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Sample records for mineral composition disrupted

  1. Dspp mutations disrupt mineralization homeostasis during odontoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jie; Bian, Zhuan; Song, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    The main pathological feature in isolated hereditary dentin disorders is the abnormality of dentin mineralization. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene is the only identified causative gene for the disorders. The present study aims to explore the molecular association between Dspp mutations and the disrupted mineralization homeostasis during odontoblast differentiation. We generated lentivirus constructs with the mouse full-length wild type Dspp cDNA and 3 Dspp mutants and transfected them into mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) which were then performed 21-day mineralization inducing differentiation. The formation of mineralized nodules was obviously fewer in mutants. Digital Gene Expression (DGE) showed that Dspp mutation affected the OLC differentiation in a degree. Further examination validated that Dspp (LV-Dspp) overexpressing OLCs possessed the ability to strictly orchestrate framework for mineralization inductors like Bmp2, Col1 and Runx2, and proliferative markers for mineralization like Alp and Ocn, as well as mineral homeostasis feedback regulators Mgp and Htra1. However, the missense mutation in Dspp signal peptide region (LV-M2) and the nonsense mutation (LV-M5) broke this orchestration. The results suggested that the mutant Dspp disrupt the dynamic homeostasis of mineralization during OLC differentiation. We are the first to use full-length mouse Dspp gene expression system to explore the mineralization mechanism by which inductors and inhibitors adjust each other during odontoblast differentiation. Our findings shed new light on association between Dspp and the dynamic homeostasis of mineralization inductors and inhibitors, and indicate the disruption of mineralization homeostasis might be a crucial reason for Dspp mutations resulting in dentin disorders. PMID:26807185

  2. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  3. Revision Hope: Writing Disruption in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Uses Roland Barthes's metaphor of the "punctum" to explore the transformative potential of disruptions. Argues that writing teachers have been trained to read disruption in texts and classrooms as "evidence of poor taste or failed pedagogy," but that disruptions delay closure and thereby create spaces wherein theories and relationships can be…

  4. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez, C.; Miller, R. L.; Rodriguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Models of the soil (''mineral'') dust aerosol cycle, embedded in climate and Earth system models, are essential tools for understanding the causal relationships and feedbacks between dust and climate. Many soil dust schemes in Earth system models use a simplified representation of soil dust aerosols, where the soil dust is distinguished by size bins or size distribution modes, with a globally uniform representation of the mineralogical composition of the particles. Although models with such a simplified assumption about the properties of soil dust particles have already significantly contributed to the understanding of the role of soil dust aerosols in climate, this is a limitation for a number of reasons: 1. The response of clouds and the large-scale circulation depends on the radiative properties like the single scattering albedo, which should vary with the mineral composition of the source region; 2. Chemical processes at the surface of the soil dust particles that form sulfate and nitrate coatings depend on the dust mineral composition; 3. The availability of soil dust minerals as cloud condensation nuclei depends on their hygroscopicity, which in turn depends on the mineral composition; 4. Fertilization of phytoplankton with soluble iron, a process that influences ocean carbon uptake, depends upon mineral types. We present a new version of the soil dust scheme in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account the mineral composition of the soil dust particles. Soil dust aerosols are represented as a mixture of externally and internally mixed minerals, such as Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Iron(hydr)oxide, Quartz, Feldspar, and Gypsum, as well as aggregates between Iron(hydr)oxide and each of the minerals. We test two approaches to constrain the mineral composition of the soil dust particles against data from measurements published in literature as well as measurements from Izaña (Tenerife). The comparison between modeled and measured data

  5. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  6. Using Brittle Fragmentation Theory to represent Aerosol Mineral Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Perlwitz, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved estimates of dust aerosol effects upon climate require the characterization of dust mineral and chemical composition. Regional variations in soil mineral composition lead to variations in dust aerosol composition. Yet, deriving aerosol mineral content also requires knowledge of the parent soil size distribution along with the fragmentation of soil particles and aggregates during the emission process. These processes modify the size distribution and mineral abundance of the emitted aerosols compared to the parent soil. An additional challenge for modeling is that global atlases of soil texture and composition are based on wet sieving, a technique that breaks the aggregates, particularly phyllosilicates, that are encountered in natural soils, drastically altering the original size distribution of the soil that is subject to wind erosion. We propose both a semi-empirical and theoretical method to constrain the size-resolved mineral composition of emitted dust aerosols based on global atlases of soil texture and composition. Our semi-empirical method re-aggregates clay phyllosilicate minerals into larger soil particle sizes and constrains the size distribution of each emitted mineral based on observed mineral distributions at the source. Our theoretical method extends Kok's brittle fragmentation theory to individual minerals. To this end we reconstruct the undisturbed size distribution for each mineral as a function of soil texture and soil type and calculate the emitted size distribution applying brittle fragmentation and assuming homogeneous fragmentation properties among the mineral aggregates. These approaches were tested within the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE. We discuss the improvements achieved and suggest future developments.

  7. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake ); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto )

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  8. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  9. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  10. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals.

    PubMed

    Pósfai, Mihály; Lefèvre, Christopher T; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Frankel, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic perspectives to review the correlations between magnetosome mineral habits and the phylogenetic affiliations of MTB, and show that these correlations have important implications for the evolution of magnetosome synthesis, and thus magnetotaxis.

  11. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals

    PubMed Central

    Pósfai, Mihály; Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Frankel, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic perspectives to review the correlations between magnetosome mineral habits and the phylogenetic affiliations of MTB, and show that these correlations have important implications for the evolution of magnetosome synthesis, and thus magnetotaxis. PMID:24324461

  12. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications.

  13. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volponi, A.A.; Gentleman, E.; Fatscher, R.; Pang, Y.W.Y.; Gentleman, M.M.; Sharpe, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. PMID:26253190

  14. Variation in coal composition. A computational approach to study the mineral composition of individual coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Charon, O.; Kang, S.G.; Graham, K.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Mineral matter transformations, and therefore fly ash evolution, during pulverized coal combustion depend on the amount, composition and spatial distribution of the inorganic matter within individual pulverized coal particles. Thus, it is necessary to have information on the mineral composition of individual particles, as well as that of the raw pulverized coal. A model has been developed to predict the variation of individual coal particle compositions. It uses CCSEM data for a given raw coal as input and randomly distributes the mineral inclusions in the coal volume. By random selection of monosize coal particles, it is possible to generate distributions of mineral content for any particle size distribution of coal. The model has been checked by comparing computed results with data on the composition variations of narrowly size and density classified fractions of an Upper Freeport bituminous coal. The results for individual coal particle compositions are used to generate information on the variability of the composition of the fly ash generated during combustion.

  15. Targeted deletion of Klotho in kidney distal tubule disrupts mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olauson, Hannes; Lindberg, Karolina; Amin, Risul; Jia, Ting; Wernerson, Annika; Andersson, Göran; Larsson, Tobias E

    2012-10-01

    Renal Klotho controls mineral metabolism by directly modulating tubular reabsorption of phosphate and calcium and by acting as a co-receptor for the phosphaturic and vitamin D-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Klotho null mice have a markedly abnormal phenotype. We sought to determine effects of renal-specific and partial deletion of Klotho to facilitate investigation of its roles in health and disease. We generated a mouse model with partial deletion of Klotho in distal tubular segments (Ksp-KL(-/-)). In contrast to Klotho null mice, Ksp-KL(-/-) mice were fertile, had a normal gross phenotype, and did not have vascular or tubular calcification on renal histology. However, Ksp-KL(-/-) mice were hyperphosphatemic with elevated FGF23 levels and abundant expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Npt2a at the brush border membrane. Serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels were normal but parathyroid hormone levels were decreased. TRPV5 protein was reduced with a parallel mild increase in urinary calcium excretion. Renal expression of vitamin D regulatory enzymes and vitamin D receptor was higher in Ksp-KL(-/-) mice than controls, suggesting increased turnover of vitamin D metabolites and a functional increase in vitamin D signaling. There was a threshold effect of residual renal Klotho expression on FGF23: deletion of >70% of Klotho resulted in FGF23 levels 30-250 times higher than in wild-type mice. A subgroup of Ksp-KL(-/-) mice with normal phosphate levels had elevated FGF23, suggesting a Klotho-derived renal-bone feedback loop. Taken together, renal FGF23-Klotho signaling, which is disrupted in CKD, is essential for homeostatic control of mineral metabolism. PMID:22878961

  16. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  17. Osteoblast mineralization with composite nanofibrous substrate for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Giri Dev, Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami; Senthilram, Thinakaran; Sathiskumar, Dhayalan; Gupta, Deepika; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-01-01

    Several studies are currently ongoing to construct synthetic bone-like materials with composites of natural and polymeric materials with HA (hydroxyapatite). The present study aims to fabricate composite nanofibrous substrate of Chit/HA (chitosan/HA - 80:25) prepared by dissolving in TFA/DCM (trifluoroacetic acid/dichloromethane) (70:30, w/w) for 5 days and electrospun to fabricate a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. HA (25 wt %) was sonicated for 30 min to obtain a homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles within the Chit (80 wt %) matrix for fabricating composite nanofibrous scaffold (Chit/HA). The nanofibres of Chit and Chit/HA were obtained with fibre diameters of 274 ± 75 and 510 ± 198 nm, respectively, and characterized by FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared). The interaction of hFOBs (human fetal osteoblasts) and nanofibrous substrates were analysed for cell morphology (FESEM), mineralization [ARS (Alizarin Red-S) staining], quantification of minerals and finally identified the elements present in Chit/HA/osteoblasts by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) analysis. EDX analysis confirmed that the spherulites contain calcium and phosphorus, the major constituents in calcium phosphate apatite, the mineral phase of the bone. Mineralization was increased significantly (P<0.001) up to 108% in Chit/HA compared with Chit nanofibres. These results confirmed that the electrospun composite Chit/HA nanofibrous substrate is a potential biocomposite material for the proliferation and mineralization of hFOBs required for enhanced bone tissue regeneration. PMID:20923413

  18. Proximate composition, nutritional attributes and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) grown in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der-Jiun; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22%)suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption. PMID:22986924

  19. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  20. Soil type influences crop mineral composition in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Chilimba, Allan D C; Ander, E Louise; Barlow, Thomas S; Watts, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Food supply and composition data can be combined to estimate micronutrient intakes and deficiency risks among populations. These estimates can be improved by using local crop composition data that can capture environmental influences including soil type. This study aimed to provide spatially resolved crop composition data for Malawi, where information is currently limited. Six hundred and fifty-two plant samples, representing 97 edible food items, were sampled from >150 sites in Malawi between 2011 and 2013. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS for up to 58 elements, including the essential minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Maize grain Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn concentrations were greater from plants grown on calcareous soils than those from the more widespread low-pH soils. Leafy vegetables from calcareous soils had elevated leaf Ca, Cu, Fe and Se concentrations, but lower Zn concentrations. Several foods were found to accumulate high levels of Se, including the leaves of Moringa, a crop not previously been reported in East African food composition data sets. New estimates of national dietary mineral supplies were obtained for non-calcareous and calcareous soils. High risks of Ca (100%), Se (100%) and Zn (57%) dietary deficiencies are likely on non-calcareous soils. Deficiency risks on calcareous soils are high for Ca (97%), but lower for Se (34%) and Zn (31%). Risks of Cu, Fe and Mg deficiencies appear to be low on the basis of dietary supply levels.

  1. Graphic Disruptions: Comics, Disability and De-Canonizing Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The study of comics is an important part of the project of critiquing normative assumptions underlying multimodality and composition. Extending the efforts of the authors of "Multimodality in Motion"--which explains that "multimodality as it is commonly used implies an ableist understanding of the human composer" (Yergeau et…

  2. Magma mixing due to disruption of a compositional interface

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, T.P.; Schuraytz, B.C.; Vogel, T.A.

    1986-07-15

    The chemical compositions of glassy pumices are used to investigate the relationship between two ash-flow sheets that were erupted from the same volcanic center. The first ash-flow sheet, the large volume (>1200 km{sup 3}) Topopah Spring Member, represents an eruption from a magma body that contained a sharp compositional interface between a high-silica rhyolite and a lower-silica quartz latite. The second ash-flow sheet is the smaller volume (<40 km{sup 3}) Pah Canyon Member. It represents an eruption of a relatively homogenous magma that is intermediate in composition to the compositions of the Topopah Spring Member. Mixing of the quartz latite and rhyolite magmas to produce the Pah Canyon Member is evaluated using variation diagrams of the major and trace elements, ratio-ratio plots, and least-squares multiple linear regression. The latter includes two independent tests, one using the major elements, and the other using selected trace elements. Fractional crystallization of the quartz latite to produce the Pah Canyon Member is evaluated using multiple linear regression with both the major elements and selected trace elements.

  3. Elemental composition of extant microbialites: mineral and microbial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdespino-Castillo, P. M.; Falcón, L. I.; Holman, H. Y. N.; Merino-Ibarra, M.; García-Guzmán, M.; López-Gómez, L. M. D. R.; Martínez, J.; Alcantara-Hernandez, R. J.; Beltran, Y.; Centeno, C.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Pi-Puig, T.; Castillo, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Microbialites are the modern analogues of ancient microbial consortia. Their existence extends from the Archaean (~3500 mya) until present and their lithified structure evidences the capacity of microbial communities to mediate mineral precipitation. Living microbialites are a useful study model to test the mechanisms involved in carbonates and other minerals precipitation. Here, we studied the chemical composition, the biomass and the microbial structure of extant microbialites. All of these were found in Mexico, in water systems of different and characteristic ionic firms. An elemental analysis (C:N) of microbial biomass was performed and total P was determined. To explore the chemical composition of microbialites as a whole, X-ray diffraction analyses were performed over dry microbialites. While overall inorganic carbon content (carbonates) represented >70% of the living layer, a protocol of inorganic carbon elimination was performed for each sample resulting in organic matter contents between 8 and 16% among microbialites. Stoichiometric ratios of C:N:P in microbialite biomass were different among samples, and the possibility of P limitation was suggested mainly for karstic microbialites, N limitation was suggested for all samples and, more intensively, for soda system microbialites. A differential capacity for biomass allocation among microbialites was observed. Microbialites showed, along the biogeographic gradient, a diverse arrangement of microbial assemblages within the mineral matrix. While environmental factors such as pH and nitrate concentration were the factors that defined the general structure and diversity of these assemblages, we intend to test if the abundance of major ions and trace metals are also defining microbialite characteristics (such as microbial structure and biomass). This work contributes to define a baseline of the chemical nature of extant microbial consortia actively participating in mineral precipitation processes.

  4. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: moisture/dry matter 9.69-13.33, crude protein 10.25-26.16, crude fat 0.56-2.49, crude fiber 11.97-29.93, crude ash 5.37-11.30, utilizable carbohydrate 36.66-50.97, and gross energy 197.26-245.55 kcal/100 g. The mineral concentrations (mg/100 g) were also significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: calcium (111.11-311.95), Iron (18.30-36.68), potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P < 0.05) varied. The range of phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents (mg/100 g) for Okra pod accessions studied were as follows: 0.83-0.87, 4.93-9.90, and 0.04-0.53, respectively. The calculated molar ratios of phytate: calcium, phytate: iron, phytate: zinc, oxalate: calcium and [Phytate][Calcium]/[Zinc] were below the critical value and this indicate that the bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain

  5. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: moisture/dry matter 9.69-13.33, crude protein 10.25-26.16, crude fat 0.56-2.49, crude fiber 11.97-29.93, crude ash 5.37-11.30, utilizable carbohydrate 36.66-50.97, and gross energy 197.26-245.55 kcal/100 g. The mineral concentrations (mg/100 g) were also significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: calcium (111.11-311.95), Iron (18.30-36.68), potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P < 0.05) varied. The range of phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents (mg/100 g) for Okra pod accessions studied were as follows: 0.83-0.87, 4.93-9.90, and 0.04-0.53, respectively. The calculated molar ratios of phytate: calcium, phytate: iron, phytate: zinc, oxalate: calcium and [Phytate][Calcium]/[Zinc] were below the critical value and this indicate that the bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain

  6. Compressive strength of the mineral reinforced aluminium alloy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Rama; Sharma, Anju; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Gurmel; Pandey, O. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of quasi-static compressive strength of aluminium alloy reinforced with different concentration of rutile mineral particles. The reinforced material shows increase in compressive strength with 5wt% rutile concentration as compared to the base alloy. This increase in compressive strength of composite is attributed to direct strengthening due to transfer of load from lower stiffness matrix (LM13 alloy) to higher stiffness reinforcement (rutile particles). Indirect strengthening mechanisms like increase in dislocation density at the matrix-reinforcement interface, grain size refinement of the matrix and dispersion strengthening are also the contributing factors. The decrease in compressive strength of composite with the increased concentration of rutile concentration beyond 5 wt.% can be attributed to the increase in dislocation density due to the void formation at the matrix-reinforcement interface.

  7. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  8. Loss of Iroquois homeobox transcription factors 3 and 5 in osteoblasts disrupts cranial mineralization.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Gaborit, Nathalie; Lwin, Wint; Barruet, Emilie; Ho, Samantha; Bonnard, Carine; Hamamy, Hanan; Shboul, Mohammad; Reversade, Bruno; Kayserili, Hülya; Bruneau, Benoit G; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-12-01

    Cranial malformations are a significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Iroquois homeobox transcription factors (IRX) are expressed early in bone tissue formation and facilitate patterning and mineralization of the skeleton. Mice lacking Irx5 appear grossly normal, suggesting that redundancy within the Iroquois family. However, global loss of both Irx3 and Irx5 in mice leads to significant skeletal malformations and embryonic lethality from cardiac defects. Here, we study the bone-specific functions of Irx3 and Irx5 using Osx-Cre to drive osteoblast lineage-specific deletion of Irx3 in Irx5(-/-) mice. Although we found that the Osx-Cre transgene alone could also affect craniofacial mineralization, newborn Irx3 (flox/flox) /Irx5(-/-)/Osx-Cre (+) mice displayed additional mineralization defects in parietal, interparietal, and frontal bones with enlarged sutures and reduced calvarial expression of osteogenic genes. Newborn endochondral long bones were largely unaffected, but we observed marked reductions in 3-4-week old bone mineral content of Irx3 (flox/flox) /Irx5(-/-)/Osx-Cre (+) mice. Our findings indicate that IRX3 and IRX5 can work together to regulate mineralization of specific cranial bones. Our results also provide insight into the causes of the skeletal changes and mineralization defects seen in Hamamy syndrome patients carrying mutations in IRX5. PMID:27453922

  9. Mineral composition of commonly consumed ethnic foods in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Santosh; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D.; Marletta, Luisa; Shahar, Danit R.; Ireland, Jane D.; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; de Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnic foods are an integral part of food consumption in Europe contributing towards the overall nutrient intake of the population. Food composition data on these foods are crucial for assessing nutrient intake, providing dietary advice and preventing diseases. Objective To analyse selected minerals in authentic and modified ethnic foods commonly consumed in seven EU member states and Israel. Design A list of ethnic foods commonly consumed in selected European countries was generated, primary samples collected and composite sample prepared for each food, which were analysed for dietary minerals at accredited laboratories. Methods for sampling, analysis, data scrutiny and documentation were based on harmonised procedures. Results New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases of seven EU countries and Israel within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR), an EU Network of Excellence. The Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and I contents of 39 foods is presented for the first time in this study. Conclusion The data will serve as an important tool in future national and international food consumption surveys, to target provision of dietary advice, facilitate implementation of policies and inform policymakers, health workers, food industry and researchers. PMID:22768018

  10. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  11. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

  12. FTIR and Raman studies of structure and bonding in mineral and organic-mineral composites.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jinhui

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopy techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman, offer methodologies that overlap and expand X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses and help gain new insight into mechanisms of biomineralization. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy techniques measure the molecular environment of asymmetrically and symmetrically vibrating bonds, respectively. As such, these techniques have widely been used to gain information on mineral content, phase, and orientation as well as chemical composition of associated organic matrices like collagen, chitin, or lipids. The traditional coupling of optical microscopes to the newer generation FTIR and Raman spectrometers has enabled these analyses to be performed on samples with 0.1-20 μm spatial resolution. Herein, we briefly discuss the basis and protocol for effective measurements using vibrational spectroscopy by taking two systems from our own research as examples.

  13. [Raman spectroscopy study on the mineral composition of the Guatemalan jade].

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan-Li; Yin, Zuo-Wei; Bu, Yue-Wen; Zhong, Zeng-Qiu

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala is another jade commercial origin in addition to the Myanmar. The Guatemalan jade is usually an assemblage of a variety of mineral compositions, and the mineral composition is unique and different from the Myanmar jade. The characteristics of the structures and paragenetic minerals of the purple and gray-green jade from Guatemala were studied by laser Raman spectroscopy analysis. The results show that the jadeite is a major constituent mineral in Guatemala jade, associated by a variety of coexisting minerals. The paragenetic minerals in Guatemalan jade can be divided into five categories, including the dark minerals hornblende, dolomite, omphacite, chlorite, and light-colored mineral apatite. The hornblende, dolomite, omphacite and chlorite are also the paragenetic minerals in the Myanmar jade, but the apatite is almost invisible in the Myanmar jadeite.

  14. Biomimetic Collagen–Hydroxyapatite Composite Fabricated via a Novel Perfusion-Flow Mineralization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Ben; Cheng, Xingguo; Harris, Jeffrey N.; Gower, Laurie B.; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent three-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are mineralized collagen–hydroxyapatite (Col/HA) composites. Conventional mineralization techniques are either to coat collagen scaffold surfaces with minerals or to simply mix collagen and mineral nanoparticles together. These conventional in vitro collagen mineralization methods are different from the in vivo bone formation process and often result in scaffolds that are not suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this study, a unique perfusion-flow (i.e., dynamic) in conjunction with a previously described polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) method was used to fabricate a porous Col/HA composite. The dynamic flow emulated the physiological extracellular fluid flow containing the mineralization ions, while the PILP method facilitated the deposition of the HA crystals within the collagen fibrils (i.e., intrafibrillar mineralization). By utilizing a dynamic PILP technique to mimic the in vivo bone formation process, the resultant Col/HA composite has a similar structure and compositions like human trabecular bone. A comparison of the dynamic and static mineralization methods revealed that the novel dynamic technique facilitates more efficient and homogenous mineral deposition throughout the Col/HA composite. The dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization method generated stiff Col/HA composites with excellent surface property for cell attachment and growth. The human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the Col/HA composites quickly remodeled the scaffolds and resulted in constructs with an extensive cell-derived extracellular matrix network. PMID:23157544

  15. Biomimetic collagen-hydroxyapatite composite fabricated via a novel perfusion-flow mineralization technique.

    PubMed

    Antebi, Ben; Cheng, Xingguo; Harris, Jeffrey N; Gower, Laurie B; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Ling, Jian

    2013-07-01

    Prevalent three-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are mineralized collagen-hydroxyapatite (Col/HA) composites. Conventional mineralization techniques are either to coat collagen scaffold surfaces with minerals or to simply mix collagen and mineral nanoparticles together. These conventional in vitro collagen mineralization methods are different from the in vivo bone formation process and often result in scaffolds that are not suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this study, a unique perfusion-flow (i.e., dynamic) in conjunction with a previously described polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) method was used to fabricate a porous Col/HA composite. The dynamic flow emulated the physiological extracellular fluid flow containing the mineralization ions, while the PILP method facilitated the deposition of the HA crystals within the collagen fibrils (i.e., intrafibrillar mineralization). By utilizing a dynamic PILP technique to mimic the in vivo bone formation process, the resultant Col/HA composite has a similar structure and compositions like human trabecular bone. A comparison of the dynamic and static mineralization methods revealed that the novel dynamic technique facilitates more efficient and homogenous mineral deposition throughout the Col/HA composite. The dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization method generated stiff Col/HA composites with excellent surface property for cell attachment and growth. The human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the Col/HA composites quickly remodeled the scaffolds and resulted in constructs with an extensive cell-derived extracellular matrix network.

  16. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  17. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of urinary calculi from horses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, R D; Ruby, A L; Ling, G V; Schiffman, P; Johnson, D L

    1994-10-01

    Urinary calculi from 17 horses with urolithiasis were examined to study their mineral content and ultrastructure. Among the analytic methods used were X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. The calculi initially were observed by use of a stereoscopic dissecting microscope and generally were found to have nodular surfaces surrounding a banded or granular-to-chalky interior. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed an intricate pattern of irregularly concentric, fine bands and spherules. These had a round, finely banded, globular texture formed by precipitation of ultrafine-grained radiating crystals. The original pore spaces (ie, between spherules, between bands and spherules, or between crystal generations) could be observed as primary porosity. Precipitation and dissolution of these urinary calculi were observed to be spontaneous processes, which can occur simultaneously within an individual calculus. Another prominent feature of the ultrastructure was secondary porosity (spontaneous dissolution) which, in its incipient stages, appeared to be site-selective (ie, some bands appeared to be more susceptible to development of pinpoint porosity). Textures indicative of dissolution were observed not only on the calculus surface, but within the calculus interior as well. Areas that had more advanced stages of dissolution, resulting in increased secondary porosity, also were observed. All 17 samples of the study were found to be composed of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite, although minor quantities of 2 other polymorphs of calcium carbonate, minerals vaterite and aragonite, also were encountered. Vaterite was observed in 5 of the samples, whereas aragonite was found in 1 sample. Strontium and sulfur were observed as trace elements in 3 of the calculi, whereas magnesium was present in all calculi. Magnesium was observed to substitute for calcium within the calcite crystal lattice in larger

  18. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder X-ray diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Pawloski, Gayle A.

    1986-01-01

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  19. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  20. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide amphiphiles

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Beniash, Elia; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2009-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  1. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphiles

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Beniash, Elia; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2012-02-28

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  2. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na). PMID:26286964

  3. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  4. Gold in minerals and the composition of native gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Robert Sprague; Fleischer, Michael

    1969-01-01

    Gold occurs in nature mainly as the metal and as various alloys. It forms complete series of solid solutions with silver, copper, nickel, palladium, and platinum. In association with the platinum metals, gold occurs as free gold as well as in solid solution. The native elements contain the most gold, followed by the sulfide minerals. Several gold tellurides are known, but no gold selenides have been reported, and only one sulfide, the telluride-sulfide mineral nagyagite, is known. The nonmetallic minerals carry the least gold, and the light-colored minerals generally contain less gold than the dark minerals. Some conclusions in the literature are conflicting in regard to the relation of fineness of native gold to its position laterally and vertically within a lode, the nature of the country rocks, and the location and size of nuggets in a streambed, as well as to the variation of fineness within an individual nugget.

  5. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  6. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  7. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  8. The mineral composition and enamel ultrastructure of hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Duggal, M S; Robinson, C; Kirkham, J; Shore, R

    1993-01-01

    Hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta is characterized clinically by a yellow-brown colored enamel that is prone to severe attrition, often leading to rapid destruction of the crown. While the enamel is thought to be poorly mineralized few studies have evaluated the mineral content, or the histological or microradiographic features of this specific AI type. The purpose of this investigation was to examine teeth affected with autosomal dominant hypocalcified AI histologically using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and to evaluate the degree of enamel mineralization chemically and with microradiography. Four AI teeth were obtained from an affected individual for comparison with age-matched teeth from normal healthy individuals. Thin sections approximately 100 microns were cut with a diamond disc for examination by LM and microradiography. Using SEM, fractured enamel samples were examined either untreated or after removal of organic material using NaOCl or urea. Normal and AI enamel particles were dissected from thin sections to evaluate the mineral per volume and carbonate content. The enamel was not uniformly affected in all areas of the teeth with the lingual surfaces of the mandibular central incisors appearing clinically and histologically normal. The affected enamel was porous and appeared opaque with LM. Both SEM and LM showed the enamel to be prismatic with relatively normal prism morphology. However, the enamel crystallites were rough and granular compared with those of normal enamel. Extraction to remove organic material did not change the appearance of the crystallites indicating their granular appearance was due to mineral and not residual organic material such as enamel protein. Microradiography showed the enamel was less radiodense and therefore poorly mineralized compared with normal enamel. This was confirmed by chemical determination of the mineral per volume, which showed some areas of the AI enamel had as much as 30% less

  9. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  10. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  11. Typology of exogenous organic matters based on chemical and biochemical composition to predict potential nitrogen mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Nicolardot, B; Parnaudeau, V; Thuriès, L; Chaussod, R; Guillotin, M L; Linères, M; Mary, B; Metzger, L; Morvan, T; Tricaud, A; Villette, C; Houot, S

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a typology predicting potential N availability of exogenous organic matters (EOMs) in soil based on their chemical characteristics. A database of 273 EOMs was constructed including analytical data of biochemical fractionation, organic C and N, and results of N mineralization during incubation of soil-EOM mixtures in controlled conditions. Multiple factor analysis and hierarchical classification were performed to gather EOMs with similar composition and N mineralization behavior. A typology was then defined using composition criteria to predict potential N mineralization. Six classes of EOM potential N mineralization in soil were defined, from high potential N mineralization to risk of inducing N immobilization in soil after application. These classes were defined on the basis of EOM organic N content and soluble, cellulose-, and lignin-like fractions. A decision tree based on these variables was constructed in order to easily attribute any EOM to 1 of the 6 classes. PMID:19726180

  12. Microgreens of brassicaceae: mineral composition and content of 30 varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the mineral content and concentration of 30 species of microgreens, representative 10 genera of the Brassicaceae family. Brassicaceae microgreens were assayed for concentrations of macroelements, including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), sod...

  13. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  14. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals.

  15. Preparation of pHEMA-CP composites with high interfacial adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2002-12-05

    We report a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of calcium phosphate (CP) with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of crosslinked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. External factors such as the heating rate, the agitation of the mineral stock solution and the duration of the process that affect the outcome of the mineralization were investigated. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral-hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  16. Microstructure and mineral composition of dystrophic calcification associated with the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calcified deposits (CDs) in skin and muscles are common in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM), and less frequent in adult DM. Limited information exists about the microstructure and composition of these deposits, and no information is available on their elemental composition and contents, mineral density (MD) and stiffness. We determined the microstructure, chemical composition, MD and stiffness of CDs obtained from DM patients. Methods Surgically-removed calcinosis specimens were analyzed with fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-RM) to map their spatial distribution and composition, and with scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS) to obtain elemental maps. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified their mineral structure, X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) mapped their internal structure and 3D distribution, quantitative backscattered electron (qBSE) imaging assessed their morphology and MD, nanoindentation measured their stiffness, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) evaluated the organic matrix composition. Results Some specimens were composed of continuous carbonate apatite containing small amounts of proteins with a mineral to protein ratio much higher than in bone, and other specimens contained scattered agglomerates of various sizes with similar composition (FTIR-RM). Continuous or fragmented mineralization was present across the entire specimens (μCT). The apatite was much more crystallized than bone and dentin, and closer to enamel (XRD) and its calcium/phophorous ratios were close to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (SEM/SDD-EDS). The deposits also contained magnesium and sodium (SEM/SDD-EDS). The MD (qBSE) was closer to enamel than bone and dentin, as was the stiffness (nanoindentation) in the larger dense patches. Large mineralized areas were typically devoid of collagen; however, collagen was noted in some regions within the mineral or margins (PLM). q

  17. REMOTE RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF VARIOUS MIXED AND COMPOSITE MINERAL PHASES AT 7.2 m DISTANCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, U. N.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Raman [e.g.,1-5] and micro-Raman spectroscopy [e.g., 6-10] are being evaluated on geological samples for their potential applications on Mars rover or lander. The Raman lines of minerals are sharp and distinct. The Raman finger-prints of minerals do not shift appreciably but remain distinct even in sub-micron grains and, therefore, can be used for mineral identification in fine-grained rocks [e.g., 4,7]. In this work we have evaluated the capability of a directly coupled remote Raman system (co-axial configuration) for distinguishing the mineralogy of multiple crystals in the exciting laser beam. We have measured the Raman spectra of minerals in the near vicinity of each other and excited with a laser beam (e.g. -quartz (Qz) and K-feldspar (Feld) plates, each 5 mm thick). The spectra of composite transparent mineral plates of 5 mm thickness of -quartz and gypsum over calcite crystal were measured with the composite samples perpendicular to the exciting laser beam. The measurements of remote Raman spectra of various bulk minerals, and mixed and composite minerals with our portable UH remote Raman system were carried out at the Langley Research Center in a fully illuminated laboratory.

  18. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  19. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  20. Mineral-Biochar Composites: Molecular Structure and Porosity.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Aditya; Joseph, Stephen D; Hook, James M; Chia, Chee H; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Lin, Yun; Phelan, David; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Horvat, Joseph; Webber, J Beau W

    2016-07-19

    Dramatic changes in molecular structure, degradation pathway, and porosity of biochar are observed at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 250 to 550 °C when bamboo biomass is pretreated by iron-sulfate-clay slurries (iron-clay biochar), as compared to untreated bamboo biochar. Electron microscopy analysis of the biochar reveals the infusion of mineral species into the pores of the biochar and the formation of mineral nanostructures. Quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy shows that the presence of the iron clay prevents degradation of the cellulosic fraction at pyrolysis temperatures of 250 °C, whereas at higher temperatures (350-550 °C), the clay promotes biomass degradation, resulting in an increase in both the concentrations of condensed aromatic, acidic, and phenolic carbon species. The porosity of the biochar, as measured by NMR cryoporosimetry, is altered by the iron-clay pretreatment. In the presence of the clay, at lower pyrolysis temperatures, the biochar develops a higher pore volume, while at higher temperature, the presence of clay causes a reduction in the biochar pore volume. The most dramatic reduction in pore volume is observed in the kaolinite-infiltrated biochar at 550 °C, which is attributed to the blocking of the mesopores (2-50 nm pore) by the nonporous metakaolinite formed from kaolinite. PMID:27284608

  1. COMPOSITION OF MINERALIZING INCISOR ENAMEL IN CFTR-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, ALJJ; Lyaruu, DM; Guo, J; Bijvelds, MJC; Bervoets, TJM; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Medina, JF; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; DenBesten, PK

    2014-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as critical step to secrete bicarbonates. We tested this by determining the calcium, chloride and fluoride levels of developing enamel of Cftr-null mice by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Maturation stage Cftr–null enamel contained less chloride and calcium than wild-type enamel, was more acidic when stained with pH dyes ex vivo and formed no fluorescent modulation bands after in vivo injection of the mice with calcein. To further acidify the enamel we exposed Cftr-null mice to fluoride in drinking water to stimulate proton release during formation of hypermineralized lines. In enamel of Cftr-deficient mice fluoride further lowered enamel calcium without further reducing chloride levels. The data support the view that apical Cftr in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into developing enamel as part of the machinery to buffer protons released during mineral accretion. PMID:25557910

  2. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 1: Representing key processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to

  3. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 1; Representing Key Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wetsieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to

  4. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 1: Representing key processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, coating by heterogeneous uptake of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the resulting aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving during analysis. We reconstruct the undispersed size distribution of the original soil that is subject to wind erosion. An empirical constraint upon the relative emission of clay and silt is applied that further differentiates the soil and aerosol mineral composition. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to measurements from North Africa shows that the extension brings the model into better agreement, consistent with a more extensive comparison to global observations as well as measurements of elemental composition downwind of the Sahara, as described in companion articles.

  5. Compositional variation in minerals of the chevkinite group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    The composition of chevkinite and perrierite, the most common members of the chevkinite group, is closely expressed by the formula A4BC2D2Si4O22, where A = (La,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th), B = Fe2+, C = (Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti,Al,Zr,Nb) and D = Ti. The A site is dominated by a strong negative correlation between (Ca+Sr) and the REE. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are very variable, e.g. in LREE/HREE and Eu/Eu*. The C site is dominated by Ti, Al and Fe2+, in very variable proportions. Most chevkinites and perrierites are close to stoichiometric, with cation sums between 12.9 and 13.5, compared to the theoretical 13. There is no single, generally applicable charge balancing substitution scheme in the group; however, the general relationship (Ca+Sr)A + TiC + REEA + M3C+2+ defines a linear array with r2 = 0.91. Chevkinite and perrierite are shown to be compositionally distinct on the basis of CaO, FeO* Al2O3 and Ce2O3 abundances. Chevkinite forms mainly in chemically evolved parageneses, such as syenites, rhyolites and fenites associated with carbonatite complexes. Perrierite is more commonly recorded from igneous rocks of mafic to intermediate composition. The compositional characteristics and possible structural formulae of other members of the chevkinite group are reviewed briefly.

