  13. Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques Pessanha; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Brandão, Silvana Tecles; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the dengue occurrence in the city of Belo Horizonte over the last fifteen years. Approximately 186,000 cases registered from 1996 to 2011 were analyzed. The home address of individuals whose dengue case was notified was used as a proxy for exposure location. For determining possible outbreaks of disease and the specific patterns of dengue cases, spatial statistics used included Kernel's estimation. The occurrence of waves of dengue outbreaks was correlated with climatic and vector presence data. Outbreaks had different durations and intensities: case clustering, thinned out both spatially and temporally. These findings may be useful for public health professionals responsible for fighting the disease providing some tools for improving evaluation of interventions such as vector control and patient care, minimizing the collective and individual burden of the disease. PMID:22536269

  14. Phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Timóteo, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2014-06-01

    This work is characterized by an entomological research and an investigation on whether seasonal behaviours can be associated to the phlebotomine fauna found in the urban area of Timóteo-MG - an endemic focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). The analysis of the seasonal behaviour of sand flies has taken into account the following climatic variables: rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. Automatic light traps were installed in households between 2009 and 2010. The sand fly species with the highest number captured was Lutzomyia whitmani (66.5%), a TL vector species, whose abundance has provided strong evidences that this species is the main vector of TL in the municipality of Timóteo, with its cycle of transmission developing in its urban area. Amongst the results observed in the analyses of seasonal behaviour, only temperature conveyed particular association between seasonal occurrence of sand flies and climate variables. The findings of this study may assist the local epidemiological surveillance agency in defining strategies and directing efforts for controlling these insects.

  15. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sales, Camila F; Domingos, Fabrício Flávio T; Brighenti, Ludmila S; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Santos, Hélio B; Thomé, Ralph G

    2016-07-11

    Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male) was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners.

  16. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIV - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Conquista, Minas Gerais, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Kirchner, E.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Murta, R. L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Conquista chondrite is described and classified as an H4. The mineral composition is reported. H-group classification is based on described microscopic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. The evidence for petrologic type 4 classification includes the pronounced well-developed chondritic texture; the slight compositional variations in constituent phases; the high Ca contents of pyroxene and the presence of pigeonite; glassy to microcrystalline interstitial material rich in alkalis and SiO2; and twinned low-Ca clinopyroxene.

  17. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  20. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this segment of the population, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:27143611

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers.

  2. FREQUENCY OF Candida SPECIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; FERREIRA, Joseane Cristina; de SÁ, Walkiria Machado; MOREIRA, Tomaz de Aquino; MALVINO, Lucivânia Duarte Silva; de ARAUJO, Lucio Borges; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito; PENATTI, Mario Paulo Amante; CANDIDO, Regina Celia; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitroresistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker. PMID:26200956

  3. Trends in animal rabies surveillance in the endemic state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E; Oliveira, Camila S F; Capanema, Renato O; Nicolino, Rafael R; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J; Haddad, João Paulo A

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies.

  4. Associated factors of overweight in adolescents from public schools in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Pinho, Lucinéia; Botelho, Ana Cristina de C.; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to support plans and actions that combat the local increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents, the factors associated to weight excess in public school students from Montes Claros, MG, Southeast Brazil, were studied. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of adolescents from the public schools of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated and an inquiry was carried out in the schools to determine food consumption and practice of physical activities. Factors associated to weight excess were assessed by bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Weight excess prevalence was detected in 18.5% of the 535 adolescents evaluated. The factors associated to weight excess were: per capita income above half minimum wage (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.01-3.93), candy consumption above two daily portions (OR 1.94; 95%CI 1.13-3.32) and absence of sport activity during leisure time (OR 2.54; 95%CI 1.15-5.59). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of weight excess in adolescents from public schools is relevant and associated with socioeconomic condition of the family, bad eating habits and sedentary life. PMID:25119756

  5. [Persistence of dengue symptoms in patients in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Lopes, Juliana Salviano Mendonça; Martins, André Guilherme da Costa; Campos, Fernando Augusto Batista; Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira

    2010-03-01

    The clinical picture of dengue is characterized by a maximum duration of 14 days despite frequent complaints of longer symptoms. This study evaluated the occurrence of persistent symptoms (> 14 days) and its impact on daily life. A hundred eighteen patients were interviewed, and the main symptoms at diagnosis were mialgia (98.3%), fever (97.5%) and weakness (95.8%). The presence of at least a persistent symptom was related by 77 (65.2%) individuals of wich 10 (8.5%) described it as intense and lasting for 30 days or more. The most persistent symptoms mentioned were weakness (58 cases), hiporexia (49) and sleepiness (40), occurring mostly in women, with odds ratio: 5.4 (IC95%: 2.3-12.3). A significant association between the persistence of the symptoms and the history of extra expenses (p = 0,02) was found, as well as a delay to return to normal activities (p < 0.001). Thus, it was verified that dengue presented a relevant impact on every day life, even after 14 days, a fact wich was associated with the presence of persistent symptoms of the illness.

  6. Analysis of the Approach of Paleontology in Geography Textbooks in Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is currently one of the driving instruments of teaching and learning. In the analysis of the contents of paleontology in geography textbooks, these books are important because they reveal problems embedded in these works and allow a more informed choice of books for the approach. In this work we performed an analysis of the approach…

  7. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  8. [The Museums of Morphological Sciences: a different place at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria das Graças

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces a new science museum, one that works actively to engage its audience in learning about the structure and functioning of the human organism, so that it can be understand life and thus protect its quality.

  9. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation. PMID:27268116

  10. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires.

  11. Mina P. Shaughnessy: Her Life and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jane

    This book is intended to be both a biography of an extraordinary woman and a historical account of events leading to Open Admissions within the City University of New York (CUNY) in 1970, wherein every graduate of a New York City high school was guaranteed a place within the CUNY system. The book profiles Mina Shaugnessy, who devoted her…

  12. Geotechnologies for the Characterization of Specialty Coffee Environments of Mantiqueira de Minas in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Lacerda, M. P. C.; Borém, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region's tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the "terroirs" where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region's coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality were evaluated. The results

  13. In Search of Mina Shaughnessy: A Comparison of Mina Shaughnessy and K. Patricia Cross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlexander, Patricia J.

    One way to identify the essential Mina Shaughnessy would be to look at her views in light of the conflicts of the 1970s. It is particularly revealing to compare Shaughnessy to another great basic writing pioneer of that decade, K. Patricia Cross, whose 1971 book "Beyond the Open Door" Shaughnessy lists as a suggested reading in "Errors and…

  14. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires. PMID:27497904

  15. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dulgheroff, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves de; Domingues, André Luiz da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*), VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM) region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3), G1 (sublineage I-A), G9 (lineage III), G12 (lineages II and III), G8 (lineage II), G3 (lineage III), P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb), P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1), I2 (lineage VII), E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X), and H2 (lineage III) were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination). Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context. PMID:27266629

  16. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the urban area of Paracatu, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; Regina-Silva, Shara; França-Silva, João Carlos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Araújo, Simone Costa; Valadão, Josiane Lopes; de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2011-03-10

    The present study was developed in the urban area of Paracatu, an endemic city for the American visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. A six-month canine survey was performed with 6295 domiciled dogs in 28 districts in that area and showed that 4.2% of those (267 dogs) were positive for VL by ELISA and IFAT serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 1.2% and 16.1%, depending on the district under investigation. Fifteen dogs - 80% of which were clinically asymptomatic for VL - were submitted to a more detailed study that comprised direct parasitological examination and Leishmania kDNA amplification of tissue samples as well as two PCR-RFLP methods using myelocultures. Leishmania amastigotes or Leishmania DNA were detected in all dogs but one. The infecting species of Leishmania was identified in about 50% (7/15) of the sample dogs: Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in two of them and, unexpectedly, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the remaining five. Three months after the end of confiscation and elimination of the VL-seropositive dogs in the 28 districts of Paracatu, a systematic entomological survey was performed in five of them. Six hundred and sixty five (665) phlebotomine sand flies were captured in total, from which 89.5% were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The population density of that species increased during the rainy season. Other thirteen (13) species of phlebotomine sand flies were captured at varying percentages from 0.2 to 5.0%. It is worth noting that L. longipalpis females were predominantely intradomicile when compared to males, suggesting that the VL transmission cycle in Paracatu may be occurring inside home.

  17. Diagnosis of severe silicosis in young adults working in stone polishing and mining in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto, Claudia Vasques; Carneiro, Ana Paula Scalia; Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Nascimento, Marcela Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of silicosis in a group of stone polishing and/or mining workers who began working under the age of 18, the minimum age in Brazil for working in hazardous or unhealthy conditions. The design is that of a case series with medical follow up via a surveillance program that included medical and occupational histories, chest radiography interpreted according to International Labour Organization (ILO) Classification, and spirometry. The findings call attention to the importance of the problem of silicosis, which persists in the region despite new production technologies, legal requirements, and initiatives to protect workers. Silicosis is a public health problem that must be addressed by the implementation of public policies to improve working conditions and ensure children and teenagers are kept away from hazardous work. While Brazil has started to be a part of the global effort to eliminate silicosis and the worst forms of child labor, there are still problems that must be addressed. PMID:20465059

  18. Tres Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais State: Study of the dispersion of suspended sediments in surface waters using orbital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer compatible tapes from LANDSAT were used to compartmentalize the Ires Marias reservoir according to respective grey level spectral response. Interactive and automatic, supervised classification, was executed from the IMAGE-100 system. From the simple correlation analysis and graphic representation, it is shown that grey tone levels are inversely proportional to Secchi Depth values. It is further shown that the most favorable period to conduct an analysis of this type is during the rainy season.

  19. The Statherian itabirite-bearing sequence from the Morro Escuro Ridge, Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira Braga, Flávia Cristina; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Queiroga, Gláucia Nascimento; Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal Jesse

    2015-03-01

    The itabirite-bearing metasedimentary sequence from Morro Escuro Ridge comprises the basal units of the Espinhaço Supergroup and makes up a small tectonic inlier developed during one of the Brasiliano orogenic events (800-500 Ma), amongst horses of the Archean TTG gneisses, including sheared granites of the anorogenic Borrachudos Suite (˜1700 Ma). The metasedimentary rocks are comprised of low-to intermediate-amphibolite facies schists, quartzites, conglomerates and banded iron formation (itabirite) correlatable with the sequences of the Serro Group, which underlies the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Serra da Serpentina Ridge. A maximum Statherian deposition age (1668 Ma) was established using SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic constraints on zircon grains from conglomerate and quartzite units overlying the itabirite. The itabirite is predominantly hematitic and its geochemical characteristics are typical of a Lake Superior-type BIF deposited in a platformal, suboxic to anoxic environment distant from Fe-bearing hydrothermal vents. Close to the contact zone with amphibolites of the Early Neoproterozoic Pedro Lessa mafic suite, an increase of the magnetite content and crystallization of metasomatic Mg-hornblende and Ce-allanite can be observed. These mineralogical changes developed preferentially along the igneous contact zone but are probably co-genetic with the formation of alteration haloes in zircon grains during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (506 ± 6 Ma).