  6. Which minerals control the Nd-Hf-Sr-Pb isotopic compositions of river sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcon, M.; Chauvel, C.; France-Lanord, C.; Limonta, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2013-12-01

    River sediments naturally sample and average large areas of eroded continental crust. They are ideal targets not only for provenance studies based on isotopic compositions, but also to establish average continental crust isotopic values. However, in large fluvial systems, mineral sorting processes significantly modify the mineralogy, and thus the geochemistry of the transported sediments. We still do not know, in any quantitative way, to what extent mineral sorting affects and fractionates the isotopic compositions of river sediments. Here, we focus on this issue and try to decipher the role of each mineral species in the bulk isotopic compositions of bedloads and suspended loads sampled at the outflow of the Ganga River that drains the Himalayan mountain range. We analyzed Nd, Hf, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions as well as trace element contents of a large number of pure mineral fractions (K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, biotite, magnetite, zircon, titanite, apatite, monazite/allanite, amphibole, epidote, garnet, carbonate and clay) separated from bedload sediments. We combine these data with mineral proportions typical of the Ganga sediments to perform Monte-carlo simulations that quantify the contribution of individual mineral species to the Nd, Hf, Sr and Pb isotopic budgets of bedloads and suspended loads. We show that the isotopic systematic of river sediments is entirely buffered by very few minerals. Despite their extremely low proportions in sediments, zircon and monazite/allanite control Hf and Nd isotopes, respectively. Feldspars, epidote and carbonate buffer the Sr isotopic budget while clay, feldspars and heavy minerals dominate Pb isotopes. We also demonstrate that the observed difference in Hf, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions between bedloads and suspended loads reflects their different mineral proportions. Our findings highlight the need to be very careful about the choice of isotopic compositions measured on sediments when used as source

  7. Quantitative mineralogical composition of complex mineral wastes--contribution of the Rietveld method.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, P-Y; Aubert, J-E; Cyr, M; Coutand, M; Husson, B

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is the quantitative determination of the mineral composition of two complex mineral wastes: a sewage sludge ash (SSA) and a municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA). The mineral compositions were determined by two different methods: the first based on calculation using the qualitative mineralogical composition of the waste combined with physicochemical analyses; the second the Rietveld method, which uses only X-ray diffraction patterns. The results obtained are coherent, showing that it is possible to quantify the mineral compositions of complex mineral waste with such methods. The apparent simplicity of the Rietveld method (due principally to the availability of software packages implementing the method) facilitates its use. However, care should be taken since the crystal structure analysis based on powder diffraction data needs experience and a thorough understanding of crystallography. So the use of another, complementary, method such as the first one used in this study, may sometimes be needed to confirm the results. PMID:19948395

  8. Importance of soil and vineyard management in the determination of grapevine mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Likar, M; Vogel-Mikuš, K; Potisek, M; Hančević, K; Radić, T; Nečemer, M; Regvar, M

    2015-02-01

    The spatial variability of the mineral composition of grapevines in production vineyards along the east Adriatic coast was determined and compared between conventional and sustainable vineyard management. Cluster analysis shows a high level of spatial variability even within the individual locations. Factor analysis reveals three factors with strong loading for the macronutrients K and P and the micronutrient Mn, which explain 67% of the total variance in the mineral composition. Here, 26% to 34% of the variance of these three elements can be explained by abiotic and biotic soil parameters, with soil concentrations of K, Fe and Cu, organic matter content, and vesicular colonisation showing the strongest effects on the mineral composition of the grapevines. In addition, analysis of the mineral composition data shows significant differences between differently managed vineyards, with increased bioaccumulation of P and K in sustainable vineyards, while Zn bioaccumulation was increased in conventional vineyards. Our data confirm the importance of soil and vineyard management in the concept of terroir, and demonstrate the effects of sustainable management practices on the mineral nutrition of grapevines that result from modified nutrient availability related to changes in the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil.

  9. Quantitative mineralogical composition of complex mineral wastes - Contribution of the Rietveld method

    SciTech Connect

    Mahieux, P.-Y.; Aubert, J.-E.; Cyr, M.; Coutand, M.; Husson, B.

    2010-03-15

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is the quantitative determination of the mineral composition of two complex mineral wastes: a sewage sludge ash (SSA) and a municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA). The mineral compositions were determined by two different methods: the first based on calculation using the qualitative mineralogical composition of the waste combined with physicochemical analyses; the second the Rietveld method, which uses only X-ray diffraction patterns. The results obtained are coherent, showing that it is possible to quantify the mineral compositions of complex mineral waste with such methods. The apparent simplicity of the Rietveld method (due principally to the availability of software packages implementing the method) facilitates its use. However, care should be taken since the crystal structure analysis based on powder diffraction data needs experience and a thorough understanding of crystallography. So the use of another, complementary, method such as the first one used in this study, may sometimes be needed to confirm the results.

  10. Predicting the Mineral and Chemical Composition of Dust Aerosols: Evaluation and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soil dust aerosols in Earth system models are typically assumed to have globally uniform properties. However, important climate processes related to dust depend on the aerosol mineral and chemical composition, which varies regionally. Such processes include aerosol radiative forcing, transport of bioavailable iron that catalyzes marine photosynthesis, heterogeneous chemistry, ice nucleation, and cloud condensation.We have implemented a new version of the soil dust aerosol scheme in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE that takes into account the mineral composition of the dust particles. Dust aerosols are represented as an external mixture of minerals such as illite, kaolinite, smectite, carbonates, quartz, feldspar and gypsum, as well as iron oxides and accretions of iron oxides with each of the these minerals.We present a new publically available compilation of measurements of mineral fractions derived from ca. 50 references from the literature. This compilation is used to evaluate our new model of mineral and elemental composition within ModelE. We discuss the challenges of comparing simulated mineral fractions to measurements, which often come from field campaigns and ship cruises of limited duration. Despite uncertainties of the measurements, we show the importance of estimating the undisturbed size distribution of the parent soil prior to wet sieving, along with the modification of this size distribution during emission. In particular, our new model reproduces measurements showing greater amount of aerosols at silt sizes (whose diameters exceed 2 μm) including significant amounts of clay mineral aerosols (like illite) at silt sizes. Our model also reduces the systematic overestimation of quartz, while allowing iron to be transported farther from its source as impurities than in its pure, crystalline form.

  11. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  12. Relative control of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and concentration for carbon-mineral complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Sparks, D. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Yoo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Growing concern about climate change has evoked considerable interest in the soil carbon (C) pool, the second largest C-sink on the earth. C-mineral complexation formed by ligand exchange between DOM and soil is considered as the dominant mechanism for DOM sorption and stabilization in soil. Despite intensive sorption studies, our understanding of how DOM composition influences sorption is still fairly limited. The objectives of the proposed study are: (a) to investigate the relative control of DOM composition and concentration on C-mineral complexation and (b) to determine the DOM composition metrics that are associated with irreversible binding between carbon and mineral surfaces. To address these objectives, we investigated the sorption of DOM isolated and extracted from 12 different watershed sources to goethite (a-FeOOH) with batch sorption and desorption experiments. Fluorescence-EEM and UV-absorbance methods were used to characterize DOM composition through a variety of metrics. DOM composition varied considerably for the 12 DOM solutions. With all DOM solutions adjusted to a DOC concentration of 30mgC/L, humification index (HIX) value ranged from 0.18 to 0.8 and the specific UV absorbance (SUVA) ranged from 1.12 to 3.70. The increase of 2 pH units after sorption indicated ligand exchange was likely the dominant process during sorption. The aromatic and humic-like DOM substances were preferentially sorbed. Preliminary results suggest that carbon mineral complexation (OC/SSA) was influenced by both, the concentration as well as the composition of the DOM. The explanatory power of the regression equations predicting DOM sorption to goethite was increased by the including of DOM composition matrix. The sorption isotherm revealed that DOM composition has a significant influence on the shape of the isotherms.

  13. Biomimetically-mineralized composite coatings on titanium functionalized with gelatin methacrylate hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoxin; Zhou, Lei; Ning, Chengyun; Tan, Ying; Ni, Guoxin; Liao, Jingwen; Yu, Peng; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-01

    Immobilizing organic-inorganic hybrid composites onto the implant surface is a promising strategy to improve host acceptance of the implant. The objective of this present study was to obtain a unique macroporous titanium-surface with the organic-mineral composite coatings consisting of gelatin methacrylate hydrogel (GelMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA). A 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) layer was first coated onto the titanium surface, and surface was then covalently functionalized with GelMA using a photochemical method. Mineralization of the GelMA coating on the titanium surface was subsequently carried out by a biomimetic method. After 3-day mineralization, a large number of mineral phases comprising spherical amorphous nanoparticles were found randomly deposited inside GelMA matrix. The resulting mineralized hydrogel composites exhibited a unique rough surface of macroporous structure. The structure of the prepared GelMA/HA composite coating was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Water contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilicity properties of composite coatings. GelMA/HA on titanium after the TMSPMA treatment is very stable when tested in vitro with a PBS solution at 37 °C, due to the role of TMSPMA as a molecular bridge. It was expected that the macroporous GelMA/HA composite coatings might potentially promote and accelerate titanium (Ti)-based implants osseointegration for bone repair and regeneration.

  14. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). PMID:25306315

  15. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn).

  16. Performance and application of far infrared rays emitted from rare earth mineral composite materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Dongbin; Meng, Junping; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Fenping; Liu, Zhiguo; Ding, Yan; Liu, Lihua; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared using tourmaline and cerous nitrate as raw materials. Through characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found that the composite materials had a better far infrared emitting performance than tourmaline, which depended on many factors such as material composition, microstructure, and surface free energy. Based on the results of the flue gas analyzer and the water boiling test, it was found that the rare earth mineral composite materials could accelerate the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas and diesel oil. The results showed that the addition of Ce led to the improvement of far infrared emitting performance of tourmaline due to the decrease of cell volume caused by the oxidation of more Fe2+ ions and the increase of surface free energy. The application of rare earth mineral composite materials to diesel oil led to a decrease in surface tension and flash point, and the fuel saving ratio could reach 4.5%. When applied to liquefied petroleum gas, the composite materials led to the enhanced combustion, improved fuel consumption by 6.8%, and decreased concentration of CO and O2 in exhaust gases by 59.7% and 16.2%, respectively; but the temperature inside the flue increased by 10.3%. PMID:18468124

  17. Performance and application of far infrared rays emitted from rare earth mineral composite materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Dongbin; Meng, Junping; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Fenping; Liu, Zhiguo; Ding, Yan; Liu, Lihua; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared using tourmaline and cerous nitrate as raw materials. Through characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found that the composite materials had a better far infrared emitting performance than tourmaline, which depended on many factors such as material composition, microstructure, and surface free energy. Based on the results of the flue gas analyzer and the water boiling test, it was found that the rare earth mineral composite materials could accelerate the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas and diesel oil. The results showed that the addition of Ce led to the improvement of far infrared emitting performance of tourmaline due to the decrease of cell volume caused by the oxidation of more Fe2+ ions and the increase of surface free energy. The application of rare earth mineral composite materials to diesel oil led to a decrease in surface tension and flash point, and the fuel saving ratio could reach 4.5%. When applied to liquefied petroleum gas, the composite materials led to the enhanced combustion, improved fuel consumption by 6.8%, and decreased concentration of CO and O2 in exhaust gases by 59.7% and 16.2%, respectively; but the temperature inside the flue increased by 10.3%.

  18. Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice.

  19. Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Tailby, Jonathan; MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D.

    2010-05-15

    The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C{sub 3}S, beta-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

  20. Thermal cycling effect of dicalcium phosphate-reinforced composites on auto-mineralized dental resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Kai-Chi; Wu, Hui-Yu; Ko, Chia-Ling; Huang, Chien-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The mineralizing capabilities of surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), reinforced and treated with nanocrystals and capped with silane, in composite resins were analyzed via thermal cycling. We compared two light-curable composites that were mixed at filler-to-resin mass ratios of 30/70 and 50/50. The strengths, elastic moduli, and topographical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 and 2400 cycles. Silane-capped particles decreased the strength but enhanced the mineralizing capability of the composites. Nanocrystal-treated filler surfaces significantly increased the strength and moduli of the composites after 600 thermal cycles. However, these values declined after 2400 thermal cycles. The nanocrystal-treated filler surfaces prevented the reduction in strength before and after 2400 thermal cycles. Prior to silane capping, the nanocrystal-treated DCPA filler surfaces exhibited good mineralization capability without compromising strength. The potential for barrier generation through mineralization yielded positive effects and prevented micro-leakages.

  1. A new approach to mineralization of biocompatible hydrogel scaffolds: An efficient process towards 3-dimensional bonelike composites

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2002-09-16

    As a first step toward the design and fabrication of biomimetic bonelike composite materials, we have developed a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of hydroxyapatite with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of cross-linked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface, along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. Robust surface mineral layers a few microns thick were obtained. The same mineralization technique, when applied to a hydrogel that is less prone to surface hydrolysis, led to distinctly different mineralization patterns, in terms of both the extent of mineralization and the crystallinity of the apatite grown on the hydrogel surface. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral -hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  2. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birch's law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Earth's interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6, 770

  3. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  4. VNIR spectroscopy of rock forming minerals mixtures: a tool to interpret planetary igneous compositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, C.; Serventi, G.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Sgavetti, M.

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to investigate and map the mineralogical composition of a Solar System body. Laboratory activities, measuring and analyzing minerals and their mixtures, rock powders and slabs, varying the particle and grain sizes, permit to improve the confidence on the spectra.s interpretation. Here we summarized a set of activity on spectral mixtures between plagioclases and mafic materials at 63 125 and 125 250 mu m: illustrating the spectral variations due to the different intensity of the plagioclase absorption varying it Fe2+ content once mixed with orthopyroxene - clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene - olivine poor and - olivine rich materials (Serventi et al., 2013); an IMSA (Hapke, 1993) application to retrieve the endmember.s optical constants and to model the relative mineral abundances in intimate mixtures (Ciarniello et al., 2011) highlighting the influence of the mineral distribu- tions (Carli et al., 2014); a spectra deconvolution with Modified Gaussians (MGM, Sunshine et al., 1990) to define spectral parameters (Band Center, Depth and Width) trends respect to the mineralogical composition of endmembers (mineral chemis- try) and mixtures (mineral abundances). Also discussing the influence of the sizes (Serventi et al., 2015).

  5. Vesicular delivery of crystalline calcium minerals to ECM in biomineralized nanoclay composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katti, Kalpana S.; Ambre, Avinash H.; Payne, Scott; Katti, Dinesh R.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of mineralization and new bone formation were explored in newly formed extracellular matrix in a nanoclay based composite. Nanoclay films were prepared by intercalating the clays with amino acids and using the amino acids for mineralization of hydroxyapatite. The biomineralized hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside nanoclay galleries or in situ HAP/clay was further used to make films (substrates) using polycaprolactone (PCL) that were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells in a two-stage seeding process. SEM imaging experiments performed on PCL/in situ HAPclay composite films seeded with human MSCs indicated formation of matrix vesicles. The vesicles appear to emerge from the cells that are adhered to the nanoclay HAP films and also deposited in the extracellular space. Vesicles are also observed to be embedded in the cells or under the surface of cells. Crystalline structures with Ca and P were found inside vesicles. The Ca/P ratios obtained using energy dispersive spectroscopy indicate values ranging from below 0.7 to the stoichiometric HAP value of 1.67. The Ca/P ratios were obtained to be closer to the stoichiometric value for single seeding experiments as compared to the double seeding experiments indicating more new bone formation in double seeding experiments. New bone formation with bone mimetic mineralization is thus observed on the in situ HAP nanoclay PCL samples. Hence the PCL/in situ HAPclay composites besides being osteoinductive are also capable of providing a favorable micro-environment for cell dependent processes involved in bone mineral formation.

  6. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3-1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO4(2-) concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5-4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin;

  7. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3-1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO4(2-) concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5-4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; PMID:27625177

  8. Proximate composition and mineral content of two edible species of Cnidoscolus (tree spinach).

    PubMed

    Kuti, J O; Kuti, H O

    1999-01-01

    Proximate composition and mineral content of raw and cooked leaves of two edible tree spinach species (Cnidoscolus chayamansa and C. aconitifolius), known locally as 'chaya', were determined and compared with that of a traditional green vegetable, spinach (Spinicia oleraceae). Results of the study indicated that the edible leafy parts of the two chaya species contained significantly (p<0.05) greater amounts of crude protein, crude fiber, Ca, K, Fe, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than the spinach leaf. However, no significant (p>0.05) differences were found in nutritional composition and mineral content between the chaya species, except minor differences in the relative composition of fatty acids, protein and amino acids. Cooking of chaya leaves slightly reduced nutritional composition of both chaya species. Cooking is essential prior to consumption to inactivate the toxic hydrocyanic glycosides present in chaya leaves. Based on the results of this study, the edible chaya leaves may be good dietary sources of minerals (Ca, K and Fe) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). PMID:10540979

  9. Elastomeric high-mineral content hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composites for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Xu, Jianwen; Filion, Tera; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Ayers, David C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The design of synthetic bone grafts that mimic the structure and composition of bone and possess good surgical handling characteristics remains a major challenge. We report the development of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites termed “FlexBone” that possess osteoconductive mineral content approximating that of human bone yet exhibit elastomeric properties enabling the press-fitting into a defect site. The approach involves crosslinking pHEMA hydrogel in the presence of HA using viscous ethylene glycol as a solvent. The composites exhibit excellent structural integration between the apatite mineral component and the hydroxylated hydrogel matrix. The stiffness of the composite and the ability to withstand compressive stress correlate with the microstructure and content of the mineral component. The incorporation of porous aggregates of HA nanocrystals rather than compact micrometer-sized calcined HA effectively improved the resistance of the composite to crack propagation under compression. Freeze-dried FlexBone containing 50 wt % porous HA nanocrystals could withstand hundreds-of-megapascals compressive stress and >80% compressive strain without exhibiting brittle fractures. Upon equilibration with water, FlexBone retained good structural integration and withstood repetitive moderate (megapascals) compressive stress at body temperature. When subcutaneously implanted in rats, FlexBone supported osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells pre-seeded on FlexBone. Taken together, the combination of high osteoconductive mineral content, excellent organic-inorganic structural integration, elasticity, and the ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vivo makes FlexBone a promising candidate for orthopedic applications. PMID:18546185

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of V₂O₅-ZnO composites for the mineralization of nitrophenols.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Almeelbi, T; Salah, Numan; Chandrasekaran, S; Hameed, A

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to enhance the photocatalytic activity of ZnO in natural sunlight, V2O5-ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation technique. The characterization of the synthesized powders by FESEM, XRD and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) revealed that the both V2O5 and ZnO retain their individual identity in the composites but the increasing concentration of V2O5 affect the particle size of ZnO. As estimated by photoluminescence spectroscopy, in comparison to pure ZnO, the presence of V2O5 significantly suppressed the charge carrier's recombination process. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized powders was evaluated for the degradation/mineralization of three potential nitrophenol pollutants (2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol). The synthesized composites showed significantly higher activity for both degradation and mineralization of nitrophenols compared to pure ZnO. The progress of the degradation process was evaluated by HPLC while mineralization was monitored by TOC analysis. The degradation/mineralization route was estimated by identifying the intermediates using GC-MS. The correlation of the experimental data revealed that the position of NO2 group in 2- and 4-nitrophenol significantly affect the rate of degradation. The identification of hydroxyl group containing intermediates in the degradation of 4-NP confirmed the formation and vital role of hydroxyl radicals in degradation process. The rapid mineralization of nitrophenol substrates pointed out superoxide anions as major contributors in degradation and mineralization process. The assessment of the release of relevant ions (NO2(-), NO3(-), ONOO(-) and NH4(+)) during the degradation process assisted in identifying the plausible interaction sites.

  11. [Compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances in depressions between hills in karst region].

    PubMed

    Han, Mei-Rong; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Huang, Guo-Qin; Du, Hu; Lu, Shi-Yang; Shi, Wei-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation and analysis of seven soil mineral substance variables, nine vegetation factors, four topographical factors, and ten soil physicochemical factors in the 200 m x 40 m dynamic monitoring plots in farmland, forest plantation, secondary forest, and primary forest in the depressions between hills in karst region, and by using traditional statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), this paper studied the compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances as well as the coupling relationships between the mineral substances and the vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. In the depressions, soil mineral substances were mainly composed of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Fe2O3, whose contents were obviously lower than the mean background values of the soils in the world and in the zonal red soils at the same latitudes. The soil CaO and MgO contents were at medium level, while the soil MnO content was very low. The composition of soil mineral substances and their variation degrees varied with the ecosystems, and the soil development degree also varied. There was a positive correlation between vegetation origin and soil origin, suggesting the potential risk of rock desertification. Due to the high landscape heterogeneity of the four ecosystems, PCA didn't show good effect in lowering dimension. In all of the four ecosystems, soil mineral substances were the main affecting factors, and had very close relationships with vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. Especially for SiO2, CaO, and MnO, they mainly affected the vegetation species diversity and the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total potassium. This study indicated that soil mineral substances were the one of the factors limiting the soil fertility and vegetation growth in the depressions between hills in karst region. To effectively use the soil mineral resources and rationally apply mineral nutrients

  12. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  13. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity. PMID:27344855

  14. Layered socket Grafting using an anorganic bovine bone mineral-collagen composite.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, John P

    2013-01-01

    Following tooth extraction, socket grafts are commonly used to prevent incomplete healing and to optimize the bony site for implant placement (1). Many particulate, composite, and putty-like bone grafting materials either with or without a membrane have been used as socket grafts. This article introduces the layered socket grafting technique for socket grafting without the use of a membrane or primary closure. This technique uses a particulate anorganic bone mineral to graft the apices of sockets and then a composite material consisting of anorganic bovine bone mineral and collagen for the superior or crestal one-third of a socket or defect. When grafting sockets, the technique is fast and does not require the use of releasing flaps or primary closure and can also be used to manage large periapical defects. PMID:23488427

  15. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid; Saggu, Shalini; Sakeran, Mohamed I; Zidan, Nahla; Rehman, Hasibur; Ansari, Abid A

    2015-05-01

    The phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Cichorium intybus L., was determined. The leaves were found to possess comparatively higher values of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, in the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract was found to show comparatively low value of IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition. The IC50 value of chicory leaves extract was found to be 67.2 ± 2.6 μg/ml. The extracts were found to contain high amount of mineral elements especially Mg and Zn. Due to good phytochemical and antioxidant composition, C. intybus L., leaves would be an important candidate in pharmaceutical formulations and play an important role in improving the human health by participating in the antioxidant defense system against free radical generation. PMID:25972754

  16. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid; Saggu, Shalini; Sakeran, Mohamed I.; Zidan, Nahla; Rehman, Hasibur; Ansari, Abid A.

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Cichorium intybus L., was determined. The leaves were found to possess comparatively higher values of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, in the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract was found to show comparatively low value of IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition. The IC50 value of chicory leaves extract was found to be 67.2 ± 2.6 μg/ml. The extracts were found to contain high amount of mineral elements especially Mg and Zn. Due to good phytochemical and antioxidant composition, C. intybus L., leaves would be an important candidate in pharmaceutical formulations and play an important role in improving the human health by participating in the antioxidant defense system against free radical generation. PMID:25972754

  17. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094

  18. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition.

    PubMed

    Watling, Helen R; Shiers, Denis W; Collinson, David M

    2015-07-09

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  19. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  20. PIXE studies of changes in mineral composition of plants infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Papper, C. S.; Weste, G.

    1981-03-01

    The mineral composition of susceptible and resistant plants from native forests infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi was compared between themselves and with the same species from disease-free areas. Root and shoot samples from different plants were carefully ashed, compressed into pellets and analysed with the thick target PIXE technique. A number of elements, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sn and Pb, were detected. Many of the elements showed variations, sometimes large, between the composition of susceptible and resistant plants, and between the same species from infected and disease-free forests.

  1. Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2011-05-11

    The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples.

  2. Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2011-05-11

    The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples. PMID:21425858

  3. PS1-10jh: The disruption of a main-sequence star of near-solar composition

    SciTech Connect

    Guillochon, James; Manukian, Haik; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    When a star comes within a critical distance to a supermassive black hole (SMBH), immense tidal forces disrupt the star, resulting in a stream of debris that falls back onto the SMBH and powers a luminous flare. In this paper, we perform hydrodynamical simulations of the disruption of a main-sequence star by an SMBH to characterize the evolution of the debris stream after a tidal disruption. We demonstrate that this debris stream is confined by self-gravity in the two directions perpendicular to the original direction of the star's travel and as a consequence has a negligible surface area and makes almost no contribution to either the continuum or line emission. We therefore propose that any observed emission lines are not the result of photoionization in this unbound debris, but are produced in the region above and below the forming elliptical accretion disk, analogous to the broad-line region (BLR) in steadily accreting active galactic nuclei. As each line within a BLR is observationally linked to a particular location in the accretion disk, we suggest that the absence of a line indicates that the accretion disk does not yet extend to the distance required to produce that line. This model can be used to understand the spectral properties of the tidal disruption event PS1-10jh, for which He II lines are observed, but the Balmer series and He I are not. Using a maximum likelihood analysis, we show that the disruption of a main-sequence star of near-solar composition can reproduce this event.

  4. Identification of mineral composition and weathering product of tuff using reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C.; Park, H.

    2009-12-01

    Tuff is intricately composed of various types of rock blocks and ash matrixes during volcanic formation processes. Qualitative identification and quantitative assessment of mineral composition of tuff usually have been done using manual inspection with naked-eyes and various chemical analyses. Those conventional methods are destructive to objects, time consuming and sometimes carry out biased results from subjective decision making. To overcome limits from conventional methods, assessment technique using reflectance spectroscopy was applied to tuff specimens. Reflectance spectroscopy measures electromagnetic reflectance on rock surface and can extract diagnostic absorption features originated from chemical composition and crystal structure of constituents in the reflectance curve so mineral species can be discriminated qualitatively. The intrinsic absorption feature from particular mineral can be converted to absorption depth representing relative coverage of the mineral in the measurement area by removing delineated convex hull from raw reflectance curve. The spectral measurements were performed with field spectrometer FieldSpec®3 of ASD Inc. and the wavelength range of measurement was form 350nm to 2500nm. Three types of tuff blocks, ash tuff, green lapilli tuff and red lapilli tuff, were sampled from Hwasun County in Korea and the types of tuffs. The differences between green tuff and red tuff are from the color of their matrixes. Ash tuff consists of feldspars and quartz and small amount of chalcedony, calcite, dolomite, epidote and basalt fragments. Green lapilli tuff consists of feldspar, quartz and muscovite and small amount of calcite, chalcedony, sericite, chlorite, quartzite and basalt fragments. Red lapilli tuff consists of feldspar, quartz and muscovite and small amount of calcite, chalcedony, limonite, zircon, chlorite, quartzite and basalt fragments. The tuff rocks were coarsely crushed and blocks and matrixes were separated to measure standard

  5. Does nutrition affect bone porosity and mineral tissue distribution in deer antlers? The relationship between histology, mechanical properties and mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; Currey, J D; Ceacero, F; García, A J; Gallego, L; Gomez, S

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that porosity has an inverse relationship with the mechanical properties of bones. We examined cortical and trabecular porosity of antlers, and mineral composition, thickness and mechanical properties in the cortical wall. Samples belonged to two deer populations: a captive population of an experimental farm having a high quality diet, and a free-ranging population feeding on plants of lower nutritive quality. As shown for minerals and mechanical properties in previous studies by our group, cortical and trabecular porosity increased from the base distally. Cortical porosity was always caused by the presence of incomplete primary osteons. Porosity increased along the length of the antler much more in deer with lower quality diet. Despite cortical porosity being inversely related to mechanical properties and positively with K, Zn and other minerals indicating physiological effort, it was these minerals and not porosity that statistically better explained variability in mechanical properties. Histochemistry showed that the reason for this is that Zn is located around incomplete osteons and also in complete osteons that were still mineralizing, whereas K is located in non-osteonal bone, which constitutes a greater proportion of bone where osteons are incompletely mineralized. This suggests that, K, Zn and other minerals indicate reduction in mechanical performance even with little porosity. If a similar process occurred in internal bones, K, Zn and other minerals in the bone may be an early indicator of decrease in mechanical properties and future osteoporosis. In conclusion, porosity is related to diet and physiological effort in deer.

  6. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  7. Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a

  8. Mineral composition of different strains of edible medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Peck.

    PubMed

    Györfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Vetter, János

    2010-12-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a well-known Basidiomycota fungus (Royal Sun Agaricus), with rising demand in consumption and production worldwide. This particular mushroom with high medical value has been used successfully in cancer therapy and in the treatment of some bacterial and viral diseases. Four strains of A. subrufescens (Si2.2, 853, 1105, and 2603) were cultivated, and 22 mineral elements of basidiomes (fruit bodies) were analyzed (caps and stipes separately). The data obtained about the mineral compositions were compared to the "reference" Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) and to the average of wild growing Agaricus species. The mineral composition of A. subrufescens strains can be characterized by the following: (1) high levels of valuable macroelements, i.e., potassium (28-30,000 mg/kg of dry matter), phosphorus (7-11,000 mg/kg of dry matter), and calcium and magnesium (for both elements, 1,000-1,500 mg/kg of dry matter); (2) significantly higher level of copper (compared to A. bisporus, 70-150 mg/kg of dry matter) and zinc (140-250 mg/kg of dry matter); (3) low quantity of sodium (140-180 mg/kg of dry matter); (4) attention should paid to the detectable amount of cadmium (2-17 mg/kg of dry matter) in strain Si2.2; (5) low or undetectable concentrations of some other poisonous microelements like As, Cr, and V; and (6) the distribution of elements in caps and stipes is characteristic-the majority of beneficial elements have higher contents in caps than in stipes, but some other elements, such as Ca, Fe, and Na, appear in an inverse proportion. In conclusion, it can be said that the mineral composition of A. subrufescens is definitely positive, with the exception of the above-mentioned Cd level.

  9. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3–1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42− concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5–4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3–6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0–4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1–1.6 Ma; and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s. PMID:27625177

  10. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3–1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42‑ concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5–4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3–6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0–4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1–1.6 Ma and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s.

  11. Stable isotope, chemical, and mineral compositions of the Middle Proterozoic Lijiaying Mn deposit, Shaanxi Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeh, Hsueh-Wen; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie; Fan, Delian

    1999-01-01

    The Lijiaying Mn deposit, located about 250 km southwest of Xian, is a high-quality ore characterized by low P and Fe contents and a mean Mn content of about 23%. The ore deposit occurs in shallow-water marine sedimentary rocks of probable Middle Proterozoic age. Carbonate minerals in the ore deposit include kutnahorite, calcite, Mn calcite, and Mg calcite. Carbon (−0.4 to −4.0‰) and oxygen (−3.7 to −12.9‰) isotopes show that, with a few exceptions, those carbonate minerals are not pristine low-temperature marine precipitates. All samples are depleted in rare earth elements (REEs) relative to shale and have negative Eu and positive Ce anomalies on chondrite-normalized plots. The Fe/Mn ratios of representative ore samples range from about 0.034 to <0.008 and P/Mn from 0.0023 to <0.001. Based on mineralogical data, the low ends of those ranges of ratios are probably close to ratios for the pure Mn minerals. Manganese contents have a strong positive correlation with Ce anomaly values and a moderate correlation with total REE contents. Compositional data indicate that kutnahorite is a metamorphic mineral and that most calcites formed as low-temperature marine carbonates that were subsequently metamorphosed. The braunite ore precursor mineral was probably a Mn oxyhydroxide, similar to those that formed on the deep ocean-floor during the Cenozoic. Because the Lijiaying precursor mineral formed in a shallow-water marine environment, the atmospheric oxygen content during the Middle Proterozoic may have been lower than it has been during the Cenozoic.

  12. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

  13. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect.

  15. Bioactive Polymeric Composites for Tooth Mineral Regeneration: Physicochemical and Cellular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based dental materials are focused on the design of bioactive, non-degradable, biocompatible, polymeric composites derived from acrylic monomer systems and ACP by photochemical or chemically activated polymerization. Their intended uses include remineralizing bases/liners, orthodontic adhesives and/or endodontic sealers. The bioactivity of these materials originates from the propensity of ACP, once exposed to oral fluids, to release Ca and PO4 ions (building blocks of tooth and bone mineral) in a sustained manner while spontaneously converting to thermodynamically stable apatite. As a result of ACP's bioactivity, local Ca- and PO4-enriched environments are created with supersaturation conditions favorable for the regeneration of tooth mineral lost to decay or wear. Besides its applicative purpose, our research also seeks to expand the fundamental knowledge base of structure-composition-property relationships existing in these complex systems and identify the mechanisms that govern filler/polymer and composite/tooth interfacial phenomena. In addition to an extensive physicochemical evaluation, we also assess the leachability of the unreacted monomers and in vitro cellular responses to these types of dental materials. The systematic physicochemical and cellular assessments presented in this study typically provide model materials suitable for further animal and/or clinical testing. In addition to their potential dental clinical value, these studies suggest the future development of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials based on composite materials derived from biodegradable polymers and ACP, and designed primarily for general bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22102967

  16. Potassium Isotopic Compositions of NIST Potassium Standards and 40Ar/39Ar Mineral Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Leah; Tappa, Mike; Ellam, Rob; Mark, Darren; Higgins, John; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25per mille level (1s) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards.

  17. Petrography and mineral chemistry of the composite Deboullie Pluton, northern Maine, USA: implications for the genesis of Cu-Mo mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.; Ayuso, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biotite and apatite mineral chemistry, particularly halogen abundances and ratios, are used to investigate the relation of the two contrasting parts of the Deboullie composite pluton (syenite-granodiorite) located in northern Maine. Biotite mineral chemistry helps to classify the weakly developed porphyry-style mineralization (Cu-Mo) associated with syenitic rocks of the Deboullie pluton. Biotite and apatite occur within the matrix of the rocks and within small multiphase inclusions hosted by clinopyroxene. The inclusions are interpreted to be crystallized melt inclusions rather than solid inclusions, that were trapped by clinopyroxene during growth. The multiphase inclusions consist of K-feldspar + quartz + biotite + apatite + magnetite. On a regional scale, biotite compositions from granitic plutons in Maine do not vary in a systematic manner. -from Authors

  18. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  19. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg.

  20. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Anália Lúcia Vieira; Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco; de Freitas, Gilberto Bernardo; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-02-15

    The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. The production, mass, size, and mineral composition of passion fruit pulp were evaluated when treated with a mineral fertilizer (control) (MIN) or cattle manure at a single dose equivalent to potassium fertilizer (ORG) or double dose (2×ORG). The production and the numbers of fruits of plants treated with MIN and 2×ORG was higher than with ORG. The level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the fruit pulp was similar with all three fertilizers, but the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) was higher with ORG and 2×ORG. The number and weight of the fruits of passion fruit treated with 2×ORG were similar to those with MIN fertilizer, but they contained more Ca and Mg. PMID:27664654

  1. Biomimetic composite scaffolds based on mineralization of hydroxyapatite on electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/nanocellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Si, Junhui; Cui, Zhixiang; Wang, Qianting; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Chuntai

    2016-06-01

    A biomimetic nanocomposite scaffold with HA formation on the electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)/nanocellulose (NC) fibrous matrix was developed in this study. The electrospun PCL/NC fiber mat was built and then biomineralized by treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF). Using such a rapid and effective procedure, a continuous biomimetic crystalline HA layer could be successfully formed without the need of any additional chemical modification of the substrate surface. The results showed that the introduction of NC into composite fibers is an effective approach to induce the deposition of HA nucleus as well as to improve their distribution and growth of a crystalline HA layer on the fibrous scaffolds. The water contact angle (WCA) of the PCL/NC/HA scaffolds decreases with increasing NC content and mineralization time, resulting in the enhancement of their hydrophilicity. These results indicated that HA-mineralized on PCL/NC fiber can be prepared directly by simply using SBF immersion. PMID:27083369

  2. Disruption of OsEXO70A1 Causes Irregular Vascular Bundles and Perturbs Mineral Nutrient Assimilation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Bin; Hu, Li; Chen, Weilan; Li, Tao; Hu, Binhua; Zheng, Ling; Lv, Zheng; You, Shuju; Wang, Yuping; Ma, Bingtian; Chen, Xuewei; Qin, Peng; Li, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Normal uptake, transportation, and assimilation of primary nutrients are essential to plant growth. Tracheary elements (TEs) are tissues responsible for the transport of water and minerals and characterized by patterned secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening. Exocysts are involved in the regulation of SCW deposition by mediating the targeted transport of materials and enzymes to specific membrane areas. EXO70s are highly duplicated in plants and provide exocysts with functional specificity. In this study, we report the isolation of a rice mutant rapid leaf senescence2 (rls2) that exhibits dwarfism, ferruginous spotted necrotic leaves, decreased hydraulic transport, and disordered primary nutrient assimilation. Histological analysis of rls2-1 mutants has indicated impaired cell expansion, collapsed vascular tissues, and irregular SCW deposition. Map-based cloning has revealed that RLS2 encodes OsEXO70A1, which is one of the 47 members of EXO70s in rice. RLS2 was widely expressed and spatially restricted in vascular bundles. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that RLS2 was present on both membrane and nuclear regions. Expression analysis revealed that mutations in rls2 triggers transcriptional fluctuation of orthologous EXO70 genes and affects genes involved in primary nutrient absorption and transport. In brief, our study revealed that RLS2 is required for normal vascular bundle differentiation and primary nutrient assimilation. PMID:26691393

  3. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Isotopic compositions of gangue versus ore minerals in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.C.; Podosek, F.A. . Dept. of Earth Planetary Sciences); McLimans, R.K. . Jackson Research Lab.)

    1993-03-01

    Four successive stages of gangue calcite occur after sulfide mineralization in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district. These are commonly interpreted to represent the waning stage of MTV mineralization, because of spatial association and a smooth transition of decreasing fluid inclusion temperatures from late stage sphalerite through calcites 2 to 4. U-Pb systematics in two calcite 2 crystals suggests an age of 162 Ma, with [mu] values sufficiently great (1,175 and 1,611) that the indicated age is insensitive to initial [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb. This age for calcite formation is [approx] 100 Ma after that of sulfide mineralization and thus represents recurrent fluid activity along fracture zones. Initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr isotopic composition for three calcite 2 crystals range from 0.70956--0.70961, consist with initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr in the 270 Ma sphalerites. The initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr for two calcite 3 crystals and one calcite 4 crystal range from 0.70845--0.70875, consistent with mid-Ordovician seawater and the host carbonates of that age. The authors propose a hypothesis which is consistent with the Sr and U-Pb isotopic data. 162 Ma ago fluids flushed the existing pore fluids (left over from 270 Ma MVT event) from carbonate strata and deposited calcite 2. Subsequently, additional fluids containing [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr consistent with that derived from mid-Ordovician carbonates deposited calcite 3 and 4. If this hypothesis is correct the paragenetic connection between ore and gangue mineralization at UMV is weak and geochemical study of the gangue minerals may provide only limited information about the fluid which formed the ores.