  20. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  1. Heavy Metals and Histopathological Alterations in Salminus franciscanus (Lima & Britski, 2007) (Pisces: Characiformes) in the Paraopeba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savassi, Lourenço Almeida; Arantes, Fabio Pereira; Gomes, Marcos Vinicius Teles; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-04-01

    Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the liver, spleen and muscle, of the fish Salminus franciscanus, from two sections of Paraopeba River, highly affected by anthropogenic influences, was detected in levels above those recommended for human consumption. Positive correlations between fish size and levels of metals were detected for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn. In the livers, areas with lipid accumulation and pigmented macrophages were also observed, as was fibrosis of the spleen in the parenchymal area through the presence of pigmented macrophages. The diameter of vitellogenic follicles was less and the frequency of atresia was higher in fish from section A. Thus, our study showed that beyond the risk to the population that eats S. franciscanus from the Paraopeba River, we should also consider the risk to the conservation of this species, since histopathological changes were detected in target organs and in some reproductive parameters.

  2. Diamonds from the Espinhaço Range (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and their redistribution through the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, M. L. S. C.; Karfunkel, J.; Hoppe, A.; Hoover, D. B.

    2001-07-01

    Diamond-bearing deposits from the Espinhaço Range are associated with three distinct periods in the geologic record. During a Precambrian magmatic period (≥1.75 Ga), diamondiferous rocks were introduced into the crust; the location of these rocks remains an enigma. During a second period, diamonds were eroded from the primary rocks and deposited in the Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço basin (≅1.75-1.70 Ga), where several generations of reworking and diagenisis are suggested. The third period is the Phanerozoic, during which several more episodes of reworking occurred. The first was during the Eocretaceous uplift of the range, when Precambrian conglomerates were partially eroded and diamonds redeposited in fluvial systems. These deposits have little economic significance because of overlying Tertiary laterites. Renewed upheaval at the Neogene formed diamondiferous fanglomeratic deposits as a result of the pronounced relief. Quaternary climate cycling developed colluvial deposits on earlier formed occurrences. Fanglomeratic and colluvial deposits are worked where the adjacent Proterozoic or Cretaceous sources produced widespread diamond-bearing gravels. Finally, recent river systems have reworked all the earlier sources to produce economic gravels in some places. Although these recent gravels are low grade, they are a major diamond source because of the large reserves. The mineralogical characteristics of these diamonds reflect the long history and repeated reworking of the source deposits, and the geologic history of the region points towards an extra-basinal source area, probably to the west within the São Francisco Craton. This repeated reworking has resulted in a natural selection of the diamonds that eliminated low-quality stones in the journey to their final resting place.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (<0.5 to 40 μg L(-1)) were >10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water.

  4. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (<0.5 to 40 μg L(-1)) were >10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water. PMID:26797944

  6. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given. PMID:26312053

  7. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  8. Raising awareness about soil diversity: The Education Programme of the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are usually overlooked as part of geodiversity and geoheritage. Increasing the public awareness about soils is a key issue in our changing world. Furthering public awareness involves developing a better understanding of soils, their functions, importance for environment and society, as well as a personal and collective commitment in the stewardship and protection from degradation and loss. This presentation describes the Soil and Environmental Education and Outreach Programme of the Alexis Dorofeef Earth Sciences Museum of the Soil University Department in Viçosa, Brazil. The program has developed different activities linked to formal and non formal education and its main audience are basic education teachers, school children and the general public. The museum acts in different and diverse fronts, supported on a pedagogical background based on Paulo Freire's educational approach, the social-constructivism, which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. In its early years, the museum was mainly focused on formal education and this changed with time as our action was reshaped into a broader outreach action stimulated by the new Brazilian government. The museum's indoor activities consist of accompanied thematic visits, hands on experiments, basic school teacher's courses, development of learning materials and methods and professional training. Beyond of the Museum space local interdisciplinary projects with basic education schools are run along with temporary expositions coupled with short courses and workshops with farmers and social movements. We present the results of the changes in awareness about soils among three main groups: school teachers, basic education children and general public. After 10 years of activities, the Soil Education action of the Museum is recognized and well spread among school communities in the town and its neighbourhood. Many school teachers approach the contents and methodologies they learned at the museum, as well as many of the students that did their practical's at the museum do. As a side result, the Soil Education Program triggered the broadening of the museum themes into three main conceptual lines: Earth's dynamics, Natural resources: use and environmental impacts and, Soils: know to conserve. Today the Museum is spreading its knowledge about soil throughout the region, by means of temporary expositions and educational activities. Despite its achievements, the Museum still faces the challenge to broaden its action, reaching different and wider publics, making both the idea of visiting a museum and the knowledge about soils more popular.

  9. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves-Junior, Athayde; Cartágenes-Pinto, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Débora A S; de Sá, Leandro F Reis; Junqueira, Maria de Lourdes; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candida infections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicans species and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicans species (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata). Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  10. [Dipterans of forensic interest in two vegetation profiles of cerrado in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Thiago A; Babata, Micaela L Y; De Souza, Carina M; De Sousa, Danielle; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Mendes, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Carrion breeding insects may be of great utility in crimes briefing. Studies on forensic entomology are restricted to few localities in Brazil and very few of them were done in the cerrado vegetation (a type of Savannah) until now. This work aimed to survey the main species of dipterans associated with the decomposition process of Sus scrofa and the insect succession pattern in carcasses in the Cerrado. The study was carried out in the dry and humid season of the year, in two cerrado vegetation profiles in Uberlândia, MG. Two pig carcasses were placed in each vegetation profile and time period of the year. The decomposition process was slower and insects were more abundant in the dry season. Differences in temperature, air humidity and pluvial precipitation seemed to be the main physical factors responsible for the differences in the time of decomposition of the pig carcasses between the two seasons. Fourteen species of dipterans (59,467 specimens) bred in the decomposing carcasses. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was the species more abundantly breed in the two periods. The other species that breed in the carcasses were: C. putoria (Wiedemann), Hemilucilia segmentaria(Fabricius), Lucilia eximia(Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans(Walker), Peckia (Squamatoides) trivitatta(Curran), Sarcodexia lambens(Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae), Musca domestica(L.), Ophyra aenescens(Wiedemann), Stomoxys calcitransL. (Muscidae), Fannia pusio(Wiedemann), Fannia sp. (Fanniidae), Hermetia illuscens L. (Stratiomyidae) and Phoridae sp. The Cerrado of this region presents many dipterans potential forensic indicators.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Soil Moisture Behavior in a Headwater Watershed of the Mantiqueira Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture is highly relevant in watersheds for understanding the many hydrological and erosion processes, to better model the processes and apply them to conservation planning. The goal of this study was to map soil moisture of the surf...

  12. [First notification of Eimeria bareillyi (Apicomplexa: Eimeridae) in feces of buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bastianetto, Eduardo; Freitas, Carolina M V; Bello, Ana Cristina P P; Cunha, Arildo P; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C; Leite, Romário C

    2008-09-01

    In this study the evolution of Eimeriosis in naturally infected calves was analyzed during 23 days starting at birth. The specie E. bareillyi was first identified in feces culture. Later other species of Eimeria already described in water buffalo were identified. The animals which died were submitted to necropsy, revealing macroscopic lesions in the ileum region. Histological analyses of the ileum region showed acute necrotic enteritis and the presence of Eimeria sp. in different developmental stages. Early infection by this parasite could be responsible for a secondary bacterial infection trough the intestinal lesions. The utilization of prophylactic medication and the therapeutic treatment of clinical Coccidiosis in water buffalo calves are necessary to their satisfactory development and surveillance.

  13. The Vanishing Site of Mina Shaughnessy's "Error and Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Claims that recent reassessments of Mina Shaughnessy's "Errors and Expectations" and the field of composition in the 1970s overlook the institutional forces that helped shape the rhetoric and methodology of researchers at that time. (HB)

  14. Mina Shaughnessy and Open Admissions at New York's City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, LaVona L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses basic writing pioneer Mina Shaughnessy, who advocated for a humanistic approach to writing instruction for disadvantaged students, within the context of the City University of New York's policy of open admissions. (EV)

  15. Selected Speeches and Essays of Mina Pendo Shaughnessy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Mina

    1980-01-01

    Presents Mina Shaughnessy's thoughts on why English professors dislike the teaching of writing, what is needed in writing research, the disadvantages of being a writing teacher at an open admissions school, what open admissions policies have revealed about education in general and basic writing instruction in particular, and writing evaluation…

  16. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed.

  17. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. PMID:26519974

  18. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records. PMID:26132031

  19. Evaluation of the sticky MosquiTRAP for detecting Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) during the dry season in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata A; Silva, Eric M; Silva, Ivoneide M; Resende, Marcelo C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2007-01-01

    MosquiTRAP is a sticky trap specifically designed to capture gravid females of Aedes aegypti (L.) and allows the identification of the mosquito in the field during the inspection of the trap. This study aims to compare this sticky trap to larval and ovitrap surveys for field monitoring of A. aegypti during the dry season. The study was conducted from March to June of 2003 in 20 blocks of the district of Itapoã, Belo Horizonte, MG. The traps were monitored every week while the larval survey was conducted on a monthly basis. The larval index: Premise Index (PI) and Breteau Index (BI) had equal values throughout the experiment (1.72 in the first two months and zero in the last two). The container index (CI) during the first two months was 0.09 and 0.1%, respectively and zero in the last two. The Ovitrap Positive Index (OPI) ranged from 16.7 to 76.9%, and the MosquiTRAP Positive Index (MPI) ranged from 0 to 31.5%. The Egg Density Index (EDI) ranged from 26.6 to 82.8, while the Adult Density Index ranged from 0 to 1.6 throughout the experiment. Temperature and rainfall did not affect the Positive and Density Indices, although these environmental variables seemed to have affected the larvae indices. Although the MosquiTRAP caught a low number of Aedes mosquitoes during the study, it was more sensitive than the larval survey to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:17607465

  20. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  1. A new approach to characterization of the resistance of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to organophosphate and pyrethroid in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faza, Aline Pasqualini; Pinto, Isabella Silvestre Barreto; Fonseca, Isabela; Antunes, Gustavo Resende; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Daemon, Erik; Muniz, Michelle de Souza; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    The monitoring of resistance of cattle tick populations in Brazil to the chemical bases in use is largely limited to investigation of the phenotypic profile. There are few studies investigating the role played by the genotypic profile in acaricide resistance in the country. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular characterization and trace out the genetic profile of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus with respect to resistance to the organophosphate and pyrethroid chemical groups. For that purpose, larvae were genotyped belonging to 587 populations for pyrethroids and 306 for organophosphates, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. It was found that 75.49% and 97.44% of the larvae studied showed resistance to the organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Among the populations resistant to pyrethroids, 91.9% were heterozygotes, showing that most of the resistant populations have only one allele responsible for resistance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the genotyped populations have high resistance to organophosphates, and even more so to pyrethroids. This information is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of resistance of R. microplus to acaricides, to enable improvement of control techniques. PMID:23639866

  2. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  3. Realisation d'un Centre de Fonderie dans l'Etat de Minas Gerais, Bresil. Resultats du projet et recommandations en decoulant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The document reports the findings and suggestions produced by a study of the needs for on-the-job training of foundry workers and for management development in foundries in Brazil. The researchers propose the creation of working foundries to serve as vocational training centers and laboratories, where experienced workers could upgrade their…

  4. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk.

  5. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; De Chambrier, A; Yamashita, M M

    2009-02-01

    This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of 'tucunaré', but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for 'tucunaré' might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir. PMID:19347164

  6. Α-Thalassemia: Genotypic Profile Associated with Ethnicity and Hematological Differentiation of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Region of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renata A Volpe; Carlos, Aline Menezes; de Souza, Bruna M Bereta; Rodrigues, Cibele Velloso; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by microcytic anemia due to impaired production of α chains of human globin. Brazilian studies show that the most common genotype is an -α(3.7) deletion with the loss of one or two α genes. As the production of α chains is not as accentuated in these cases, the correct diagnosis can only be achieved through molecular analysis that is not usually routinely performed by laboratories. We investigated the occurrence of α-thal babies born between September 2011 to January 2013 at the hospital of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Brazil, and blood donors of the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, Hemominas Foundation, Uberaba, Brazil, correlating it with ethnicity and differences between hematological parameters of donors, α-thal and iron deficiency patients. α-Thalassemia was investigated for the most common deleted alleles (-α(3.7), -α(4.2), - -(SEA), - -(FIL), - -(THAI), -(α)(20.5) and - -(MED)). The incidence in newborns was 13.16% with a predominance of heterozygosity for the -α(3.7) genotype (12.35%), followed by the -α(3.7)/-α(3.7) (0.46%) and αα/-α(4.2) genotypes (0.35%). In blood donors, the prevalence of α-thal was 14.89%, with all cases being heterozygous for the -α(3.7) deletion. There was an association of the α-thal genotype with African ancestors for both groups, thereby confirming published data and showing the strong influence of Blacks on the composition of the population of Brazil's southeastern region. Minor changes were found between hematological parameters of blood donors with iron deficiency and α-thal that did not contribute to the differential diagnosis between the two types of anemia.

  7. Biomonitoring of the environmental genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries in Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Tradescantia pallida.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos Fernando; Júnior, Edimar Olegário de Campos; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Sousa, Eduardo de Freitas; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) test and analysis of heavy metal biological accumulation in Tradescantia pallida (T. pallida) were bioassays used to assess the genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries into the atmosphere in a city in Brazil that is considered a national reference source for roof tile production. The ceramic industry emission-exposed T. pallida plants were biomonitored during the dry season, in June, July, and August 2013. In addition to the contaminated monitoring site, a reference site in a peri-urban area was utilized, for comparative purposes. Genotoxicity assessments were determined monthly, while heavy metal bioaccumulation was measured at the end of the total exposure period. The MN frequency was significantly greater in T. pallida plants exposed in the ceramic industry emission monitored area compared to the reference site, and highest MN rates were observed in July and August. With respect to heavy metal bioaccumulation in T. pallida leaves, cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were significantly higher in plants at the ceramic industry emission monitoring site. Thus, in relation to the parameters assessed, T. pallida was found to be sensitive to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals attributed to ceramic products emissions generated by the ceramic industry, confirming that this plant species may be employed as a reference organism in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26818189

  8. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  9. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  10. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records.

  11. [Determinants of food and nutrition insecurity: a study conducted in Low-budget Restaurants in Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Yara Cardoso; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the condition of household food and nutrition (in)security (IAN) of the users of low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte (BH). This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out on all low-budget restaurants and cafeteria in BH with a sample of 1613 users. The IAN was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and cross-checked with the socioeconomic profile of the users. The Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were applied. All p-value < 0.25 variables were included in the multivariate analysis. The groups most exposed to IAN among users of low-budget restaurants are those with a lower socioeconomic level and per capita income class and those with a large number of residents in the household. Also affected are those who admit to having different kinds of wants and needs, and those for whom price and living alone are the main reasons for frequenting low-budget restaurants. The factors affecting the IAN are varied and multifactorial, thus representing a major challenge for public policy makers and for those who live directly with these dietary restrictions. The low-budget restaurants serve as a strategy for promoting healthy eating habits.

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk. PMID:26476939

  13. Environmental factors and benthic Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) assemblages in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Suriani-Affonso, A L; França, R S; Marchese, M; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Oligochaeta forms an important part of the macroinvertebrates inhabiting sediments of lotic ecosystems. It has an important role in the cycling of matter and energy transfer in these environments. The aim of this study is to analyse limnological variables, their influence on the structure and diversity of benthic oligochaete taxocenosis in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River and its tributary the Piumhi River. Samples were taken in two climatic periods, the dry season in October 2006 and 2007 and the rainy season in March 2007 and 2008 at three points along the Piumhi River and six points along the São Francisco River. The sediment of the São Francisco consisted predominantly of sand and clay, whereas the sediment of the Piumhi was mainly sandy. Six species of oligochaete occurred in the Piumhi River while seven were found in the São Francisco. Of these, Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925, Pristina americana Cernosvitov, 1937, Bothrioneurum sp. Stolc, 1888 and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 occurred in the sediment of both rivers. L. hoffmeisteri showed the highest numerical abundance in the Piumhi River and Brinkhurstia americana (Brinkhurst, 1964) and L. neotropicus Cernosvitov, 1939 were the most abundant species in the São Francisco River. The highest oligochaete density was recorded in the Piumhi during the dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of sediment characteristics explained most of the data variability and the association of the presence of oligochaete species in the Piumhi and São Francisco Rivers with the limnological variables (grain size composition and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the sediment). PMID:21755161

  14. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Claúdia O; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora R; Nicoli, Jacques R; Hamdan, Junia S; Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Carmo, Luiz S; Farias, Luiz M

    2005-11-01

    An evaluation of the microbiota present in cutaneous ulcers from 31 patients with a clinical and parasitological diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. Microbial examination indicated that 21 patients (67.7%) were contaminated with one to four bacteria and some of them also with yeast. A total of 142 micro-organisms were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterium (95.2% of positive patients) and was found to produce type B (70% of the staphylococcal isolates) and type C (50%) enterotoxins as well as toxic shock syndrome toxin (60%). Proteus mirabilis (33.3% of the positive patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (19.0 %), H(2)S-negative Proteus species (19.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.3%), Enterobacter species (9.5%), Peptostreptococcus species (9.5%), Pseudomonas species (4.8%), Prevotella bivia (4.8%), Escherichia coli (4.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (4.8%), Bacteroides fragilis (4.8%), Candida albicans (9.5%) and Candida tropicalis (4.8%) were also isolated. Surprisingly, Staph. aureus isolates were susceptible to almost all tested drugs, although some of them were resistant to penicillin (69%) and ampicillin + sulbactam (68%). Concerning obligate anaerobes, all the Gram-negative isolates (25% of the total) were resistant to metronidazole. The results of the present study show that microbial secondary contaminants, particularly Staph. aureus, should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ATL lesions. PMID:16192439

  15. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-04-12

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented.

  16. Environmental factors and benthic Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) assemblages in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Suriani-Affonso, A L; França, R S; Marchese, M; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Oligochaeta forms an important part of the macroinvertebrates inhabiting sediments of lotic ecosystems. It has an important role in the cycling of matter and energy transfer in these environments. The aim of this study is to analyse limnological variables, their influence on the structure and diversity of benthic oligochaete taxocenosis in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River and its tributary the Piumhi River. Samples were taken in two climatic periods, the dry season in October 2006 and 2007 and the rainy season in March 2007 and 2008 at three points along the Piumhi River and six points along the São Francisco River. The sediment of the São Francisco consisted predominantly of sand and clay, whereas the sediment of the Piumhi was mainly sandy. Six species of oligochaete occurred in the Piumhi River while seven were found in the São Francisco. Of these, Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925, Pristina americana Cernosvitov, 1937, Bothrioneurum sp. Stolc, 1888 and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 occurred in the sediment of both rivers. L. hoffmeisteri showed the highest numerical abundance in the Piumhi River and Brinkhurstia americana (Brinkhurst, 1964) and L. neotropicus Cernosvitov, 1939 were the most abundant species in the São Francisco River. The highest oligochaete density was recorded in the Piumhi during the dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of sediment characteristics explained most of the data variability and the association of the presence of oligochaete species in the Piumhi and São Francisco Rivers with the limnological variables (grain size composition and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the sediment).

  17. [Social-sanitary and lifestyle profile of hypertense and/or diabetics, users of the Family Health Program in the city of Teixeiras, Minas Gerais State].

    PubMed

    Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Batista, Kelly Cristina Siqueira; Reis, Roberta Sena; de Souza, Gisele Adriana; Dias, Glauce; de Castro, Fátima Aparecida Ferreira; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to outline the social-sanitary profile and the lifestyle of hypertense and/or diabetic people from the city of Texeiras- MG. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with hypertensive and/or diabetic people randomly selected from the Family Health Program of the city of Teixeiras--MG. A total of 150 hypertensive (10% of the hypertensive population) and 30 diabetics (12.98% of the diabetic population) people were interviewed. There were a predominance of elder people (average age = 63.59 + 13.12 years old), mostly women (74.4%), with low literacy (40.9% of illiterates) and low income (average = 0.5 minimum wage). The treatment was basically the use of medication (96.6%), and there was a high prevalence of sedentary people (67.4%). Besides that, there was a daily high intake per capita of sugar (153 g + 110.66 g), salt (18 g + 21.26 g) and oil (60 g + 43.23 g) . The results of this study showed the importance of a multi-professional intervention by means of the Family Health Program with the objective of promoting the adoption of healthy habits and lifestyle in order to prevent complications of these morbidities, and to provide a better life quality to these people.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  19. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  20. Detrital zircon without detritus: a result of 496-Ma-old fluid-rock interaction during the gold-lode formation of Passagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Zircon and xenotime occur in tourmaline-rich hydrothermal pockets in the auriferous lode of Passagem de Mariana, a world-class gold deposit. Zircon grains show pristine oscillatory zoning, but many of them are altered, exhibiting porous domains filled with graphite. Uranium-Pb dating of zircon, using in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, yields ages between 3.2 and 2.65 Ga, which match those for detrital zircon of the footwall quartzite of the > 2.65-Ga-old Moeda Formation. Discordant analyses point to zircon-age resetting during the Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 500 Ma. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb dating of euhedral xenotime immediately adjacent to altered zircon within the same tourmaline pocket. The xenotime grains give a Concordia age of 496.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which is identical to that determined for monazite of a quartz-hematite vein-type deposit (i.e., jacutinga lode) in the region (Itabira), another important mineralisation style of gold. The occurrence of relatively abundant inherited detrital zircon, but absence of rock fragments in the tourmaline pocket investigated here, implies that detrital material was completely replaced by tourmaline. The graphite overprint on the altered detrital zircon attests to a reducing fluid, which was likely formed by fluid-rock interaction with carbonaceous phyllite of the Batatal Formation, the host rock of the Passagem lode.