  5. Settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2008-08-01

    This study discusses the laws which govern sediment deposition, and consequently determine size-dependent compositional variability. A theoretical approach is substantiated by robust datasets on major Alpine, Himalayan, and African sedimentary systems. Integrated (bulk-petrography, heavy-mineral, X-ray powder diffraction) multiple-window analyses at 0.25ϕ to 0.50ϕ sieve interval of eighty-five fluvial, beach, and eolian-dune samples, ranging from very fine silt to coarse sand, document homologous intrasample compositional trends, revealed by systematic concentration of denser grains in finer-grained fractions (“size-density sorting”). These trends are explained by the settling-equivalence principle, stating that detrital minerals are deposited together if their settling velocity is the same. Settling of silt is chiefly resisted by fluid viscosity, and Stokes' law predicts that size differences between detrital minerals in ϕ units (“size shifts”) are half the difference between the logarithms of their submerged densities. Settling of pebbles is chiefly resisted by turbulence effects, and the Impact law predicts double size shifts than Stokes' law. Settling of sand is resisted by both viscosity and turbulence, the settling-equivalence formula is complex, and size shifts increase - with increasing settling velocity and grain size - from those predicted by Stokes' law to those predicted by the Impact law. In wind-laid sands, size shifts match those predicted by the Impact law; size-density sorting is thus greater than in water-laid fine sands. New analytical, graphical, and statistical techniques for rigorous settling-equivalence analysis of terrigenous sediments are illustrated. Deviations associated with non-spherical shape, density anomalies, inheritance from source rocks, or mixing of detrital species with contrasting provenance and different size distribution are also tentatively assessed. Such integrated theoretical and experimental approach allows us

  6. Effect of diurnal temperature alternations on plant growth and mineral composition in cucumber, melon and watermelon.

    PubMed

    Inthichack, Phommy; Nishimura, Yasuyo; Fukumoto, Yasufumi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated plant growth and mineral composition in three cucurbit crops of cucumber, melon and watermelon grown under four constant day and night temperatures (DIF) of 25/15, 22.5/17.5, 17.5/22.5 and 15/25 degrees C. As expected, the growth and development of the three cucurbits were strongly temperature dependent. Plant height and relative chlorophyll content of the three crops decreased linearly along with decreases in day temperature. Leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly under negative DIFs and the lowest value was in DIF plot 15/25 degrees C. However, the negative DIF of 15/25 degrees C resulted in increased content of all mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu) in both the leaf and stem of the three cucurbit crops. The data suggest that a negative DIF as low as 15/25 degrees C may be beneficial to greenhouse-grown cucurbit crop producers, by controlling vegetative growth that facilitates crop management, with no negative effect on or enhancement of the uptake rates of mineral nutrients which are required to determine yield and fruit quality at the production stage. Effective utilization of diurnal temperature alternations is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses.

  7. Mineral Composition Determination of the Lunar Crust with the SIR-2 Instrument on CHANDRAYAAN-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, Urs; Bhatt, Megha; Bugiolacchi, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been used for quite some time to collect information concerning the composition of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial surfaces. Among those techniques InfraRed (IR) spectroscopy provides information at the molecular level on the structure and properties of minerals. Due to the fact that IR spectra are specific to given minerals, IR spectroscopy is widely applied in qualitative and quantitative mineralogical analyses. In the laboratory the measurement of the IR transmission spectrum of a given material delivers a direct determination of the absorption coefficient of the irradiated substance as a unique identification parameter. Relative wavelength position, strength, and shape of the measured absorption bands have been employed for a long time as diagnostic tools to analyse the mineralogy of the observed surface by deriving basic correlations between optical properties and the actual mineralogy of the observed samples. With the advent of high-resolution NIR reflection spectrometers, mineral identification of planetary surfaces can be investigated now more quantitatively. We show how remotely sensed NIR lunar data, collected by the SIR-2-instrument [1] that flew on the Indian Lunar Mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2009 and 2010, can be used to unscramble and identify the mineral composition of the lunar crust. The SIR-2 instrument was a lightweight, modular, grating-based, high-resolution point spectrometer operating in the spectral range 0.9--2.4~μ m, with spectral resolution of ˜6 nm (256 bands). For this study 50,000 SIR-2 spectra were selected, which show clear absorption features. We concentrate here on pyroxene as one of the most common minerals in both evolved and undifferentiated solid bodies of the solar system and as the dominant mafic mineral on the lunar surface [2]. With their distinct absorption features not only in the visible but also in the near-infrared this group of minerals warrants a quantitative analysis. We are using the

  8. Quantifying elemental compositions of primary minerals from granitic rocks and saprolite within the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Granitic terrain comprises a significant area of the earth's land surface (>15%). Quantifying weathering processes involved in the transformation of granitic rock to saprolite and soil is central to understanding landscape evolution in these systems. The quantification of primary mineral composition is important for assessing subsequent mineral transformations and soil production. This study focuses on coupling detailed analysis of primary mineral composition to soil development across an array of field sites sampled from the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone observatory (SCM-CZO) environmental gradient. The gradient spans substantial climate-driven shifts in vegetation, ranging from desert scrub to mixed conifer forests. The parent material is a combination of Precambrian and Tertiary aged granites and quartz diorite. Primary mineral type and composition are known to vary among the various aged granitic materials and this variability is hypothesized to manifest as significant variation in regolith forming processes across the SCM-CZO. To address this variability, the mineral composition and mineral formulae of rock and saprolite samples were determined by electron microprobe chemical analyses. The rocks were pre-dominantly quartz, biotite, muscovite, orthoclase and calcium/sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars. Trace minerals observed in the samples included sphene, rutile, zircon, garnet, ilmenite, and apatite. Mineral formulae from electron microprobe analyses were combined with quantitative x-ray diffraction (QXRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data to quantify both primary and secondary mineralogical components in soil profiles from each of the field sites. Further, electron microprobe analyses of <2mm mixed conifer saprolite revealed weathered plagioclase grains coated with clay-sized particles enriched in silica and aluminum (~25% and 15%, respectively), suggesting kaolin as the secondary phase. The coatings were interspersed within each plagioclase grain, a

  9. Performance of ground-penetrating radar on granitic regoliths with different mineral composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breiner, J.M.; Doolittle, J.A.; Horton, Radley M.; Graham, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Although ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is extensively used to characterize the regolith, few studies have addressed the effects of chemical and mineralogical compositions of soils and bedrock on its performance. This investigation evaluated the performance of GPR on two different granitic regoliths of somewhat different mineralogical composition in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. Radar records collected at a site where soils are Alfisols were more depth restricted than the radar record obtained at a site where soils are Entisols. Although the Alfisols contain an argillic horizon, and the Entisols have no such horizon of clay accumulation, the main impact on GPR effectiveness is related to mineralogy. The bedrock at the Alfisol site, which contains more mafic minerals (5% hornblende and 20% biotite), is more attenuating to GPR than the bedrock at the Entisol site, where mafic mineral content is less (<1% hornblende and 10% biotite). Thus, a relatively minor variation in bedrock mineralogy, specifically the increased biotite content, severely restricts the performance of GPR. Copyright ?? 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  10. A Hydrogel-Mineral Composite Scaffold for Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Khanarian, Nora T.; Jiang, Jie; Wan, Leo Q.; Mow, Van C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of physical disability among Americans, and tissue engineered cartilage grafts have emerged as a promising treatment option for this debilitating condition. Currently, the formation of a stable interface between the cartilage graft and subchondral bone remains a significant challenge. This study evaluates the potential of a hybrid scaffold of hydroxyapatite (HA) and alginate hydrogel for the regeneration of the osteochondral interface. Specifically, the effects of HA on the response of chondrocytes were determined, focusing on changes in matrix production and mineralization, as well as scaffold mechanical properties over time. Additionally, the optimal chondrocyte population for interface tissue engineering was evaluated. It was observed that the HA phase of the composite scaffold promoted the formation of a proteoglycan- and type II collagen–rich matrix when seeded with deep zone chondrocytes. More importantly, the elevated biosynthesis translated into significant increases in both compressive and shear moduli relative to the mineral-free control. Presence of HA also promoted chondrocyte hypertrophy and type X collagen deposition. These results demonstrate that the hydrogel–calcium phosphate composite supported the formation of a calcified cartilage-like matrix and is a promising scaffold design for osteochondral interface tissue engineering. PMID:21919797

  11. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  12. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  13. Systematic Relationships Between Lidar Observables And Sizes And Mineral Composition Of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diedenhoven, B.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Fridlind, A. M.; Chowdhary, J.; Cairns, B.; Stangl, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The physical and chemical properties of soil dust aerosol particles fundamentally affect their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates on the surface of dust particles, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Lidar measurements, such as extinction-to-backscatter, color and depolarization ratios, are frequently used to distinguish between aerosol types with different physical and chemical properties. The chemical composition of aerosol particles determines their complex refractive index, hence affecting their backscattering properties. Here we present a study on how dust aerosol backscattering and depolarization properties at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064 nm are related to size and complex refractive index, which varies with the mineral composition of the dust. Dust aerosols are represented by collections of spheroids with a range of prolate and oblate aspect ratios and their optical properties are obtained using T-matrix calculations. We find simple, systematic relationships between lidar observables and the dust size and complex refractive index that may aid the use of space-based or airborne lidars for direct retrieval of dust properties or for the evaluation of chemical transport models using forward simulated lidar variables. In addition, we present first results on the spatial variation of forward-simulated lidar variables based on a dust model that accounts for the atmospheric cycle of eight different mineral types plus internal mixtures of seven mineral types with iron oxides, which was recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2.

  14. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

  15. Systematic Relationships Between Lidar Observables and Sizes And Mineral Composition Of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Stangl, Alexander; Perlwitz, Jan; Fridlind, Ann M.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Cairns, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of soil dust aerosol particles fundamentally affect their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates on the surface of dust particles, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Lidar measurements, such as extinction-to-backscatter, color and depolarization ratios, are frequently used to distinguish between aerosol types with different physical and chemical properties. The chemical composition of aerosol particles determines their complex refractive index, hence affecting their backscattering properties. Here we present a study on how dust aerosol backscattering and depolarization properties at wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064 nm are related to size and complex refractive index, which varies with the mineral composition of the dust. Dust aerosols are represented by collections of spheroids with a range of prolate and oblate aspect ratios and their optical properties are obtained using T-matrix calculations. We find simple, systematic relationships between lidar observables and the dust size and complex refractive index that may aid the use of space-based or airborne lidars for direct retrieval of dust properties or for the evaluation of chemical transport models using forward simulated lidar variables. In addition, we present first results on the spatial variation of forward-simulated lidar variables based on a dust model that accounts for the atmospheric cycle of eight different mineral types plus internal mixtures of seven mineral types with iron oxides, which was recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2.

  16. Outgassing behavior and composition of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) during its disruption.

    PubMed

    Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Moreno, R; Colom, P; Crovisier, J; Gérard, E; Henry, F; Lis, D C; Matthews, H; Weaver, H A; Womack, M; Festou, M C

    2001-05-18

    The gas activity of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was monitored at radio wavelengths during its disruption. A runaway fragmentation of the nucleus may have begun around 18 July 2000 and proceeded until 23 July. The mass in small icy debris (

  17. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates.

  18. Potassium isotopic compositions of NIST potassium standards and 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Tappa, M.; Ellam, R. M.; Mark, D. F.; Lloyd, N. S.; Higgins, J. A.; Simon, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25‰ level (1σ) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards. [1] Hiess

  19. Transformative learning in a professional development course aimed at addressing disruptive physician behavior: a composite case study.

    PubMed

    Samenow, Charles P; Worley, Linda L M; Neufeld, Ron; Fishel, Tobi; Swiggart, William H

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive physician behavior presents a challenge to the academic medical center. Such behaviors threaten the learning environment through increasing staff conflict, role modeling poor behaviors to trainees, and, ultimately, posing a risk to patient safety. Given that these physicians are often respected and valued for their clinical skills, many institutions struggle with how to best manage their behaviors. The authors present a composite case study of an academic physician referred to a professional development program for his disruptive behavior. They outline how transformative learning was applied to the development of concrete learning objectives, activities, and assessments for a curriculum aimed at promoting behavior change. Important themes include a safe group process in which the physician's assumptions are critically examined so that through experiential exercises and reflection, new roles, skills, and behaviors are learned, explored, and practiced. Timely feedback to the physician from the institution, colleagues, and administrators is critical to the physician's understanding of the impact of his or her behavior. Ultimately, the physician returns to practice demonstrating more professional behavior. Implications for medical education, prevention, and other professional development programs are discussed. PMID:23165281

  20. Responses in Micro-Mineral Metabolism in Rainbow Trout to Change in Dietary Ingredient Composition and Inclusion of a Micro-Mineral Premix

    PubMed Central

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Veron, Vincent; Larroquet, Laurence; Mariojouls, Catherine; Schrama, Johan W.; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.

    2016-01-01

    Responses in micro-mineral metabolism to changes in dietary ingredient composition and inclusion of a micro-mineral premix (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se) were studied in rainbow trout. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20g) were fed over 12 weeks at 17°C a fishmeal-based diet (M) or a plant-ingredient based diet (V), with or without inclusion of a mineral premix. Trout fed the V vs. M diet had lower feed intake, growth, hepato-somatic index, apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and also lower whole body Se and Zn concentration, whereas whole body Fe and Cu and plasma Fe concentrations were higher. Feeding the V diet increased intestinal ferric reductase activity; at transcriptional level, hepatic hepcidin expression was down-regulated and ferroportin 1 was up-regulated. Transcription of intestinal Cu-transporting ATPases and hepatic copper transporter1 were higher in V0 compared to other groups. Among the hepatic metalo-enzyme activities assayed, only Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase was affected, being lower in V fed fish. Premix inclusion reduced the AAC of Fe, Cu and Zn; increased the whole body concentration of all micro- minerals; up-regulated hepatic hepcidin and down-regulated intestinal ferroportin 1 transcription; and reduced the transcription of Cu-transporting ATPases in the intestine. Overall, the regulation of micro-mineral metabolism in rainbow trout, especially Fe and Cu, was affected both by a change in ingredient composition and micro-mineral premix inclusion. PMID:26895186

  1. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  2. Responses in Micro-Mineral Metabolism in Rainbow Trout to Change in Dietary Ingredient Composition and Inclusion of a Micro-Mineral Premix.

    PubMed

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Veron, Vincent; Larroquet, Laurence; Mariojouls, Catherine; Schrama, Johan W; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2016-01-01

    Responses in micro-mineral metabolism to changes in dietary ingredient composition and inclusion of a micro-mineral premix (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se) were studied in rainbow trout. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) were fed over 12 weeks at 17°C a fishmeal-based diet (M) or a plant-ingredient based diet (V), with or without inclusion of a mineral premix. Trout fed the V vs. M diet had lower feed intake, growth, hepato-somatic index, apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and also lower whole body Se and Zn concentration, whereas whole body Fe and Cu and plasma Fe concentrations were higher. Feeding the V diet increased intestinal ferric reductase activity; at transcriptional level, hepatic hepcidin expression was down-regulated and ferroportin 1 was up-regulated. Transcription of intestinal Cu-transporting ATPases and hepatic copper transporter1 were higher in V0 compared to other groups. Among the hepatic metalo-enzyme activities assayed, only Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase was affected, being lower in V fed fish. Premix inclusion reduced the AAC of Fe, Cu and Zn; increased the whole body concentration of all micro- minerals; up-regulated hepatic hepcidin and down-regulated intestinal ferroportin 1 transcription; and reduced the transcription of Cu-transporting ATPases in the intestine. Overall, the regulation of micro-mineral metabolism in rainbow trout, especially Fe and Cu, was affected both by a change in ingredient composition and micro-mineral premix inclusion. PMID:26895186

  3. Responses in Micro-Mineral Metabolism in Rainbow Trout to Change in Dietary Ingredient Composition and Inclusion of a Micro-Mineral Premix.

    PubMed

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Veron, Vincent; Larroquet, Laurence; Mariojouls, Catherine; Schrama, Johan W; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2016-01-01

    Responses in micro-mineral metabolism to changes in dietary ingredient composition and inclusion of a micro-mineral premix (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se) were studied in rainbow trout. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20 g) were fed over 12 weeks at 17°C a fishmeal-based diet (M) or a plant-ingredient based diet (V), with or without inclusion of a mineral premix. Trout fed the V vs. M diet had lower feed intake, growth, hepato-somatic index, apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and also lower whole body Se and Zn concentration, whereas whole body Fe and Cu and plasma Fe concentrations were higher. Feeding the V diet increased intestinal ferric reductase activity; at transcriptional level, hepatic hepcidin expression was down-regulated and ferroportin 1 was up-regulated. Transcription of intestinal Cu-transporting ATPases and hepatic copper transporter1 were higher in V0 compared to other groups. Among the hepatic metalo-enzyme activities assayed, only Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase was affected, being lower in V fed fish. Premix inclusion reduced the AAC of Fe, Cu and Zn; increased the whole body concentration of all micro- minerals; up-regulated hepatic hepcidin and down-regulated intestinal ferroportin 1 transcription; and reduced the transcription of Cu-transporting ATPases in the intestine. Overall, the regulation of micro-mineral metabolism in rainbow trout, especially Fe and Cu, was affected both by a change in ingredient composition and micro-mineral premix inclusion.

  4. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height2(kg/m2). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm2). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation. PMID:25120859

  5. Effect of milk minerals on calf gains and sex differences in mineral composition of milk from Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Gómez, J A; Landete-Castillejos, T; Garcia, A J; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Piñeiro, V; Casabiell, X; de la Cruz, L F

    2009-11-01

    Milk mineral content has received little attention in studies focusing on milk nutrient effects on offspring growth. This study examines calf growth in Iberian deer and compares the influence of milk minerals, other nutrients, and lactation variables relevant for growth to discern the relative weight of each factor. In addition, because Iberian deer hinds are the first mammal found to produce different milk for sons and daughters, the present study examines whether there are also sex differences in milk mineral composition. Concentrations and yields of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, and Zn in milk of 46 red deer hinds were monitored through 18 weeks of lactation. Calf growth was influenced by Ca and P percent, and total Fe production. Milk for males had a lower content in Ca and P, a greater content of K, and Mg, whereas no sex effects were found in Na, Fe, or Zn percentages. Higher percentages in Ca and P for daughters might constitute a compensatory response, as daily production was not biased towards females in Ca or P, whereas in the latter and all the other minerals daily production was greater for heavier calves, which are usually males. In conclusion, milk mineral content and production influence calf growth even after controlling for other important lactation variables and nutrients, and they show effects and interactions more complicated than expected.

  6. Study on the Relationship between the Depth of Spectral Absorption and the Content of the Mineral Composition of Biotite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-bao; Zhang, Chen-xi; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Qi-gang

    2015-09-01

    The mineral composition of rock is one of the main factors affecting the spectral reflectance characteristics, and it's an important reason for generating various rock characteristic spectra. This study choose the rock samples provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (including all kinds of mineral percentage of rocks, and spectral reflectances range from 0.35 to 2.50 μm wavelength measured by ASD spectrometer), and the various types of mineral spectral reflectances contained within the rocks are the essential data. Using the spectral linear mixture model of rocks and their minerals, firstly, a simulation study on the mixture of rock and mineral composition is achieved, the experimental results indicate that rock spectral curves using the model which based on the theory of the linear mixture are able to simulate better and preserve the absorption characteristics of various mineral components well. Then, 8 samples which contain biotite mineral are picked from the rock spectra of igneous, biotite contents and the absorption depth characteristics of spectral reflection at 2.332 μm, furthermore, a variety of linear and nonlinear normal statistical models are used to fit the relationship between the depth of absorption spectra and the content of the mineral composition of biotite, finally, a new simulation model is build up with the Growth and the Exponential curve model, and a statistical response relationship between the spectral absorption depth and the rock mineral contents is simulated by using the new model, the fitting results show that the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9984 and the standard deviation is 0.572, although the standard deviation using Growth and Exponential model is less than the two model combined with the new model fitting the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient of the new model had significantly increased, which suggesting that the, new model fitting effect is closer to the measured values of samples, it proves that the

  7. Study on the Relationship between the Depth of Spectral Absorption and the Content of the Mineral Composition of Biotite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-bao; Zhang, Chen-xi; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Qi-gang

    2015-09-01

    The mineral composition of rock is one of the main factors affecting the spectral reflectance characteristics, and it's an important reason for generating various rock characteristic spectra. This study choose the rock samples provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (including all kinds of mineral percentage of rocks, and spectral reflectances range from 0.35 to 2.50 μm wavelength measured by ASD spectrometer), and the various types of mineral spectral reflectances contained within the rocks are the essential data. Using the spectral linear mixture model of rocks and their minerals, firstly, a simulation study on the mixture of rock and mineral composition is achieved, the experimental results indicate that rock spectral curves using the model which based on the theory of the linear mixture are able to simulate better and preserve the absorption characteristics of various mineral components well. Then, 8 samples which contain biotite mineral are picked from the rock spectra of igneous, biotite contents and the absorption depth characteristics of spectral reflection at 2.332 μm, furthermore, a variety of linear and nonlinear normal statistical models are used to fit the relationship between the depth of absorption spectra and the content of the mineral composition of biotite, finally, a new simulation model is build up with the Growth and the Exponential curve model, and a statistical response relationship between the spectral absorption depth and the rock mineral contents is simulated by using the new model, the fitting results show that the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9984 and the standard deviation is 0.572, although the standard deviation using Growth and Exponential model is less than the two model combined with the new model fitting the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient of the new model had significantly increased, which suggesting that the, new model fitting effect is closer to the measured values of samples, it proves that the

  8. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  9. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 2; Model Evaluation and Identification of Key Processes with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  10. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    A global compilation from nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match those of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, where soil aggregates are broken into smaller particles. The second method approximately reconstructs the aggregates and size distribution of the original soil that is subject to wind erosion. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observation. Only the AMF method restores phyllosilicate mass to silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in closer agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at separate clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, compared to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors in the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that apportionment of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining uncertainty. Substantial uncertainty remains in evaluating both models and the MMT due to the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  11. The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Joan A.

    2007-11-15

    Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

  12. Lead isotope compositions as guides to early gold mineralization: The North Amethyst vein system, Creede district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Pb isotope compositions from the late stage of the North Amethyst vein system and from the Bondholder and central and southern Creede mining districts are more radiogenic than the host volcanic rocks of the central cluster of the San Juan volcanic field. Our Pb isotope results indicate that early Au mineralization of the North Amethyst area may represent the product of an older and relatively local hydrothermal system distinct from that of the younger base metal and Ag mineralization found throughout the region. Fluids that deposited Au minerals may have derived their Pb isotope composition by a greater degree of interaction with shallow, relatively less radiogenic volcanic wall rocks. The younger, base metal and Ag-rich mineralization that overprints the Au mineralization in the North Amethyst area clearly has a more radiogenic isotopic signature, which implies that the later mineralization derived a greater component of its Pb from Proterozoic source rocks, or sediments derived from them.Paragenetically early sulfide-rich vein assemblages have the least radiogenic galenas and generally also have the highest Au contents. Thus, identification of paragenetically early vein assemblages with relatively unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions similar to those of the North Amethyst area provides an additional exploration tool for Au in the central San Juan Mountains area.

  13. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    PubMed

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero; Indigenous women +0.82, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero). FN BMD(H) was higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates.

  14. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P < 0.05) amounts of moisture, ash, fiber, oil, and carbohydrates, but have almost similar amounts of protein. Moreover, results revealed that date varieties contained significantly varied (P < 0.05) amounts of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, which ranged between 35.82 and 99.34 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 1.74–3.39 mg catechin equivalent/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the studied date varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  16. Influence of Cultivation Parameters on the Mineral Composition of Kiwi Fruit from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Santoni, François; Barboni, Toussaint; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2016-06-01

    The effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C, and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) from Corsica were evaluated. The kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two-week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. The kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one growing season. The concentrations of 67 elements in kiwi fruit were measured using various analytical methods, such as flow injection spectrophotometry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flame atomic emission spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and filtration. The main elements in kiwi fruit are K, N, Cl, P, and Si and, to a lesser amount, Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe. This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the amount of 23 mineral elements depending on the harvest date, the time of storage, and the input of fertilizers.

  17. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, M Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M; Coello, M Carmen; Riocerezo, Carlos Palacios; Moncada, Guillermo Wells

    2015-11-03

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  18. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  19. Influence of Cultivation Parameters on the Mineral Composition of Kiwi Fruit from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Santoni, François; Barboni, Toussaint; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2016-06-01

    The effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C, and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) from Corsica were evaluated. The kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two-week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. The kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one growing season. The concentrations of 67 elements in kiwi fruit were measured using various analytical methods, such as flow injection spectrophotometry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flame atomic emission spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and filtration. The main elements in kiwi fruit are K, N, Cl, P, and Si and, to a lesser amount, Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe. This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the amount of 23 mineral elements depending on the harvest date, the time of storage, and the input of fertilizers. PMID:27135990

  20. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, M Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M; Coello, M Carmen; Riocerezo, Carlos Palacios; Moncada, Guillermo Wells

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  1. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones.

  2. The relationship of the rare-earth composition of minerals to geological environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, M.; Altschuler, Z.S.

    1969-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that the composition of the lanthanides in minerals is controlled to a large degree by crystallo-chemical factors, but is also greatly influenced by changes in geological environment. In general, igneous rocks rich in silica are favourable for the concentration of the heavy lanthanides and yttrium; those low in silica and high in carbonate are favourable for the concentration of the light lanthanides. These generalizations are illustrated by summaries of the available data on monazite, sphene, and apatite from different geological environments. Apatite of marine sedimentary origin (a large potential source of rare earths) shows marked depletion of cerium, as has been noted previously for sea water. ?? 1969.

  3. Mineralization, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of gelatin/apatite composite microspheres for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Jo, Junichiro; Wang, Huanan; Yamamoto, Masaya; Jansen, John A; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-10-11

    Gelatin microspheres are well-known for their capacity to release growth factors in a controlled manner, but gelatin microspheres do not calcify in the absence of so-called bioactive substances that induce deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone mineral. This study has investigated if CaP nanocrystals can be incorporated into gelatin microspheres to render these inert microspheres bioactive without compromising the drug releasing properties of gelatin microspheres. Incorporation of CaP nanocrystals into gelatin microspheres resulted into reduced biodegradation and drug release rates, whereas their calcifying capacity increased strongly compared to inert gelatin microspheres. The reduced drug release rate was correlated to the reduced degradation rate as caused by a physical cross-linking effect of CaP nanocrystals dispersed in the gelatin matrix. Consequently, these composite microspheres combine beneficial drug-releasing properties of organic gelatin with the calcifying capacity of a dispersed CaP phase. PMID:20804200

  4. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  5. Acoustic Properties of Carbonate Rocks and Their Relation with Porosity and Mineral Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotellaro, C.; Vanorio, T.; Mavko, G.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonates are complex rocks characterized by a wide range of facies, texture, micro-structure, and rock fabrics. Understanding how this complexity affects the acoustic properties of carbonates is a key issue for interpreting and predicting changes in seismic images and acoustic log. Questions arise from the study of the porosity versus velocity relation for carbonate rocks which often consider the large scatter around the main velocity-porosity trend predominantly related to the porosity. We started a comprehensive laboratory study on carbonate rocks to understand how mineral composition, together with porosity, controls seismic wave propagation. The samples were collected capturing a wide range of porosities (from 1-52 percent) and different depositional environments in order to represent at best pore fabric and mineralogical heterogeneity in carbonates. Results of the hydraulic, transport, and acoustic properties of the collected samples were compared with those reported in the literature. The main results of this research show that a quite heterogeneous mineral composition of the samples (calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite), other than the pore type, controls the elastic behavior of carbonate rocks, and thus, the velocity-porosity trend. In particular, the samples showing the biggest departure from the general velocity-porosity trend show a non-negligible amount of anhydrite. Compared to calcite, anhydrite 1) causes rock softening and in turn, a decrease of P-wave velocity, because of the lower bulk modulus (k =56 GPa); 2) is characterized by a finer grain size (silt-size) which may create two elastic domains separated by a critical porosity approximately 30 percent.

  6. Boron isotope composition of geothermal fluids and borate minerals from salar deposits (central Andes/NW Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemann, Simone A.; Meixner, Anette; Erzinger, Jörg; Viramonte, José G.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-06-01

    We have measured the boron concentration and isotope composition of regionally expansive borate deposits and geothermal fluids from the Cenozoic geothermal system of the Argentine Puna Plateau in the central Andes. The borate minerals borax, colemanite, hydroboracite, inderite, inyoite, kernite, teruggite, tincalconite, and ulexite span a wide range of δ11B values from -29.5 to -0.3‰, whereas fluids cover a range from -18.3 to 0.7‰. The data from recent coexisting borate minerals and fluids allow for the calculation of the isotope composition of the ancient mineralizing fluids and thus for the constraint of the isotope composition of the source rocks sampled by the fluids. The boron isotope composition of ancient mineralizing fluids appears uniform throughout the section of precipitates at a given locality and similar to values obtained from recent thermal fluids. These findings support models that suggest uniform and stable climatic, magmatic, and tectonic conditions during the past 8 million years in this part of the central Andes. Boron in fluids is derived from different sources, depending on the drainage system and local country rocks. One significant boron source is the Paleozoic basement, which has a whole-rock isotopic composition of δ11B=-8.9±2.2‰ (1 SD); another important boron contribution comes from Neogene-Pleistocene ignimbrites ( δ11B=-3.8±2.8‰, 1 SD). Cenozoic andesites and Mesozoic limestones ( δ11B≤+8‰) provide a potential third boron source.

  7. Application of gold compositional analyses to mineral exploration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, J.C.; Campbell, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Native gold is a mineral composed of Au, Ag and Cu in solid solution and it usually contains one or more trace metals as lattice impurities, as mineral inclusions, in grain boundaries or in surface coatings. Alloy proportions of Au, Ag and Cu, together with certain other elements, can be thought of as constituting a gold "signature". Gold is associated with a great variety of ore deposits and has characteristic signatures for each of several types of ore deposits. Signatures for gold derived from igneous-metamorphic, hypothermal, mesothermal and epithermal deposits reflect conditions of ore formation by their content of Ag, Cu and characteristic associated elements. At higher temperatures of ore formation, gold has low Ag and high Cu content, and Bi and Pb are the most abundant trace elements. But at lower temperatures of ore formation, Ag is high, Cu is low, and Pb is the most abundant trace element. The same trend in gold signatures is observable in gold mining districts, such as Central City, Colorado, where zoning as shown by mineral assemblages indicates ore deposition at progressively lower temperatures as the distance from a central high-temperature zone increases. The signatures of gold may be useful in searching for porphyry Cu deposits. Signatures from Butte (Montana), Mineral Park (Arizona) and Cala Abajo (Puerto Rico), on the basis of limited sampling, are similar and distinctive. They are characterized by a similar assemblage of trace elements and are relatively high in both Ag and Cu. Another application of gold compositional data is in tracing placer gold to its bedrock source. For example, the Ag content of placer gold in the Tarryall district of Colorado differed from that of nearly all of the bedrock sources of gold found by early prospectors. However, one lightly prospected area peripheral to the Tertiary quartz monzonite stock at Montgomery Gulch contains gold with a Ag content similar to that of the placer gold. This area is the most likely

  8. [Nondestructive analysis of chemical composition, structure and mineral constitution of jadeite jade].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang-Ce; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2011-11-01

    The techniques of portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (PXRF), proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (LRS) were employed to analyze the chemical composition, structure and mineral constitution of 12 samples. The results indicated that the chemical compositions determined by PXRF and PIXE are well comparable and most samples are constituted by almost pure jadeite with low concentration of secondary elements. One sample contains a little omphacite and one sample is composed only by omphacite. Raman characteristic peaks of jadeite occurred at 201, 372, 698, 985 and 1 037 cm(-1), while those of omphacite located at 680 and 1 017 cm(-1). By using laser Raman spectroscopy for testing the fissures of the samples, wax in 3 samples and epoxy resin in one sample were found. Raman characteristic peaks of wax located at 2 846 and 2 880 cm(-1) and those of epoxy resin occurred at 2 924 and 3 065 c(-1). The application of nondestructive techniques in jadeite jade broadens the range of samples for future study and provides technical support for jadeite jade's further study, identification and classification.

  9. Constraints on the Compositions of Phobos and Deimos from Mineral Absorptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Murchie, S. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rivkin, A. S.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    The compositions of Phobos and Deimos have remained controversial despite multiple Earth- and space-based observations acquired during the last 40 years. Phobos is composed of at least two spectral units that are both dark yet distinct at visible to near infrared wavelenghts; a spectrally red-sloped "red" unit covers most of the moon and a less red-sloped "blue" unit is present in the ejecta of the approximately 9-km diameter impact crater Stickney [1,2]. Deimos is similar spectrally to Phobos' "red" unit [2]. Here we report results from mapping mineral absorptions on Phobos and Deimos using visible/near infrared observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). We find evidence for an absorption feature at 0.65 m in the Phobos red unit and Deimos that is reproducible in observations from other instruments. The phase responsible is uncertain but may be a Fe-bearing phyllosilicate and/or graphite, consistent with the notion that Phobos and Deimos have compositions similar to CM carbonaceous chondrites [3].

  10. Relationship of regional body composition to bone mineral density in college females.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D L; Sanborn, C F; Bonnick, S L; Gench, B; DiMarco, N

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) in college females. Subjects were 12 nonathletic females (< 3 h.wk-1 of exercise) and 46 female varsity athletes: basketball (N = 14), volleyball (N = 13), gymnastics (N = 13), and tennis (N = 6). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine BMD and body composition. The mean (+/- SD) age, height, weight, and menarche for the subjects were 19.9 +/- 2.1 yr, 167.9 +/- 9.4 cm, 62.1 +/- 9.0 kg, and 13.6 +/- 1.7 yr, respectively. Mean lumbar (1.327 g.cm-2), femoral neck (1.172 g.cm-2), and total body (1.200 g.cm-2) BMD of the athletes were significantly greater than nonathletes (P < 0.05) but did not differ among the teams. Significant correlations were found between regional leg BMD and leg lean tissue mass (LTM) (r = 0.59, P < 0.001) and between arm LTM and arm and lumbar BMD (r = 0.47 and 0.56, respectively). Significant correlations were also found between leg fat mass and leg BMD (r = 0.40). However, only regional LTM was a significant predictor of BMD using stepwise multiple regression. In summary, regional LTM appears to be a better predictor of BMD than regional fat mass.

  11. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  12. Are N and S deposition altering the mineral composition of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles in Finland?

    PubMed

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Sulkava, Mika; Raitio, Hannu; Hollmén, Jaakko

    2005-11-01

    Data from a large-scale foliar survey were used to calculate the extent to which N and S deposition determined the mineral composition of Scots pine and Norway spruce needles in Finland. Foliar data were available from 367 needle samples collected on 36 plots sampled almost annually between 1987 and 2000. A literature study of controlled experiments revealed that acidifying deposition mediates increasing N and S concentrations, and decreasing Mg:N and Ca:Al ratios in the needles. When this fingerprint for N and S elevated deposition on tree foliage was observed simultaneously with increased N and S inputs, it was considered sufficient evidence for assuming that acidifying deposition had altered the mineral composition of tree needles on that plot in the given year. Evidence for deposition-induced changes in the mineral composition of tree foliage was calculated on the basis of a simple frequency model. In the late eighties the evidence was found on 43% of the Norway spruce and 27% of Scots pine plots. The proportion of changed needle mineral composition decreased to below 8% for both species in the late nineties.

  13. Bioinspired Synthesis of CaCO3 Superstructures through a Novel Hydrogel Composite Membranes Mineralization Platform: A Comprehensive View.

    PubMed

    Di Profio, Gianluca; Salehi, Shabnam Majidi; Caliandro, Rocco; Guccione, Pietro; Nico, Giovanni; Curcio, Efrem; Fontananova, Enrica

    2016-01-27

    Hydrogel composite membranes (HCMs) are used as novel mineralization platforms for the bioinspired synthesis of CaCO3 superstructures. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the experimental results reveals quantitative relationships between crystallization conditions and crystal texture and a strong selectivity toward complex morphologies when monomers bearing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups are used together in the hydrogel layer synthesis in HCMs.

  14. Influence of aluminum-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether sheep.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S H

    1991-02-01

    A 60-d trial was conducted to determine effects of A1-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether lambs. Eighteen crossbred, yearling wether lambs equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed a diet containing low (.12%) Mg and high (2.87%) K (DM basis) and were allotted to three treatments: 1) control; 2) 2,000 micrograms A1 as A1-citrate/g of diet DM and 3) citric acid equivalent to the citrate in treatment 2. Treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided doses via ruminal cannula. At the end of 60 d, wethers were slaughtered and samples of rib and tibia bone, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, pancreas, parathyroid and pituitary gland were analyzed for mineral concentration. Concentrations of A1 increased (P less than .05) in rib, tibia, liver, kidney, spleen and pituitary gland and tended to increase in brain (P less than .13) in wethers treated with A1-citrate compared to citric acid. Magnesium was decreased in rib (P less than .01) and tended to be decreased in pituitary gland (P less than .15), whereas Ca tended to be decreased in pancreas (P less than .07), kidney (P less than .11) and parathyroid (P less than .10) by A1-citrate treatment compared to citric acid. Potassium decreased (P less than .01) in liver, Fe increased (P less than .05) in kidney, Zn decreased in pituitary (P less than .05) and tended to decrease in pancreas (P less than .10) due to A1-citrate but not citric acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Calcium isotopic composition of mantle xenoliths and minerals from Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin-Ting; Zhu, Hong-Li; Liu, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Wu, Fei; Hao, Yan-Tao; Zhi, Xia-Chen; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Huang, Fang

    2016-02-01

    This study presents calcium isotope data for co-existing clinopyroxenes (cpx), orthopyroxenes (opx), and olivine (ol) in mantle xenoliths to investigate Ca isotopic fractionation in the upper mantle. δ44/40Ca (δ44/40Ca (‰) = (44Ca/40Ca)SAMPLE/(44Ca/40Ca)SRM915a - 1) in opx varies from 0.95 ± 0.05‰ to 1.82 ± 0.01‰ and cpx from 0.71 ± 0.06‰ to 1.03 ± 0.12‰ (2se). δ44/40Ca in ol (P-15) is 1.16 ± 0.08‰, identical to δ44/40Ca of the co-existing opx (1.12 ± 0.09‰, 2se). The Δ44/40Caopx-cpx (Δ44/40Caopx-cpx = δ44/40Caopx-δ44/40Cacpx) shows a large variation ranging from -0.01‰ to 1.11‰ and it dramatically increases with decreasing of Ca/Mg (atomic ratio) in opx. These observations may reflect the effect of opx composition on the inter-mineral equilibrium fractionation of Ca isotopes, consistent with the theoretical prediction by first-principles theory calculations (Feng et al., 2014). Furthermore, Δ44/40Caopx-cpx decreases when temperature slightly increases from 1196 to 1267 K. However, the magnitude of such inter-mineral isotopic fractionation (1.12‰) is not consistent with the value calculated by the well-known correlation between inter-mineral isotope fractionation factors and 1/T2 (Urey, 1947). Instead, it may reflect the temperature control on crystal chemistry of opx (i.e., Ca content), which further affects Δ44/40Caopx-cpx. The calculated δ44/40Ca of bulk peridotites and pyroxenites range from 0.76 ± 0.06‰ to 1.04 ± 0.12‰ (2se). Notably, δ44/40Ca of bulk peridotites are positively correlated with CaO and negatively with MgO content. Such correlations can be explained by mixing between a fertile mantle end-member and a depleted one with low δ44/40Ca, indicating that Ca isotopes could be a useful tool in studying mantle evolution.