  1. Civilise the People, Build the Nation: Scientific and Literary Association and Education in Minas Gerais (Brazil) at the Beginning of the Brazilian Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Luciano Mendes de Faria; Inacio, Marcilaine Soares

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 200 years in Brazil, the notion of "public" has been established to mean the same as the notion of "state". Sergio Buarque de Holanda and, more recently, Marilena Chaui point out that the very old tradition of the appropriation of public goods by the private sector has been updated. However, the understanding of what is considered…

  2. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gallão, Jonas Eduardo; von Schimonsky, Diego M; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae (Amblypygi) and Iandumoema uai (Opiliones), both from Olhos d’Água cave, located at Peruaçu Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cipó cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km2. New information This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or there are several possibilities of dispersion in the karst of Peruaçu. Indeed, a revision of their categorical status at IUCN Red List is necessary. We herein report a new distribution range (Lapa do Cipó cave) of the troglobitic species I. uai and C. eleonorae, which are, to date, known to occur in the Olhos d’Água cave, located at the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP). PMID:26696758

  3. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  4. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  5. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  6. Writing Away from Fear: Mina Shaughnessy and the Uses of Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Responds to John Rouse's attack on Mina Shaughnessy's teaching strategies for composition instruction (see EJ 209 264). Offers personal experiences to illustrate the role of the basic writing teacher and the uses of authority in the basic writing classroom. (JT)

  7. Redefining the Legacy of Mina Shaughnessy: A Critique of the Politics of Linguistic Innocence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Min-zhan

    1991-01-01

    Argues that Mina Shaughnessy's view of language as a politically innocent vehicle of meaning overlooks basic writers' need to confront the dissonance they experience between academic and other discourses. Suggests educators need to abandon the limitations of the essentialist view of language informing their pedagogy. (KEH)

  8. Mina Shaughnessy in the 1990s: Some Changing Answers in Basic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlexander, Patricia J.

    Although Mina Shaughnessy remains influential in the basic writing field, her answers to the vital questions of who basic writers are and why they underachieve as writers are changing. Whether she intended to or not, Shaughnessy's book "Errors and Expectations" (published in 1977) was a major force in forming an image of basic writers as urban and…

  9. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (p<0.05). The interaction of nisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption.

  10. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (p<0.05). The interaction of nisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption. PMID:26310130

  11. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  12. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  13. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  14. The Andrelándia depositional cycle (Minas Gerais/Brazil), a post-transamazonic sequence south of the São Francisco Craton: Evidence from U-Pb dating on zircons of a metasediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, F.; Trouw, R. A. J.

    1997-01-01

    U-Pb age determinations were carried out on zircons from a quartz-rich micaschist of the Andrelândia depositional cycle, part of a mobile belt adjacent to the southern border of the São Francisco Craton. The metamorphism suffered by the sampled unit is characterized by the mineral assemblage: almandine + kyanite + rutile + muscovite + quartz. Zircons separated from the sample are globular (95%), transparent to translucent and slightly yellow coloured. Three grain size fractions and an abraded fraction of this zircon type yield discordia intersection ages with the Concordia at 1872 ± 11 Ma and 567 ± 11 Ma. Three grain size fractions with increasing amount of a third, slightly older inherited lead component were omitted from discordia calculation. The 1872 Ma-age, representing a minimum age for the main phase of zircon growth in the source area, limits the maximum age for the onset of sedimentation. According to U and Th contents, the U/ Th ratio and the limited amount of inherited lead of pre-Transamazonic age the detritus is mainly derived from magmatic rocks of the Transamazonic basement, predominantly crystallized within a time span of at most 130 Ma. No indication of a significant thermal event during the subsequent long lasting interval of calm and sedimentation (about 1.3 Ga) was found. The end of sedimentation is still under debate. Because of the large discordance of the data points to the lower intercept in the Concordia diagram (Brasiliano thermo-tectonic event), newgrowth of zircon and/or a distinct loss of radiogenic lead during this phase of thermal overprint can be considered as low. An early high pressure-stage of metamorphism was dated at about 600 Ma by Sm-Nd in garnets versus whole rock (Trouw & Pankhurst, 1993). Because of the difference of about 40 Ma between this age and the age presented above it seems probable that the new- and/or overgrowth of zircon happened predominantly during a second lower pressure and higher temperature stage of the same metamorphic event (M1), associated with the migration of a H 2O-rich fluid phase and limited anatexis.

  15. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  16. Hematite mining in the ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 year old Peruvian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Kevin J.; Grados, Moises Linares; Eerkens, Jelmer W.; Edwards, Matthew J.

    2007-12-01

    Mina Primavera, a hematite (Fe2O3) mine located in southern Peru, was exploited beginning approximately 2,000 years ago by two Andean civilizations, the Nasca and Wari. Despite the importance of hematite in the material culture of the ancient Americas, few hematite mines have been reported in the New World literature and none have been reported for the Central Andes. An estimated 3,710 tonnes of hematite were extracted from the mine for over 1,400 years at an average rate of 2.65 tonnes per year, suggesting regular and extensive mining prior to Spanish conquest. The hematite was likely used as a pigment for painting pottery, and the mine demonstrates that iron ores were extracted extensively at an early date in the Americas.

  17. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  18. Evaporite sedimentation in a tectonically active basin: The lacustrine Las Minas Gypsum unit (Late Tortonian, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortí, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Gibert, Lluís; Moragas, Mar; Playà, Elisabet; Inglès, Montserrat; Rouchy, Jean Marie; Calvo, José Pedro; Gimeno, Domingo

    2014-08-01

    Evaporite successions may undergo significant lithostratigraphic changes laterally and vertically in tectonically-active basins. The Las Minas Gypsum, a lacustrine unit of Late Tortonian age and up to 160 m thick in the Las Minas-Camarillas basin (SE Spain), consists of a number of shallowing-upward cycles. Each cycle is made up of a lower interval with marl and carbonate, and an upper interval with gypsum. In the upper interval, the base displays carbonate-gypsum laminites (couplets, yearly microcycles) showing a large variability of textures and fabrics; gypsum textures are cumulates and bottom-grown crystals. Laminites are overlain by selenitic gypsum. The carbonate is a primary dolomite induced by sulphate-reducing bacterial activity. Native sulphur was formed in early diagenesis and during exhumation was partly transformed into late diagenetic gypsum. The isotopic compositions of gypsum suggest that the sulphate mainly derived from chemical recycling of Triassic evaporites; however, marine sulphate was probably supplied by episodic marine incursions. A perennial saline lake characterized by irregular bottom topography and depositional settings with variable subsidence ratios is interpreted. In addition to climate, saline diapirism, Neogene volcanism, synsedimentary faulting and seismicity influenced the evaporitic deposition. Las Minas-Camarillas basin is an example of how in tectonically active zones different factors interplay to produce significant variability of the evaporitic sedimentation and cyclicity.

  19. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  20. A control method to inspect the compositional authenticity of Minas Frescal cheese by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magenis, Renata B; Prudêncio, Elane S; Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor

    2014-08-20

    This study introduces a qualitative method to inspect the compositional authenticity of white nonripened cheeses like Minas Frescal, a typical Brazilian cheese, especially when irregular replacement of milk by whey is suspected. A sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method, followed by image densitometry, was validated. Cheeses were freeze-dried to electrophoresis, and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) was chosen as the adulteration marker. In gel trypsin digestion followed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry provided its identification. Cheeses with a minimum of 14 mg·g(-1) of β-LG are considered to be adulterated. The method shows satisfactory precision with a detection limit of 7 mg·g(-1). Forty-two commercial samples from inspected establishments were then assessed and subjected to cluster analysis. Compliant and noncompliant groups were set with 24 (57%) authentic samples and 18 (43%) adulterated samples, respectively, showing that proper analytical monitoring is required to inhibit this practice.

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in minas frescal cheese by free and nanovesicle-encapsulated nisin

    PubMed Central

    Malheiros, Patrícia da Silva; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of free and nanovesicle-encapsulated nisin to control Listeria monocytogenes in Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Commercial nisin was encapsulated into liposomes of partially purified soy lecithin. Free (0.1 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL) and nanovesicle-encapsulated nisin (0.25 mg/mL) were applied onto the surface of cheese samples, and L. monocytogenes was inoculated before incubation at 6–8°C for 28 days. A bactericidal effect was observed with 0.25 mg/mL free nisin; a bacteriostatic effect was observed for liposome-encapsulated nisin and 0.1 mg/mL free nisin. Free nisin was more efficient than nisin-loaded liposomes in controlling L. monocytogenes. Possible reasons for this behavior, and also the significance of nisin to soft cheeses are discussed. Nisin acted as a suitable barrier within hurdle technology, potentially extending the shelf-life and safety of fresh cheeses. PMID:24031971

  2. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in critical control points and the environment of Minas Frescal cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabella M M; Almeida, R C C; Alves, M A O; Almeida, P F

    2003-03-25

    Critical control points (CCPs) associated with Minas Frescal cheese (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh) processing in two dairy factories were determined using flow diagrams and microbiological tests for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of Listeria. A total of 218 samples were collected along the production line and environment. The CCPs identified were reception of raw milk, pasteurization, coagulation and storage. Thirteen samples were positive for Listeria; 9 samples were Listeria innocua, 2 were Listeria grayi and 2 were L. monocytogenes. In factory A, Listeria was found in 50% of raw milk samples, 33.3% of curd samples, 16.7% of pasteurized milk samples, 16.7% of cheese samples and 25% of rubber pipes used to transport the whey. The microorganism was not obtained from environmental samples in this plant. In factory B, Listeria was found in one sample of raw milk (16.7%) and in three samples of environment (17.6%) and L. monocytogenes was obtained from raw milk (16.7%) and the floor of the cheese refrigeration room (14.3%). Two serotypes, 4b and 1/2a, were observed among the strains of L. monocytogenes isolated, both which are frequently involved in outbreaks of food-borne listeriosis and sporadic cases of the disease all over the world.

  3. Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.

    PubMed

    González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

    2012-10-01

    Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

  4. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  5. A structural analysis of the Minas da Panasqueira vein network and related fracture generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Minas da Panasqueira is a world-class W-Cu-Sn vein-type deposit, situated within the Central Iberian Zone of the Palaeozoic Iberian Massif (Portugal). The deposit consists of a network of subhorizontal, sill-like massive quartz veins situated above the southwestern extremity of a greisen cupola, within regionally metamorphosed, isoclinally folded, lower-greenschist slates and greywackes. The greisen cupola is part of a larger intrusive complex, emplaced during the late- to post-tectonic stage of the Variscan orogeny. The late-Variscan granitoid(s) underlying the Panasqueira deposit is considered to have served as a major metal source. The structure of the network of subhorizontal extension veins, consists of numerous planar vein lobes that are separated by host-rock bridges and merge at branch-points. A structural analysis demonstrates that not only within the Panasqueira mine, but also on a more regional scale, one or more generations of flat-lying fractures are present. The veins clearly exploited these pre-existing discontinuities, as confirmed by (1) the vein geometry being directly influenced by variations in the orientation of the initial fracture sets and (2) the geometry of the rock bridges and overlapping vein morphologies, consistently showing straight-line propagating crack tips. If veining is governed by a preferential, strongly developed anisotropy in the host rock, the hypothesis of vein lobes and rock bridges forming during propagation of the parent crack by tip-line bifurcation and confinement processes (Foxford et al., 2000) does not seem plausible. Instead, we propose that the rock bridges formed from several, initially separate and small veinlets that eventually overlapped in an en echelon arrangement during progressive propagation and inflation. Bending of the rock bridges and incipient vein rotation indicate that veining occurred near the brittle-ductile transition. Using a quantitative analysis of bridge orientations, vein aspect ratios

  6. Effects of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus count and physicochemical properties of Minas Frescal cheese.

    PubMed

    Felicio, Bruna A; Pinto, Maximiliano S; Oliveira, Francielly S; Lempk, Marcus W; Pires, Ana Clarissa S; Lelis, Carini A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nisin on in vitro and in situ Staphylococcus aureus counts. For in vitro experiment, milk was inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·mL(-1) of S. aureus and nisin was added at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 500 IU mL(-1). The main effect of the bacteriocin was lag phase extension from 0h, for 0 and 100 IU·mL(-1) to 8h, when 200, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were used; however, log phase was not affected. Microbial growth rate was found to be exponential and around 0.11 log cfu·mL(-1)·h(-1) for all treatments. For in situ experiments, 0, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were directly added to pasteurized milk previously inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·g(-1) of S. aureus. Milk, curd, and whey were analyzed to S. aureus counts. Nisin at concentration of 500 IU·mL(-1) was able to reduce S. aureus count in curd and whey, demonstrating nisin partition between both phases. Throughout storage at 4°C, S. aureus count increased for all treatments, but the bacterial grew slower when nisin was added in both concentrations, maintaining S. aureus count about 1.5 log cycles lower than the control, despite abusive initial S. aureus count. Therefore, nisin seems to play an important role in reducing S. aureus initial count in cheese made with highly contaminated milk. Nisin showed potential to be used as an additional, important hurdle to improve Minas Frescal cheese safety, without replacing good manufacturing practices. PMID:25981063

  7. Effects of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus count and physicochemical properties of Minas Frescal cheese.

    PubMed

    Felicio, Bruna A; Pinto, Maximiliano S; Oliveira, Francielly S; Lempk, Marcus W; Pires, Ana Clarissa S; Lelis, Carini A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nisin on in vitro and in situ Staphylococcus aureus counts. For in vitro experiment, milk was inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·mL(-1) of S. aureus and nisin was added at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 500 IU mL(-1). The main effect of the bacteriocin was lag phase extension from 0h, for 0 and 100 IU·mL(-1) to 8h, when 200, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were used; however, log phase was not affected. Microbial growth rate was found to be exponential and around 0.11 log cfu·mL(-1)·h(-1) for all treatments. For in situ experiments, 0, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were directly added to pasteurized milk previously inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·g(-1) of S. aureus. Milk, curd, and whey were analyzed to S. aureus counts. Nisin at concentration of 500 IU·mL(-1) was able to reduce S. aureus count in curd and whey, demonstrating nisin partition between both phases. Throughout storage at 4°C, S. aureus count increased for all treatments, but the bacterial grew slower when nisin was added in both concentrations, maintaining S. aureus count about 1.5 log cycles lower than the control, despite abusive initial S. aureus count. Therefore, nisin seems to play an important role in reducing S. aureus initial count in cheese made with highly contaminated milk. Nisin showed potential to be used as an additional, important hurdle to improve Minas Frescal cheese safety, without replacing good manufacturing practices.

  8. A 900-year pollen-inferred temperature and effective moisture record from varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Cumming, Brian F.; Smol, John P.

    2008-04-01

    Drought is endemic to the North American Great Plains, causing severe economic consequences. However, instrumental climate data only exist from ca AD 1890, and limited tree-ring, paleolimnological, archeological and eolian records document the last two millennia. To address this lack of monitoring and paleoclimatic data, the pollen preserved in the varved sediments of Lake Mina, Minnesota, on the northeastern border of the Great Plains, were analyzed. May and February mean monthly temperatures and "annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration" were reconstructed at a 4-year resolution using a pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set. The period of the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1500-1870) was colder than the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (AD 1100-1500) in west-central Minnesota. Winter temperatures in the LIA declined more than summer ones. The pollen record suggests that the LIA occurred in three phases: an initial cold phase from AD 1505 to AD 1575, a warmer phase, and then a very cold phase from AD 1625 to AD 1775. There were severe droughts detected in the Lake Mina record from AD 1660 to AD 1710 and AD 1300 to AD 1400, suggesting that high-resolution pollen records can detect events previously defined from the tree-ring records. This latter century-scale drought is concurrent with the widely reported "AD 1250-1400 mega-drought", which exceeds the severity of 20th century droughts.

  9. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  10. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  11. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands.

  12. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  13. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  14. Mollusks of the Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-lower Kimmeridgian) shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation, northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Beckmann, Seija; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Götte, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We present the first systematic description of Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) invertebrates from the shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation of northeastern Mexico. The unit was generally considered to be extremely poor in fossils, due to an overall evaporitic character. The collection described here includes three taxa of ammonites, 10 taxa of bivalves and five taxa of gastropods. The fossils were discovered near Galeana and other localities in southern Nuevo León and northeastern San Luis Potosí, in thin-bedded marly limestones intercalated between gypsum units. Due to complex internal deformation of the sediments, fossils used for this study cannot be assigned to precise layers of origin. However, the taxa identified suggest a Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) age for these fossil-bearing layers and allow us, for the first time, to assign a biostratigraphic age to Upper Jurassic strata in the region underlying the La Caja and La Casita formations.

  15. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  16. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  17. Fault Slip Partitioning in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt: Pliocene to Late Pleistocene Contraction Across the Mina Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.; Gosse, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed for fault slip transfer between the subparallel NW-striking dextral- slip faults that dominant the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ)-Walker Lane Belt (WLB). In the northern WLB, domains of sinistral-slip along NE-striking faults and clockwise block rotation within a zone of distributed deformation accommodated NW-dextral shear. A somewhat modified version of this mechanism was also proposed for the Mina deflection, southern WLB, whereby NE-striking sinistral faults formed as conjugate faults to the primary zone of NW-dextral shear; clockwise rotation of the blocks bounding the sinistral faults accommodated dextral slip. In contrast, in the northern ECSZ and Mina deflection, domains of NE-striking pure dip-slip normal faults, bounded by NW-striking dextral-slip faults, exhibited no rotation; the proposed mechanism of slip transfer was one of right-stepping, high angle normal faults in which the magnitude of extension was proportional to the amount of strike-slip motion transferred. New geologic mapping, tectonic geomorphologic, and geochronologic data from the Queen Valley area, southern Mina deflection constrain Pliocene to late Quaternary fault geometries, slip orientations, slip magnitudes, and slip rates that bear on the mechanism of fault slip transfer from the relatively narrow northern ECSZ to the broad deformation zone that defines the Mina deflection. Four different fault types and orientations cut across the Queen Valley area: (1) The NE-striking normal-slip Queen Valley fault; (2) NE-striking sinistral faults; (3) the NW-striking dextral Coyote Springs fault, which merges into (4) a set of EW-striking thrust faults. (U-Th)/He apatite and cosmogenic radionuclide data, combined with magnitude of fault offset measurements, indicate a Pliocene to late Pleistocene horizontal extension rate of 0.2-0.3 mm/yr across the Queen Valley fault. Our results, combined with published slip rates for the dextral White Mountain

  18. Microbiological safety of Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC) and tracking the contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in MFC processing.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosangela; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Nero, Luís Augusto; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Minas Frescal cheese (MFC) is a traditional food produced and consumed in Brazil, characterized by its soft texture, low sodium, and high moisture content. This study characterized the microbiological contamination by coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in 99 MFC samples obtained in retail sale and produced by three distinct industrial procedures. Dairy processors were selected to investigate the key points of E. coli and S. aureus contamination during cheese processing. MFC samples produced by the addition of lactic culture presented higher counts of coliforms and E. coli, when compared to other samples (p<0.05). MFC samples produced by the addition of rennet alone presented higher counts of S. aureus when compared to other samples (p<0.05). Fourteen of 19 MFC samples produced by the addition of lactic culture presented E. coli counts higher than 5 × 10(2) colon-forming units/g. The processing steps after pasteurization were identified as the main sources of E. coli and S. aureus contamination of MFC. Based on the results, MFC was characterized as a potential hazard for consumers due to the high frequency of samples contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus counts in noncompliance with Brazilian standards for sanitary quality and safety.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction detection of enterotoxins genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from Brazilian Minas cheese.

    PubMed

    Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; de Deus, Maria Fernanda Ramos; de Sousa, Daniel Casaes; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Godinho, Natália Cristina; Galindo, Luciane Almeida; Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2010-09-01

    For a long time, Staphylococcus aureus has been always thought to be the only pathogenic species among Staphylococcus, while coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were classified as contaminant agents. However, molecular techniques have shown that these microorganisms also possess enterotoxin-encoding genes. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED in CNS strains isolated from Minas soft cheese and to assess the in vitro production of toxins. CNS were found in 65 (72.2%) samples of cheese: 23 were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 16 Staphylococcus warneri, 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 9 Staphylococcus xylosus, 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 2 Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi, and 1 each Staphylococcus capitis subsp. urealyticus and Staphylococcus caprae. Seventeen (26.2%) CNS strains had genes for enterotoxins, and sea was more frequently found (18.5%), followed by sec in three and seb in two strains, whereas the sed gene was not found. S. saprophyticus showed enterotoxin genes in 6 of 23 isolates, but only sea was observed. On the other hand, five strains of S. warneri showed the sea, seb, or sec gene. In spite of the presence of these enterotoxin genes, these strains did not produce enterotoxins in vitro. It is essential to understand the real role of CNS in food, and based on the presence of enterotoxin genes, CNS should not be ignored in epidemiological investigations of foodborne outbreaks.

  20. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic).

  1. Antibiotic resistance versus antimicrobial substances production by gram-negative foodborne pathogens isolated from minas frescal cheese: heads or tails?