  16. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2006-04-15

    Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact

  17. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST METAL-RICH WHITE DWARF: COMPOSITION OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED EXTRASOLAR DWARF PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, P.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Kilic, M.; Kleinman, S. J.; Leggett, S. K.

    2010-08-10

    Cool white dwarf stars are usually found to have an outer atmosphere that is practically pure in hydrogen or helium. However, a small fraction have traces of heavy elements that must originate from the accretion of extrinsic material, most probably circumstellar matter. Upon examining thousands of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, we discovered that the helium-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J073842.56+183509.6 shows the most severe metal pollution ever seen in the outermost layers of such stars. We present here a quantitative analysis of this exciting star by combining high signal-to-noise ratio follow-up spectroscopic and photometric observations with model atmospheres and evolutionary models. We determine the global structural properties of our target star, as well as the abundances of the most significant pollutants in its atmosphere, i.e., H, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe. The relative abundances of these elements imply that the source of the accreted material has a composition similar to that of Bulk Earth. We also report the signature of a circumstellar disk revealed through a large infrared excess in JHK photometry. Combined with our inferred estimate of the mass of the accreted material, this strongly suggests that we are witnessing the remains of a tidally disrupted extrasolar body that was as large as Ceres.

  19. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes. PMID:23418171

  20. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes.

  1. Effects of fractional crystallization and cumulus processes on mineral composition trends of some lunar and terrestrial rock series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1982-01-01

    A plot of Mg of mafic minerals versus An of plagioclase in cumulate rocks from various lunar and terrestrial rock series shows each series to have a distinct curvilinear trend. The slopes of these trends vary from nearly vertical in the case of lunar anorthosites and Mg-norites to nearly horizontal in the case of gabbros from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Calculations based upon known major element partitioning between mafic minerals, plagioclase and subalkaline basaltic liquids indicate that fractional crystallization coupled with cotectic accumulation of mafic minerals and plagioclase will produce mineral composition trends on the Mg versus An diagram with slopes greater than 1 for cases where An is approximately greater than Mg. Furthermore, fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with alkali concentrations approaching zero will produce near vertical Mg versus An trends. Therefore, the steep slopes of the lunar rock series are consistent with relatively simple fractionation processes. The relatively flat slope of mineral compositions from gabbros collected from the mid-Atlantic ridge at 26 deg N is inconsistent with simple fractionation processes, and calculations show that periodic refilling of a fractionating magma chamber with picritic magma cannot simply explain this flat slope either.

  2. Partial melting of metagreywackes, Part II. Compositions of minerals and melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, Jean-Marc; Vielzeuf, Daniel

    A series of experiments on the fluid-absent melting of a quartz-rich aluminous metagreywacke has been carried out. In this paper, we report the chemical composition of the phases present in the experimental charges as determined by electron microprobe. This analytical work includes biotite, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, garnet, cordierite, hercynite, staurolite, gedrite, oxide, and glass, over the range 100-1000MPa, 780-1025°C. Biotites are Na- and Mg-rich, with Ti contents increasing with temperature. The compositions of plagioclase range from An17 to An35, with a significant orthoclase component, and are always different from the starting minerals. At high temperature, plagioclase crystals correspond to ternary feldspars with Or contents in the range 11-20 mol%. Garnets are almandine pyrope grossular spessartine solid solutions, with a regular and significant increase of the grossular content with pressure. All glasses are silicic (SiO2=67.6-74.4 wt%), peraluminous, and leucocratic (FeO+MgO=0.9-2.9 wt%), with a bulk composition close to that of peraluminous leucogranites, even for degrees of melting as high as 60 vol.%. With increasing pressure, SiO2 contents decrease while K2O increases. At any pressure, the melt compositions are more potassic than the water-saturated granitic minima. The H2O contents estimated by mass balance are in the range 2.5-5.6 wt%. These values are higher than those predicted by thermodynamic models. Modal compositions were estimated by mass balance calculations and by image processing of the SEM photographs. The positions of the 20 to 70% isotects (curves of equal proportion of melt) have been located in the pressure-temperature space between 100MPa and 1000MPa. With increasing pressure, the isotects shift toward lower temperature between 100 and 200MPa, then bend back toward higher temperature. The melting interval increases with pressure; the difference in temperature between the 20% and the 70% isotects is 40°C at 100MPa, and 150

  3. Ultrastructure of regenerated bone mineral surrounding hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andre L; Barreto, Isabela C; Maciel, William Q; Rosa, Fabiana P; Rocha-Leão, Maria H; Werckmann, Jacques; Rossi, Alexandre M; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    We report the ultrastructure of regenerated bone surrounding two types of biomaterials: hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite. Critical defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats were filled with micrometer-sized spherical biomaterials and analyzed after 90 and 120 days of implantation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance microscopy, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that hydroxyapatite of both biomaterials became more disordered after implantation in the rat calvaria, indicating that the biological environment induced modifications in biomaterials structure. We observed that the regenerated bone surrounding both biomaterials had a lamellar structure with type I collagen fibers alternating in adjacent lamella with angles of approximately 90°. In each lamella, plate-like apatite crystals were aligned in the c-axis direction, although a rotation around the c-axis could be present. Bone plate-like crystal dimensions were similar in regenerated bone around biomaterials and pre-existing bone in the rat calvaria. No epitaxial growth was observed around any of the biomaterials. A distinct mineralized layer was observed between new bone and hydroxyapatite-alginate biomaterial. This region presented a particular ultrastructure with crystallites smaller than those of the bulk of the biomaterial, and was possibly formed during the synthesis of alginate-containing composite or in the biological environment after implantation. Round nanoparticles were observed in regions of newly formed bone. The findings of this work contribute to a better understanding of the role of hydroxyapatite based biomaterials in bone regeneration processes at the nanoscale.

  4. Determination of the mineral composition of Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and evaluation using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Caires; dos Santos, Vitor Silva; dos Santos, Debora Correia; Carvalho, Rosemary Duarte Sales; Souza, Anderson Santos; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2014-01-01

    Caigua (in Brazil "maxixe do reino") is a fruit that is generally consumed either cooked or even raw as salad. This fruit has been used as a food and also in folk medicine. In this work, the mineral composition of Caigua was determined for the first time. Twenty-nine samples from five farms located in the southwestern region of Bahia, Brazil were acquired and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The elements determined in this fruit included calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and vanadium. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the obtained results. The average concentrations of the determined elements (expressed as mg 100 g(-1)) were as follows: 0.91 for sodium, 152 for potassium, 19.4 for phosphorus, 11.9 for calcium, 8.4 for magnesium, 0.074 for manganese, 0.21 for iron, 0.013 for copper, 0.13 for zinc and 0.015 for vanadium.

  5. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties.

  6. Foliar mineral composition, fertilization and dieback of Norway spruce in the Belgian Ardennes.

    PubMed

    Van Praag, H J; Weissen, F

    1986-09-01

    Needles from healthy Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at Willerzie in the West Ardennes and from trees with symptoms of dieback at Langesthal in the East Ardennes were analyzed by age class for mineral composition. Both stands were on acid oligotrophic soils. At Willerzie, needles were sampled from plots fertilized 12 to 17 years earlier (dolomitic lime plus N, P and K) as well as unfertilized plots. Effects of fertilization included increased levels of calcium, manganese, phosphorus, and copper and reduced levels of total sulfur, sulfate-S, sulfate-S:total S, potassium and aluminum. Levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and boron were low at both sites and, at Langesthal, calcium and magnesium may have been deficient. Sulfur level was normal at Willerzie, but at Langesthal, mean sulfur content for needles of all age classes was 198 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight, a level that may be toxic. In older needles, the N:S ratio at Langesthal was below the threshold value of eight reported to be necessary for healthy growth. Other symptoms of stress observed were high sulfate-S:total S and nitrate-N:total N ratios. At Langesthal, manganese level was probably adequate although only one-fifth the level at Willerzie. Levels of aluminum and iron were very high at both sites. Most of the iron and much of the aluminum occurred as a surface deposit that could be removed by washing the needles in chloroform. PMID:14975893

  7. Mineral composition and charcoal determine the bacterial community structure in artificial soils.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Babin, Doreen; Heuer, Holger; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    To study the influence of the clay minerals montmorillonite (M) and illite (I), the metal oxides ferrihydrite (F) and aluminum hydroxide (A), and charcoal (C) on soil bacterial communities, seven artificial soils with identical texture provided by quartz (Q) were mixed with sterilized manure as organic carbon source before adding a microbial inoculant derived from a Cambisol. Bacterial communities established in artificial soils after 90 days of incubation were compared by DGGE analysis of bacterial and taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The bacterial community structure of charcoal-containing soils highly differed from the other soils at all taxonomic levels studied. Effects of montmorillonite and illite were observed for Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria, but not for Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria. A weak influence of metal oxides on Betaproteobacteria was found. Barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons done for QM, QI, QIF, and QMC revealed a high bacterial diversity in the artificial soils. The composition of the artificial soils was different from the inoculant, and the structure of the bacterial communities established in QMC soil was most different from the other soils, suggesting that charcoal provided distinct microenvironments and biogeochemical interfaces formed. Several populations with discriminative relative abundance between artificial soils were identified.

  8. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties. PMID:16187013

  9. Changes in mineral composition of eggshells from black ducks and mallards fed DDE in the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    Diets containing 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to black ducks, and diets containing 1, 5, and 10 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to mallards. Among the results were the following changes in black duck eggshell composition: (a) significant increase in the percentage of Mg, (b) significant decreases in Ba and Sr, (c) increases (which approached significance) in average percentage of eggshell Na and Cu, (d) a decrease in shell Ca which approached significance, (e) patterns of mineral correlations which in some instances were distinct to dosage groups, and (f) inverse correlations in the control group between eggshell thickness Mg and Na. Changes in mallard eggshells were: (a) significant increase in percentage of magnesium at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (b) significant decrease in Al at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (c) a significant decrease in Ca from eggshells from the 10 ppm DDE group, and (d) an increase in average percentage of Na in eggshells from DDE dosed ducks which approached significance.

  10. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  11. Influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sondeep; Gupta, Anil K; Kaur, Narinder

    2012-01-01

    The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20-23%; however, tannin decreased to 18-35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents.

  12. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River. PMID:20354782

  13. Posterolateral spinal fusion in a rabbit model using a collagen–mineral composite bone graft substitute

    PubMed Central

    Vizesi, F.; Cornwall, G. B.; Bell, D.; Oliver, R.; Yu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Choosing the appropriate graft material to participate in the healing process in posterolateral spinal fusion continues to be a challenge. Combining synthetic graft materials with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and autograft is a reasonable treatment option for surgeons to potentially reduce or replace the need for autograft. FormaGraft, a bone graft material comprising 12% bovine-derived collagen and 88% ceramic in the form of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was evaluated in three possible treatment modalities for posterior spinal fusion in a standard rabbit model. These three treatment groups were FormaGraft alone, FormaGraft soaked in autogenous BMA, and FormaGraft with BMA and iliac crest autograft. No statistically demonstrable benefits or adverse effects of the addition of BMA were found in the current study based on macroscopic, radiology or mechanical data. This may reflect, in part, the good to excellent results of the collagen HA/TCP composite material alone in a well healing bony bed. Histology did, however, reveal a benefit with the use of BMA. Combining FormaGraft with autograft and BMA achieved results equivalent to autograft alone. The mineral and organic nature of the material provided a material that facilitated fusion between the transverse processes in a standard preclinical posterolateral fusion model. PMID:19475437

  14. Bulk and stable isotopic compositions of carbonate minerals in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: no proof of high formation temperature.

    PubMed

    Treiman, A H; Romanek, C S

    1998-07-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at >650 degrees C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH84001. PMID:11543073

  15. Bulk and Stable Isotopic Compositions of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: No Proof of High Formation Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at greater than 650 C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH 84001.

  16. Constraints from fluid inclusions in mantle minerals on the composition of subduction-zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiano, P.; Provost, A.; Cluzel, N.

    2013-12-01

    Slab-derived fluids are thought to enrich the mantle wedge in water and trace elements, and this metasomatized mantle region becomes the source of island arc basalts. Much of the evidence for this model has been derived indirectly through the study of the composition of the end-products, the lavas, and there have only been a few direct studies of the metasomatism of the mantle rocks from these regions. Therefore important aspects of the model have remained somewhat hypothetical. In particular, there are different viewpoints on the nature of subduction fluids, their trace element compositions and their pathways in the slab and overlying mantle. The whole debate is also hampered by the limited memory that high-pressure metamorphic rocks preserve of their subduction history, due to retrograde overprinting during exhumation, and by uncertainties in reproducing the conditions of subduction during experiments. Here we identify trapped pristine samples of the fluid phase percolating through the mantle wedge beneath island arcs, by examining fluid inclusions trapped within spinel-harzburgite xenoliths in an arc-front volcano (Batan island, Luzon arc). The xenoliths correspond to previously metasomatized mantle fragments incorporated in the lavas during ascent. Cl-bearing H2O-rich fluid inclusions occur within both primary (ol, opx) and late metasomatic minerals (e.g., cpx, phlogopite, amphibole). They were formed by the addition of aqueous fluids or by separation of aqueous fluids from H2O-saturated melt inclusions, as suggested by the occurrence of composite inclusions consisting of silicate glass and H2O (liq+vap). The associated silicate melt inclusions were previously shown to display silica-rich compositions that are consistent with slab-derived melts [1] or melts of metasomatized mantle peridotites [2]. In situ Raman spectroscopy reveals that at room temperature, the fluid inclusions are composed mainly of H2O, H2S and HS- and contain also sulphur (S6) and Mg

  17. Extraction Pattern of Arsenic Species with Mineral Composition in Contaminated Soils in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Shin, M.; Yoon, H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, K.; Ko, I.

    2006-12-01

    Specific determination of various arsenic species is gaining increasing attention because the toxicity of arsenic differs with chemical forms such as organic (MMA, DMA) or inorganic (arsenite, arsenate). Knowledge of extraction method for arsenic speciation in contaminated soils then notified and tested by many researchers. However, the analytical technique for separation of different arsenic species has been always challenging in different environmental samples. A achieving correct analytical results and resolving the lowest detection limit is also desirable. Extraction method for arsenic speciation have been studied by many researchers with the use of a variety of extractants such as H3PO4, HCl, Na2CO3, EDTA 'in soils and sediments including plenty of clay. We, in this study, reported a benign extraction method and presented the pattern of arsenic in contaminated soils of different mineral compositions. Soil samples were collected from tailings of 2 places (Kyungbuk, Jeonnam); both were from abandoned metal mines in Korea. Samples were air dried at room temperature and separated by mechanical sieving to three fractions (2mm_200 μm, 200_64μm, <64μm). Prepared samples were examined for total arsenic analysis used by KBSI method and modified Garcia-Manyes method for arsenic speciation. We extracted arsenic species from the soils by using a mixture of 1M phosphoric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid. 0.2g of sample was placed in microwave digestion vessels along with 10ml extraction solution and treated for 15min at 60w microwave power. After the microwave stage, the contents were transferred to 30ml sample bottles and diluted to 16ml with deionized water, then centrifuged for 15min at 2500rpm. Total arsenic concentration of sample was analyzed by using ICP-AES (ICP-OES, Ultima2C, Jobin Yvon) and the arsenic species were analyzed by hyphenated system, SPE-HG-ICP-AES. To identify the mineral phases in bulk soil samples, we used XRD (Phillips X'Pert MPD) under 40kV/30m

  18. Airborne particulate endocrine disrupting compounds in China: Compositions, size distributions and seasonal variations of phthalate esters and bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and ubiquitously occur in the environment. In the past decade we have characterized atmospheric organic aerosols from various environments (e.g., urban, rural, mountain and marine) of East Asia on a molecular level, but not investigated EDCs in the samples. In the current study we re-analyzed our database for concentrations, compositions and size distributions of phthalates and BPA and compared with those in the literature to improve the understanding on air pollution status in China. Our results showed that airborne particulate phthalates and BPA are 63-1162 ng m- 3 and 1.0-20 ng m- 3 in the urban regions in China, respectively, being one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the developed countries. Among the detected phthalates in Chinese urban areas, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) is the predominant congener, contributing to 23-79% (ave. 53 ± 15%) of the total phthalates. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Shanghai and Xi'an (two mega-cities in China) in 2009 were 3-84% lower than those in 2003, probably indicating a positive effect of the government's air pollution control in the recent years. Phthalates are higher in summer than in winter, because they are not chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix and more easily evaporate into the air under higher temperature conditions. Based on the size distribution observation, we found that diisobutyl and dibutyl phthalates mainly exist in coarse particles because of high volatilities, in contrast to BEHP and BPA, which are dominant in fine particles due to less volatility. Our results also indicate that BPA is mostly derived from the open burning of solid waste while phthalates are derived from both direct evaporation from the matrix and solid waste combustion.

  19. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    PubMed

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (p<0.05). The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca). PMID:26934152

  20. Chemical composition and minerals in pyrite ash of an abandoned sulphuric acid production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ward, Colin R; Izquierdo, Maria; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Sabedot, Sydney; Querol, Xavier; Silva, Luis F O

    2012-07-15

    The extraction of sulphur produces a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as As, Se, U, among others. A number of elements, such as As, Cr, Cu, Co, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

  1. Mineral particles of varying composition induce differential chemokine release from epithelial lung cells: importance of physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ovrevik, J; Myran, T; Refsnes, M; Låg, M; Becher, R; Hetland, R B; Schwarze, P E

    2005-04-01

    Presently, little is known about the potential health effects of mineral particles other than asbestos and quartz. In this study, a human epithelial lung cell line (A549), primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and primary rat type 2 (T2) cells were exposed to stone quarry particles of two size fractions (<10 and <2.5 microm) from nine different rock samples. The ability to induce the release of chemokines from lung cells was investigated and compared with the particles' mineral and element composition and the amount of soluble elements. The stone particles induced the release of only low levels of interleukin (IL)-8 from A549 cells. In contrast, some of the other particles induced the release of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from T2 cells, and high levels of IL-8 from SAECs. Differences in particle surface area could account for differences in activity between the <10 and <2.5 microm fractions of six out of the nine rock samples. For two samples the <2.5 microm fraction was most active and for one sample the <10 microm fraction was most active. Content of the mineral plagioclase displayed a strong, negative correlation with the potential to induce MIP-2, whereas the mineral pyroxene was positively correlated with MIP-2 induction. However, neither plagioclase nor pyroxene content was sufficient to explain differences in bioactivity between the particles. No statistically significant correlation was found between the amounts of total or soluble elements and MIP-2 release. In conclusion, the results suggest that mineral particles with a high content of plagioclase have a low potential to induce a pro-inflammatory response. However, a particular mineral or element responsible for eliciting strong increases in chemokine release could not be identified. Thus, at present it appears that analysing mineral and element content is insufficient to predict stone particle bioactivity, and that biological testing is a necessity.

  2. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  3. Luna 16 - An opaque mineral study and a systematic examination of compositional variations of spinels from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The opaque mineralogy of the Luna 16 soil sample is studied, with an emphasis on a detailed survey of the compositional variations of the Fe-Ti-Cr-Al-Mg spinels. Analytical data are also presented for ilmenite. Textural characteristics and shock-metamorphic effects on the opaque minerals are briefly described and comparisons are made throughout between the Luna 16 samples and published and unpublished data on the Apollo samples.

  4. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    "Clumped-isotope" thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope "clumps"). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  5. Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo; Olagunju, Abbas; Muhammad, Aliyu; Billy, Francis Graham; Okpe, Oche

    2014-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of moisture, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, gross energy, true protein, and crude fiber between the processed and unprocessed S. stenocarpa. Analyses of the antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150-400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2-45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria. PMID:24967265

  6. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  7. Iron mineral structure, reactivity, and isotopic composition in a South Pacific Gyre ferromanganese nodule over 4 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Matthew A.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Gueguen, Bleuenn; Fakra, Sirine C.; Horn, Gregory; Jelinski, Nicolas A.; Rouxel, Olivier; Sorensen, Jeffry; Toner, Brandy M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea ferromanganese nodules accumulate trace elements from seawater and underlying sediment porewaters during the growth of concentric mineral layers over millions of years. These trace elements have the potential to record past ocean geochemical conditions. The goal of this study was to determine whether Fe mineral alteration occurs and how the speciation of trace elements responds to alteration over ∼3.7 Ma of marine ferromanganese nodule (MFN) formation, a timeline constrained by estimates from 9Be/10Be concentrations in the nodule material. We determined Fe-bearing phases and Fe isotope composition in a South Pacific Gyre (SPG) nodule. Specifically, the distribution patterns and speciation of trace element uptake by these Fe phases were investigated. The time interval covered by the growth of our sample of the nodule was derived from 9Be/10Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The composition and distribution of major and trace elements were mapped at various spatial scales, using micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fe phases were characterized by micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (μEXAFS) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Speciation of Ti and V, associated with Fe, was measured using micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy. Iron isotope composition (δ56/54Fe) in subsamples of 1-3 mm increments along the radius of the nodule was determined with multiple-collector ICP-MS (MC-ICP-MS). The SPG nodule formed through primarily hydrogeneous inputs at a rate of 4.0 ± 0.4 mm/Ma. The nodule exhibited a high diversity of Fe mineral phases: feroxyhite (δ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), and poorly ordered ferrihydrite-like phases. These findings provide evidence that Fe oxyhydroxides within the nodule undergo alteration to more stable phases over millions of years. Trace Ti and V were

  8. Fluid composition and mineral equilibria in low grade metamorphic rocks, Bündnerschiefer, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, G. D.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions (FI) hosted in quartz veins from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bündnerschiefer (two locations near Thusis and Schiers that represent subgreenschist and lower greenschist facies conditions, respectively), Swiss Alps, was determined by combination of microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis. Elongate-blocky quartz and euhedral quartz crystals were sampled form two sets of veins, which are foliation-parallel and open fissure veins that crosscut the main foliation. The host rocks are organic-rich metapelites, that in places contain relatively high amounts of carbonate. Several metamorphic temperature indicators were used to determine the temperature and pressure during metamorphism of the host rocks. These included the Kübler index (Kübler & Jaboyedoff 2000), Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (Beyssac et al., 2002), Na-Mg and Li-Mg fluid solute geothermometry (Giggenbach, 1988; Kharaka & Mariner, 1989) and mineral assemblages. The geothermometers point to equilibrium temperatures around 320±20 °C (Thusis) and 250±20 °C (Schiers). The results of pseudosection modeling show very close agreement with the pressure-temperature conditions that were derived from conventional geothermobarometry. The FI bulk salinity and homogenization temperatures are 4±0.2 wt% eqv. NaCl and 122-140 °C for Thusis, and 2±0.2 wt% and 82-86 °C at Schiers. Most of the important rock-forming elements have been successfully determined in individual FI, with consistent concentrations obtained for well-constrained fluid inclusion assemblages. The FI contain measurable concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Sr, Ba, B, As, B, Zn, Pb, Cu and S. Typical concentrations are 30-40 ppm Al, 5-7 ppm Mg, 300-400 ppm Ca, 3-5 ppm Mn, and 300-350 ppm S for FI from Thusis. Concentrations for most elements are roughly half an order of magnitude lower for FI from Schiers. The total element concentrations are lower compared with data from

  9. Facile synthesis of TiO2-RGO composite with enhanced performance for the photocatalytic mineralization of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nainani, Roshan K; Thakur, Pragati

    2016-01-01

    Current research reports the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-TiO2 nanocomposite by in-situ redox method and graphene oxide by modified hummers method. The ratio of RGO and TiO2 in the composite was optimized to show best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of targeted pollutants. Optimized (1:10) RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by various techniques viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET), Raman and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) technique confirming successful formation of nanocomposite. XRD results confirm the presence of anatase phase in RGO-TiO2. Uniform dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on RGO could be seen from TEM images. The obtained results of (1:10) RGO-TiO2 showed five-fold and two-fold enhancement for the visible light and UV light, respectively, for the photocatalytic mineralization of methylene blue dye as compared to commercial Aeroxide P25 TiO2. The excellent photocatalytic mineralization activity of (1:10) RGO-TiO2 could be attributed to the enhanced surface area of composite as well as to its good electron sink capability. (1:10) RGO-TiO2 could be recycled easily and was found to be equally efficient even after the fourth cycle for the photocatalytic mineralization of methylene blue dye. The non-selectivity of synthesized composite was checked by the mineralization studies of oxalic acid. PMID:27120648

  10. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  11. Diffusion of helium in carbonates: Effects of mineral structure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Amidon, W.; Hobbs, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion of helium has been characterized in four carbonates: calcite, dolomite, magnesite, and aragonite. Cleaved or oriented and polished slabs of carbonate minerals were implanted with 100 keV or 3 MeV 3He at doses of 5 × 10153He/cm2 and 1 × 10163He/cm2, respectively, and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. 3He distributions following diffusion experiments were measured with nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. Our results show that He diffusion in calcite is the fastest among the carbonates studied, with diffusivities progressively slower in magnesite, dolomite and aragonite. In the case of the isomorphic trigonal carbonates (calcite, dolomite, magnesite), these observations are broadly consistent with predictions based on lattice characteristics such as unit cell size and inter-atomic apertures, with diffusivities faster in more open carbonate structures. Dolomite is an exception to this trend, suggesting that its unique ordered R3 crystal structure may play a role in slowing helium diffusion. Diffusion is anisotropic in all of the trigonal carbonates, and is typically slowest for diffusion along the c direction, and faster for diffusion normal to c and in directions normal to cleavage surfaces. The patterns of diffusional anisotropy are predicted to first order by the size of limiting inter-atomic apertures along any given crystallographic direction, providing additional support to the concept of modeling crystal lattices as "molecular sieves" with regard to diffusion of helium. When the effects of anisotropy and diffusion domain size are considered, our results are in reasonable agreement with previous results from bulk degassing of natural samples. Modeling of helium diffusive loss shows that calcite and magnesite are unlikely to be retentive of helium on the Earth's surface for typical grain sizes and time/temperature conditions. Dolomite and aragonite may be retentive under cooler conditions, but because helium retention is strongly

  12. Reassessing Magmatic Space-Time-Composition Patterns in the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailley, T. L.; Farmer, G. L.; Jones, C.

    2007-05-01

    The Colorado Mineral Belt (COMB) is a northeast trending zone of Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (~75-50Ma) magmatism that accompanied the development of basement cored uplifts of the Laramide orogeny in Colorado. The origin of COMB magmatism remains enigmatic despite decades of study, largely because the magmatism coincided temporally with subduction at the western margin of North America but occurred some 1000 km inboard of the active trench. Many workers have attributed COMB magmatism to progressive shallowing of the oceanic lithosphere of the Farallon plate subducting beneath this region and have suggested that COMB magmatism was generally related to lower crustal melting (Simmons and Hedge, 1978, Stein and Crock, 1990). Others have attributed the COMB magmatism to upwelling of passive hot spots resulting from lithospheric deformation (Mutschler et al., 1987, 1998). Radiogenic isotopic data available for basaltic COMB volcanic clasts found in the Late Cretaceous Windy Gap member of the Middle Park Formation in northern Colorado (Farmer and Larson, unpublished data) support a mantle rather than crustal origin for COMB parental magmas. Further insights into the origin of the COMB clearly require a better understanding of the factors controlling the space-time-composition patterns in the magmatism. However, data compiled in the North American Volcanic and Igneous Rock Database (NAVDAT) illustrate the difficulty in assessing age patterns within the COMB. Little high quality age information is currently available for the COMB igneous rocks, and taken as a whole, little obvious space-time patterns can be discerned (Karlstrom and Humphreys, 1998). But when only the highest quality age determinations are used (including unpublished Ar-Ar ages from graduate theses), there is support for a progressive younging in igneous activity from the central COMB (~65 Ma) to northern COMB (~55 Ma; Cunningham et al., 1994). Cessation of COMB magmatism coincides with the onset of

  13. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H

    2009-09-01

    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  15. Electrical and geochemical properties of tufa deposits as related to mineral composition in the South Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Mohamed M.; Abou El-Anwar, Esmat A.

    2015-06-01

    The geochemical, petrographical, and electrical properties of rocks are essential to the investigation of the properties of minerals. In this paper we will try to present a study of the A. C. electrical properties of carbonate rock samples and their relation to petrographical and geochemical properties. Samples were collected from four formations from the Bir Dungul area, in the South Western Desert, Egypt. The electrical properties of the samples were measured using a non-polarizing electrode, at room temperature (~28 °C), and at a relative atmospheric humidity of (~45%), in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz. The changes in the electrical properties were argued to the change in mineral composition. Generally, the electrical properties of rocks are changed due to many factors e.g., grain size, mineral composition, grain shape and inter-granular relations between grains. The dielectric constant of samples decreases with frequency, and increases with conductor concentration. Also, the conductivity increases with an increase of continuous conductor paths between electrodes. The petrographical and geochemical studies reveal that the deposition of the tufa deposits occurred in shallow lakes accompanied by a high water table, an alkaline spring recharge and significant vegetation cover. Diagenetically, tufa deposits were subjected to early and late diagenesis. Petrography and geochemistry studies indicated that the area of tufa deposits was deposited under the control of bacterial activity. Geochemically, the Sr content indicates that the tufa deposits formed from dissolved bicarbonate under the control of microbes and bacterial activity.

  16. Salinity-induced changes in the morphology and major mineral nutrient composition of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Aslani, Farzad; Hakim, M A

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of varied salinity regimes on the morphological traits (plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, fresh and dry weight) and major mineral composition of 13 selected purslane accessions. Most of the morphological traits measured were reduced at varied salinity levels (0.0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 dS m(-1)), but plant height was found to increase in Ac1 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, and Ac13 was the most affected accession. The highest reductions in the number of leaves and number of flowers were recorded in Ac13 at 32 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. The highest fresh and dry weight reductions were noted in Ac8 and Ac6, respectively, at 32 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas the highest increase in both fresh and dry weight was recorded in Ac9 at 24 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. In contrast, at lower salinity levels, all of the measured mineral levels were found to increase and later decrease with increasing salinity, but the performance of different accessions was different depending on the salinity level. A dendrogram was also constructed by UPGMA based on the morphological traits and mineral compositions, in which the 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters, indicating greater diversity among them. A three-dimensional principal component analysis also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. PMID:27090643

  17. Variations on morphology and elemental composition of mineral dust particles from local, regional, and long-range transport meteorological scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, Esther; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Casuccio, Gary S.; ArtíñAno, BegoñA.

    2010-06-01

    Mineral dust is the second major source of PM10 in Madrid, reaching up to 80% of the PM10 mass during certain long-range dust transport events. Three different types of scenarios have been found to be associated with the high particle concentration episodes in the city: local anthropogenic, regional recirculation, and African dust transport processes. The present study focuses on the characterization of the individual mineral dust particles related to some chemical and morphological features during these three types of episodes, with special attention to local and regional episodes. To achieve this purpose, four different samples were selectively collected during the 2004-2005 period campaigns, one corresponding to each type of scenario and other sample from an Atlantic ventilated one. Meteorological situation, dust source identification, impact on ambient concentrations, size range distribution, and particle individual analysis have been characterized for each of them. Elemental composition and morphology of more than 30,000 mineral particles were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy. Particles were grouped into clusters based on their elemental composition, and the aspect ratio (AR) of each cluster or category was compared for each type of episode. The AR was related to the mineralogical crystal structure of each chemical cluster. The dates chosen for microscopy analysis were in good agreement in size distribution and chemical composition with the average of the dates in the entire campaign and with those from previous campaigns. Major differences between local/regional and long-range transported mineral dust were found in the relative abundance between carbonates and silicates, with much higher abundance of calcium carbonates in the first ones. These differences between silicate and carbonate contents were consistent with the results found in previous campaigns and were directly related to the composition of the parent topsoil by studying

  18. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the

  19. Composition and chemical microprobe dating of U-Th-bearing minerals. Part I. Monazites from the Urals and Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votyakov, S. L.; Khiller, V. V.; Shchapova, Yu. V.

    2012-12-01

    To develop chemical microprobe timing of U-Th-bearing minerals, monazite grains from several localities in the Ural and Siberia have been dated using upgraded measurement techniques and age calculation based on original software. The samples were taken from pegmatites of the Ilmeny Mountains and the Ilmeny-Vishnevy Mountains Complex in the South Urals; pegmatites from the Adui granitic pluton and its framework in the Central Urals; gneisses and granulites of the Taratash Complex in the South Urals; and felsic gneisses from the Transangara region of the Yenisei Ridge. Scrutiny of the composition, heterogeneity, and chemical substitution of U and Th ions is a necessary stage of chemical dating aimed at estimating the degree of closeness of the U-Th-Pb system and unbiased screening of analytical data. The results obtained have been compared with the known isotopic ages of the studied minerals; the compared data are satisfactorily consistent.

  20. Effect of different cooking methods on proximate and mineral composition of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus, Bloch).

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, K; Thilaga, M; Kathiresan, S; Xavier, R; Mas, R H M H

    2012-06-01

    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, baking, frying and grilling) on proximate and mineral composition of snakehead fish were investigated. The mean content of moisture, protein, fat and ash of raw fish was found to be 77.2 ± 2.39, 13.9 ± 2.89, 5.9 ± 0.45 and 0.77 ± 0.12% respectively. The changes in the amount of protein and fat were found to be significantly higher in frying and grilling fish. The ash content increased significantly whereas that of the minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn) was not affected in all cooking methods. Increased in Cu contents and decreased in P contents were observed in all cooking methods except grilling. In the present study, the grilling method of cooking is found to be the best for healthy eating.

  1. Mineral composition of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Mantilla, Enrique; Plana, Felicia

    The present work is a mineralogical study of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station in NE Spain. After a mineralogical study of the fly ash sampled in the electrostatic precipitators of the power station, several chemical and mineralogical patterns of the fly ash were employed as tracers of the power station emissions. At the same time, the study focused on the downwind evolution of secondary particulate matter, especially particulate sulphate. The studies on the mineralogy of air borne dust allowed us to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic particles. The major mineral phases identified in the samples studied were: gypsum, calcite, clay minerals (kaolinite, clinochlore and illite), quartz, talc and hematite. In addition to these mineral phases which are frequently present in the atmospheric particulate matter of the studied area, other mineral phases, such as feldspars, mullite, and copper sulphates, were detected in minor proportions. The results show that some mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the atmospheric particulate matter may be used as tracers of the influence of coal-fired power plant emissions. These characteristics include spherical morphologies, aluminosilicate glass, mullite, hematite and sulphate-fly ash associations. The possible buffering effect of atmospheric Ca-bearing minerals to neutralize the sulphate deposition is investigated.

  2. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  3. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans.

    PubMed

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E

    2015-08-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  4. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans.

    PubMed

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E

    2015-07-31

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

  5. Long Term Effect of Land Reclamation from Lake on Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Matter and Its Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongmei; Ruan, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0–10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10–25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization. PMID:24905998

  6. Long term effect of land reclamation from lake on chemical composition of soil organic matter and its mineralization.

    PubMed

    He, Dongmei; Ruan, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0-10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10-25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization.

  7. Micro-scale in situ characterisation of the organic and mineral composition of modern, hypersaline, photosynthetic microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautret, P.; Ramboz, C.; de Wit, R.; Delarue, F.; Orange, F.; Sorieul, S.; Westall, F.

    2012-04-01

    Physico-chemical and biological micro-scale environmental parameters within microbial mats formed in hypersaline conditions favour the precipitation of minerals, such as carbonates. We used optical microscopy and the technique "Fluorescence Induction Relaxation » (FIRe) to differentiate the photosynthetic activity of oxygenic photosynthesisers (cyanobacteria) from anoxygenic photosynthesisers (Chloroflexus-like bacteria, CFB) in samples obtained in 2011. After this preliminary investigation, we characterised the elemental composition of the different species of microorganisms, their extracellular substances (EPS), and the minerals precipitated on their surface. This study was made in-situ by µ-PIXE using the nuclear microprobe of the AIFIRA platform (CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan ; protons of 1.5 or 3MeV). With this microprobe it is possible to map the distribution of elements occurring in quantities down to several ppm, a resolution that is particularly favourable for studying microorganisms. SEM observation of the same zones allowed us to localise exactly the microbial structures (cells, EPS) and minerals analysed by nuclear probe. We were thus able to document the differential S and P concentrations in the different microbial species, the CLB being richer in P. Note that the CLB filaments are < 1 µm in diameter. We were also able to demonstrate the anti-correlation of Ca and Mg in the minerals precipitated directly on the microorganisms and on their EPS. Thus we have shown the utility of these in situ, nano-scale methods in studying microbial structures consisting of different species with different metabolic activitie, and different functional groups on their cell walls and EPS implicated in the bioprecipitation of different kinds of minerals. Such features in ancient microbial mats could aid their interpretation and possibly the distinction between ancient oxygenic and anoxygenic mats.