    PubMed

    Damaceno, Hugo Figueiredo Botelho; de Freitas J, Claudinei Vieira; Marinho, Iuri Lourenço; Cupertino, Thomaz Rocha; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Nascimento, Janaína dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 15 Gram-negative isolates from Minas Frescal cheese sold in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were able to produce antimicrobial substances (AMSs). Seven, four, two, one, and one isolates identified as Yersinia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, and Hafnia genera, respectively, were considered potentially pathogenic. All 15 AMS(+) isolates were resistant to at least 1 antibiotic; however, 7 strains presented resistance to at least 3 antibiotics from different classes, exhibiting multiresistance profiles. The strains were also subjected to plasmid profile analysis. All isolates presented different plasmid forms with most ranging in size from 1 to 10 kb. Activity against various pathogens associated with food was tested and all 15 AMS(+) showed the same activity spectrum, inhibiting all Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains that were tested. Although restricted, the action spectrum of AMS-producing strains is extremely relevant to the food industry because Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella spp. are most often associated with foodborne illnesses. The findings of this study reveal that even AMS produced by pathogens can have potential applications against other foodborne pathogens. PMID:25622265

  2. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic). PMID:26610695

  3. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  4. Influence of lactic acid bacteria on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in inoculated Minas cheese during storage at 8.5 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Saad, S M; Vanzin, C; Oliveira, M N; Franco, B D

    2001-08-01

    Minas cheese is a typical Brazilian fresh cheese, manufactured by addition of rennin and CaCl2 to milk, followed by draining the curd. The intrinsic characteristics of this product make it favorable for growth of pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. The influence of the addition of a commercial mesophilic type O lactic culture to this product on the growth of this pathogen during storage at 8.5 degrees C was evaluated. Eight different formulations of Minas cheese were manufactured using raw or pasteurized milk and with or without salt and lactic culture. Individual portions of each formulation were transferred to sterile plastic bags and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to yield ca. 10(3) or 10(6) CFU/g. After blending by hand massaging the bags, samples were stored at 8.5 degrees C for up to 14 days. E. coli O157:H7 was counted after 1, 2, 7, and 14 days of storage using 3M Petrifilm Test Kit-HEC. Counts in samples without added lactic culture showed a 2-log increase in the first 24 h and remained constant during the following 14 days. Counts in samples with added lactic culture showed a 0.5-log increase in the first 24 h, followed by a decrease. These variations were statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant variations (P > 0.05) were obtained for cheese samples manufactured with pasteurized or raw milk, with or without salt. Results indicate that the addition of type O lactic culture may be an additional safeguard to well-established good manufacturing practices and hazard analysis and critical control point programs in the control of growth of E. coli O157:H7 in Minas cheese. PMID:11510651

  5. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  6. Characterization of medium distillate cut (100-230 sup 0 C) oil from high-ash Mina do Leao Brazilian coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Caramao, E.B.; Gomes, L.M.F.; Bristoti, A. ); Lancas, F.M. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report Brazilian coal tar oil characterized by combined spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. A coal tar cut (100-230{sup 0}C) obtained from a gasifier plant operating with Mina do Leao high-ash coal was fractionated into ABN (acid-base-neutral) groups. Infrared spectra and elemental analysis of each fraction has demonstrated the success of the fractionation step. GC/MS analysis of the total cut before the ABN fractionation revealed only hydrocarbons present in the sample. However, after the pre-fractionation step several nitrogen containing compounds of environmental concern were positively identified by GC/MS in the tar bases fraction.

  7. Identification and molecular phylogeny of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from Minas Frescal cheese in southeastern Brazil: Superantigenic toxin production and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Casaes Nunes, Raquel Soares; Pires de Souza, Camilla; Pereira, Karen Signori; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret

    2016-04-01

    Minas Frescal is a typical Brazilian fresh cheese and one of the most popular dairy products in the country. This white soft, semiskimmed, nonripened cheese with high moisture content is obtained by enzymatic coagulation of cow milk using calf rennet or coagulants, usually in industrial dairy plants, but is also manufactured in small farms. Contamination of Minas Frescal by several staphylococci has been frequently reported. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains are maybe the most harmful, as they are able to produce heat-stable enterotoxins with super antigenic activities in food matrices, especially in dairy products such as soft cheeses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of CNS strains in Minas Frescal marketed in southeastern Brazil concerning the risk of staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured cheese and the possibility of these food matrices being a reservoir of staphylococcal resistance to antimicrobials. Ten distinct CNS strains were found in 6 cheeses from distinct brands. The most frequent species were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (40%), Staphylococcus xylosus (30%), Staphylococcus sciuri (20%), and Staphylococcus piscifermentans (10%). Three strains were identified to the Staphylococcus genera. Three major species groups composed of 3 refined clusters were grouped by phylogenetic analyses with similarities over to 90%. All CNS strains carried multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of sea and seb (90 and 70%, respectively), followed by sec/see, seh/sei, and sed with intermediate incidence (60, 50, and 40%, respectively), and, finally, seg/selk/selq/selr and selu with the lowest incidence (20 and 10%, respectively). Real-time reverse transcription PCR and ELISA assays confirmed the enteroxigenic character of the CNS strains, which expressed and produced the enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to antimicrobial agents such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and

  8. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  9. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  10. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    PubMed

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese.

  11. Effect of a probiotic mixed culture on texture profile and sensory performance of Minas fresh cheese in comparison with the traditional products.

    PubMed

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Okazaki, Tania Y; Alegro, João H A; Saad, Susana M I

    2007-06-01

    The effect of a mixed probiotic culture on instrumental texture, and on sensorial and related properties of Minas fresh cheese during refrigerated storage was investigated. Three cheese-making trials were prepared: T1, with the traditional type O starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + L. lactis subsp. cremoris), T2 with only lactic acid and T3, with lactic acid and the probiotic ABT culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 + Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 + Streptococcus thermophilus). Instrumental texture profile analysis and related properties were monitored during storage for up to 21 days. Lb. acidophilus and B. animalis were present in high levels throughout storage of cheeses T3, above 6 log cfu.g(-1), threshold required for probiotic activity, and stimulation of the La-5 growth was observed. Cheeses with added probiotic ABT culture, as well as those made adding lactic acid only, showed to be less brittle and with more favorable sensorial features, due to higher pH values. Results indicated that the use of probiotic ABT culture complementary to lactic acid for the purpose of substituting the type O (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis + Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris) culture, traditionally employed for Minas cheese production, is advantageous. PMID:17992983

  12. Entropies of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite: additional constraints on the pressure and temperature of the Al2SiO5 triple point.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The low-T heat capacities of kyanite (Minas Gerais, Brazil), andalusite (Espirito Santo, Brazil), and sillimanite (Reinbolt Hills, Antarctica) were measured with an automatic, adiabatically shielded calorimeter between approx 10 and 380 K. -J.A.Z.

  13. 75 FR 77828 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 64700 (October 20, 2010). This review covers Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. (USIMINAS) and its subsidiary, Companhia...

  14. 75 FR 47541 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil and Japan: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010). The...] Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais 43.40[perc nt] Companhia Siderurgica Paulista 43.40[perc nt]...

  15. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  16. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  17. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157(®)) Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rosangela Nunes; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Minafra e Rezende, Cíntia Silva; de Mesquita, Adriano Queiroz; Romero, Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157(®), bioMérieux, Lyon, France) test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection.

  18. PCR and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®) Escherichia coli O157:H7 identification in Minas Frescal cheese commercialized in Goiânia, GO

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Rosangela Nunes; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato; de Mesquita, Albenones José; Minafra e Rezende, Cíntia Silva; de Mesquita, Adriano Queiroz; Romero, Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in many countries. Considering the high susceptibility of Minas Frescal cheese to contamination by E. coli O157:H7, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of this pathogen through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (VIDAS ECO O157®, bioMérieux, Lyon, France) test. Thirty cheese samples manufactured by artisan farmhouse producers were collected from open-air markets in Goiânia and thirty from industries under Federal Inspection located in Goiás State which trade their products in supermarkets in Goiânia. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 6.67% samples collected in open air markets using ELISA, and 23,33% with PCR. The pathogen was not detected in samples from industries under Federal Inspection. PMID:24948907

  19. Contrasting fluids and reservoirs in the contiguous Marcona and Mina Justa iron oxide-Cu (-Ag-Au) deposits, south-central Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huayong; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Clark, Alan H.

    2011-10-01

    The Marcona-Mina Justa deposit cluster, hosted by Lower Paleozoic metaclastic rocks and Middle Jurassic shallow marine andesites, incorporates the most important known magnetite mineralization in the Andes at Marcona (1.9 Gt at 55.4% Fe and 0.12% Cu) and one of the few major iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits with economic Cu grades (346.6 Mt at 0.71% Cu, 3.8 g/t Ag and 0.03 g/t Au) at Mina Justa. The Middle Jurassic Marcona deposit is centred in Ica Department, Perú, and the Lower Cretaceous Mina Justa Cu (Ag, Au) prospect is located 3-4 km to the northeast. New fluid inclusion studies, including laser ablation time-of-flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-ICPMS) analysis, integrated with sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope analyses of minerals with well-defined paragenetic relationships, clarify the nature and origin of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for these contiguous but genetically contrasted deposits. At Marcona, early, sulphide-free stage M-III magnetite-biotite-calcic amphibole assemblages are inferred to have crystallized from a 700-800°C Fe oxide melt with a δ18O value from +5.2‰ to +7.7‰. Stage M-IV magnetite-phlogopite-calcic amphibole-sulphide assemblages were subsequently precipitated from 430-600°C aqueous fluids with dominantly magmatic isotopic compositions (δ34S = +0.8‰ to +5.9‰; δ18O = +9.6‰ to +12.2‰; δD = -73‰ to -43‰; and δ13C = -3.3‰). Stages M-III and M-IV account for over 95% of the magnetite mineralization at Marcona. Subsequent non-economic, lower temperature sulphide-calcite-amphibole assemblages (stage M-V) were deposited from fluids with similar δ34S (+1.8‰ to +5.0‰), δ18O (+10.1‰ to +12.5‰) and δ13C (-3.4‰), but higher δD values (average -8‰). Several groups of lower (<200°C, with a mode at 120°C) and higher temperature (>200°C) fluids can be recognized in the main polymetallic (Cu, Zn, Pb) sulphide stage M-V and may record the involvement of

  20. A 900-Year Diatom and Chrysophyte Record of Spring Mixing and Summer Stratification From Varved Lake Mina, West-Central Minnesota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Jacques, J.; Cumming, B. F.; Smol, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    A high-resolution, independent pollen-inferred paleoclimate record and direct algal seasonality data from the actual time of sediment deposition are used to interpret the high-resolution diatom and chrysophyte record of varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA during AD 1116-2002. This direct algal seasonality information was obtained by a new technique of splitting varves into constituent winter-spring and summer lamina, and separately analyzing the siliceous algae in each layer. Analyses of integrated, continuous four-year diatom and chrysophyte samples from a sedimentary sequence show that the time period AD 1116-1478 (i.e. the Atlantic- centered Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA)) was characterized by periods of vigorous and prolonged spring mixing, suggesting that ice-out occurred early. However, the warm summer temperatures in the MCA, particularly in a massive drought spanning AD 1300-1400, frequently caused the lake to stratify strongly, leading to nutrient depletion. During AD 1478-1870 (i.e. the Atlantic-centered Little Ice Age (LIA)), Lake Mina was characterized by weak spring circulation and increasing nutrient depletion, suggesting late ice-out conditions. Strong summer stratification and/or nutrient depletion in both time periods is shown by the occurrence of the nutrient-poor oligotrophic taxon Cyclotella pseudostelligera. The diatom and chrysophyte assemblages of the period of Euro-American settlement AD 1870-2002 show higher nutrient availability and increased spring mixing intensity, due to forest clearance and increasingly earlier ice-out (documented in regional historical records).