  8. Proximate, caloric, nitrogen and mineral composition of bodies of some tropical bats.

    PubMed

    Studier, E H; Sevick, S H; Wilson, D E

    1994-11-01

    Proximate (live mass, water, lipid, ash, non-fat organic), caloric, nitrogen, and mineral (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron) concentrations and total body content of individuals of 24 species of Neotropical and Paleotropical bats were determined. Mass-related, concentration patterns were found for all measured variables, except iron. Concentrations increase with size for nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium but are concave, opening upward, for sodium and potassium. These last two elements reach minimal concentrations in bats weighing about 22 and 28 g dry mass, respectively. Total body content of nitrogen and minerals was compared with amounts in similar-sized birds and tetrapodal mammals. PMID:8529005

  9. Proximate, caloric, nitrogen and mineral composition of bodies of some tropical bats.

    PubMed

    Studier, E H; Sevick, S H; Wilson, D E

    1994-11-01

    Proximate (live mass, water, lipid, ash, non-fat organic), caloric, nitrogen, and mineral (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron) concentrations and total body content of individuals of 24 species of Neotropical and Paleotropical bats were determined. Mass-related, concentration patterns were found for all measured variables, except iron. Concentrations increase with size for nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium but are concave, opening upward, for sodium and potassium. These last two elements reach minimal concentrations in bats weighing about 22 and 28 g dry mass, respectively. Total body content of nitrogen and minerals was compared with amounts in similar-sized birds and tetrapodal mammals.

  10. Mineral associations and major element compositions of base metal sulphides from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, Gumer; Cruz, Erzika; Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Martínez, Francisco J.; Oliveras, Valentí

    2016-02-01

    This study deals with textural types and major element compositions of Cu-Ni-Fe sulphides from spinel lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite xenoliths found in alkali basaltic rocks of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic zone of Catalonia (NE Spain). Sulphides in harzburgites and websterites are scarce. Four textural types have been distinguished: inclusions in silicates and spinel, trails of small droplets often radiating from inclusions, interstitial grains, and grains related to pyrometamorphic textures. The mineral associations are dominated by one or two low-temperature monosulphide solid solutions: mss1, mss2, occasionally accompanied by pyrrhotite, pentlandite and Cu-rich sulphides. Compositions of mss1 are more Fe-enriched in inclusions and interstitial grains than in grains related to pyrometamorphism. Compositions of mss2 are Ni-rich very close to pentlandite. Sulphide bulk compositions correspond to high-temperature monosulphide solid solution equilibrated with a relatively Cu-Ni enriched sulphide melt at 1100-1000 °C. The breakdown products of these earlier compositions could have been either equilibrated below 600, 300 °C or being at disequilibrium. A restitic origin is consistent with the main sulphide mineral associations, the estimated melt extraction for peridotites (<30 %) and with the fact that lherzolites are less affected by cryptic metasomatism than harzburgites . However, Ni exchange coefficients between olivine and the high-temperature monosulphide solid solution underestimate equilibrium values. This suggests that some lherzolites could derive from pervasive refertilization. The scarcity of sulphides in websterites is explained by S incompatible behaviour during the formation of earlier cumulates from the mafic alkaline magmas which caused the cryptic metasomatism.

  11. Calcium Phosphate Mineralization in Cellulose Derivative/Poly(acrylic acid) Composites Having a Chiral Nematic Mesomorphic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Takuya; Katsumura, Ayaka; Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-14

    Calcium phosphate mineralization was conducted by using polymer composites of liquid-crystalline (ethyl)cellulose (EC) or (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a scaffolding medium for the inorganic deposition. The EC/PAA and HPC/PAA samples were prepared in colored film form from EC and HPC lyotropic liquid crystals of left-handed and right-handed chiral nematics, respectively, by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid as the main solvent component. The mineralization was allowed to proceed in a batchwise operation by soaking the liquid-crystalline films in an aqueous salt solution containing the relevant ions, Ca(2+) and HPO4(2-). The calcium phosphate-deposited EC/PAA and HPC/PAA composites (weight gain, typically 15-25% and 6-11%, respectively) retained the chiral nematic organization of the respective original handedness but exhibited selective light-reflection of longer wavelengths relative to that of the corresponding nonmineralized samples. From X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, it was deduced that the calcium and phosphorus were incorporated inside the polymer matrices in three forms: amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and a certain complex of PAA-Ca(2+). Dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetry revealed that the inorganic hybridization remarkably enhanced the thermal and mechanical performance of the optically functionalized cellulosic/synthetic polymer composites; however, the effect was more drastic in the EC/PAA series rather than the HPC/PAA series, reflecting the difference in the deposited mineral amount between the two. PMID:26536381

  12. Martian Surface Composition From Multiple Datasets, Part II: Chemical Analysis of Global Mineral Distributions from MGS-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Rogers, D.

    2010-12-01

    Koeppen and Hamilton [2008, JGR-Planets] produced global mineral maps of Mars from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data using a library of mineral and amorphous phase spectra and a linear least squares fitting algorithm. Here we will use known or estimated bulk chemistries of the phases in the Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] spectral library, along with each phase's modeled abundance in the TES data from that work, to calculate effective bulk chemistry for Martian dark regions at a spatial resolution of ~3x6 km. By doing this, we are able to analyze global bulk chemical variation as well as enable direct comparisons between TES data and chemical/elemental abundance maps (e.g., wt.% SiO2) produced using data collected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer. A second chemical analysis also makes use of the Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] global mineral maps and focuses on the spatial variations in solid solution chemistry among feldspars, pyroxenes, high silica phases (e.g., silica, phyllosilicates, zeolites), and sulfates. Koeppen and Hamilton [2008] demonstrated that there is a range of Mg-Fe olivine compositions on Mars and that there are distinct geographic distributions of those phases, pointing to spatial variations in geologic processes. We use the same methodology to search for correlations between geography (e.g., geologic unit, latitude), elevation, and chemical (solid solution) composition. Preliminary analyses of pyroxene chemical variation reveal that globally, low-Ca pyroxenes are dominated by the clinopyroxene pigeonite and that among orthopyroxenes, Mg-rich phases (enstatite) are virtually never identified and phases with greater proportions of Fe (bronzite and hypersthene) are identified in distinct geographic and/or geologic terrains. Only the distribution of hypersthene (the composition of pyroxene in the Martian meteorite ALH 84001) correlates with the OMEGA-mapped distribution of low-Ca pyroxene suggesting that OMEGA-based maps of high-Ca pyroxene may include

  13. CO2 bioconversion using carbonic anhydrase (CA): effects of PEG rigidity on the structure of bio-mineralized crystal composites.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ee Taek; Gang, Haemin; Gu, Man Bock

    2013-10-20

    The combined effect of both carbonic anhydrase (CA) and the rigidity of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were found to assist the bio-mineralized crystallization behavior of CO2 differentially. In this study, different forms of magnetically responsive calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystal composites were successfully formed from gaseous CO2 by using the different forms of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in a constant CO2 pressure controlled chamber. Polygonal particles were produced with more rigid polymer chains (branched PEG), whereas less rigid polymer chains (PEG) induced the formation of ellipsoidal particles. However, no morphological changes occurred without the presence of CA.

  14. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  15. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Tonannavar, J; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Patil, Nikhil A; Mulimani, B G

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400c m(-1)) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  16. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  17. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2005-03-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) form spontaneously upon graphitization of organic precursors bound to the internal surfaces of a high porosity mineralized sample of natural wood. Following HF etching, both mesostructured carbon and randomly distributed and intertwined MWNTs were seen throughout the wood cellular structure.

  18. Geochronology of the Xihuashan composite granitic body and tungsten mineralization, Jiangxi province, south China.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Xu, Keqin

    1987-01-01

    One of the goals of this visit was to collect samples of different granitic rocks in the pluton for radiometric dating to establish the geochronology of intrusion, alteration, and mineralization. This report summarises geochronologic studies during a visit by Chinese and US scientists to the Xihuashan mine.-after Authors

  19. Effect of gypsum application on mineral composition in peanut pod walls and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alleviation of soil-Ca deficiency through gypsum amendment increases the yield potential and ensures high seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The effects of gypsum treatment, plant life cycle stage, and the fruit development stages on the accrual of several essential minerals (Ca, S, Mg, P...

  20. Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.

  1. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  2. [Interphase distribution of divalent metal ions in aqueous casein-containing systems with variable mineral composition].

    PubMed

    Genkina, N K; Koltysheva, G I; Manakov, M N

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the salt composition of casein-water-Cd(NO3)2 and defatted milk-Cd(NO3)2 systems on the partition of Cd2+ during acidic precipitation of casein was studied. The conditions that minimize the content of the toxicant ion in the isolated protein (pH and salt composition) are determined. PMID:10994194

  3. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  4. Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: an ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Addison, W N; Nelea, V; Chicatun, F; Chien, Y-C; Tran-Khanh, N; Buschmann, M D; Nazhat, S N; Kaartinen, M T; Vali, H; Tecklenburg, M M; Franceschi, R T; McKee, M D

    2015-02-01

    Bone cell culture systems are essential tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms regulating extracellular matrix mineralization. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model of bone matrix mineralization. Despite the widespread use of this cell line to study biomineralization, there is as yet no systematic characterization of the mineral phase produced in these cultures. Here we provide a comprehensive, multi-technique biophysical characterization of this cell culture mineral and extracellular matrix, and compare it to mouse bone and synthetic apatite mineral standards, to determine the suitability of MC3T3-E1 cultures for biomineralization studies. Elemental compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed calcium and phosphorus, and trace amounts of sodium and magnesium, in both biological samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on resin-embedded intact cultures demonstrated that similar to 1-month-old mouse bone, apatite crystals grew with preferential orientations along the (100), (101) and (111) mineral planes indicative of guided biogenic growth as opposed to dystrophic calcification. XRD of crystals isolated from the cultures revealed that the mineral phase was poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with 10 to 20nm-sized nanocrystallites. Consistent with the XRD observations, electron diffraction patterns indicated that culture mineral had low crystallinity typical of biological apatites. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed apatitic carbonate and phosphate within the biological samples. With all techniques utilized, cell culture mineral and mouse bone mineral were remarkably similar. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy showed that the cultures had a dense fibrillar collagen matrix with small, 100nm-sized, collagen fibril-associated mineralization foci which coalesced to form larger mineral aggregates, and where mineralized sites showed the accumulation of the

  5. Molecular-level analysis of organic matter structure and composition from different soil mineral fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, J. S.; Gregorich, E. G.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) depends on the inherent chemical characteristics of biomolecular inputs (lignin, proteins, carbohydrates, macromolecular lipids, etc.) as well as the interactions between biomolecules and soil mineral fractions. The objective of this study is to characterize organic matter associated with the light, sand, silt and clay fractions of a Canadian agricultural soil. And, because lignin is believed to be a major contributor in SOM formation and preservation, the oxidation state of lignin in the different mineral fractions was measured using mild alkaline copper oxidation and gas chromatography - mass spectrometery which releases lignin phenols that are indicative of lignin sources and stage of degradation. For example, an increase in the acid/aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratio of lignin phenols has been observed with increased lignin degradation (and oxidation). In this study, lignin phenols from organic matter associated with the clay fraction had higher Ad/Al ratios for both syringyl and vanillyl lignin monomers when compared to that associated with silt, sand and the whole soil. These results suggest that either lignin degradation is enhanced by SOM association with clay surfaces or that oxidized lignin is preserved on clay mineral surfaces via sorption after partial degradation has occurred. The structural characteristics of organic matter from the soil fractions will also be examined by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Organic matter associated with each mineral fraction will be extracted with NaOH for high resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Results from NMR analysis will determine the relative abundance of functional groups (alkane, aromatic, carbonyl, alkoxy) in each of the soil fractions. Relative intensities of the functional groups are indicative of relative contributions of biomolecular classes such as lipids, lignin, fatty acids, and sugars to the organic matter associated with

  6. Molecular-Level Analysis of Organic Matter Structure and Composition from Different Soil Mineral Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, J. S.; Gregorich, E. G.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    The formation and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) depends on the inherent chemical characteristics of biomolecular inputs (lignin, proteins, carbohydrates, macromolecular lipids, etc.) as well as the interactions between biomolecules and soil mineral fractions. The objective of this study is to characterize organic matter associated with the light, sand, silt and clay fractions of a Canadian agricultural soil. And, because lignin is believed to be a major contributor in SOM formation and preservation, the oxidation state of lignin in the different mineral fractions was measured using mild alkaline copper oxidation and gas chromatography - mass spectrometery which releases lignin phenols that are indicative of lignin sources and stage of degradation. For example, an increase in the acid/aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratio of lignin phenols has been observed with increased lignin degradation (and oxidation). In this study, lignin phenols from organic matter associated with the clay fraction had higher Ad/Al ratios for both syringyl and vanillyl lignin monomers when compared to that associated with silt, sand and the whole soil. These results suggest that either lignin degradation is enhanced by SOM association with clay surfaces or that oxidized lignin is preserved on clay mineral surfaces via sorption after partial degradation has occurred. The structural characteristics of organic matter from the soil fractions will also be examined by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Organic matter associated with each mineral fraction will be extracted with NaOH for high resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Results from NMR analysis will determine the relative abundance of functional groups (alkane, aromatic, carbonyl, alkoxy) in each of the soil fractions. Relative intensities of the functional groups are indicative of relative contributions of biomolecular classes such as lipids, lignin, fatty acids, and sugars to the organic matter associated with

  7. Effects of mineral composition and pore structure in HC potential of reservoir rocks in the Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. M.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The exploration of unconventional gas resource achieved a successful breakthrough in USA due to the innovation of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling since 1995. The production of shale gas dramatically changed the energy structure and released the demand of fossil fuel in USA. Many studies about the unconventional oil-gas resource were performed worldwide especially in China, which provide very useful characterization for unconventional gas reservoirs. Since Taiwan has a strong energy demand and still highly relied on imported fossil fuel, the development of unconventional gas resource needs to be concerned. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of unconventional oil-gas in Taiwan. In this study, we examine mineral composition and pore structure of Miocene oil-gas bearing strata from the Western Foothill Belt in Taiwan. Sandstone samples were collected from Cholan Fm, Yutengpin ss, Kuantaoshan ss, Shangfuchi ss, Tungkeng Fm, Guanyinshang ss and Peiliao Fm; whereas shale samples were collected from Chinshui sh and Talu sh, as well as outcropped coal sample from Nanchung Fm. The porosity, permeability, TOC, thermal maturity, and mineral composition of samples are examined after a series of geochemical experiments. Finally, after comparing the data with their gas sorption capacity, the reservoir with the strongest potential in unconventional gas resource can be identified.

  8. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of the cornea cuticle in the compound eyes of a supralittoral and a marine isopod.

    PubMed

    Alagboso, Francisca I; Reisecker, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The cuticle of the cornea in Crustacea is an interesting example of a composite material compromising between two distinct functions. As part of the dioptric apparatus of the ommatidia within the complex eye it forms transparent micro-lenses that should as well maintain the mechanical stability of the head capsule. We analyzed the ultrastructure and composition of the isopod cornea cuticle of the terrestrial species Ligia oceanica and the marine Sphaeroma serratum. We used a variety of tissue preparation methods, electron microscopic techniques as well as electron microprobe analysis and Raman spectroscopic imaging. The results reveal various structural adaptations that likely increase light transmission. These are an increase in the thickness of the epicuticle, a reduction of the thickness of the outer layer of calcite, a spatial restriction of pore canals to interommatidial regions, and, for S. serratum only, an increase in calcite crystal size. In both species protein-chitin fibrils within the proximal exocuticle form a peculiar reticular structure that does not occur within the cuticle of the head capsule. In L. oceanica differential mineralization results in a spherically shaped interface between mineralized and unmineralized endocuticle, likely an adaptation to increase the refractive power of the cornea maintaining the mechanical stability of the cuticle between the ommatidia. The results show that the habitat and differences in the general structure of the animal's cuticle affect the way in which the cornea is adapted to its optical function.

  9. The effect of dietary habits on mineral composition of human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Michalak, Izabela; Górecki, Henryk

    2010-09-01

    In the present work, hair mineral analysis of 117 individuals was carried out. The subjects were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning their dietary habits. The content of minerals in hair was determined by ICP-OES (macroelements) and ICP-MS technique (micro-, toxic and other trace elements). The results were elaborated statistically by Statisticaver. 8.0. It was found that consuming highly processed food causes increased levels of e.g. Na and P in hair, intake of slimming preparation resulted in increased content of Al, Cr, Ti, taking in laxative agents caused lower level of Pb (this element was probably eliminated by other excretory routes). Individuals which declared the use of analgesic agents had more Si in their hair. Drinking coffee was related with higher level of Al, Ni, S and Ti and lower Pb in hair. Drinking tea caused reduction in the level of Hg. These results show that hair mineral content reflects exposure of elements from the diet. PMID:21787651

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  11. Effect of strontium ranelate on bone mineral: Analysis of nanoscale compositional changes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, André L; Moldovan, Simona; Querido, William; Rossi, Alexandre; Werckmann, Jacques; Ersen, Ovidiu; Farina, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Strontium ranelate has been used to prevent bone loss and stimulate bone regeneration. Although strontium may integrate into the bone crystal lattice, the chemical and structural modifications of the bone when strontium interacts with the mineral phase are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate apatite from the mandibles of rats treated with strontium ranelate in the drinking water and compare its characteristics with those from untreated rats and synthetic apatites with and without strontium. Electron energy loss near edge structures from phosphorus, carbon, calcium and strontium were obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The strontium signal was detected in the biological and synthetic samples containing strontium. The relative quantification of carbon by analyzing the CK edge at an energy loss of ΔE = 284 eV showed an increase in the number of carbonate groups in the bone mineral of treated rats. A synthetic strontium-containing sample used as control did not exhibit a carbon signal. This study showed physicochemical modifications in the bone mineral at the nanoscale caused by the systemic administration of strontium ranelate.

  12. Effect of strontium ranelate on bone mineral: Analysis of nanoscale compositional changes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, André L; Moldovan, Simona; Querido, William; Rossi, Alexandre; Werckmann, Jacques; Ersen, Ovidiu; Farina, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Strontium ranelate has been used to prevent bone loss and stimulate bone regeneration. Although strontium may integrate into the bone crystal lattice, the chemical and structural modifications of the bone when strontium interacts with the mineral phase are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate apatite from the mandibles of rats treated with strontium ranelate in the drinking water and compare its characteristics with those from untreated rats and synthetic apatites with and without strontium. Electron energy loss near edge structures from phosphorus, carbon, calcium and strontium were obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The strontium signal was detected in the biological and synthetic samples containing strontium. The relative quantification of carbon by analyzing the CK edge at an energy loss of ΔE = 284 eV showed an increase in the number of carbonate groups in the bone mineral of treated rats. A synthetic strontium-containing sample used as control did not exhibit a carbon signal. This study showed physicochemical modifications in the bone mineral at the nanoscale caused by the systemic administration of strontium ranelate. PMID:24207060

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  14. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Kogut, Michael H; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Bottje, Walter G; Bielke, Lisa R; Faulkner, Olivia B

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated.

  15. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  16. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  17. Enhanced performance and interfacial investigation of mineral-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuanchang; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2013-01-01

    A novel mineral-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) was prepared via vacuum impregnation method assisted with microwave-acid treatment of the graphite (G) and bentonite (B) mixture. Graphite and microwave-acid treated bentonite mixture (GBm) had more loading capacity and higher crystallinity of stearic acid (SA) in the SA/GBm composite. The SA/GBm composite showed an enhanced thermal storage capacity, latent heats for melting and freezing (84.64 and 84.14 J/g) was higher than those of SA/B sample (48.43 and 47.13 J/g, respectively). Addition of graphite was beneficial to the enhancement in thermal conductivity of the SA/GBm composite, which could reach 0.77 W/m K, 31% higher than SA/B and 196% than pure SA. Furthermore, atomic-level interfaces between SA and support surfaces were depicted, and the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was in detail investigated. PMID:23712069

  18. A comparison of bone mineral densities and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Jingjing; Lu, Haili; Guan, Liping; Teng, Zhihai; Gao, Shangzhi; Li, Mingyi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students, in order to provide a certain reference enhancing college students' physical fitness.A total of 1694 Chinese college students (294 men and 1400 women, aged 18-22 years) and 250 Southeast Asia college students (148 men and 102 women, aged 19-22 years) were included in the study. Weight, height, and body mass index were measured anthropometrically. BMD values were determined by ultrasound bone densitometer and body composition was determined by body composition analyzer.Southeast Asia college students were overweight than Chinese college students (250 vs 1694) (P < 0.05). Chinese college students had a significantly lower body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, lean body weight, estimation of bone mass, protein, and metabolic rate but higher BMD at the calcaneus compared with Southeast Asia college students (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, body water, intracellular fluid, and extracellular fluid were not significantly different between Chinese college students and Southeast Asia college students (P > 0.01 for all parameters).The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that Chinese college students had a higher BMD but lower body composition than Southeast Asia college students, which may be associated with genes, diet, exercise, and other factors. PMID:27631220

  19. Immobilization of plutonium-containing waste into borobasalt, piroxen and andradite mineral-like compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyunin, Yu. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Jardine, L. J.

    2000-07-01

    Immobilization of plutonium-containing waste with obtaining stable and solid compositions is one of the problems that require a solution while managing radioactive waste. At VNIINM work is under way to select and synthesize matrix compositions for the immobilization of various-origin plutonium waste with the use of a cold crucible induction melting technology (CCIM). This paper presents information on the synthesis in a muffle furnace and in the CCIM zerium-, uranium- and plutonium-containing borobasalt, piroxen and andradite materials.

  20. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  1. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited.

  2. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. PMID:25434264

  3. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.

    2015-04-01

    The complex magmato-tectonic setting of Turkey has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western Anatolian region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern Anatolian region, 140 °C for the North Anatolian Fault Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.

  4. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  5. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site.

  6. What is the impact of Silicon Carbide nanoparticles to the mineral composition of rat lungs? A PIXE-μPIXE comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, O.; Colaux, J. L.; Laloy, J.; Dogné, J. M.; Lucas, S.

    2015-05-01

    The exposure to nanomaterials can yield changes in the mineral composition of tissues which may have long term health repercussions. In this study, the changes in mineral composition of rat lungs, exposed to a nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC), has been studied by means of global and local ion beam probes with the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique, measuring the whole lung contents and selected areas where SiC was found, respectively. It was found that from a global perspective there is a small decrease in the mineral contents (phosphorous, sulphur, chlorine and potassium) of the lung except for Ca, while locally these mineral contents tend fluctuate.

  7. Proximate composition, mineral content and in vitro antioxidant activity of leaf and stem of Costus afer (Ginger lily)

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, G. N.; Onajobi, F. D.; Osilesi, O.; Adebawo, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to determine the proximate composition and mineral content of Costus afer leaf and stem, as well as to identify the most active antioxidant fraction. Materials and Methods: The proximate composition and mineral analysis of C. afer leaf and stem were performed using the standard methods described by Pearson and Association of Official Analytical Chemist while the 1,1 diphenyl 2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Results: Proximate analysis revealed that the carbohydrate content was highest in the leaf (55.83 ± 3.71%) and stem (50.38 ± 1.27%) while crude fat content was lowest in the leaf (1.83 ± 0.43%) and stem (1.75 ± 0.48%). The minerals detected in appreciable quantity in both the leaf and stem samples were calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and copper. Further study showed that the aqueous leaf fraction exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) high DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 259.07 µg/ml) and TAC (7.95 ± 0.37 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) compared with the other test fractions while the aqueous stem fraction had the highest TBARS scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.37 µg/ml) and inhibition of LPO (IC50 = 41.15 µg/ml) compared with the other test fractions. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that C. afer could serve as a source of nutrient and minerals for animal nutrition and human metabolism. It also showed that the aqueous fractions of C. afer leaf and stem possess high antioxidant activity than the other fractions. In addition, this study may also explain the folkloric use of crude C. afer leaf or stem extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress associated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic disorder. PMID

  8. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  9. Reversal of osteoporotic changes of mineral composition in femurs of diabetic rats by insulin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Fei, Yurong; Zhang, Min; Wei, Dan; Li, Ming; Ding, Wenjun; Yang, Jianhong

    2008-03-01

    Insulin plays an important role in bone prevention of diabetic osteoporosis, but little is known about the relation between the bone mineral density (BMD) increase and the change of mineral element content after treated with insulin. To address this problem, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n = 6), streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (n = 5), and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group with insulin treatment (n = 5). The femoral BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the element content was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that the femoral BMD in diabetic group was significantly lower than that in normal group (P < 0.01) but restored by insulin treatment (P < 0.01 vs diabetic group). ICP-AES analysis revealed that the element content of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), and potassium (K) in diabetic group were remarkably lower than those in normal group (P < 0.01) but only Ca, P, and Mg content were significantly increased compared with diabetic group (P < 0.05) after insulin treatment. However, no significant differences were observed in element zinc (Zn) content among three groups. Our findings suggested that the loss of Ca, P, Mg, Sr, and K content accounted for the lower BMD in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats, insulin treatment could restore BMD by increasing the content of Ca, P, and Mg. PMID:17952383

  10. Composite membranes for alkaline electrolysis based on polysulfone and mineral fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnat, Dariusz; Schlupp, Meike; Wichser, Adrian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Gorbar, Michal; Züttel, Andreas; Vogt, Ulrich F.

    2015-09-01

    Mineral-based membranes for high temperature alkaline electrolysis were developed by a phase inversion process with polysulfone as binder. The long-term stability of new mineral fillers: wollastonite, forsterite and barite was assessed by 8000 h-long leaching experiments (5.5 M KOH, 85 °C) combined with thermodynamic modelling. Barite has released only 6.22 10-4 M of Ba ions into the electrolyte and was selected as promising filler material, due to its excellent stability. Barite-based membranes, prepared by the phase inversion process, were further studied. The resistivity of these membranes in 5.5 M KOH was investigated as a function of membrane thickness and total porosity, hydrodynamic porosity as well as gas purities determined by conducting electrolysis at ambient conditions. It was found that a dense top layer resulting from the phase inversion process, shows resistivity values up to 451.0 ± 22 Ω cm, which is two orders of magnitude higher than a porous bulk membrane microstructure (3.89 Ω cm). Developed membranes provided hydrogen purity of 99.83 at 200 mA cm-2, which is comparable to previously used chrysotile membranes and higher than commercial state-of-the-art Zirfon 500utp membrane. These cost-effective polysulfone - barite membranes are promising candidates as asbestos replacement for commercial applications.

  11. Monzonitoid magmatism of the Glukhoe gold ore deposit (Primorye): U-Pb, SHRIMP dating, petrochemical and minor-element compositions, and peculiar features of noble metal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.; Barinov, N. N.; Lyzganov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.

    2015-11-01

    Monzogabbrodiorites and monzodiorites from the Tatibin Group of Central Sikhote Alin (Primorye), which hosts the Glukhoe gold ore deposit, are considered with discussion of the most important data on the geological structure and composition of magmatic complexes and the results of U-Pb and SHRIMP dating. It is first established that mineral associations of the gold ore deposit include native Pt, Cu, and other compounds and mineral associations. Their formation conditions of both scientific and practical significance are analyzed.

  12. Spatial distribution and compositional variation of APS minerals related to uranium deposits in the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, Thomas; Quirt, Dave; Beaufort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend consists of four mineralized zones, partially outcropping, lying 2 km south of the erosional contact with the unmetamorphosed sandstone and basal conglomerates of the Paleoproterozoic Thelon Formation. The mineralization is controlled by a major E-W fault system associated with illite and sudoite alteration halos developed in the Archean metagraywackes of the Woodburn Lake Group. Aluminum phosphate sulfate (APS) minerals from the alunite group crystallized in association with the clay minerals in the basement alteration halo as well as in the overlying sandstones, which underwent mostly diagenesis. APS minerals are Sr- and S-rich (svanbergite end-member) in the sedimentary cover overlying the unconformity, whereas they are light rare earth elements (LREE)-rich (florencite end-member) in the altered basement rocks below the unconformity. The geochemical signature of each group of APS minerals together with the petrography indicates three distinct generations of APS minerals related to the following: (1) paleoweathering of continental surfaces prior to the basin occurrence, (2) diagenetic processes during the burial history of the lower unit of the Thelon sandstones, and (3) hydrothermal alteration processes which accompanied the uranium deposition in the basement rocks and partially overlap the sedimentary-diagenetic mineral parageneses. In addition, the association of a first generation of APS minerals with both detrital cerium oxide and aluminum oxy-hydroxide highlights the fact that a part of the detrital material of the basal Thelon Formation originated from eroded paleolaterite (allochthonous regolith). The primary rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals (e.g., monazite, REE carbonates, and allanite) of the host rocks were characterized to identify the potential sources of REE. The REE chemical composition highlights a local re-incorporation of the REE released from the alteration processes in the APS minerals of

  13. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike.

  14. Various intensity of Proteus mirabilis-induced crystallization resulting from the changes in the mineral composition of urine.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Różalski, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a result of recurrent and chronic urinary tract infections caused by urease-positive bacteria, especially Proteus mirabilis. The main role in the development of this kind of stones is played by bacterial factors such as urease and extracellular polysaccharides, but urinary tract environment also contributes to this process. We used an in vitro model to establish how the changes in the basic minerals concentrations affect the intensity of crystallization which occurs in urine. In each experiment crystallization was induced by an addition of P. mirabilis to artificial urine with a precisely defined chemical composition. Crystallization intensity was determined using the spectrophotometric microdilution method and the chemical composition of formed crystals was established by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetric methods. Increasing the concentration of all crystals forming ions such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and phosphate strongly intensified the process of crystallization, whereas reducing the amount of these components below the proper physiological concentration did not affect its intensity. The inhibitory influence of citrate on calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization and competitive actions of calcium and oxalate ions on struvite crystals formation were not confirmed. In the case of infectious stones the chemical composition of urine plays an important role, which creates a necessity to support the treatment by developing a model of proper diet.

  15. In vitro mineralization of bioresorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/apatite composites for bone tissue engineering: a vibrational and thermal investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Paola; Tinti, Anna; Reggiani, Matteo; Fagnano, Concezio

    2005-06-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical properties of a porous poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/carbonated-apatite (PCL/CAp 30/70 w/w) composite to be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The in vitro degradation mechanism of this matrix in different media was evaluated as well as its bioactivity in a simulated body fluid (SBF) buffered at pH 7.4 (37 °C, 28 days). For this purpose, we used vibrational IR and Raman spectroscopy coupled to thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The samples were analyzed before and after immersion in the above mentioned solution as well as in 0.01 M NaOH solution (pH=12), saline phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (SPB) and esterase/SPB. A control PCL sample was analyzed before the addition of the apatitic component. As regards the untreated samples, the method of synthesis utilized for preparing the composite was found to lower the crystallinity degree. The CAp component revealed to be constituted of a B-type CAp with a 3% carbonate content. After immersion in SBF solution, vibrational analysis coupled to TG revealed the deposition of a significant amount of an apatite component on the surface of the PCL/CAp composite as well as in its interior, showing a good in vitro mineralization.

  16. Soil Fauna Alter the Effects of Litter Composition on Nitrogen Cycling in a Mineral Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant chemical composition and the soil community are known to influence litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Although these two factors are likely to interact, their mechanisms and outcomes of interaction are not well understood. Studies of their interactive effects are...

  17. Mineral compositions in pristine lunar highland rocks and the diversity of highland magmatism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bersch, Michael G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, Klaus; Norman, Marc D.

    1991-01-01

    High precision electron microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene in pristine lunar highland rocks confirm the dichotomy between ferroan anorthosites and the Mg-suite. Ferroan-anorthosites plot as coherent trends, consistent with formation in a complex global magma system. Lack of coherent compositional trends in the Mg-suite rocks indicates derivation from numerous magmas.

  18. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  19. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    PubMed Central

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  20. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses. PMID:26206525

  1. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration.

  2. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition of children with well-controlled homocystinuria caused by CBS deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, J S; Lee, D H

    2013-09-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of methionine. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, dislocation of the optic lens, vascular lesions, arterial and venous thromboembolism, skeletal abnormalities, and osteoporosis. Most homocystinuria patients diagnosed in adulthood have severe osteoporosis, and homocystinuria is frequently mentioned as a cause of osteoporosis. Good control of plasma homocysteine may prevent or delay some of these complications. However, the effectiveness of bone mineral density (BMD) gain or fracture prevention has not been addressed. Here, we describe changes in BMD and body composition in 5 CBS deficiency patients who were diagnosed at young age and were managed with good metabolic control. We found that the BMD of each region was within the normal range. BMD gain was adequate and the patients had no significant change in skeletal morphology.

  3. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms. PMID:25204051

  4. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California:

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  5. Relationship between Rock Varnish and Adjacent Mineral Dust Compositions Using Microanalytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Otter, L.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Müller, M.; Kappl, M.; Weber, B.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Weigand, M.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Rock varnishes are up to 250 μm thick, Mn- and Fe-rich, dark black to brownish-orange lustrous rock coatings. Water and aeolian dust (60-70%), in combination with biological oxidation or inorganic precipitation processes, or even a combination of both, induce varnish growth rates of a few μm per 1000 a, indicating that element enrichment and aging processes are of major importance for the varnish formation. A combination of 200 nm-fs laser- and 213 nm-ns laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), focused ion beam (FIB) slicing, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) was chosen for high-spatial-resolution analyses. The aim was to identify provenance, chemistry, and dynamics of the varnishes, and their formation over the millennia. To this end, mineral dust and adjacent varnishes were sampled in six arid to semi-arid deserts, in Israel, South Africa, California, and Saudi Arabia. Dust minerals incorporated in the varnishes were examined by STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopic and element mapping at the nm scale. Varnishes from different locations can be distinguished by element ratio plots of Pb/Ni vs. Mn/Ba. A comparison of dust element ratios of particles <50 μm to ratios of adjacent varnishes reveals much lower values for dust. However, the factors between the element ratios of dust and of varnish are similar for four of six regions (Mn/Ba: 6 ± 2; Pb/Ni: 4 ± 3). Two of the six regions diverge, which are South African (Mn/Ba: 20, Pb/Ni: 0.5) and Californian (Anza Borrego Desert: Mn/Ba: 4.5; Pb/Ni: 16.5) varnishes.The results indicate that the enrichment and degradation processes might be similar for most locations, and that Mn and Pb are preferably incorporated and immobilized in most varnishes compared to Ba and Ni. The Pb/Ni ratios of the South African varnishes are indicators for either a preferred incorporation of Ni compared to Pb from available dust, and

  6. The spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition on the snow surface and their possible effect on snow algae in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, T.; Takeuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are autotrophic microbes and play an important role as primary producers in food chain of glaciers and snowfield. Although their reproduction requires nutrients, snow and ice is extreamly poor in nutrients. One of the possible sources of nutrients is mineral particles blown by wind and deposited on the snow. They may contain variable elements and provide nutrients for snow algae. However, we scarcely know about the relationship between mineral particles and snow algae. In this study, we described spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition and also snow algae on the snow surface in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan. We discussed the possible effect of mineral particles on snow algae. Tateyama Mountains are located in middle-north part of Japan ranging from 2000 - 3000 m above sea level and have heavy snow fall in winter due to strong monsoon wind from Siberia. The snow starts to thaw in April and remains until late summer as perennial snow patches in some valleys. Kosa eolian dust is known to be blown from Chinese deserts and deposited on the snow every spring. Also, snow algal bloom is often observed as red-colored snow in summer. Samples were collected from the snow surface during summer in 2008 - 2011 at four different sites (A - D) in this area. We examined them by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microscope to obtain composition of mineral particles and structure of snow algae community. XRD analysis revealed mineral particles on the snow surface were mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, mica, chlorite, and amorphous. In April, mineral compositions of all sites were almost similar to that of Kosa eolian dust, indicating that these mineral particles were derived from Chinese arid regions. After May, the mineral compositions changed according to sites. The proportion of hornblende at the site C significantly increased whereas that of mica increased at the site D. Since the site C was located near geological features mainly

  7. [The levels of bone mineralization are influenced by body composition in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Correa Rodríguez, Maria; Rueda Medina, Blanca; González Jiménez, Emilio; Navarro Pérez, Carmen Flores; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Existe controversia acerca del efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la mineralización ósea en la adolescencia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar el nivel de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) en una población de adolescentes y estudiar su relación con la composición corporal. Material y método: La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 157 adolescentes (93 mujeres y 64 varones) de la provincia de Granada (España). La edad media fue de 14,22 ± 1,41 años. Se valoró la DMO mediante osteosonografía del calcáneo. Los parámetros densitométricos fueron: coeficiente de atenuación de banda ancha (BUA), T-score yZ-score. La composición corporal se determinó con bioimpedanciómetro. Resultados: Los sujetos con obesidad y sobrepeso presentaron valores mayores en el BUA frente a los sujetos con normopeso (95,4± 17,77 y 90,0±1,08 vs. 81,1±17,79) encontrándose diferencias significativas (p.

  8. [Humus composition of black soil and its organo-mineral complexes under different fertility level].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanpo; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jingshuan; Liu, Shuxia; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhidan

    2005-01-01

    Determinations by Kumada method showed that with the improvement of black soil fertility, the free and combined humus contents in soil and its different size organo-mineral complexes increased, but the humification degree of free humus decreased, which was more obvious in silt and fine sand size complexes. The organic carbon content in complexes, humus extraction rate, free humus content, and humification degree of free humic acid decreased with the increasing particle size of complexes. All free humic acids in fertile soil were Rp type, while in unfertile soil, they were Rp and B type. With the increasing particle size of complexes, the type of free humic acids changed in the sequence A type (clay)-->B type (silt)-->Rp type (fine sand). Combined form humic acid mainly belonged to A type, no matter what particle size the complex was. The improvement of soil fertility could make the humification degree of free humus in soil and its complexes decrease, and furthermore, result in type change. In black soil, the type change of free humic acid mainly occurred in silt size complex, and that of combined form humic acid mainly occurred in fine sand size complex.

  9. Compositional variations and equilibrium in REE, U and Th acceptor minerals during I-type granite differentiation, Palisade Crest suite, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sawka, W.N.; Chappell, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The compositionally zoned Tinemaha and McMurry Meadows plutons have been studied to determine the compositional variations which occur in sphene, allanite, zircon, apatite, +/- hornblende and +/- augite. Mineral separates (42) were analyzed by INAA from seven granites and a mafic inclusion. The REE, U and Th contents and the mineral/rock ratio of all phases generally increase with increasing whole rock silica content. In all the granite samples (except one) and in the mafic inclusion, sphene is the predominant site for REE, U and Th. In one sample where sphene is interstitial, hornblende is the major REE site. Sphene exhibits large compositional variations with 2100 to 5800ppm Nd, 25 to 145 ppm Lu, 400 to 1000ppm Th, and 100 to 700ppm Ta. Apatite exhibits large variations in REE (Nd=240 to 1440ppm) and Th (32 to 125ppm). The major compositional variations for zircon are for U (326 to 5610ppm), Th (322 to 6800ppm) and LREE (La=60 to 12000ppm). Hornblende exhibits large variations in REE concentrations (Ce=52 to 214ppm; Yb=1 to 18 ppm). Compositional variations in these minerals can be related to relative variations in the paragenetic sequence and not to either mineral-melt or subsolidus re-equilibration. Indications of the paragenetic sequence of these phases are also preserved in REE zoning (core-rim) of sphene and allanite, determined by both ion and electron microprobes. Therefore, the trace element concentrations of these mineral phases are apparently governed by mineral-melt partitioning during magmatic crystallization and are not subject to significant re-equilibration in the magma or subsolidus.

  10. INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories. PMID:20728108

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral composition of cirratulid tubes (Annelida, Polychaeta).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul D; Vinn, Olev; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy; Schopf, J William

    2010-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the mineralogical composition of the calcareous tubes of three species belonging to the family Cirratulidae. In all three cases, the tubes were found to be aragonitic, confirming previous inferences based on EDX and thin section studies, and corroborated by new EDX analyses revealing the presence of Sr but no Mg. Biomineralization in cirratulids is first recorded in the Oligocene epoch, at a time of aragonite seas. Similarly, the mineralogies of the earliest skeletons matched seawater chemistry in three other polychaete groups that independently evolved calcareous skeletons. PMID:20566380

  12. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral composition of cirratulid tubes (Annelida, Polychaeta).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul D; Vinn, Olev; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy; Schopf, J William

    2010-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the mineralogical composition of the calcareous tubes of three species belonging to the family Cirratulidae. In all three cases, the tubes were found to be aragonitic, confirming previous inferences based on EDX and thin section studies, and corroborated by new EDX analyses revealing the presence of Sr but no Mg. Biomineralization in cirratulids is first recorded in the Oligocene epoch, at a time of aragonite seas. Similarly, the mineralogies of the earliest skeletons matched seawater chemistry in three other polychaete groups that independently evolved calcareous skeletons.

  13. Variation in the composition of the essential oils, phenolic compounds and mineral elements of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Helmja, Kati; Vaher, Merike; Püssa, Tõnu; Orav, Anne; Viitak, Anu; Levandi, Tuuli; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the chemical composition of the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. collected in three habitations in Estonia was carried out. An analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection established the main components of the essential oils. The phenolic compounds both in ethanol and water extracts of the plant were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis. In addition to the earlier published polyphenols, several new phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as quercetin hexoside malonates and an A-type catechin-epicatechin trimer were identified in this Hypericum for the first time. The contents of the pharmaceutically important antidepressants hyperforin and hypericin were also estimated by LC-MS and compared with the data in the literature. The composition of the mineral elements was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate a rather high variability in the content of different substance groups in H. perforatum L. and, hence, the need for a survey of the raw material in the course of selection of raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  15. Uniformity and diversity in the composition of mineralizing fluids from hydrothermal vents on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Philpotts, J.A.; Aruscavage, P.J.; Von Damm, K.L.

    1987-10-10

    Abundances of Li, Ni, K, Rb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si have been determined in fluid samples from seven vents located in three areas on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The hydrothermal component estimated from the Mg contents of the samples ranges from 7% to 76%. Concentrations of Fe and Si, among the other elements, in acid-stabilized solutions appear to be generally representative of the parental hydrothermal fluids, but some Zn determinations and most Ba values appear to be too low. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that the acidified samples remain supersaturated with respect to silica, barite, and pyrite; unacidified samples are supersaturated, in addition with respect to ZnS, FeS, and many silicate phases. Within the constraints of limited sampling there appear to be differences in fluid compositions both within and between the three vent areas. Some uniform differences in the elemental abundances predicted for hydrothermal end-member fluids might be due to inmixing of fresh seawater at depth in the hydrothermal system. The Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids contain more Fe but otherwise have relative elemental abundances fairly similar to those in 13 /sup 0/N (East Pacific Rise) fluids, albeit at higher levels. In contrast, fluids from 21 /sup 0/N (East Pacific Rise) and Galapagos have lower K/Rb and much lower Sr and Na abundances; these compositional features probably result from interaction of these fluids with a different mineral assemblage, possibly more mature greenstone. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  16. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and mineralization of polyamide-6/calcium lactate composite nanofibers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hem Raj; Risal, Prabodh; Park, Chan Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Jeong, Yeon Jun; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-02-01

    Polyamide-6 nanofibers containing calcium lactate (CL) on their surface were prepared by neutralization of lactic acid (LA) in core-shell structured polyamide-6/LA electrospun fibers. First, simple blending of LA with polyamide-6 solution was used for electrospinning which interestingly formed a thin LA layer around polyamide-6 nanofibers (core-shell structure) and then subsequent conversion of this LA into calcium lactate via neutralization using calcium base. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed that plasticizer capacity of LA led the formation of point-bonded structure due to the formation of shell layer of LA and core of polyamide-6. The bone formation ability of polyamide-6/calcium lactate composite fibers was evaluated by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid (SBF). The SBF incubation test confirmed the faster deposition of large amount of calcium phosphate around the composite polyamide-6/calcium lactate fibers compared to pristine polyamide-6. This study demonstrated a simple post electrospinning calcium compound coating technique of polymeric nanofibers for enhancing the bone biocompatibility of polyamide-6 fibers. PMID:23006560

  18. Natural and synthetic mineral silicates as functional nanoparticles in polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua

    A new strategy is described for the substantial enhancement of the barrier properties for both a thermoset epoxy polymer and a thermoplastic polyolefin by sandwiching a novel self-supported clay fabric film between thin polymer sheets. The success of this strategy is attributed to the high orientation of clay nanolayers in the paper-like clay fabric films and to the filling of the micro- or sub-micro sized voids between imperfectly tiled clay platelet edges by the polymer chains. Thermoplastic polyolefin-clay fabric film composites were fabricated by hot-pressing the clay films between two sheets of high density polyethylene (HDPE) films. The sandwiched composites exhibit more than a 30-fold decrease in O2 transmission rate with respect to the pure HDPE film. Impregnating the self-supported clay papers with epoxy pre-polymers successfully leads to thermoset composite films with more than 2-3 orders of magnitude reduction in O2 permeability in comparison to the pristine epoxy matrix. Owing to the promising use of synthetic Mg-saponite (denoted SAP) as epoxy polymer reinforcing agents, we investigated the cost-effective synthesis of SAP by replacing urea with sodium hydroxide as base source. Co-crystallization of new zeolite phases, such as garronite (denoted GIS) and cancrinite (denoted CAN), occurred along with SAP upon increasing the alkalinity of the reaction mixture. This finding represents the first example of the preparation of a CAN/SAP phase mixture. Moreover, pure-phase cancrinite with rod-like morphology up to several mum in length was synthesized under Mg-free conditions. Also, the Si/AI ratio within the synthesis gel has an influence on the chemical composition and textural properties of pure CAN crystals. Microporous cancrinite is a promising candidate for reinforcing epoxy polymers, considering that CAN represents a substantial fraction of the mixed CAN-SAP phase formed during the synthesis of saponite. Therefore, the reaction conditions (e

  19. Hydrated Minerals in Circumpolar Terrains: Geographic Distribution, Mineralogical Composition and Possible Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Fishbaugh, K. E.; Roach, L.; Vincendon, M.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.; Murchie, S.

    2007-12-01

    The nearly global mapping provided at a scale of a few km by the OMEGA Vis/NIR imaging spectrometer on board Mars Express revealed that hydrated minerals on Mars are mostly observed in ancient terrains (Bibring et al., 2005). These discoveries led to the conclusion that surface water on Mars was mainly present early in the history of the planet, and that Mars has remained cold and dry during the last 3 billion years (Bibring et al., 2006). The observation by OMEGA of a very strong calcium sulfate signature (most likely dominated by gypsum) within the boundaries of the Olympia Planitia Dune field (Langevin et al., 2005) is a major puzzle as this geological feature is at most a few 100 m.y. old. An independent analysis of the OMEGA data (Horgan et al. 2007) confirmed the results of Langevin et al. (2005), in particular the identification of gypsum as the dominant mineralogical hydrated species in the dune field. The extended region richest in gypsum (~ 60 km x 200 km) remained unresolved at a resolution of 1 km/pixel (Langevin et al., 2006). With its 20 m resolution, CRISM, the Vis/NIR imaging spectrometer on board MRO, secured the relationship between the gypsum signature and the dune field as well as its absence over the "basal unit" (only a few pixels wide in OMEGA data) which is exposed between the dune field and the ice (Roach et al., 2007). CRISM showed that the gypsum signatures were highest over dune crests and weakest over exposed bedrock. Mineralogical modeling of the CRISM and OMEGA spectra shows that Gypsum represents at least 60% of the dune material in the eastern part of the Olympia field and decreases towards the western part. This lower limit has been raised since then by accounting for aerosol contributions which reduce the strength of absorption bands. The low albedo (< 20%) requires significant intimate and/or intra- mixture of dark material. The low thermal inertia (Herkenhoff and Vasavada, 1999) is difficult to reconcile with morphologic

  20. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  1. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45‑80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65‑81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range

  2. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  3. Waste yield, proximate and mineral composition of three different types of land snails found in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I

    1996-03-01

    Some aspects of the chemical and anatomical weight composition of land snails in Nigeria were analysed with a view to assessing the waste yield, carcass yield and their nutritional evaluation on wet weight basis. Proximate analysis of Archachatina, Archatina and Limicolaria species was carried out on the carcass. Moisture and protein contents were high in all samples, fat and ash contents were generally low while crude fibre was not detected. The concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, manganese, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium and cobalt were determined in the carcass. Values of iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were consistently high while both chromium and cobalt were not detected. Anatomical fractionation showed the shell to vary between 17.12 - 31.99%, carcass varied between 36.97 - 45.14% and the intestine varied between 18.80 - 22.74%. Snails interact with man in a variety of ways, the beneficial interactions are enumerated. PMID:8833175

  4. Shear Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to Composite Resin with Two Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Motahhari, Paria; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Immediate restoration after vital pulp therapy is essential in order to create and maintain effective coronal seal. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of recently used pulp capping materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) to composite resin with the use of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems and compare them with the bond strength of commonly used resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from each test material were fabricated, measuring 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The specimens of each material were divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens according to the adhesive system (Single Bond vs. Clearfil SE Bond) used for bonding of resin composite. The shear bond strength values were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min and fractured surfaces were examined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: Analysis of data showed a significantly higher bond strength for RMGI compared to MTA and CEM (P<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the bond strength values of MTA and CEM (P=0.9). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in relation to the type of the adhesive system irrespective of the type of the material used (P=0.95) All the failures were of cohesive type in RMGI, MTA and CEM. Conclusion: Bond strength of RMGI cement to composite resin was higher than that of MTA or CEM cement irrespective of the type of the adhesive system. PMID:25628696

  5. Circadian Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are a prominent and critical feature of cells, tissues, organs, and behavior that help an organism function most efficiently and anticipate things such as food availability. Therefore, it is not surprising that disrupted circadian rhythmicity, a prominent feature of modern-day society, promotes the development and/or progression of a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory, metabolic, and alcohol-associated disorders. This article will discuss the influence of interplay between alcohol consumption and circadian rhythmicity and how circadian rhythm disruption affects immune function and metabolism as well as potential epigenetic mechanisms that may be contributing to this phenomenon. PMID:24313168

  6. The composition of fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits Poland: Genetic and environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; Hofstra, A.H.; Emsbo, P.; Kozlowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of fluids extracted from ore and gangue sulfide minerals that span most of the paragenesis of the Silesian-Cracow district was determined using a newly developed ion chromatographic (IC) technique. Ionic species determined were Na+, NH+4, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Rb+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Cl-, Br-, F-, I-, PO3-4, CO2-3, HS-, S2O2-3, SO2-4, NO-3, and acetate. Mineral samples included six from the Pomorzany mine and one from the Trzebionka mine which are hosted in the Triassic Muschelkalk Formation, and two samples of drill core from mineralized Upper Devonian strata. Nine paragenetically identifiable sulfide minerals occur throughout the Silesian-Cracow district. These include from earliest to latest: early iron sulfides, granular sphalerite, early galena, light-banded sphalerite, galena, dark-banded sphalerite, iron sulfides, late dark-banded sphalerite with late galena, and late iron sulfides. Seven of the minerals were sampled for fluid inclusion analysis in this study. Only the early iron sulfides and the last galena stage were not sampled. Although the number of analyses are limited to nine samples and two replicates and there is uncertainty about the characteristics of the fluid inclusions analyzed, the data show clear temporal trends in the composition of the fluids that deposited these minerals. Fluid inclusions in minerals deposited later in the paragenesis have significantly more K+, Br-, NH+4, and acetate but less Sr2+ than those deposited earlier in the paragenesis. The later minerals are also characterized by isotopically lighter sulfur and significantly more Tl and As in the solid minerals. The change in ore-fluid chemistry is interpreted to reflect a major change in the hydrologic regime of the district. Apparently, the migrational paths of ore fluids from the Upper Silesian basin changed during ore deposition and the fluids which deposited early minerals reacted with aquifers with very different geochemical characteristics than those that deposited

  7. Mineral composition of two populations of leaves - green and iron chlorotic - of the same age all from the same tree

    SciTech Connect

    Procopiou, J.; Wallace, A.

    1981-01-01

    Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age and from the same two trees were analyzed individually for mineral elements to determine, especially, the frequency distribution of Fe in the various groups of leaves (n = 47, 48, 71, 48). The chlorotic leaves from one tree had mineral composition typical of lime-induced chlorosis. The chlorotic leaves for this tree were, on the average, higher in P, K, and Fe and lower in Ca than the green leaves. For the other tree the chlorotic leaves appeared to be truly Fe deficient; P was not higher in these leaves but the mean K and Ca showed the same pattern as in the first tree. Zinc was higher in the deficient leaves than in the green ones on this tree which can be expected for true Fe deficiency. Mean zinc levels were below the critical levels. Mean manganese was below the critical level for all groups. The coefficient of variation for each element in each group was usually around 30%. Maximum-minimum data indicated that many individual leaves did not fit the patterns just described. Correlation coefficients indicated that most major patterns were consistent in spite of the variability, although there were some differences. The frequency distribution for each of most elements was much like a normal curve with usually a three-fold range for each of the elements. Many of the Fe-deficient leaves had more Fe than some of the green leaves. Analysis of an individual leaf, therefore, cannot result in accurate description of lime-induced chlorosis.

  8. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  9. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyry copper deposits in Arizona are genetically associated with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that consist of older intermediate volcanic rocks and younger intermediate to felsic intrusions. The igneous complexes and their associated porphyry copper deposits were emplaced into an Early Proterozoic basement characterized by different rocks, geologic histories, and isotopic compositions. Lead isotope compositions of the Proterozoic basement rocks define, from northwest to southeast, the Mojave, central Arizona, and southeastern Arizona provinces. Porphyry copper deposits are present in each Pb isotope province. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons, together with those of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits and of Proterozoic country rocks, place important constraints on genesis of the magmatic suites and the porphyry copper deposits themselves. The range of age-corrected Pb isotope compositions of plutons in 12 Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes is 206Pb/204Pb = 17.34 to 22.66, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.43 to 15.96, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.19 to 40.33. These Pb isotope compositions and calculated model Th/U are similar to those of the Proterozoic rocks in which the plutons were emplaced, thereby indicating that Pb in the younger rocks and ore deposits was inherited from the basement rocks and their sources. No Pb isotope differences distinguish Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that contain large economic porphyry copper deposits from less rich or smaller deposits that have not been considered economic for mining. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and sulfide minerals from 30 metallic mineral districts, furthermore, require that the southeastern Arizona Pb province be divided into two subprovinces. The northern subprovince has generally lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher model Th/U, and the southern subprovince has higher 206Pb/204Pb and

  10. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a large impact on the earth's radiation balance and climate. The radiative effects of mineral dust depend on factors including, particle size, shape, and composition which can all be extremely complex. Mineral dust particles are typically irregular in shape and can include sharp edges, voids, and fine scale surface roughness. Particle shape can also depend on the type of mineral and can vary as a function of particle size. In addition, atmospheric mineral dust is a complex mixture of different minerals as well as other, possibly organic, components that have been mixed in while these particles are suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosol optical properties are investigated in this work, including studies of the effect of particle size, shape, and composition on the infrared (IR) extinction and visible scattering properties in order to achieve more accurate modeling methods. Studies of particle shape effects on dust optical properties for single component mineral samples of silicate clay and diatomaceous earth are carried out here first. Experimental measurements are modeled using T-matrix theory in a uniform spheroid approximation. Previous efforts to simulate the measured optical properties of silicate clay, using models that assumed particle shape was independent of particle size, have achieved only limited success. However, a model which accounts for a correlation between particle size and shape for the silicate clays offers a large improvement over earlier modeling approaches. Diatomaceous earth is also studied as an example of a single component mineral dust aerosol with extreme particle shapes. A particle shape distribution, determined by fitting the experimental IR extinction data, used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the scattering data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape

  11. Usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of the mineral composition and texture of soils and heavy metal uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Gómez, I.; Jordán, M. M.; Guerrero, C.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soils from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the total heavy metals in soil are not a suitable tool for risk assessment regarding heavy metal mobility and bioavailability. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate this bioavailability but controversy exists to define an universal method. The bioavailability is influenced, apart from other properties like pH, organic matter, etc., by the mineral fraction and texture of a soil. However, the determination of these parameters, especially the mineral composition, is laborious, expensive, and time consuming. Thus, the objectives of this work are the estimation of the texture and mineral components of contrasting soils and the heavy metal uptake (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd) by barley after sewage sludge application using NIR spectroscopy. A set of 70 contrasting soils from different parts of Spain were used for the analysis of the texture and mineral composition. The mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using whole soil random powder, oriented clay on ceramic plates, and clay random powder. Chung method was used for semi-quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of soils, obtaining the percentage of Calcite (Ca), Quartz (Q), Albite (Ab), Potassium Feldspar (FK), phyllosilicates (PS). For the prediction of heavy metal uptake, the 70 soils were divided in two separate sets of 36 (experiment 1) and 34 (experiment 2) soils. The methodology for both experiments, separated in time, was the same. The soils were amended with the same dose of sewage sludge (15.71 g dry weight kg-1) and placed in pots. In these pots, a bioassay with barley, under greenhouse conditions, was carried out. Eight weeks after sowing, the plants were harvested. Roots were dried in an

  12. Effect of ionic activity products on the structure and composition of mineral self assembled on three-dimensional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungsup; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.; Kohn, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A biomimetic approach involving the self-assembly of mineral within the pores of three-dimensional porous polymer scaffolds is a promising strategy to integrate advantages of inorganic and organic phases into a single material for hard tissue engineering. Such a material enhances the ability of progenitor cells to differentiate down an osteoblast lineage in vitro and in vivo, compared with polymer scaffolds. The mechanisms regulating mineral formation in this one-step process, however, are poorly understood, especially the effects of ionic activity products (IP) of the mineralizing solution and incubation time. The aims of this study were to define the structure and composition of mineral formed within the pores of biodegradable polymer scaffolds as a function of IP and time. Three-dimensional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds were fabricated by solvent casting/particulate leaching and incubated for 4–16 days in six variants of simulated body fluid whose IPs were varied by adjusting ionic concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of carbonated apatite with sub-micrometer sized crystals that grew into spherical globules extending out of the scaffold pore surfaces. As IP increased, more mineral grew on the scaffold pore surfaces, but the apatite became less crystalline and the Ca/P molar ratio decreased from 1.63 ± 0.005 to 1.51 ± 0.002. Since morphology, composition, and structure of mineral are factors that affect cell function, this study demonstrates that the IP of the mineralizing solution is an important modulator of material properties, potentially leading to enhanced control of cell function. PMID:17584901

  13. Altering the sphingolipid acyl chain composition prevents LPS/GLN-mediated hepatic failure in mice by disrupting TNFR1 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Fritsch, J; Zigdon, H; Pewzner-Jung, Y; Schütze, S; Futerman, A H

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of ceramide in death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been widely examined with most studies focusing on the role of ceramide generated from sphingomyelin hydrolysis. We now analyze the effect of the ceramide acyl chain length by studying tumor necrosis factor α receptor-1 (TNFR1)-mediated apoptosis in a ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mouse, which cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain ceramides. CerS2 null mice were resistant to lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine-mediated fulminant hepatic failure even though TNFα secretion from macrophages was unaffected. Cultured hepatocytes were also insensitive to TNFα-mediated apoptosis. In addition, in both liver and in hepatocytes, caspase activities were not elevated, consistent with inhibition of TNFR1 pro-apoptotic signaling. In contrast, Fas receptor activation resulted in the death of CerS2 null mice. Caspase activation was blocked because of the inability of CerS2 null mice to internalize the TNFR1; whereas Fc-TNFα was internalized to a perinuclear region in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, no internalization was detected in CerS2 null mice. Our results indicate that altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids inhibits TNFR1 internalization and inhibits selective pro-apoptotic downstream signaling for apoptosis. PMID:24263103

  14. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  15. Socket preservation and sinus augmentation using a medical grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate and mineralized irradiated cancellous bone allograft composite.

    PubMed

    Bagoff, Robert; Mamidwar, Sachin; Chesnoiu-Matei, Ioana; Ricci, John L; Alexander, Harold; Tovar, Nick M

    2013-06-01

    Regeneration and preservation of bone after the extraction of a tooth are necessary for the placement of a dental implant. The goal is to regenerate alveolar bone with minimal postoperative pain. Medical grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (MGCSH) can be used alone or in combination with other bone grafts; it improves graft handling characteristics and particle containment of particle-based bone grafts. In this case series, a 1:1 ratio mix of MGCSH and mineralized irradiated cancellous bone allograft (MICBA) was mixed with saline and grafted into an extraction socket in an effort to maintain alveolar height and width for future implant placement. MGCSH can be used in combination with other bone grafts and can improve handling characteristics and graft particle containment of particle-based bone grafts. In the cases described, we found that an MGCSH:MICBA graft can potentially be an effective bone graft composite. It has the ability to act as a space maintainer and as an osteoconductive trellis for bone cells, thereby promoting bone regeneration in the extraction socket. MGCSH, a cost-effective option, successfully improved MICBA handling characteristics, prevented soft tissue ingrowth, and assisted in the regeneration of bone.

  16. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    PubMed

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. PMID:27283631

  17. Chronic Psychological Stress Disrupted the Composition of the Murine Colonic Microbiota and Accelerated a Murine Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yohei; Arase, Sohei; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of psychological stress on the gastrointestinal microbiota is widely recognized. Chronic psychological stress may be associated with increased disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, but the relationships among psychological stress, the gastrointestinal microbiota, and the severity of colitis is not yet fully understood. Here, we examined the impact of 12-week repeated water-avoidance stress on the microbiota of two inbred strains of T cell receptor alpha chain gene knockout mouse (background, BALB/c and C57BL/6) by means of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In both mouse strains, knockout of the T cell receptor alpha chain gene caused a loss of gastrointestinal microbial diversity and stability. Chronic exposure to repeated water-avoidance stress markedly altered the composition of the colonic microbiota of C57BL/6 mice, but not of BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the relative abundance of genus Clostridium, some members of which produce the toxin phospholipase C, was increased, which was weakly positively associated with colitis severity, suggesting that expansion of specific populations of indigenous pathogens may be involved in the exacerbation of colitis. However, we also found that colitis was not exacerbated in mice with a relatively diverse microbiota even if their colonic microbiota contained an expanded phospholipase C-producing Clostridium population. Exposure to chronic stress also altered the concentration of free immunoglobulin A in colonic contents, which may be related to both the loss of bacterial diversity in the colonic microbiota and the severity of the colitis exacerbation. Together, these results suggest that long-term exposure to psychological stress induces dysbiosis in the immunodeficient mouse in a strain-specific manner and also that alteration of microbial diversity, which may be related to an altered pattern of immunoglobulin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, might play a crucial role in the

  18. Chronic Psychological Stress Disrupted the Composition of the Murine Colonic Microbiota and Accelerated a Murine Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Arase, Sohei; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of psychological stress on the gastrointestinal microbiota is widely recognized. Chronic psychological stress may be associated with increased disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, but the relationships among psychological stress, the gastrointestinal microbiota, and the severity of colitis is not yet fully understood. Here, we examined the impact of 12-week repeated water-avoidance stress on the microbiota of two inbred strains of T cell receptor alpha chain gene knockout mouse (background, BALB/c and C57BL/6) by means of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In both mouse strains, knockout of the T cell receptor alpha chain gene caused a loss of gastrointestinal microbial diversity and stability. Chronic exposure to repeated water-avoidance stress markedly altered the composition of the colonic microbiota of C57BL/6 mice, but not of BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the relative abundance of genus Clostridium, some members of which produce the toxin phospholipase C, was increased, which was weakly positively associated with colitis severity, suggesting that expansion of specific populations of indigenous pathogens may be involved in the exacerbation of colitis. However, we also found that colitis was not exacerbated in mice with a relatively diverse microbiota even if their colonic microbiota contained an expanded phospholipase C-producing Clostridium population. Exposure to chronic stress also altered the concentration of free immunoglobulin A in colonic contents, which may be related to both the loss of bacterial diversity in the colonic microbiota and the severity of the colitis exacerbation. Together, these results suggest that long-term exposure to psychological stress induces dysbiosis in the immunodeficient mouse in a strain-specific manner and also that alteration of microbial diversity, which may be related to an altered pattern of immunoglobulin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, might play a crucial role in the

  19. Disruption angles

    SciTech Connect

    Minten, A.

    1985-06-25

    This investigation has been stimulated by the question, to what extent beam disruption of two penetrating SLC bunches will modify the initial angular distribution of the incident beam, and whether the tails of the outgoing beam will be significantly enhanced and will lead to increased losses in the vicinity of the detector. We try to answer this question in three steps. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Applicability of food composition tables as a tool to estimate mineral and trace element intake of pre-school children in Japan: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Takao; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-10-01

    Because dietary intakes of some minerals (including trace elements), especially iron (Fe), are insufficient for the needs of the general Japanese population, accurate estimation of mineral intake is important. This capability is especially necessary to preserve the health of Japanese children. Therefore, the current version of food composition tables (FCT) in Japan was evaluated for validity as tools to estimate dietary intake of minerals for children. For this purpose, 24h food duplicate samples were collected from 292 pre-school children in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. From the weights of items and food codes, intakes of nine minerals were estimated taking advantage of the FCT. In parallel, amounts of minerals in each duplicate samples were instrumentally measured by ICP-AES for Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, and by flame AAS for K and Na, both after wet-ashing. The distributions of the mineral amounts were essentially normal. The comparison of the FCT-based estimates (E) and instrumental measures (M) showed that the E/M ratio was close to 1 for Ca, K, Mn, P and Zn, suggesting that E may be a surrogate of M for Ca, K, Mn, P and Zn on a group basis. The ratio being larger than 1.2 for Cu, Fe, Mg and Na indicates that a risk of over-estimation exists when E is relied upon in place of M. On an individual basis, significant differences were detected for all 9 minerals suggesting that the use of E as a surrogate for M should be practiced with care for the estimation of mineral intake.

  1. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  2. Bioconductive 3D nano-composite constructs with tunable elasticity to initiate stem cell growth and induce bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Nitin; Khanna, Kunal; Sardesai, Varda S; Singh, Atul K; Temgire, Mayur; Kalita, Mridula Phukan; Kadam, Sachin S; Soni, Vivek P; Bhartiya, Deepa; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMChNa-GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157±30μm and 89.47+0.03% with four dimensional X-ray. The aspect ratio of ellipsoidal pores decrease from 4.4 to 1.2 with increase in gelatin concentration; and from 2.14 to 1.93 with decrease in gelling temperature. The samples were resilient with elastic stain at 1.2MPa of stress also decreased from 0.33 to 0.23 with increase in gelatin concentration. The crosslinker HMDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate) yielded more resilient samples at 1.2MPa in comparison to glutaraldehyde. Increased crosslinking time from 2 to 4h in continuous compression cycle show no improvement in maximum elastic stain of 1.2MPa stress. This surface elasticity of the scaffold enables the capacity of these materials for adherent self renewal and cultivation of the NTERA-2 cL.D1 (NT2/D1), pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell with biomechanical surface, as is shown here. Proliferation with MG-63, ALP activity and Alizarin red mineralization assay on optimized scaffold demonstrated ***p<0.001 between different time points thus showing its potential for bone healing. In pre-clinical study histological bone response of the scaffold construct displayed improved activity of bone regeneration in comparison to self healing of control groups (sham) up to week 07 after implantation in rabbit tibia critical-size defect. Therefore, this nHA-CMChNa-GEL scaffold composite exhibits inherent and efficient physicochemical, mechanical and biological

  3. Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shuxian, Lin; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Phipps, Matthew; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Harry K W; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2-5-fold) and osteoid volume (~4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~85%) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (>95%), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~85%) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (>3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (>6-fold) and Tcf3 (~2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~65%) and bone mRNA (~57%), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (>20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (>95%), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is

  4. The role of phytoplankton composition, biomass and cell volume in accumulation and transfer of endocrine disrupting compounds in the Southern Baltic Sea (The Gulf of Gdansk).

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) like bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are introduced to the trophic webs through among others phytoplankton. This paper describes BPA, OP and NP concentrations in phytoplankton in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic Sea) in the years 2011-2012. The assays of BPA, OP and NP in samples were performed using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations of BPA, the most commonly used of the three compounds, were over ten times higher than OP and NP concentrations. The concentrations of the studied EDCs in phytoplankton from the Gulf of Gdansk depended on anthropogenic factors and on phytoplankton properties (species composition, biomass, volume). An increase in phytoplankton biomass did not always result in an increase of BPA, OP and NP concentrations. However, the load of the studied EDCs accumulated in phytoplankton biomass increase with a rise of biomass. An increase in BPA, OP and NP concentrations was effected by biomass growth and the proportions ofciliates, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae. A strong positive correlation between OP and NP concentrations and negative correlation between BPA concentrations and biomass of organisms with cells measuring <1000 μm(3) in volume results from the differing properties of these compounds. PMID:26433181

  5. The role of phytoplankton composition, biomass and cell volume in accumulation and transfer of endocrine disrupting compounds in the Southern Baltic Sea (The Gulf of Gdansk).

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) like bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are introduced to the trophic webs through among others phytoplankton. This paper describes BPA, OP and NP concentrations in phytoplankton in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic Sea) in the years 2011-2012. The assays of BPA, OP and NP in samples were performed using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations of BPA, the most commonly used of the three compounds, were over ten times higher than OP and NP concentrations. The concentrations of the studied EDCs in phytoplankton from the Gulf of Gdansk depended on anthropogenic factors and on phytoplankton properties (species composition, biomass, volume). An increase in phytoplankton biomass did not always result in an increase of BPA, OP and NP concentrations. However, the load of the studied EDCs accumulated in phytoplankton biomass increase with a rise of biomass. An increase in BPA, OP and NP concentrations was effected by biomass growth and the proportions ofciliates, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae. A strong positive correlation between OP and NP concentrations and negative correlation between BPA concentrations and biomass of organisms with cells measuring <1000 μm(3) in volume results from the differing properties of these compounds.

  6. Short-term sleep deprivation disrupts the molecular composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in entorhinal cortex and impairs the rat spatial reference memory.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Li, Chao; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Jiali; Hu, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies reported that sleep deprivation (SD) causes impairment in spatial cognitive performance. However, the molecular mechanisms affected by SD underlying this behavioral phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we focused on the entorhinal cortex (EC), the gateway of the hippocampus, and investigated how SD affected the subunit expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, the main ionotropic glutamategic receptors serving a pivotal role in spatial cognition. In EC, we found 4h SD remarkably reduced surface expression of GluA1, while there was an increase in the surface expression of GluA2 and GluA3. As for NMDARs, SD with short duration significantly reduced the surface expression levels of GluN1 and GluN2B without effect on the GluN2A. In parallel with the alterations in AMPARs and NMDARs, we found the 4h SD impaired rat spatial reference memory as assessed by Morris water maze task. Overall, these data indicate that brief SD differently affects the AMPAR and NMDAR subunit expressions in EC and might consequently disrupt the composition and functional properties of these receptors. PMID:26455878

  7. Bone mineral density in 11-13-year-old boys: relative importance of the weight status and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Ivuskans, Arturs; Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of being overweight on bone mineral status in 11-13-year-old boys, who were divided into overweight (OW; n = 110) and normal weight (NW; n = 154) groups. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), bone mineral content (BMC) at the WB, and body composition were assessed. Calculation of the bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was completed for the WB, LS and FN. The BMC/height ratio was also computed. OW boys displayed similar values (P > 0.05) for LS and FN BMAD and lower (P < 0.05) WB BMAD, despite significantly higher values (P < 0.05) for more widely used WB and LS BMD, WB BMC and WB BMC/height in comparison with NW boys. Fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m(2)) had the highest correlation coefficients from the calculated body composition indices with all bone mineral values in NW boys. In OW boys, the FFMI had the highest correlation only with FN BMD, while other measured bone mineral values had highest correlations with either BMI or FMI indices. In conclusion, OW boys have higher crude WB BMD, BMC and BMC/height ratio in comparison with NW boys. However, the bone growth appears to be insufficient to compensate for the higher mechanical load applied on the bone by higher FM and also FFM values in OW boys. Excessive adiposity does not have a protective effect on the development of BMAD in growing boys reaching puberty.

  8. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected minerals content

    PubMed Central

    Kapadiya, Dhartiben B.; Prajapati, Darshna B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Materials and Methods: Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for gross composition such as total solids (TS), fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, lactose, and ash. Samples were also analyzed for nitrogen distribution such as total nitrogen (TN), non-casein nitrogen (NCN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), and selected minerals content such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and chloride. Total five replications were carried out. Results: Goat milk had the lowest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content among all three types of milk studied in the present investigation. On the other hand, the highest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content were found in buffalo milk. Buffalo milk had the highest SNF, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content, which was followed by goat milk and lowest in cow milk. The SNF, protein, TN, and calcium content of goat milk were statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk. The lactose content of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the cow milk as well as buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest ash and NCN content, which were followed by buffalo milk and lowest in cow milk. However, the differences in ash, NPN, and phosphorous content of three types of milk studied, viz., goat milk, cow milk, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The NCN content of buffalo milk was statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk as well as goat milk. The NCN and magnesium content of goat milk were significantly higher (p>0.05) than

  9. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available.

  10. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. . Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  11. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. PMID:25581029

  12. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    PubMed

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. PMID:27088876

  13. “Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systems”-An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system. Material and Methods Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or ‘total-etch adhesive’, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values. Conclusions The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate. Key words:Composite resins, dentin bonding agents, mineral trioxide aggregate, shear bond strength. PMID:27398177

  14. Genetic characterization of a Tn5-disrupted glycosyltransferase gene homolog in Brucella abortus and its effect on lipopolysaccharide composition and virulence.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, J R; Vemulapalli, R; Inzana, T J; Schurig, G G; Sriranganathan, N; Fritzinger, D; Hadfield, T L; Warren, R A; Lindler, L E; Snellings, N; Hoover, D; Halling, S M; Boyle, S M

    1999-08-01

    We constructed a rough mutant of Brucella abortus 2308 by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. Neither whole cells nor extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from this mutant, designated RA1, reacted with a Brucella O-side-chain-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), Bru-38, indicating the absence of O-side-chain synthesis. Compositional analyses of LPS from strain RA1 showed reduced levels of quinovosamine and mannose relative to the levels in the parental, wild-type strain, 2308. We isolated DNA flanking the Tn5 insertion in strain RA1 by cloning a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment into pGEM-3Z to create plasmid pJM6. Allelic exchange of genomic DNA in B. abortus 2308 mediated by electroporation of pJM6 produced kanamycin-resistant clones that were not reactive with MAb Bru-38. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from these rough clones revealed Tn5 in a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment. A homology search with the deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame disrupted by Tn5 revealed limited homology with various glycosyltransferases. This B. abortus gene has been named wboA. Transformation of strain RA1 with a broad-host-range plasmid bearing the wild-type B. abortus wboA gene resulted in the restoration of O-side-chain synthesis and the smooth phenotype. B. abortus RA1 was attenuated for survival in mice. However, strain RA1 persisted in mice spleens for a longer time than the B. abortus vaccine strain RB51, but as expected, neither strain induced antibodies specific for the O side chain.

  15. Tracing the pathway of compositional changes in bone mineral with age: Preliminary study of bioapatite aging in hypermineralized dolphin’s bulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of mineral compositional effects during bone aging are complicated by the presence of collagen. Methods Hypermineralized bullae of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins of < 3 months, 2.5 years, and 20 years underwent micrometer-scale point analysis by Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe in addition to bulk analysis for carbon. Results Bulla central areas have a mineral content of ~96 wt.% and 9–10 wt.% carbonate in their bioapatite, which is ~2 wt.% more than edge areas. Ca/P atomic ratios (~1.8) and concentrations of Mg, S, and other minor/trace elements are almost constant in central areas over time. Maturity brings greater over-all homogeneity in mineral content, stoichiometry, and morphology throughout central and edge areas of the bullae. During aging, edge areas become less porous, whereas the concentration of organics in the edge is reduced. Enhancement of coupled substitutions of CO32− for PO43− and Na for Ca during aging increases carbonate content up to ~10 wt.% in the adult bulla. Conclusions 1) Changes in physical properties during aging did not occur simultaneously with changes in chemical properties of the bone mineral. 2) Compositional changes in bone mineral were minor during the neonatal to sub-adult stage, but significant during later maturity. 3) Na and CO3 concentrations covary in a 1:1 molar proportion during aging. 4) The mineral’s crystallinity did not decrease as CO3 concentration increased during aging. General Significance Hypermineralized dolphin’s bulla, due to extreme depletion in collagen, is an ideal material for investigating mineralogical changes in bioapatite during bone aging. PMID:24650888

  16. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  17. A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction method to determine mineral composition in stream sediments with similar mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A semiquantitative X-ray diffraction procedure has been developed that can be used to acquire reproducible mineralogic data from geographically unrelated stream-sediment samples having similar mineralogy. Weight percentages for quartz, total-feldspar, and total-clay can be determined by direct comparison of intensities with standard-mineral mixtures of known weight percent. Matrix effects and mass-absorption differences are circumvented by taking the ratio of peak-intensity, in counts per second, for quartz relative to that of other minerals being quantified. Mineral percentages generally are reproducible to within 10 percent.