  1. SO2 dispersion and monthly evaluation of the industrial source complex short-term (ISCST32) model at Mina Al-Fahal refinery, Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A

    2003-02-01

    Modeling of air pollutant dispersion has been undertaken for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) at the Mina Al-Fahal refinery in the Sultanate of Oman. The study was conducted during the period of November 1999 to October 2000. The Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST32) air pollution model was adopted to predict the ground level concentration of SO(2) in and around the refinery. The modeling results were validated against measured data during the study period. The comparison, based on the monthly average measurements, showed that the model underestimates the observed SO(2) concentrations. However, the predicted ground level concentrations of SO(2) during the months of September, October, November, and June were in better agreement with the observations. The predicted SO(2) values are presented in the form of concentration contours to determine the spatial distribution of SO(2) and to assess the impact on air quality over the survey area. Predicted SO(2) concentrations were found lower than the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 365 microg/m(3), with the maximum ground level concentrations being found to occur relatively close to the sources of emission. Moreover, concentration contour patterns for the modeled area vary with changes in meteorological conditions. On the basis of this study, the refinery is not likely to cause any significant deterioration in air quality, and predicted concentrations of SO(2) are well below those likely to influence health.

  2. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products. PMID:26221109

  3. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products. PMID:26221109

  4. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  5. The National EMS Research strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Michael R; White, Lynn J; Brown, Lawrence H; McHenry, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    One of the eight major recommendations put forth by the National EMS Research Agenda Implementation Project in 2002 was the development of an emergency medical services (EMS) research strategic plan. Using a modified Delphi technique along with a consensus conference approach, a strategic plan for EMS research was created. The plan includes recommendations for concentrating efforts by EMS researchers, policy makers, and funding resources with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes. Clinical issues targeted for additional research efforts include evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma, acute cardiac ischemia, circulatory shock, major injury, pain, acute stroke, and traumatic brain injury. The plan calls for developing, evaluating, and validating improved measurement tools and techniques. Additional research to improve the education of EMS personnel as well as system design and operation is also suggested. Implementation of the EMS research strategic plan will improve both the delivery of services and the care of individuals who access the emergency medical system.

  6. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  7. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mina Deflection (MD) region of the central Walker Lane of eastern California and western Nevada, is a complex zone of northeast-trending normal, and primarily left-lateral strike-slip to oblique-slip faulting that separates the Southern Walker Lane (SWL) from a series of east-tilted normal fault blocks in the Central Walker Lane (CWL) (Faulds and Henry, 2008; Surpless, 2008). The MD accommodates the transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion from northwest-striking faults in the SWL to a series of left-stepping northwest-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults in the CWL, east of the Wassuk Range near Hawthorne, NV. The ~50 km wide ~80 km long right-step is a distinct transition in regional physiography that has been attributed to strain accommodation through pre-Cenozoic lithospheric structures. Several slip transfer mechanisms have been proposed within the MD, from clockwise rotation of high-angle fault blocks (Wesnousky, 2005), to low-angle displacement within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain complex (Oldow et al., 2001), and curved fault arrays associated with localized basins and tectonic depressions (Ferranti et al., 2009). The region has been a regular source of M4+ events, the most recent being an extended sequence that included twenty-seven M 3.5+ earthquakes (largest event M 4.6) south of Hawthorne in 2011. These earthquakes (< 5 km depth) define shallow W-dipping (dip ~56°) and NW-dipping (dip ~70°) normal faulting constrained by moment tensor (MT) solutions and earthquake relocations. Temporary stations deployed in the source area provide good control. A distributed sequence in 2004, between Queen Valley and Mono Lake, primarily associated with the Huntoon Valley fault, included three M 5+ left-lateral strike-slip faulting events. A 1997 sequence in northern Fish Lake Valley (east of the White Mountains), with mainshock Mw 5.3 (Ichinose et al., 2003), also showed high-angle northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip motion. Historical events

  8. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  9. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  10. EMS: part three. Preventive medicine for EMS maladies

    SciTech Connect

    Hyfantis, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Shakeout problems in the fast-growing field of energy-management systems (EMS) are gorwing pains and neither unexpected nor insoluble. A National Bureau of Standards (NBS) survey found user complaints ranging from problems with food spoilage to poorly trained service people. But blame can be placed on users, manufacturers, and distributors. Involving operators and managers in load-control strategies can alleviate some problems and save some money. Allowing for realistic testing time in the installation phase can also save in the long run, as will initiating a maintenance schedule and maintaining operating logs. Software maintenance can present a serious problem. Another NBS study result indicates there is perceptible improvement in system performance when good training accompanies installation, particularly when the training is provided at the user facility. User education is probably the best key to avoiding most of the potential pitfalls. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  12. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  13. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  14. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  15. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  16. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  17. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  18. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  19. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  20. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  1. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  2. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  3. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  4. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  5. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further.

  6. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  7. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  8. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  9. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  10. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  11. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  12. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  13. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  14. Generation and identification of Arabidopsis EMS mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2014-01-01

    EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning.

  15. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  16. Evaluation of the Ems Estuary ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baretta, J. W.; Ruardij, P.

    1987-11-01

    An ecosystem model is used to calculate and summarize carbon budgets within the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands. The similarity between model calculations and field data is established using a validation procedure. Model results show that the seaward boundary concentration for suspended matter is important in determining whether an estuary is an importer or exporter of carbon. Lowered boundary concentrations of suspended matter enhance pelagic primary production, but reduce sedimentation and hence the carbon flux from pelagic to benthic systems.

  17. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  18. Loss and damage affecting the public health sector and society resulting from flooding and flash floods in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 - based on data from national and global information systems.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Aline Costa; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2016-03-01

    This article outlines the results of a descriptive study that analyses loss and damage caused by hydrometeorological disasters in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 using the EM DAT (global) and S2iD (national) databases. The analysis shows major differences in the total number of disaster events included in the databases (EM-DAT = 36; S2iD = 4,070) and estimated costs of loss and damage (EM-DAT - R$ 9.2 billion; S2iD - R$331.4 billion). The analysis also shows that the five states most affected by these events are Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná in Brazil's South and Southeast regions and that these results are consistent with the findings of other studies. The costs of disasters were highest for housing, public infrastructure works, collectively used public facilities, other public service facilities, and state health and education facilities. The costs associated with public health facilities were also high. Despite their limitations, both databases demonstrated their usefulness for determining seasonal and long-term trends and patterns, and risk areas, and thus assist decision makers in identifying areas that are most affected by and vulnerable to natural disasters.

  19. Loss and damage affecting the public health sector and society resulting from flooding and flash floods in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 - based on data from national and global information systems.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Aline Costa; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2016-03-01

    This article outlines the results of a descriptive study that analyses loss and damage caused by hydrometeorological disasters in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 using the EM DAT (global) and S2iD (national) databases. The analysis shows major differences in the total number of disaster events included in the databases (EM-DAT = 36; S2iD = 4,070) and estimated costs of loss and damage (EM-DAT - R$ 9.2 billion; S2iD - R$331.4 billion). The analysis also shows that the five states most affected by these events are Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná in Brazil's South and Southeast regions and that these results are consistent with the findings of other studies. The costs of disasters were highest for housing, public infrastructure works, collectively used public facilities, other public service facilities, and state health and education facilities. The costs associated with public health facilities were also high. Despite their limitations, both databases demonstrated their usefulness for determining seasonal and long-term trends and patterns, and risk areas, and thus assist decision makers in identifying areas that are most affected by and vulnerable to natural disasters. PMID:26960082

  20. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  1. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  2. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  3. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. PMID:27289151

  4. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  5. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  6. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Designation Staff to the State to assist the State Director in conducting a training meeting(s) with State... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special EM loan training. 1945.35 Section 1945.35...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.35 Special EM loan...

  7. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  8. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  9. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  10. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  11. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designations. When production losses meet the requirements in § 759.5 and the county has been designated as a disaster area for that reason, or when the discretionary exception to production losses for EM under § 759... eligible producers can receive EM loans. (2) Physical loss notification. When only qualifying...

  12. Widespread presence of human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotypes in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 151 fecal specimens from chickens were randomly collected from local markets in Uberlandia and Belo in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified in 24 fecal samples (15....

  13. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.

  14. New species of Mesenopsis Godman & Salvin, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) from southeastern Brazil, with an illustrated key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-02-25

    A new species, Mesenopsis jordana sp. nov., from southeastern Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo is described and a taxonomic dichotomous key for species of the genus Mesenopsis is provided. Additionally, mimetic models for species of Mesenopsis are suggested and a new distribution record for M. albivitta is provided.

  15. Brazilian uranium mine decommissioning-chemical and radiological study of waste rock piles

    SciTech Connect

    Wiikmann, L. O.

    1996-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas plateau is a high-natural-radioactivity area in the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. Uranium occurrence in the plateau was first observed in 1948. Mining started in 1977 with mine scouring, and the first ore pile was constructed in 1981. Waste rocks are derived from the mine material. The analysis of core samples is discussed.

  16. Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  17. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  18. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  19. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  20. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). \\1\\ In the initiation notice published on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22108), the company Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. (USIMINAS), was..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request ] Administrative Review, 75 FR 9162 (March...

  1. The Effect of Literacy Training on Modernization Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, William Adam, Jr.

    The present research was a field experiment exploring the relationship of literacy to certain modernization variables. Data were collected in five rural communities in Minas Gerais, Brazil, in July 1966. The communities were matched as closely as possible on population, literacy rate, distance to an urban center, community institutional…

  2. Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

  3. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) a final rule that, among... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 68327-68331) on November 14, 2013, and effective on November 29..., Mato Grosso ] do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Sao...

  4. 76 FR 22868 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 64700 (October 20, 2010) (Preliminary... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 77828 (December 14, 2010). On January 21, 2011, USS submitted..., Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais (USIMINAS) and its subsidiary, Companhia Siderurgica Paulista...

  5. Cognitive Sex Differences in Reasoning Tasks: Evidence from Brazilian Samples of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith F.; Rindermann, Heiner; Primi, Ricardo; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Pena, Carla Couto

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N=6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a…

  6. Schooling, Organisation of the Constitutional Monarchy and the Education of Citizens (Brazil, 1822-1889)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Cynthia Greive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the process of institutionalisation of public elementary schooling associated with the political organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the legislation regarding citizen rights and prerogatives in Brazil, especially in the province of Minas Gerais, during the nineteenth century. During this…

  7. Nostalgia e Aspiracao pelo Livro: Santana Mestra na Colonia (Nostalgia and Longing for the Book: Santana Mestra na Colonia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Eliane Marta Teixeira

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a historiographical reading about devotion and the figure of a saint, represented by a woman with a book teaching her daughter. Analyzes some episodes of the history of education in Brazil through the religious imagery in the geographic region of Brazil known as Minas Gerais. (PA)

  8. 75 FR 43931 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010). Within the deadline specified in 19 CFR 351.218... Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005... from the following respondent interested parties: the GOB, Usinas Siderugicas de Minas Gerais...