  18. On the neutral to acidic character of the dark terrains mineral assemblage of Europa's surface, and its implication for the ocean composition: Geochemistry, Spectroscopy and Terrestrial analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fernandez-Sampedro, M.; Martin-Redondo, M. P.; Gomez, F.; Kargel, J. S.

    Since the Galileo NIMS sensor obtained the spectral data of the surface of Europa, several laboratory studies have been performed to ascertain the composition of the dark terrains. Some hydrated salts and acids have been proposed to explain the spectral signatures of these areas, but no single mineral fit is completely suitable. Until now, a flash frozen aqueous mixture of magnesium and sodium sulfate with sulphuric acid is the better match. The structural relationship of these materials to the geological features (such as fractures) and geochemical models of chondrite alteration indicate that they are originally endogenic. However, as some authors have already proposed, the high radiation environment has to modify these substances. The cryogenesis of the observed mineralogy may provide some clues about the compositional characteristics of the potential global water ocean of Europa, if this ocean constitutes the source. The crystallization path of the original cryomagmas will determine the final paragenesis observed on the surface. Fractional crystallization of the briny magmas may produce mineral differentiation, resulting in an enrichment of the acidic components as the temperature decreases due to the lower melting point of these materials. But if the solidification occurs as flash freezing, neutral to acidic mineral assemblages are possible. In this case, the original composition would be of Mg-Na sulphates-rich, and the acidic character would occur mainly by radiolysis. A sulphuric acid component should be a secondary product from the alteration of the sulfate paragenesis produced by radiolysis at low temperature, although endogenic acid brines should not be totally rejected. Terrestrial analogs to these chemistries are useful to constrain the habitability of the ocean environment and supply natural brines for new experiments. Several crystallization experiments have been done with brines from Tirez lake (central Spain), and the results show different final

  19. In vitro mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells on collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds coated carbon/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2016-02-01

    Collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite (collagen/nHA) scaffolds were successfully prepared on carbon/carbon composites as bioactive films using the layer-by-layer coating method. Surface characterizations of collagen/nHA scaffolds were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Compressive strengths of the scaffolds were evaluated by a universal test machine. In vitro biological performances were determined using scaffolds seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts-like cells and cultured in mineralization medium for up to 21 days. In addition, cellular morphologies and several related gene expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells in the scaffolds were also evaluated. Chemical and morphological analysis showed that the scaffolds had uniform pore sizes and unified phase composition. Mechanical testing indicated that the collagen/nHA scaffolds had the highest compressive strength in 50% of strain condition when the proportion of collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite was 1:3. Cellular morphology observations and cytology tests indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells were adhered on these scaffolds and proliferated. SEM photographs and gene expressions showed that mineralized MC3T3-E1 cells and newly formed extra cellular matrix (ECM) filled up the pores of the scaffolds after the 3-week mineralization inducement. Nano-sized apatite particles were secreted from MC3T3-E1 cells and combined with the reconstructed ECM. Collectively, collagen/nHA scaffolds provided C/C composites with a biomimetic surface for cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralized extra cellular matrices formation.

  20. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P. PMID:27598843

  1. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  2. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  3. Impacts of pore- and petro-fabrics, mineral composition and diagenetic history on the bulk thermal conductivity of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabawy, Bassem S.; Géraud, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to model the bulk thermal fabric of the highly porous (26.5 ≤ øHe ≤ 39.0%) siliceous Nubia sandstones in south Egypt, as well as their pore- and petro-anisotropy. The thermal fabric concept is used in the present study to describe the magnitude and direction of the thermal foliation 'F', lineation 'L' and anisotropy 'λ'. Cementation, pressure solution, compaction and the authigenic clay content are the main pore volume-controlling factors, whereas the cement dissolution and fracturing are the most important porosity-enhancing factors. The bulk thermal fabric of the Nubia sandstone is raised mostly from the contribution of the mineral composition and the pore volume. The kaolinite content and pore volume are the main reducing factors for the measured bulk thermal conductivity 'k', whereas the quartz content is the most important enhancing factors. The optical scanning technique, which is one of the most accurate and precise techniques, was applied for measuring the bulk thermal conductivity 'k' of the studied samples. For the dry state, the average thermal condutivity 'kav' in the NE-SW, NW-SE and vertical directions, varies from 1.53 to 2.40, 1.54 to 2.36 and from 1.31 to 2.20 W/(mK), respectively. On other hand, 'kav' for the saline water-saturated state for the NE-SW, NW-SE and vertical directions varies between 2.94 & 4.42, 2.90 & 4.31 and between 2.39 & 3.65 W/(mK), respectively. The present thermal pore fabric is slightly anisotropic, 'λ' varies from 1.10 to 1.41, refers mostly to the NW-SE direction (kmax direction, elongation direction), whereas the petro-fabric refers to NE-SW direction (kmax direction, elongation direction). This gives rise to a conclusion that the pore- and petro-fabrics have two different origins. Therefore, studying the thermal conductivity of the Nubia sandstone in 3-D indicates a pore fabric elongation fluctuating around the N-S direction.

  4. Effects of the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism on fatty acid, protein, and mineral composition of dairy cattle milk.

    PubMed

    Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W; Poulsen, N A; Sehested, J; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M; Larsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have described associations between the diacylglycerol o-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism and routinely collected milk production traits but not much is known about effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on detailed milk composition. The aim of this study was to estimate effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on milk fatty acid, protein, and mineral composition. We looked for effects that were significant and consistent in Danish Holstein Friesian (HF), Danish Jersey, and Dutch HF as these are likely to be true effects of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism rather than being effects of linked loci. For fatty acid composition, significant and consistent effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism were detected on C14:0, C16:0, C15:0, C16:1, C18:1 cis-9, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 content (percent by weight, wt/wt %). For C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 cis-9, the DGAT1 polymorphism explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Significant effects on milk protein composition in Dutch HF could not be confirmed in Danish Jersey or Danish HF. For mineral content, significant and consistent effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on calcium, phosphorus, and zinc were detected. In the Dutch HF population, the contribution of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism to phenotypic variance was 12.0% for calcium, 8.3% for phosphorus, and 6.1% for zinc. Different from effects on fatty acid composition, effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on yields of long-chain fatty acids C18:1 cis-9, CLA cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 were not significant. This indicates that effects of DGAT1 on these fatty acids are indirect, not direct, effects: DGAT1 affects de novo synthesis of fatty acids and, consequently, the contribution of the long-chain fatty acids to total fat is decreased. In addition, effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on yields of Ca, P, and Zn were not significant, which indicates that effects

  5. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  6. Chemical Composition of Magnetic Minerals in the Sedimentary Interval Containing the Mono Lake Excursion from Summer Lake, Oregon, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Lopez, J.; Thompson, G. R.; Soto, C.; Herrera, I. S.; Sevier, K. L.; Negrini, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Oriented piston cores were taken from Summer Lake for the purpose of obtaining a high-resolution paleomagnetic record of the Mono Lake Excursion. McCuan (2011) reported that the main magnetic carrier mineral is consistent throughout the cores and is composed principally of pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. This result is based on XRD scans of magnetic mineral separates and modified Day plots of bulk sediment hysteresis parameters. In addition, small amounts of maghemite, hematite, and ilmenite were identified using reflected light microscopy though these did not show up in the XRD patterns or bulk hysteresis analyses. In contrast to the above results, preliminary SIRM unmixing results suggest the presence of at least three different significant magnetic carriers with moderately low coercivities. To test the unmixing results, magnetic separates were obtained from core samples and prepared into polished sections for analysis using the SEM-EDS at CSUB. Grains in excess of 10 um were randomly analyzed (N = 646). The vast majority of grains were titanomagnetites with atomic Fe:Ti ranging from 7.5:2.5 to 8.5:1.5, but there are also small amounts of ulvospinel, magnetite, and occasionally Fe-rich chromite, and most grains contain small amounts of Mg, Al, and Cr. Ternary plots of Fe-Ti-Cr show multiple wide but similar compositional ranges at all depths. These compositional data generally support the SIRM unmixing results suggesting three or so families of magnetic minerals.

  7. Adsorptional photocatalytic mineralization of oxytetracycline and ampicillin antibiotics using Bi2O3/BiOCl supported on graphene sand composite and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Priya, Bhanu; Raizada, Pankaj; Singh, Nahar; Thakur, Pankaj; Singh, Pardeep

    2016-10-01

    In present study, heterojunctioned Bi2O3/BiOCl (BO/BOC) was synthesized via in situ chemical reduction and oxidation of BiOCl nanoplates. BiOCl was reduced to metallic Bi in KHB4 solution followed by oxidation in H2O2 solution to produce BO/BOC. The BO/BOC was supported over graphene sand composite and also on chitosan using wet impregnation method to report BO/BOC/GSC and BO/BOC/CT nanocomposite. The morphology and compositional characteristics of BO/BOC/GSC and BO/BOC/CT were investigated by FESEM, TEM, HRTEM, FTIR, XRD, EDX, RAMAN, BET and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectral analysis. The photocatalytic activity of BO/BOC/GSC and BO/BOC/CT was performed for mineralization of ampicillin (AMP) and oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics under solar light. The adsorption process had significant effect on photodegradation of AMP and OTC. The adsorption of both OTC and AMP onto BO/BOC/GSC and BO/BOC/CT followed pseudo second order kinetics. Simultaneous adsorption and degradation process (A+P) resulted in higher degradation rate of investigated antibiotics. The applicability of power law model indicates the intricacies of mineralization process. During A+P process, OTC and AMP were mineralized to CO2·H2O, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) ions. Both BO/BOC/GSC and BO/BOC/CT exhibited significant recycle efficiency. PMID:27393889

  8. Chemical composition and varieties of fahlore-group minerals from Oligocene mineralization in the Rhodope area, Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repstock, Alexander; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Zeug, Manuela; Melfos, Vasilios; Zhai, Mingguo; Li, Hongzhong; Kartal, Tamara; Matuszczak, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Fahlore-group minerals in Oligocene magmatic-hydrothermal deposits from the central and eastern Rhodope area, Bulgaria and Greece (e.g. porphyry-epithermal systems at Pagoni Rachi, Maronia and Kassiteres-Sapes, polymetallic epithermal high- and intermediate-sulfidation veins at Kirki, Perama Hill, Mavrokoryfi, Pefka, Zvezdel-Pcheloyad and Madzharovo, skarn-carbonate replacement deposits at Laki, Davidkovo, Madan, Enyovche and intrusion-related deposits at Kimmeria), cover the whole range of the tetrahedrite-tennantite solid solution series and are dominated by zincian and ferroan varieties reflecting deposition from Zn-(and Fe)-rich fluids. The majority of the studied fahlores are "normal" fully-substituted with Cu (+Ag) close to 10 apfu. However, high-sulfidation epithermal deposits in Greece contain "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite; those with extreme high Cu-excess > Fe + Zn occur in transitional high- to intermediate-sulfidation systems, whereas low "Cu-excess" tetrahedrite-tennantite with Zn > Cu-excess + Fe and Fe > Cu-excess + Zn are part of tellurides-bearing intermediate-sulfidation assemblages. The epithermal St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits display the most Cu-rich tetrahedrites (11.039 apfu Cu) and tennantite (11.784 apfu Cu) worldwide. Although Ag substitutes for Cu in the structure of Ag-rich tetrahedrite in several deposits, freibergite with 6.800 apfu Ag occurs only at Mavrokoryfi; in particular, the cadmian freibergite at Mavrokoryfi is the second finding of this variety worldwide. Tellurium-bearing fahlore varieties occur in association with enargite/luzonite and native gold in high-sulfidation ore assemblages. Tetravalent tellurium substitutes for trivalent As and Sb in goldfieldite and Te-rich tennantite and tetrahedrite at Mavrokoryfi, Perama Hill, St. Demetrios and Pefka deposits. Goldfieldite at Mavrokoryfi and Perama Hill is remarkably Te-rich (up to 3.766 apfu and 3.711 apfu Te, respectively), with total metal content of 10.591 apfu and

  9. Technology disrupted

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheodorou, Y.

    2007-02-15

    Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A MATLAB toolbox and Excel workbook for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and major element composition of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; Hacker, Bradley R.

    2016-02-01

    To interpret seismic images, rock seismic velocities need to be calculated at elevated pressure and temperature for arbitrary compositions. This technical report describes an algorithm, software, and data to make such calculations from the physical properties of minerals. It updates a previous compilation and Excel® spreadsheet and includes new MATLAB® tools for the calculations. The database of 60 mineral end-members includes all parameters needed to estimate density and elastic moduli for many crustal and mantle rocks at conditions relevant to the upper few hundreds of kilometers of Earth. The behavior of α and β quartz is treated as a special case, owing to its unusual Poisson's ratio and thermal expansion that vary rapidly near the α-β transition. The MATLAB tools allow integration of these calculations into a variety of modeling and data analysis projects.

  11. Compositional and mineralogic constraints on the genesis of ophiolite hosted nickel mineralization in the Pevkos area, Limassol Forest, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Economou, M.; Panayiotou, A.

    1985-01-01

    Mineralization composed dominantly of primary troilite, maucherite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, and secondary valleriite occurs in serpentinized transition zone rocks of the Limasol Forest segment of the Troodos ophiolite complex, Cyprus. Whole-rock and electron microprobe analyses of this mineralization gives ranges of Cu/(Cu+Ni)=0.16 to 0.47, Pt/(Pt+Pd)=0.66 to 0.51, Ni/Co=6.33 to 13.4, and chondrite normalized plots with low concentrations of Rh, Pt, and Pd, but relatively high Au. Estimated distribution coefficients of nickel and iron between olivine and ore range from 0.5 to 7.4. Most of these data are unlike values from magmatic sulfide deposits and indicate either a complete alteration of a preexisting magmatic sulfide concentration or, more likely, a nonmagmatic origin for this mineralization. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  13. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  14. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  15. Development of the FMT chemical transport simulator: Advective transport sensitivity to aqueous density and mineral volume fraction coupled to phase compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.

    1993-12-31

    The Fracture-Matrix Transport (FMT) code couples saturated porous media advection and diffusion with mechanistic chemical models for speciation and interphase reactions. FMT is being developed to support actinide solubility and retardation studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), USDOE facility for demonstrating safe disposal of transuranic waste. Hydrologic studies of water-bearing units above the WIPP indicate double-porosity transport behavior in some locations, with groundwater concentrations ranging which potable to highly concentrated. Previously, FMT simulated such systems in two-dimensions on the continuum from advection- to diffusion-dominated, with a user-specified velocity field that allows double-porosity transport. However, aqueous density was assumed constant, and reactive minerals were assumed to occupy negligible volume. Both of these assumptions can be considered poor for evaporite systems, where large changes in porosity and aqueous density can result from high mineral solubilities. Therefore, further development of FMT has relaxed these restrictions, allowing aqueous density to vary with phase composition, and allowing void volume to change as minerals dissolve and precipitate. This paper describes the additional mathematical complexity required to simulate such systems. The sensitivity of advection-dominated transport to these variables is explored through an extended example.

  16. Contrasting sulfur isotope compositions of sulfide minerals between on-ridge and off-ridge hydrothermal fields in the southern Mariana back-arc region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    New submarine hydrothermal fields were discovered in the southern Mariana back-arc spreading region during the Yokosuka-Shinkai 6500 cruise (October, 2003). One is located on the ridge of spreading center and the other is located on the off-rige site: A low-temperature hydrothermal activity and 10 m-high sulfide chimneys were found on the ridge site and the black-smoker activity with various sulfide chimneys was found on the top of the off-ridge seamount. Both hydrothermal fields were directly drilled by the benthic-multiple coring system during the Hakurei 2 cruise (February, 2004), in order to examine the subsurface hydrothermal processes. Elemental maps of drilled core samples and surface chimneys were constructed using X-ray scanning microscope, and an alteration pattern and types of sulfide minerals were examined. Forming steps of Fe-rich clays near the seafloor were traced and vesicle-filling process by clays and sulfides were found in the examined samples. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed using EA-IRMS on the separated sulfide and sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals are the identical to the seawater sulfate value. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides range from +2.9 to +8.7?n at the on-ridge site and _|3.2 to +3.6 ?n at the off-ridge site, respectively. Such regional difference in sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides is probably reflecting the difference in crustal processes: either (1) involvement of sulfate reduction near the discharge zone or (2) isotope exchange among several sulfide and sulfate phases in the deep reaction zone. Chronological change of sulfur isotope compositions was also found in each region: lighter sulfur isotope compositions were found in the younger generation of sulfides. This suggests the style of sulfur cycle in the basaltic crusts (e.g., depth and temperature change for sulfate reduction, potential biological process, etc.) are varying through the development and/or decay of each

  17. Do sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals and occurrence of framboidal pyrite indicate the subvent biosphere at the Suiyo Seamount in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Detailed morphological studies and sulfur isotope analyses were performed on sulfides and sulfates in the drilled core samples from the Suiyo Seamount in Japan. Petrographic studies indicate that drilled samples were extremely altered by the submarine hydrothermal process. Notable feature of the examined samples is the high abundance of sulfide (e.g., FeS2, CuFeS2, ZnS and PbS) and sulfate minerals (e.g., CaSO4, BaSO4). The euhedral shape of sulfides is most common morphology in the examined samples. Sulfur isotope compositions of these sulfides are ranging from +1 to +6 per mil, suggesting that sulfides were directly precipitated from isotopically homogeneous H2S in hydrothermal fluids. On the contrary, framboidal form of pyrite was found in subsurface samples (2 m depth) of APSK 03 site (drilled site near eastern edge of caldera wall). Detailed SEM observation indicates that the framboidal pyrite is aggregate (ca. 100 micro-meter in diameter) of small grain of pyrite crystals (5 micro-meter in diameter). Such morphological nature is quite similar to these found in the modern marine sediments. Sulfur isotope compositions of individual framboids were determined using the Nd-YAG laser microprobe system at Tohoku University. Their isotopic compositions are ranging from 1 per mil to +2 per mil and slightly lighter than these of the contemporary hydrothermal sulfides. Two possibilities are considerable for the origin of framboids: (1) biogenic origin or (2) abiogenic origin. If (1) is the case, sulfate-reducing bacteria in subvent region was responsible for the formation of framboidal pyrite. Average sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals are closed to +20 per mil in entire region. This suggest that the progressive introduction of sea water sulfate into the shallow hydrothermal system. Some sulfate minerals have lighter isotopic compositions (+17 to +19 per mil) than the sea water sulfate value. These lighter values indicate the mixing process between sea

  18. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Stabile, Antonio C.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur—because of degradation of the minerals—other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na+ and Cl-, interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg2+ and SO4 2-, did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals—meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg2+ and K+ from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO4•2H2O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  19. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    PubMed

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  20. Soil Mineral Composition Matters: Response of Microbial Communities to Phenanthrene and Plant Litter Addition in Long-Term Matured Artificial Soils

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  1. Support from Mineral and Melt-Inclusion Data for a Flux-controlled Ascent Model to Explain Longevity, Magnitude, and Composition of the Current Arenal Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Costa, F.

    2004-12-01

    Arenal volcano is famous for its ongoing, small-scale, continuous activity ever since it reawakened in July of 1968. Although activity levels have generally declined from early in the eruption to now, multiple daily explosions and associated lava production have persisted and continue to be characteristic for Arenal's current eruption. The combination of small eruption volumes, decades-long continuous activity, and eruption products that are remarkable compositionally similar, phenocryst-rich basaltic andesites provoke pressing questions about eruption driving force and petrogenetic history. Our key results indicate all eruption products exhibit significant but comparable complexities in mineral compositions, zoning and distributions requiring multi-stage mixing. Bulk compositions are mostly too mafic to have crystallized the majority of ferromagnesian minerals yet appropriate liquids are preserved in melt inclusions from tephras. Furthermore, no progressive changes in zoning near rims of phenocrysts over the course of the current eruption are apparent which complicates scenarios in which one, evolving magma batch has been tapped for the last 36 years. Evidence for replenishment events with more primitive magma is often found in cpx phenocrysts in form of discrete growth bands of high Mg#, Cr-rich cpx bound by low Mg# cpx. Modeling the diffusive equilibration of Fe-Mg gradients across bands yielded times of the latest recharge within a crystal prior its eruption of < 1 to ˜200 years suggesting variable residence times of phenocrysts and that mafic recharge can closely predate eruption. Our results fit best a model in which similar basaltic andesites are repeatedly generated from mantle magma batches during their ascent as they mix with resident magmas, fractionate, and assimilate crystals. We infer that new increments of basaltic andesite are continuously blended into the eruption-feeding reservoir concurrently to the current activity. We propose that observed

  2. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  3. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet's stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet's translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes' reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  4. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  5. Influences upon the lead isotopic composition of organic and mineral horizons in soil profiles from the National Soil Inventory of Scotland (2007-09).

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; Eades, Lorna J; Lilly, Allan; Bacon, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-15

    Some 644 individual soil horizons from 169 sites in Scotland were analyzed for Pb concentration and isotopic composition. There were three scenarios: (i) 36 sites where both top and bottom (i.e. lowest sampled) soil horizons were classified as organic in nature, (ii) 67 with an organic top but mineral bottom soil horizon, and (iii) 66 where both top and bottom soil horizons were mineral. Lead concentrations were greater in the top horizon relative to the bottom horizon in all but a few cases. The top horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio was lesser (outside analytical error) than the corresponding bottom horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio at (i) 64%, (ii) 94% and (iii) 73% of sites, and greater at only (i) 8%, (ii) 3% and (iii) 8% of sites. A plot of (208)Pb/(207)Pb vs. (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios showed that the Pb in organic top (i, ii) and bottom (i) horizons was consistent with atmospherically deposited Pb of anthropogenic origin. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the organic top horizon in (ii) was unrelated to the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the mineral bottom horizon as demonstrated by the geographical variation in the negative shift in the ratio, a result of differences in the mineral horizon values arising from the greater influence of radiogenic Pb in the north. In (iii), the lesser values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio for the mineral top horizon relative to the mineral bottom horizon were consistent with the presence of anthropogenic Pb, in addition to indigenous Pb, in the former. Mean anthropogenic Pb inventories of 1.5 and 4.5 g m(-2) were obtained for the northern and southern halves of Scotland, respectively, consistent with long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic Pb (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio~1.16). For cultivated agricultural soils (Ap), this corresponded to about half of the total Pb inventory in the top 30 cm of the soil column. PMID:26674702

  6. Commercially available avian and mammalian whole prey diet items targeted for consumption by managed exotic and domestic pet felines: macronutrient, mineral, and long-chain fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Kappen, Kelly L; Garner, Lindsay M; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    Whole prey diets encourage species-typical behaviors making them popular in the zoo and home setting for captive exotic and domestic felids, respectively. We evaluated macronutrient, mineral, and long-chain fatty acid composition of 20 whole prey items: mice (1-2, 10-13, 21-25, 30-40, and 150-180 days of age); rats (1-4, 10-13, 21-25, 33-42, and >60 days of age); rabbits (still born, 30-45 days, >65 days with skin, and >65 days of age with skin removed); chicken (1-3 days of age, ground adult); duck (ground adult); and quail (1-3, 21-40, and >60 days of age). Composition of whole prey was highly variable (15-40% DM, 34-75% CP, 10-60% fat, and 8-18% ash). A majority of whole prey samples (15/20) had at least one mineral or fatty acid below AAFCO [] or NRC [] minimum recommended concentrations for domestic cats (K, Na, Cl, Mg, Cu, Mn, and/or Zn; total fat, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and/or EPA and DHA). These data identify potential nutrient deficiencies allowing for alterations in dietary formulation prior to long-term feeding. PMID:25043384

  7. Dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on the composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements☆

    PubMed Central

    Roseland, Janet M.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen W.; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and other government agencies to design and populate a dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database will provide reliable estimates of vitamin and mineral content of dietary supplement (DS) products. The DSID will initially be populated with multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products because they are the most commonly consumed supplements. Challenges associated with the analysis of MVMs were identified and investigated. A pilot study addressing the identification of appropriate analytical methods, sample preparation protocols, and experienced laboratories for the analysis of 12 vitamins and 11 minerals in adult MVM supplement products was completed. Preliminary studies support the development of additional analytical studies with results that can be applied to the DSID. Total intakes from foods and supplements are needed to evaluate the associations between dietary components and health. The DSID will provide better estimates of actual nutrient intake from supplements than databases that rely on label values alone. PMID:24307755

  8. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  9. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (P<0.001) of C18:2n6 in farm raised eggs (6.5 mg/100g total lipid) than wild eggs (0.6 mg/100g total lipid) while other differences between fatty acids were smaller. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) was higher (P<0.02) in farm-raised (5.56 mg/100g) than wild (4.49 mg/100g). Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), C18:1 cis 9&10, and C20:4n6 were not different for origin of the eggs. Concentration of selenium was markedly higher (P<0.001) in eggs from wild sturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic

  10. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the Jaduguda U (-Cu-Fe) deposit, Singhbhum shear zone, eastern India: Implications for sulphide mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Sarkar, Surajit; Mishra, Biswajit; Sarangi, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    The Jaduguda U (-Cu-Fe) deposit in the Singhbhum shear zone has been the most productive uranium deposit in India. Pyrite occurs as disseminated grains or in sulphide stringers and veins in the ore zone. Veins, both concordant and discordant to the pervasive foliation, are mineralogically either simple comprising pyrite ± chalcopyrite or complex comprising pyrite + chalcopyrite + pentlandite + millerite. Nickel-sulphide minerals, though fairly common in concordant veins, are very rare in the discordant veins. Pyrite in Ni-sulphide association is commonly replaced by pentlandite at the grain boundary or along micro-cracks. Based on concentrations of Co and Ni, pyrite is classified as: type-A - high Co (up to 30800 ppm), no/low Ni; type-B - moderate Co (up to 16500 ppm) and moderate to high Ni (up to 32700 ppm); type-C - no/low Co and high Ni (up to 43000 ppm); type-D - neither Co nor Ni. Textural and compositional data of pyrites suggest that the hydrothermal fluid responsible for pre-/early-shearing mineralization evolved from Co-rich to Ni-rich and the late-/post-shearing fluid was largely depleted in minor elements. Sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite mostly furnish positive values ranging between -0.33 and 12.06‰. Composite samples of pyrites with only type-A compositions and mixed samples of type-A and type-B are consistently positive. However, pyrite with mixed type-A and type-C and pyrite with type-D compositions have negative values but close to 0‰. By integrating minor element and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in conjunction with other published data on the Jaduguda deposit, it is proposed that reduced sulphur for the precipitation of most pyrites (type-A, type-B) was likely derived from isotopically heavy modified seawater. However, some later sulphur might be magmatic in origin remobilized from existing sulphides in the mafic volcanic rocks in the shear zone.

  11. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  12. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    PubMed

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained. PMID:26857993

  13. Origin of the fluorine-rich highly differentiated granites from the Qianlishan composite plutons (South China) and implications for polymetallic mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ma, Xinghua; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Many composite granite plutons occur in South China, accompanied by large-scale polymetallic mineralization. Each composite pluton is composed of main-phase granite and late-stage highly differentiated granite. Traditionally, the highly differentiated granite is thought to be residual melt of the former via fractionation, and ore-forming materials and fluids are from granite magma itself. We propose a different model for the origin of the granites and related mineralization, based on petrological and geochemical studies on the Qianlishan composite plutons that host the supergiant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. The main-phase granite shows features of normal granites, while the highly differentiated granite is characterized by F-rich, water-deficient, low fO2, alkalinity, REE tetrad effect, and modified behavior of some trace elements, e.g., very high K/Ba and low K/Rb and Zr/Hf ratios. We suggest that the parent magma of the highly differentiated granite was derived from melting of dominantly lower crustal rocks, triggered by underplating of a new pulse of basaltic magmas; small amounts of basaltic magmas and volatiles such as fluorine were involved in the source of the granite. Addition of fluorine lowered the solidus temperature and viscosity of granite magma, and thus prolonged the process of magma evolution. This resulted in extreme fractional crystallization, and intense interaction between melt and circulating waters from country rocks, forming the unusual geochemical features of the granite. The high temperature circulating waters, along with metamorphic fluids released from deep crustal rocks, subsequently, extract ore-forming metals from country rocks through forming F-bearing complexation, forming the polymetallic deposits.

  14. A Note on the Chemical Composition of Nuffieldite Solid-Solution From Sulphide Mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prşek, Jaroslav; Makovicy, Emil; Chovan, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of the rare sulphosalt nuffieldite from three localities in Slovakia is examined. Nuffieldite is a part of a complex association of Bi sulphosalts accompanying tetrahedrite mineralization in some sulphide deposits in the Western Carpathians. Cu + Pb = (Bi, Sb) + vac. substitution in nuffieldite and the general formula Cu1+xPb2Bi2(PbxSbyBi1-x-y)S7 where 0 < x < 0.34; and 0.32 < y < 0.45 are confirmed. Decreasing Sb content with increasing copper content indicates a predominant substitution of Bi by Sb in nuffieldite.

  15. Effects of land use and mineral characteristics on the organic carbon content, and the amount and composition of Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter in subsurface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, R.; Kaiser, M.; Walter, K.; Sommer, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use and mineral characteristics affect the balance of organic carbon in surface as well as in subsurface soils and related feedbacks on soil functions like their potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Actually, there are less information about the effects of land use as well as soil properties on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) for subsurface soils as compared to surface soils. Here we aimed to analyze the long-term impact of arable and forest land use and soil mineral characteristics on subsurface soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, as well as on amount and composition of OM sequentially separated by Na-pyrophosphate solution (OM(PY)) from subsurface soil samples. Seven soils different in mineral characteristics were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from subsurface horizons of forest and adjacent arable sites continuously used >100 years. The OM(PY) fractions were analysed on their OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. A distinct influence of the long-term land use on the SOC contents could not be detected because only for four out of seven sites the forest subsurface soils showed larger SOC contents than the adjacent agricultural soils. A generally site independent enhanced OC sequestration in subsurface soils due to differences in land use cannot be expected in the long-term. Multiple regression analyses indicated for the arable subsurface soils significant positive relationships between the SOC contents and combined effects of the i) exchangeable Ca (Caex) and oxalate soluble Fe (Feox), and ii) the Caex and Alox contents. For the arable subsurface soils the increase of OCPY* (OCPY multiplied by the relative C=O content of OM(PY)) by increasing contents of Caex indicated that OM(PY) mainly interacts with Ca2+ cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5), the OCPY contents were found to be related to the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. The long-term arable and forest land use

  16. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance. PMID:25716102

  17. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  18. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  19. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. PMID:23562363

  20. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  1. Climatic and Edaphic Effects on the Turnover and Composition of Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Deciduous Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrow, J. D.; Calderon, F. J.; McFarlane, K. J.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hanson, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest reservoir of carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. But, efforts to predict future changes in soil C stocks are challenged by our incomplete understanding of how soil C pools stabilized by different mechanisms will respond to changing climatic conditions and other environmental forcing factors. One approach to quantifying soil C pools of differing stability is to physically fractionate SOM into (1) a free light fraction representing an unprotected C pool, (2) an occluded light fraction characterizing a pool physically protected within aggregates, and (3) a mineral-associated dense fraction approximating a pool stabilized by organomineral interactions. Although the two light fractions are generally considered to be relatively homogenous pools, any assumption that the dense fraction represents a homogenous pool is problematic. To explore the potential for reducing the heterogeneity within the dense fraction, we isolated acid-hydrolyzable and acid-resistant C pools from the dense fraction at four sites representing a range of soil types and the climatic extent of Eastern deciduous forest. Soils were collected from before and after 14C-enriched leaf-litter manipulations at each site. Across all sites, 50-75% of the C in the dense fraction was acid-hydrolyzable, and the mean turnover time of C in this fraction was 1-2 orders of magnitude faster (~35-350 y) than that of the acid-resistant fraction (~300-1500 y). Remarkably, in some cases leaf-derived 14C accounted for up to about 5% of the C in one or both dense fraction pools after only 2 years, demonstrating the existence of a very rapid turnover component within both pools at some sites. Characterization of these mineral-associated C pools by mid-infrared spectroscopy showed variations in C chemistry across sites and site differences in the types of C isolated by hydrolysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate considerable differences within the Eastern deciduous forest in

  2. Effects of mineral composition of drinking water on risk for stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Marangella, M; Vitale, C; Petrarulo, M; Rovera, L; Dutto, F

    1996-09-01

    1. To assess whether the mineral content of drinking water influences both risk of stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, 21 patients were switched from their usual home diets to a 10 mmol calcium, low-oxalate, protein-controlled diet, supplemented with 21 of three different types of mineral water. Drinking water added 1, 6 and 20 mmol of calcium and 0.5, 10 and 50 mmol of bicarbonate respectively to the controlled diet. 2. The three controlled study periods lasted 1 month each and were separated by a 20 day washout interval. Blood and urine chemistries, including intact parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and two markers of bone resorption, were performed at the end of each study period. The stone-forming risk was assessed by calculating urine saturation with calcium oxalate (beta CaOx), calcium phosphate (beta bsh) and uric acid (beta UA). 3. The addition of any mineral water produced the expected increase in urine output and was associated with similar decreases in beta CaOx and beta UA, whereas beta bsh varied marginally. These equal decreases in beta CaOx, however, resulted from peculiar changes in calcium, oxalate and citrate excretion during each study period. The increase in overall calcium intake due to different drinking water induced modest increases in calcium excretion, whereas oxalate excretion tended to decrease. The changes in oxalate excretion during any one study period compared with another were significantly related to those in calcium intake. Citrate excretion was significantly higher with the high-calcium, alkaline water. 4. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and markers of bone resorption increased when patients were changed from the high-calcium, alkaline to the low-calcium drinking water. 5. We suggest that overall calcium intake may be tailored by supplying calcium in drinking water. Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water, and the

  3. Disruptive Pedagogies: How Teacher Educators Disrupt Homophobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsbree, Anne Rene

    This study examined how teacher educators made sense of their efforts to disrupt homophobia in the classroom. Participants were teacher educators who were collaboratively designing and constructing a video product to be used in teacher education classrooms to help teachers understand, recognize, and disrupt homophobia. The study involved…

  4. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  5. The effect of early diagenesis on the Fe isotope compositions of porewaters and authigenic minerals in continental margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severmann, Silke; Johnson, Clark M.; Beard, Brian L.; McManus, James

    2006-04-01

    Iron isotope compositions in marine pore fluids and sedimentary solid phases were measured at two sites along the California continental margin, where isotope compositions range from δ 56Fe = -3.0‰ to +0.4‰. At one site near Monterey Canyon off central California, organic matter oxidation likely proceeds through a number of diagenetic pathways that include significant dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and bacterial sulfate reduction, whereas at our other site in the Santa Barbara basin DIR appears to be comparatively small, and production of sulfides (FeS and pyrite) was extensive. The largest range in Fe isotope compositions is observed for Fe(II) aq in porewaters, which generally have the lowest δ 56Fe values (minimum: -3.0‰) near the sediment surface, and increase with burial depth. δ 56Fe values for FeS inferred from HCl extractions vary between ˜-0.4‰ and +0.4‰, but pyrite is similar at both stations, where an average δ 56Fe value of -0.8 ± 0.2‰ was measured. We interpret variations in dissolved Fe isotope compositions to be best explained by open-system behavior that involves extensive recycling of Feflux. This study is the first to examine Fe isotope variations in modern marine sediments, and the results show that Fe isotopes in the various reactive Fe pools undergo isotopic fractionation during early diagenesis. Importantly, processes dominated by sulfide formation produce high-δ 56Fe values for porewaters, whereas the opposite occurs when Fe(III)-oxides are present and DIR is a major pathway of organic carbon respiration. Because shelf pore fluids may carry a negative δ 56Fe signature it is possible that the Fe isotope composition of ocean water reflects a significant contribution of shelf-derived iron to the open ocean. Such a signature would be an important means for tracing iron sources to the ocean and water mass circulation.

  6. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; < 50 Mt)) in the Carajás Mineral Province have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and ion chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  7. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB. [spectrogoniometer for planetary and lunar surface composition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  8. Variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals and the crystal structure of fluorine-rich barytolamprophyllite from new peralkaline dyke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimenko, M. I.; Aksenov, S. M.; Sorokhtina, N. V.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononkova, N. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    The variations in the chemical composition of lamprophyllite-group minerals from a peralkaline dyke of the Mokhnatye Roga area (Kandalaksha region, Kola Peninsula), which are crystallized during the entire period of dyke formation and form several generations, have been investigated. The early generations differ in a steadily high fluorine content, while the later ones exhibit reduced amount of fluorine, impurity elements, and sodium, with a simultaneous increase in the potassium content. The crystal structure of fluorine- rich barytolamprophyllite (potentially a new representative of the lamprophyllite group, differing by the predominance of fluorine in the anion X site) has been analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This mineral is found to have a monoclinic unit cell with the following parameters: a = 19.5219(8) Å, b = 7.0915(2) Å, c = 5.3925(2) Å, β = 96.628(3)°, and sp. gr. C2/ m. The structure is refined to R = 5.73% in the anisotropic approximation of the atomic displacement parameters using 3668 I > 2σ( I). The idealized formula ( Z = 2) is (Ba,Sr)2[Na(Na,Fe)2(Ti,Mg)F2][Ti2(Si2O7)2O2].