  9. The Impact of Periodontal Disease on the Quality of Life of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Ana Cristina Amaral; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; da Costa, Jose Eustaquio

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and the possible repercussions of such pathology in the quality of life of the group in question. Method: The sample consists of 93 individuals with Down syndrome 6-20 years old, living in Brazil (Minas Gerais).…

  10. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  11. [The occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on an aquaculture farm of IBAMA in Uberlândia, MG. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente a dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, E de P; Marçal Júnior, O; Machado, M I

    1997-01-01

    This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but further investigation should be done in the area.

  12. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  13. Esperanzaite, NaCa(2)Al(2)(As(5+)O(4))[As(5+)O(3)(OH)](OH)(2)F(4)(H(2)O), A New Mineral From Mina La Esperanza, Mexico: Descriptive Mineralogy and Atomic Arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cureton, F.; Falster, A.U.; Foord, E.E.; Hlava, P.F.; Hughes, J.M.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1998-11-09

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCazA12(As5+0.i)[As5+03 (OH)] (OH)2FJH20), Z =2, is a new mineral from the Mina h Esperarq Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm Y Deceased in diameter. Mobs hardness is 4.5, specific gravity 3.240h, and 3.36( 3)C.IC. Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), .Y= Y = Z= colorless, a 1.580(1), ~ 1.588( 1), and y 1.593(1 ); 2V0hs is 74(1 ~ and 2 }'CUIC is 76.3". Dispersion is medium, r < v, and optic axes are oriented as a A Z = +50.5o, b = Y, c P. X = +35". The five strongest X-ray diffraction maxima in the powder pattern are (~ /, hk~: 2.966,100, 13 i, 31 i, 031 ; 3.527,90, 220; 2.700,90,221,002, 040; 5.364>80, 001, 020; 4.796,80,011. Esperanzaite is monoclinic, u 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7)& ~ 105.32( 1 )", space group P21/nz. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by Direct Methods and Fourier analysis (R= 0.03 1). The Fundamental Building Block is formed of stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedral and two Al octahedra, comer-linked in 4-member rings. The Fundamental Building Blocks are linked by irregular lda~j and Ca@ polyhedra.

  14. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr., César L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  15. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  16. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite.

  17. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  18. Dombrock genotyping in Brazilian blood donors reveals different regional frequencies of the HY allele

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Fabiana Chagas Camargos; Santos, Silvana Maria Eloi; de Castilho, Lilian Maria; Baleotti Júnior, Wilson; Suzuki, Rodrigo Buzinaro; da Cunha, Débora Moura

    2013-01-01

    Background Dombrock blood group system genotyping has revealed various rearrangements of the Dombrock gene and identified new variant alleles in Brazil (i.e., DO*A-SH, DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL). Because of the high heterogeneity of the Brazilian population, interregional differences are expected during the investigation of Dombrock genotypes. Objective The present study aims to determine the frequencies of Dombrock genotypes in blood donors from Minas Gerais and compare the frequencies of the HY and JO alleles to those of another population in Brazil. Methods The frequencies of the DO alleles in Minas Gerais, a southeastern state of Brazil, were determined from the genotyping of 270 blood donors. Genotyping involved polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the 323G>T, 350C>T, 793A>G, and 898C>G mutations, which are related to the HY, JO, DO*A/DO*B, and DO*A-WL/DO*B-WL alleles, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of rare HY and JO alleles were statistically compared using the chi-square test with data from another Brazilian region. Results The HY allele frequency in Minas Gerais (2.4%) was almost twice that of the JO allele (1.5%). The frequency of the HY allele was significantly higher (p-value = 0.001) than that in another Brazilian population and includes a rare homozygous donor with the Hy- phenotype. In addition, the DO*A-WL and DO*B-WL alleles, which were first identified in Brazil, were found in the state of Minas Gerais. Conclusions The data confirm that the frequencies of DO alleles differ between regions in Brazil. The population of Minas Gerais could be targeted in a screening strategy to identify the Hy- phenotype in order to develop a rare blood bank. PMID:24478605

  19. Genotype by environment interaction in Nelore cattle from five Brazilian states

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Iara Del Pilar Solar; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Bezerra, Luis Antônio Framartino; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Records from 75,941 Nelore cattle were used to determine the importance of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) in five Brazilian states. (Co)variance components were estimated by single-trait analysis (with yearling weight, W450, considered to be the same trait in all states) and multiple-trait analysis (with the record from each state considered to be a different trait). The direct heritability estimates for yearling weight were 0.51, 0.39, 0.44, 0.37 and 0.41 in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais, respectively. The across-state genetic correlation estimates between Goiás and Mato Grosso, Goiás and Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais ranged from 0.67 to 0.75. These estimates indicate that GEIs are biologically important. No interactions were observed between Goiás and São Paulo, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais, or São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul (0.82 to 0.97). Comparison of single and multiple-trait analyses showed that selection based on the former was less efficient in the presence of GEI, with substantial losses (up to 10%) during selection. PMID:21931516

  20. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  1. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  2. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  3. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  4. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts.

  5. Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

  6. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  7. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  8. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states.

  9. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  10. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  11. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  12. Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N

    1983-01-01

    The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations.

  13. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  14. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  15. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  16. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  17. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  18. Elected medical staff leaders: who needs 'em?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R E

    1994-03-01

    Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.

  19. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    siete relatos. O objetivo principal desse artigo é apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a maneira como um grupo de professores se apropriaram dos instrumentos do KIT PARA O ENSINO DE ASTRONOMIA (KITPEA). Os sujeitos dessa pesquisa participaram do curso de especialização em ensino de astronomia oferecido pelo Projeto de Formação Continuada (Foco) no Centro de Ensino de Ciências e Matemática (CECIMIG) da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Coletamos as informações por meio de um questionário e de uma entrevista, aplicados a esses professores. Estruturamos a análise dessas informações com a ajuda da Teoria da Atividade e da Teoria da Ação Mediada. Interpretamos as falas dos professores usando como dispositivo analítico os elementos constituintes do sistema de atividade e os conceitos de apropriação e domínio. Dentre os 11 sujeitos que participaram da pesquisa, foi possível identificar a apropriação dos instrumentos em 7 narrativas.

  20. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  1. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  2. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  3. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  4. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  5. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  6. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  7. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  8. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  9. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  11. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  12. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  13. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  14. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  15. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  16. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  17. The effective molarity (EM)--a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-08-01

    The effective molarity (EM) for 12 intramolecular S(N)2 processes involving the formation of substituted aziridines and substituted epoxides were computed using ab initio and DFT calculation methods. Strong correlation was found between the calculated effective molarity and the experimentally determined values. This result could open a door for obtaining EM values for intramolecular processes that are difficult to be experimentally provided. Furthermore, the calculation results reveal that the driving forces for ring-closing reactions in the two different systems are proximity orientation of the nucleophile to the electrophile and the ground strain energies of the products and the reactants.

  18. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  19. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  20. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  1. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  2. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  3. A modified EM algorithm for estimation in generalized mixed models.

    PubMed

    Steele, B M

    1996-12-01

    Application of the EM algorithm for estimation in the generalized mixed model has been largely unsuccessful because the E-step cannot be determined in most instances. The E-step computes the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood and when the random effect distribution is normal, this expectation remains an intractable integral. The problem can be approached by numerical or analytic approximations; however, the computational burden imposed by numerical integration methods and the absence of an accurate analytic approximation have limited the use of the EM algorithm. In this paper, Laplace's method is adapted for analytic approximation within the E-step. The proposed algorithm is computationally straightforward and retains much of the conceptual simplicity of the conventional EM algorithm, although the usual convergence properties are not guaranteed. The proposed algorithm accommodates multiple random factors and random effect distributions besides the normal, e.g., the log-gamma distribution. Parameter estimates obtained for several data sets and through simulation show that this modified EM algorithm compares favorably with other generalized mixed model methods.

  4. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  5. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  6. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  7. A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

  8. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  9. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  10. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  11. Signals Attenuation and Application of EM-MWD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Liu, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, J.; Wu, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the course of drilling utilizes directional well and horizontal well, it is indispensable to master timely and exact geological guide information, and offering services for such complicated drilling is electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling (EM-MWD) which can measure guide data of drilling tool in the hole and formation data while drilling. This knowledge allows the directional driller to make appropriate mechanical corrections in drill string orientation that will allow the advancing drill bit to hit an intended subsurface target area. Based on electromagnetic field theory, the paper has studied the propagation particularity and attenuation regularity that the signals of electromagnetic wave for EM-MWD transmit in stratum. The paper also gives a brief introduction of the containing, the work principle and the main technology parameter of EM-MWD. To check up the performance of EM-MWD, the field test of 5 wells were carried out in Shengli Oilfield and Liaohe Oilfield. Numerical simulation results indicate the signal attenuation will be added with the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10 Hz the stratum absorptivity is tiny and does not add noticeably with the increase of the electromagnetic wave frequency and the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10000 Hz the stratum absorptivity does not increase noticeably with the decrease of the dielectric constant of the stratum. Field test demonstrate that EM-MWD receives successfully signal emitted from depth underground 1600 meters in Shengli oilfield and 2400 meters in Liaohe oilfield. Our results indicate that numerical simulation methods are comparable to field test.

  12. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  13. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  14. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  15. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  16. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress. PMID:25760489

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi: an in vitro cycle of cell differentiation in axenic culture.

    PubMed

    Rondinelli, E; Silva, R; Carvalho, J F; de Almeida Soares, C M; de Carvalho, E F; de Castro, F T

    1988-08-01

    The operation of an in vitro cycle of cell differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi in axenic culture was obtained. When epimastigote forms, grown in LIT medium, were transferred to a modified LIT medium (E. Chiari, 1981, "Diferenciação do Trypanosoma cruzi em cultura." Ph.D. dissertation, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil), metacyclic trypomastigotes were generated. The latter, upon treatment with fresh human serum, and subsequent incubation in LIT medium gave origin to clusters of spheromastigote cells. The spheromastigotes were resistent to lysis mediated by the complement system and possess a morphology shown by optical and electron microscopy to be very similar to spheromastigotes derived from tissues of infected vertebrates. Blood-like trypomastigotes, or epimastigotes, could be obtained from spheromastigotes depending on the incubation conditions: at high serum concentration (55%) at 37 C, blood-like trypomastigotes were generated; by aging or heating (37 C), at low serum concentration (10%), epimastigotes were formed, closing the whole sequence of cell differentiation of T. cruzi. The molecular characterization of the different cell forms by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of metabolic pulse labeled proteins showed that the in vitro differentiated cells were distinct, not only by morphological criteria, but by differential gene expression as well. All the forms described could be obtained in large amounts (6 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(8)/ml), making it possible to perform preparative biochemical, molecular biological, and immunological experiments.

  18. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  19. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  20. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990