  9. Ectomycorrhizal influence on particle size, surface structure, mineral crystallinity, functional groups, and elemental composition of soil colloids from different soil origins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Wang, Wenjie; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the ectomycorrhizae-induced changes in surface structure and composition of soil colloids, the most active portion in soil matrix, although such data may benefit the understanding of mycorrhizal-aided soil improvements. By using ectomycorrhizae (Gomphidius viscidus) and soil colloids from dark brown forest soil (a good loam) and saline-alkali soil (heavily degraded soil), we tried to approach the changes here. For the good loam either from the surface or deep soils, the fungus treatment induced physical absorption of covering materials on colloid surface with nonsignificant increases in soil particle size (P > 0.05). These increased the amount of variable functional groups (O-H stretching and bending, C-H stretching, C=O stretching, etc.) by 3-26% and the crystallinity of variable soil minerals (kaolinite, hydromica, and quartz) by 40-300%. However, the fungus treatment of saline-alkali soil obviously differed from the dark brown forest soil. There were 12-35% decreases in most functional groups, 15-55% decreases in crystallinity of most soil minerals but general increases in their grain size, and significant increases in soil particle size (P < 0.05). These different responses sharply decreased element ratios (C:O, C:N, and C:Si) in soil colloids from saline-alkali soil, moving them close to those of the good loam of dark brown forest soil.

  10. Hydrothermal and Diagenetic Mineralization on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Quinn, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Predicted by geophysical modeling, the mineraolgic record of early Mars groundwater has only recently been discovered. First, rover exploration in sedimentary basins reveals diagenesis. At Meridiani, sandstone porosity is occluded by precipitation of secondary sulfates, hematite, and silica. Multiple alteration episodes are indicated by crystal vugs, disruption of preexisting textures by hematite concretions, and grain coatings (e.g. McLennan et al., 2005). At Gale crater, raised ridges in mudstones, interpreted to be early diagenetic features, are crossed by later-emplaced hydrated calcium sulfate veins (e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2014). Waters in Gale were likely circumneutral while jarosite mineralogy at Meridiani implies acidic waters. Second, systems of raised ridges at 100-m scale are observed from orbit in multiple Martian sedimentary rock units. An outstanding example is sulfate-bearing sediments exhumed at the northern margin of the Syrtis Major lavas (e.g. Quinn & Ehlmann, 2015). Polygonal and with no clearly preferred orientation, the ridges rise 5-30 m above the surrounding terrain. Parallel light-toned grooves with dark interiors (indicative of isopachous fills) and jarosite in ridge mineralogy point to mineralization by acidic waters. Third, some mineral assemblages observed from orbit represent the products of subsurface aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures (Ehlmann et al., 2011). These are globally distributed, exposed in scarps and by impact cratering. Mineral assemblages variously include (a) serpentine and carbonate; (b) prehnite and chlorite, and (c) zeolites. Collectively, these datasets indicate that groundwaters were spatially widespread on ancient Mars, contributing to the sustenance of lakes and to the alteration of bedrock to >1 km depths. While the Martian surface may have always been relatively inhospitable, a warmer, wetter subsurface provided a long-term potentially habitable environment. Key outstanding questions remaining include

  11. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  12. Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Mishael, Yael

    2012-06-01

    Pyrene removal by polycation-montmorillonite (MMT) composites and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of humic acid (HA) was examined. Pyrene, HA, and sorbent interactions were characterized by FTIR, fluorescence and zeta measurements, adsorption, and column filtration experiments. Pyrene binding coefficients to the macromolecules were in the order of PVPcoS (poly-4-vinylpiridine-co-styrene) > HA > PDADMAC (poly diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium-chloride), correlating to pyrene-macromolecules compatibility. Electrostatic interactions explained the high adsorption of HA to both composites (∼100%), whereas HA adsorption by GAC was low. Pyrene removal by the composites, unlike GAC, was enhanced in the presence of HA; removal by PDADMAC-MMT increased from ∼50 (k(d) = 2.2 × 10(3) kg/L) to ∼70% (k(d) = 2.4 × 10(3) kg/L) in the presence of HA. This improvement was attributed to the adsorption of pyrene-HA complexes. PVPcoS-MMT was most efficient in removing pyrene (k(d) = 1.1 × 10(4) kg/L, >95% removal) which was explained in terms of specific π donor-π acceptor interactions. Pyrene uptake by column filters of GAC reached ∼50% and decreased to ∼30% in the presence of HA. Pyrene removal by the PVPcoS-MMT filter was significantly higher (100-85% removal), exhibiting only a small decrease in the presence of HA. The utilization of HA as an enhancing agent in pollutant removal is novel and of major importance in water treatment. PMID:22545663

  13. Enhanced in Vitro Mineralization and in Vivo Osteogenesis of Composite Scaffolds through Controlled Surface Grafting of L-Lactic Acid Oligomer on Nanohydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongliang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Peibiao; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-03-14

    Nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite (HA) surface grafted with L-lactic acid oligomer (LAc oligomer) (op-HA) showed improved interface compatibility, mechanical property, and biocompatibility in our previous study. In this paper, composite scaffolds of op-HA with controlled grafting different amounts of LAc oligomer (1.1, 5.2, and 9.1 wt %) were fabricated and implanted to repair rabbit radius defects. The dispersion of op-HA nanoparticles was more uniform than n-HA in chloroform and nanocomposites scaffold. Calcium and phosphorus exposure, in vitro biomineralization ability, and cell proliferation were much higher in the op-HA1.1 wt %/PLGA scaffolds than the other groups. The osteodifferentiation and bone fusion in animal tests were significantly enhanced for op-HA5.2 wt %/PLGA scaffolds. The results indicated that the grafted LAc oligomer of 5.2 or 9.1 wt %, which formed a barrier layer on the HA surface, prevented the exposure of nucleation sites. The shielded nucleation sites of op-HA particles (5.2 wt %) might be easily exposed as the grafted LAc oligomer was decomposed easily by enzyme systems in vivo. Findings from this study have revealed that grafting 1.1 wt % amount of LAc oligomer on hydroxyapatite could improve in vitro mineralization, and 5.2 wt % could promote in vivo osteogenesis capacity of composite scaffolds. PMID:26821731

  14. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Glotch, T. D.; Rogers, A. D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of mineralogy, thermophysical properties, and atmospheric temperature profile and composition of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. The mineralogy of volcanic rocks provides insights into the composition of the source regions and the nature of martian igneous processes. Carbonates, sulfates, evaporites, and oxides provide information on the role of water in the surface evolution. Oxides, such as crystalline hematite, provide insight into aqueous weathering processes, as would the occurrence of clay minerals and other weathering products. Diurnal temperature measurements can be used to determine particle size and search for the effects of sub-surface layering, which in turn provide clues to the origin of surficial materials through rock disintegration, aeolian transport, atmospheric fallout, or induration. In addition to studying the surface properties, Mini-TES spectra have also been used to determine the temperature profile in the lower boundary layer, providing evidence for convective activity, and have determined the seasonal trends in atmospheric temperature and dust and cloud opacity.

  15. The mechanism of membrane disruption by cytotoxic amyloid oligomers formed by prion protein(106-126) is dependent on bilayer composition.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick; Vanderlee, Gillian; Yau, Jason; Campeau, Jody; Sim, Valerie L; Yip, Christopher M; Sharpe, Simon

    2014-04-11

    The formation of fibrillar aggregates has long been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Although fibrils are still considered important to the pathology of these disorders, it is now widely understood that smaller amyloid oligomers are the toxic entities along the misfolding pathway. One characteristic shared by the majority of amyloid oligomers is the ability to disrupt membranes, a commonality proposed to be responsible for their toxicity, although the mechanisms linking this to cell death are poorly understood. Here, we describe the physical basis for the cytotoxicity of oligomers formed by the prion protein (PrP)-derived amyloid peptide PrP(106-126). We show that oligomers of this peptide kill several mammalian cells lines, as well as mouse cerebellar organotypic cultures, and we also show that they exhibit antimicrobial activity. Physical perturbation of model membranes mimicking bacterial or mammalian cells was investigated using atomic force microscopy, polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Disruption of anionic membranes proceeds through a carpet or detergent model as proposed for other antimicrobial peptides. By contrast, when added to zwitterionic membranes containing cholesterol-rich ordered domains, PrP(106-126) oligomers induce a loss of domain separation and decreased membrane disorder. Loss of raft-like domains may lead to activation of apoptotic pathways, resulting in cell death. This work sheds new light on the physical mechanisms of amyloid cytotoxicity and is the first to clearly show membrane type-specific modes of action for a cytotoxic peptide.

  16. Changes in physical fitness, bone mineral density and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight females with longstanding eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED). Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7) and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22) inpatients (mean (SD) age: 31.0 (9.0) years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8) years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5) weeks) completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33%) managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  17. Impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on changes in bone mineral density with weight loss and regain.

    PubMed

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Later, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Lagerpusch, Merit; Goele, Kristin; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C; Müller, Manfred J

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies report a significant gain in bone mineral density (BMD) after diet-induced weight loss. This might be explained by a measurement artefact. We therefore investigated the impact of intra- and extra-osseous soft tissue composition on bone measurements by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a longitudinal study of diet-induced weight loss and regain in 55 women and 17 men (19-46 years, BMI 28.2-46.8 kg/m(2)). Total and regional BMD were measured before and after 12.7 ± 2.2 week diet-induced weight loss and 6 months after significant weight regain (≥30%). Hydration of fat free mass (FFM) was assessed by a 3-compartment model. Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, extra-osseous adipose tissue, and bone marrow were measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean weight loss was -9.2 ± 4.4 kg (P < 0.001) and was followed by weight regain in a subgroup of 24 subjects (+6.3 ± 2.9 kg; P < 0.001). With weight loss, bone marrow and extra-osseous adipose tissue decreased whereas BMD increased at the total body, lumbar spine, and the legs (women only) but decreased at the pelvis (men only, all P < 0.05). The decrease in BMD(pelvis) correlated with the loss in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (P < 0.05). Increases in BMD(legs) were reversed after weight regain and inversely correlated with BMD(legs) decreases. No other associations between changes in BMD and intra- or extra-osseous soft tissue composition were found. In conclusion, changes in extra-osseous soft tissue composition had a minor contribution to changes in BMD with weight loss and decreases in bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) were not related to changes in BMD.

  18. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  19. Soil mineralization of two-phase olive mill wastes: effect of the lignocellulosic composition on soil C dynamics.

    PubMed

    Serramiá, N; Roig, A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A

    2012-02-01

    The low degradation rate of two-phase olive mill wastes (TPOMW) during composting and after soil application is a characteristic feature of these materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between the lignocellulosic fraction of TPOMW and the organic matter (OM) degradation rate in three agricultural soils amended with four TPOMW composting mixtures at different degree of stabilisation and prepared with different bulking agents and N sources. The mineralisation kinetics of TPOMW composting mixtures in soil reflected a large amount of slowly mineralisable C even in the starting mixtures (I and T1) where this fraction represented up to 85% of the total potentially mineralisable C pool. The effect of rich lignocellulosic composition was confirmed by the study of the DTS (50% dry TPOMW + 50% sheep manure) mixtures prepared with dry TPOMW, which had undergone partial degradation in a storage pond for one year before composting. These DTS samples showed a more similar kinetic behaviour in soil than the more transformed composting mixtures as reflected in the principal component analysis (PCA) diagram, where they were grouped in the same quadrant dominated by the lignin/holocellulose ratio. Soils amended with mature composts evolved very low amounts of C (between 2 and 6% of the added C) after two months of incubation, which highlights the suitability of these materials as a suitable C source for the soil to promote long term soil C stabilisation. PMID:22159027

  20. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592099

  1. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende CAI: EK-459-7-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.

  3. Selective targeting of protein, water, and mineral in dentin using UV and IR pulse lasers: the effect on the bond strength to composite restorative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Karishma K.; Staninec, Michal; Sarma, Anupama V.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that during the laser irradiation of dentin and bone, thermal damage can be minimized by using a highly absorbed laser wavelength, laser pulses shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at that wavelength, and the addition of a layer of water to the tissue surface before ablation. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of laser pulse duration and wavelength with and without the added water layer on the bond strength of composite to laser prepared dentin surfaces. The specific hypothesis that was tested was that thermal damage to the collagen matrix in dentin compromises the bond strength to composite restorative materials. Three laser systems were employed that were tuned to water, collagen and mineral absorption with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy. The surfaces of human dentin were irradiated by laser irradiation from free-running and Q-switched Er:YSGG lasers (2.79-μm), pulsed CO2 lasers operating at 9.6-μm and a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 355-nm. A motion control system and a pressurized spray system incorporating a microprocessor controlled pulsed nozzle for water delivery, were used to ensure uniform treatment of the entire surface. Shear bond testing was used to evaluate the adhesive strength in order to access the suitability of laser treated surfaces for bonding. All the laser groups had significantly lower bond strengths than the positive acid etch control group. The highest bond strengths were for the short (<5-μs) Er:YSGG and CO2 groups with water. Laser groups without water had significantly reduced bond strengths.

  4. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p < 0.001). Among all high-fat groups, there were no differences in femur BMD (p > 0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  5. Late Cretaceous granites from the giant Dulong Sn-polymetallic ore district in Yunnan Province, South China: Geochronology, geochemistry, mineral chemistry and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Wang, Rong; Ma, Liang; Zhao, Kui-dong; Yan, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    As a world-class tin-tungsten province, South China is well known for its extensive Mesozoic granitic magmatism. The Dulong district, located in the western Cathaysia Block of the South China tin-tungsten province, is characterized by widespread Mesozoic granitoids and accompanying Sn-polymetallic ore deposit (~ 30 Mt of Sn). It is one of the most important polymetallic tin ore districts in China. In this study, three mineralization-related granite types were identified in the Dulong district, including the Dulong coarse-grained granite (DCG), the Dulong fine-grained granite (DFG), and the Dulong porphyritic granite (DPG). Detailed studies are presented on zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace elements, mineral chemical and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the tin-bearing granites from the Dulong district. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon grains from these three granite bodies yields ages of 90.1 ± 0.7 Ma, 89.7 ± 0.8 Ma and 86.0 ± 0.5 Ma, respectively. Geochemically, the granites are strongly peraluminous, with high contents of alkalis, enrichment in P, Li, Rb, Cs, Ta, Sn, W and U, depletion in Ti, Mg, Co, Ni, Sr, Ba, Zr, Hf, Th and rare earth elements. Fractional crystallization of plagioclase and K-feldspar was the principal process of magmatic differentiation that controlled Rb, Sr, Ba and Eu concentrations, whereas rare earth elements were fractionated by accessory minerals, such as apatite and monazite. The geochemical data suggest that the rocks are highly fractionated S-type granites. The granites show bulk rock εNd(t) values in the range of - 12.2 to - 10.8 and zircon εHf(t) values from - 15.5 to - 2.5, with Meso-Paleoproterozoic TDMC ages for both Nd and Hf isotopes. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that these highly fractionated S-type granites DCG, DFG and DPG were originated from the same episode of partial melting of the protolith, which have analogous components of metamorphosed pelitic rocks from the Meso-Paleoproterozoic continental crust

  6. Constraints on Mineral-Phase Abundances and Compositions in the Low-Albedo Northern Plains of Mars using MGS-TES, OMEGA, and Laboratory Spectral Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M. B.; Mustard, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    The abundances and compositions of mineral-phases in the low-albedo northern plains of Mars have been a focus of considerable study and debate in recent years. Large expanses of Acidalia Planitia surface materials are characterized by the MGS-TES Surface Type 2 (ST2) spectral endmember [1]. The ST2 spectrum is distinguished by a rounded, slightly V-shaped 800 to 1200 wavenumber region of absorption and uniform absorption at low wavenumbers. The same areas are also characterized by an OMEGA spectral signature that is relatively featureless, but with a strong blue slope (decreasing reflectance as a function of wavelength) from 0.9 to 2.6 microns [2]. A central question with both observations is whether they represent the spectral signature of a high-silica primary volcanic lithology (andesite) or the effects of chemical alteration on basaltic surface materials. Ambiguity in classifying the ST2 lithology arises because a spectral component of this unit (20-30 vol %) can be interpreted as volcanic siliceous glass [1, 3] (an abundant phase in andesite) or a combination of secondary phases found in altered basalt (amorphous silica-rich coatings, palagonite, smectite, and zeolite) [4-8]. Similarly, the OMEGA spectrum lacks evidence of distinct mafic mineral bands (found in andesite) as well as molecular vibration absorptions due to H2O and/or OH-, which might indicate the presence of well- crystalline alteration products and phyllosilicates [2]. Constraining these compositions is significant for understanding the petrogenesis of the Martian crust and its subsequent alteration. Identification of widespread andesite may imply an early episode of plate tectonics on Mars while altered basalt would indicate extensive surface-volatile interactions. The objective of this study is to combine TES and OMEGA observations of the low-albedo northern plains for comparison to laboratory thermal infrared and visible/near-infrared measurements of primary volcanic lithologies (basalt to

  7. Mineral composition of seawater bittern nigari products and their effects on changing of browning and antioxidant activity in the glucose/lysine maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Yano, Toshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Seawater bittern (nigari) is a concentrated solution remaining after the crystallization process of salt that has been used as a coagulant for tofu. Recently, various nigari products are distributed in the East Asia. To clarify the properties of nigari products, major mineral composition of six nigari products was determined. Then, effects of the nigari on the browning and antioxidant activity during the glucose/lysine Maillard reaction were investigated. Though the predominant cation was Mg(2+), the content was varied by each product (0.88-6.49 mol/L). The other major ion contents were also varied. Each 0.5 mol/L of D-glucose and L-lysine were incubated with the nigari (5-50% (v/v)) or nigari-related salts (1 or 2 mol/L). The browning (OD at 465 nm) and antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity and ferrous-reducing power) were increased remarkably by the nigari containing high Mg(2+) content. The browning tended to be high with sulfates (Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4). On the other hand, high content of MgCl2 decreased slightly the browning and antioxidant activity. These results suggest that the reaction and antioxidant activities were affected not only by salinity and cations but also by anions and other elements in the nigari.

  8. The evolution of the Waiotapu geothermal system, New Zealand, based on the chemical and isotopic composition of its fluids, minerals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Browne, Patrick R. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Waiotapu geothermal system is hosted by silicic rocks of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Exploration drilling in the late 1950s down to 1100 m provided physical information on the system. Measured temperatures show a boiling profile to 295 °C, with shallow inversions, particularly in the north. Total discharge fluid samples were collected; the geothermometry and measured temperatures show that fluids derive mainly from a shallow (~400 m deep) reservoir at about 225°C. Petrologic study of drillcore samples recovered from seven wells reveals an alteration assemblage of quartz and albite + adularia, with a variable distribution of chlorite, pyrite, calcite, zeolites, epidote, pyrrhotite, sphene, leucoxene, apatite and minor base metal sulfides; white mica is a late overprint, particularly well developed at shallow depths. Surficial alteration of kaolin, cristobalite, alunite and smectite clays reflect alteration by acid sulfate, steam-heated waters. The activities of components in minerals (determined from microprobe analyses and composition-activity relations) and fluids (speciated to reservoir conditions) indicate equilibrium now exists between the fluids and white mica; the Na/K ratio of the fluid is being controlled by dissolution of albite and adularia, while its H 2/H 2S ratio is buffered by pyrite replacing pyrrhotite. The fluids are now slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite. The present deep fluids boil adiabatically from at least 300°C to 230°C; at depths of ≤500 m, this ascending chloride fluid is variably diluted by a steam-heated water (of zero chloride) that lies over, and occurs on the margin of, the system like a discontinuous umbrella; the steam-heated water is relatively CO 2-rich (≤0.1 m). The cooling at shallow levels by this mixing has shifted the alteration from albite-adularia stability to white mica stability; this shift is enhanced by the CO 2-rich nature of the diluent. Dilution of ascending chloride fluids by

  9. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen concentrations and chlorine isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and δ37Cl values range from + 0.2 ‰ to + 1.9 ‰ (average = + 1.0 ± 0.4 ‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004, 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. δ37Cl values of the lavas range from -0.1 to + 0.8 ‰ (average = + 0.4 ± 0.3 ‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive δ37Cl values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with δ37Cl values > + 1.0 ‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor-liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid-rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through subduction zones.

  10. Markers of Mineral Metabolism Are Not Associated With Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Community-Living Elderly Persons: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Madero, Magdalena; Wassel, Christina L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Najjar, Samer S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Fried, Linda F.; de Boer, Ian H.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Newman, Anne B.; Hausman, Dorothy; Sarnak, Mark J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disorders in mineral metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with kidney disease as well as in the general population. This risk is thought to be mediated, in part, through the mechanism of stiffening of the arteries. METHODS The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and arterial pulse wave velocity (aPWV) among 2,229 community-dwelling elderly persons participating in the Health Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 72 years; 52% were woman, 39% were black, and 17% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). In parallel unadjusted analyses, the following associations were observed: 2.86% greater aPWV per 12 ng/ml (s.d.) lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval −4.38%, −1.31%), 3.04% greater aPWV per 28 pg/ml (s.d.) higher iPTH (95% confidence interval 1.42–4.68%), and 2.37% lower aPWV per 0.5 mg/dl (s.d.) higher phosphorus (95% confidence interval −3.90% to − 0.81%). Except for phosphorus, these associations were attenuated and rendered no longer statistically significant after adjustment for demographic risk factors, clinical site, season, medications and other CVD risk factors. The results were similar in men and women and were not dependent on the presence of CKD. CONCLUSIONS Among well-functioning community-dwelling elderly persons, only serum phosphorus was associated with aPWV; and this association was in the opposite direction of the one hypothesized. Factors other than vascular stiffening may mediate the relationship between disordered mineral metabolism and CVD events in community-living elders. PMID:21436791

  11. Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ɛNd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ɛHf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that

  12. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  13. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U-Cu(-Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Barton, Mark D.; Sarangi, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The ˜200-km-long intensely deformed Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in eastern India hosts India’s largest U and Cu deposits and related Fe mineralization. The SSZ separates an Archaean cratonic nucleus to the south from a Mesoproterozoic fold belt in the North and has a complex geologic history that obscures the origin of the contained iron-oxide-rich mineral deposits. This study investigates aspects of the history of mineralization in the SSZ by utilizing new petrographic and electron microprobe observations of pyrite textures and zoning in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit. Mineralization at Turamdih is hosted in intensively deformed quartz-chlorite schist. Sulfides and oxides include, in inferred order of development: (a) magmatic Fe(-Ti-Cr) oxide and Fe-Cu(-Ni) sulfide minerals inferred to be magmatic (?) in origin; followed by (b) uranium, Fe-oxide, and Fe-Cu(-Co) sulfide minerals that predate most or all ductile deformation, and are inferred to be of hydrothermal origin; and (c) Fe-Cu sulfides that were generated during and postdating ductile deformation. These features are associated with the formation of three compositionally and texturally distinct pyrites. Pyrite (type-A), typically in globular-semiglobular composite inclusions of pyrite plus chalcopyrite in magnetite, is characterized by very high Ni content (up to 30,700 ppm) and low Co to Ni ratios (0.01-0.61). The textural and compositional characteristics of associated chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite suggest that this pyrite could be linked to the magmatic event via selective replacement of magmatic pyrrhotite. Alternatively, this pyrite and associated sulfide inclusions might be cogenetic with hydrothermal Fe-oxide. Type-B pyrite that forms elongate grains and irregular relics and cores of pyrite with high Co contents (up to 23,630 ppm) and high Co to Ni ratios (7.2-140.9) are interpreted to be related to hydrothermal mineralization predating ductile deformation. A third generation of pyrite (type C

  14. Assessment of grain-scale homogeneity and equilibration of carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of minerals in carbonate-bearing metamorphic rocks by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, John M.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2010-11-01

    Nineteen samples of metamorphosed carbonate-bearing rocks were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotope ratios by ion microprobe with a ˜5-15 μm spot, three from a regional terrain and 16 from five different contact aureoles. Contact metamorphic rocks further represent four groups: calc-silicate marble and hornfels (6), brucite marble (2), samples that contain a reaction front (4), and samples with a pervasive distribution of reactants and products of a decarbonation reaction (4). The average spot-to-spot reproducibility of standard calcite analyses is ±0.37‰ (2 standard deviations, SD) for δ 18O and ±0.71‰ for δ 13C. Ten or more measurements of a mineral in a sample that has uniform isotope composition within error of measurement can routinely return a weighted mean with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-0.16‰ for δ 18O and 0.10-0.29‰ for δ 13C. Using a difference of >6SD as the criterion, only four of 19 analyzed samples exhibit significant intracrystalline and/or intercrystalline inhomogeneity in δ 13C at the 100-500 μm scale, with differences within individual grains up to 3.7‰. Measurements are consistent with carbon isotope exchange equilibrium between calcite and dolomite in five of six analyzed samples at the same scale. Because of relatively slow carbon isotope diffusion in calcite and dolomite, differences in δ 13C can survive intracrystalline homogenization by diffusion during cooling after peak metamorphism and likely represent the effects of prograde decarbonation and infiltration. All but 2 of 11 analyzed samples exhibit intracrystalline differences in δ 18O (up to 9.4‰), intercrystalline inhomogeneity in δ 18O (up to 12.5‰), and/or disequilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations among calcite-dolomite, calcite-quartz, and calcite-forsterite pairs at the 100-500 μm scale. Inhomogeneities in δ 18O and δ 13C are poorly correlated with only a single mineral (dolomite) in a single sample exhibiting both. Because of relatively

  15. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  16. Zircon geochronology and Hf isotopic composition of Mesozoic magmatic rocks from Chizhou, the Lower Yangtze Region: Constraints on their relationship with Cu-Au mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fu

    2012-10-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of Mesozoic magmatic rocks from the Chizhou Area are systematically investigated to reveal the tectonic setting of magmatism and their relationship with Cu-Au mineralization in the Lower Yangtze River Belt, southeastern China. The samples cover nearly all types of magmatic rocks in a 30 × 50 km2 region, including 6 granite porphyries, 6 dacites and 4 granites. The zircon U-Pb geochronology yields a range of 151-124 Ma, with granite porphyries ranging from 151 to 146 Ma, dacites from 132 to 127 Ma and granites from 127 to 124 Ma, indicating two magmatic episodes of the late Jurassic and the early Cretaceous. The earlier episode mainly formed small granite porphyries (generally < 5 km) and is always associated with porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The later episode began with dacites and was then dominated by large granite intrusions (generally > 10 km), which are barren in mineralization. The ore-barren dacites and the granites (131-124 Ma) are poor in inherited zircons. Zircons in these rocks yield a very large ɛHf(t) variation of - 20.8-0.4, suggesting a mixing between mantle-derived and crustal-derived magmas. By contrast, the ore-bearing porphyries (151-146 Ma) are rich in inherited zircons. The magmatic zircons have ɛHf(t) values of - 8.8-0.9, and the inherited ones yield U-Pb ages of 1156-811 Ma with ɛHf(t) values of 2.5-11.5. The existence of quantitative inherited zircons indicates that the crustal rocks of 1156-811 Ma significantly contribute to the formation of the ore-bearing porphyries, either being source or contamination. Since these inherited zircons are igneous as indicated by their oscillatory zonings, they may derive from components of the Grenvillian oceanic crust (ca. 1100-1000 Ma), i.e. the Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks related to arc (970-890 Ma) and Nanhua rift (ca. 825 Ma). Recent studies reveal that the ore-baring porphyries of the Lower Yangtze River Belt have slab melt features and conclude that

  17. Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic

  18. Increasing the number of unloading/reambulation cycles does not adversely impact body composition and lumbar bone mineral density but reduces tissue sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L.; Judex, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18 week period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 1 (1x-HLU), 2 (2x-HLU) or 3 (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 weeks of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo μCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. During the final HLU cycle, significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD in the three experimental groups occurred such that there were no significant between-group differences at the beginning of the final RA cycle. However, the magnitude of the HLU induced losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system.

  19. Influence of powder composition and morphology on penetration of Gray and White ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide into dentin tubules.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Long, Leann; Ahn, Chul; Spears, Robert; Zhu, Qiang; C Eberhart, Robert

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the influence of powder composition and morphology on the penetration of Gray and White ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA, WMTA) and calcium hydroxide (CH) into open dentin tubules. GMTA, WMTA, and CH particle dimensions were analyzed by flow particle image analysis (FPIA). Penetration of open dentin tubules into dentin discs was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Five samples of each material were randomly selected and prepared for this study. The GMTA averages for length (μm), width (μm), perimeter (μm), and aspect ratio were 1.94 ± 1.65, 1.43 ± 1.19, 5.61 ± 4.27, and 0.76 ± 0.14, respectively. Corresponding averages for WMTA were 2.04 ± 1.87, 1.49 ± 1.33, 5.88 ± 4.81, and 0.76 ± 0.14, and for CH were 2.26 ± 1.99, 1.62 ± 1.46, 6.70 ± 5.60, and 0.74 ± 0.15, respectively. The rank order of the averages for particle length, width and perimeter from the largest to the smallest material was CH > WMTA > GMTA. The rank order of the averaged aspect ratios was GMTA > WMTA > CH. SEM showed that all three materials, when deposited and agitated on dentin discs, penetrated the open dentin tubules. Tubule occlusion occurred as particle surface concentrations increased. Significant differences in particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio were observed for GMTA, WMTA, and CH (P < 0.0001 in all cases). All particle types penetrated into open tubules when agitated on dentin discs; all tubules were eventually occluded as particle concentrations grew. (J Oral Sci 56, 287-293, 2014).

  20. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  1. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm3), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm2) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  2. Recent patents on physical, mineral & organic Acid composition of golden delicious and red delicious apples (malus×domestica borkh) grown in the west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rad, Amir H K; Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Apple is one of the fruits that has beneficial effects on human healthy diet and life. The aim of this study is to determine some physical, mineral and organic acids composition of apple cultivars grown in different locations throughout Lorestan province. Apple cultivars had been harvested from different locations throughout Lorestan province of Iran. Analyses for 3 elements (Iron, Zinc, and calcium) were conducted by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus was measured by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Sodium and Potassium were measured by the flame photometer. Organic acids were determined by Titration method using NaOH and phenolphethalein indicator. Weight was measured by scale based on 0.1 g and length and diameters were measured by caliper. The mean weight of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples was 173.7 g and 146.7 g, respectively. The amount of iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium for the red variety was 0.24, 0.14, 28, 8.9, 4.7 and 63.8 respectively; values for the Golden variety were 0.23, 0.14, 27.9, 8.8, 4.5, and 66.3 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively. The amount of ascorbic acid, malic acid, and citric acid for Golden delicious was 9.09, 0.27 and 0.28, respectively; for Red delicious apples, the amount was 9.47, 0.26 and 0.28 mg/100 g, respectively. Acidities for Golden delicious and Red delicious were 3.7 and 4, respectively. One hundred gram of apple fruit grown in Lorestan would provide 3% of iron, 1.5% of zinc, 2.8% of calcium and 1.4% of potassium requirements. The amount of organic acid in apples of Lorestan province was lower than some other countries.

  3. Changes in Biomass, Mineral Composition, and Quality of Cardoon in Response to NO3-:Cl- Ratio and Nitrate Deprivation from the Nutrient Solution

    PubMed Central

    Borgognone, Daniela; Rouphael, Youssef; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Lucini, Luigi; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Leaf extracts of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are an important source of phenols. Soilless culture represents an important and alternative tool to traditional agriculture, since it allows a precise control of plant nutrition and the maximization of yield and quality of the product. Reducing N supply, while keeping quantity as high as possible is desirable for environmental and health-related reasons, especially that N deficiency can lead to improved concentrations of secondary plant metabolites. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to determine the effect of a decreasing NO3-:Cl- ratio (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, or 20:80) and nitrate deprivation (0, 5, 10, or 15 days before harvest) on biomass production, leaf chlorophyll content and fluorescence, mineral composition, and phytochemicals in leaves of cardoon ‘Bianco Avorio’ grown in a floating system. Total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity increased linearly with Cl- availability, especially when nitrate was replaced by 80% of chloride (20:80 NO3-:Cl- ratio), without having a detrimental effect on yield. Total nitrogen and nitrate concentration in leaves decreased linearly with increasing Cl- in the nutrient solution. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity recorded after 15 days of nitrate deprivation were higher by 43.1, 42.8, and 44.3% and by 70.5, 40.9, and 62.2%, at 59, 97 and 124 days after sowing, respectively compared to the control treatment. The decrease in leaf nitrate content recorded under N-deprivation occurred more rapidly than the reduction in total nitrogen. Thus, up to 15 days of nitrate withdrawal can lower nitrates without sharply reduce total nitrogen or affecting growth and biomass of cultivated cardoon. The use of N-free nutrient solution prior to harvest or the replacement of nitrates with chlorides could be adopted among growers to improve the quality of the product and enhance sustainability of crop production system. PMID:27446196

  4. Changes in Biomass, Mineral Composition, and Quality of Cardoon in Response to [Formula: see text]:Cl(-) Ratio and Nitrate Deprivation from the Nutrient Solution.

    PubMed

    Borgognone, Daniela; Rouphael, Youssef; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Lucini, Luigi; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Leaf extracts of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are an important source of phenols. Soilless culture represents an important and alternative tool to traditional agriculture, since it allows a precise control of plant nutrition and the maximization of yield and quality of the product. Reducing N supply, while keeping quantity as high as possible is desirable for environmental and health-related reasons, especially that N deficiency can lead to improved concentrations of secondary plant metabolites. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to determine the effect of a decreasing [Formula: see text]:Cl(-) ratio (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, or 20:80) and nitrate deprivation (0, 5, 10, or 15 days before harvest) on biomass production, leaf chlorophyll content and fluorescence, mineral composition, and phytochemicals in leaves of cardoon 'Bianco Avorio' grown in a floating system. Total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity increased linearly with Cl(-) availability, especially when nitrate was replaced by 80% of chloride (20:80 [Formula: see text]:Cl(-) ratio), without having a detrimental effect on yield. Total nitrogen and nitrate concentration in leaves decreased linearly with increasing Cl(-) in the nutrient solution. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity recorded after 15 days of nitrate deprivation were higher by 43.1, 42.8, and 44.3% and by 70.5, 40.9, and 62.2%, at 59, 97 and 124 days after sowing, respectively compared to the control treatment. The decrease in leaf nitrate content recorded under N-deprivation occurred more rapidly than the reduction in total nitrogen. Thus, up to 15 days of nitrate withdrawal can lower nitrates without sharply reduce total nitrogen or affecting growth and biomass of cultivated cardoon. The use of N-free nutrient solution prior to harvest or the replacement of nitrates with chlorides could be adopted among growers to improve the quality of the product and enhance sustainability of crop

  5. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Lynda E; Thomas, William; Orchard, Paul J; Whitley, Chester B; Miller, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus

  6. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  7. Cu-Ni-PGE fertility of the Yoko-Dovyren layered massif (northern Transbaikalia, Russia): thermodynamic modeling of sulfide compositions in low mineralized dunite based on quantitative sulfide mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariskin, Alexey A.; Kislov, Evgeny V.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Nikolaev, Georgy S.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Gilbert, Sarah; Goemann, Karsten; Malyshev, Alexey

    2016-06-01

    The geology and major types of sulfide mineralization in the Yoko-Dovyren layered massif (northern Transbaikalia, Russia) are presented. This study focuses on the structure, mineralogy, and geochemistry of poorly mineralized plagiodunite and dunite in the lower part of the intrusion. Assuming these rocks contain key information on the timing of sulfide immiscibility in the original cumulate pile, we apply a novel approach which combines estimates of the average sulfide compositions in each particular rock with thermodynamic modeling of the geochemistry of the original sulfide liquid. To approach the goal, an updated sulfide version of the COMAGMAT-5 model was used. Results of simulations of sulfide immiscibility in initially S-undersaturated olivine cumulates demonstrate a strong effect of the decreasing fraction of the silicate melt, due to crystallization of silicate and oxide minerals, on the composition of the intercumulus sulfide liquid. Comparison of the observed and modeled sulfide compositions indicates that the proposed modeling reproduces well the average concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ag, and Pd in natural sulfides. This suggests the sulfide control on the distribution of these elements in the rocks. Conversely, data for Pt and Au suggest that a significant portion of these elements could present in a native form, thus depleting the intercumulus sulfide melt at an early stage of crystallization.

  8. Understanding disruptions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2011-10-01

    Disruptions in tokamaks are known since 1963 but even now some aspects of them remain a mystery. This talk describes progress made recently in understanding disruptions. A major step forward occurred in 2007 when the importance of galvanic contact of the plasma with the wall in plasma dynamics was pointed out. The toroidal asymmetry of plasma current, observed in JET vertical disruptions, was explained by the theory of the wall touching kink mode. The currents shared by the plasma with the wall and responsible for the asymmetry were identified as generated by the kink mode. Such currents are referred to as Hiro currents. They have shown exceptional consistency with the entire JET disruption data base (more than 5500 cases) and ruled out the long lasting interpretation based on ``halo currents,'' which contradict experiments even in the sign of the measured asymmetry. Accordingly, the sideways forces are understood and their scaling from JET to ITER was justified. Hiro currents provide also a plausible explanation of the current spike at the beginning of the disruptions. The important role of the plasma edge and its interaction with the wall was revealed. Based on this new understanding of disruptions, dedicated experiments on the current spike (J-TEXT, Wuhan, China) and runaway prevention by the repetitive triggering of kink modes (T-10, AUG, Tore Supra) were motivated and are in progress. Accordingly, the need for new, adaptive grid approaches to numerical simulations of disruptions became evident. In addition to the core MHD, simulations of realistic wall geometry, disruption specific plasma edge physics, plasma-wall interaction, and energetic particles need be developed. The first results of simulations of the fast MHD regime, Hiro current generation, and slower plasma decay due to a wall touching kink mode made with the new DSC code are presented. This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  9. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  10. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb.

  11. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  12. Mineral and whole rock compositions of peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): insights into the evolution of the oceanic mantle in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.

    2012-04-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively

  13. Control of Disruptive Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, S. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In tokamak devices, at critical values of discharge parameters (n_ e, q(a), beta) the plasma can suddenly be terminated. The process is called a disruption. It is a major limitation in the operation of tokamaks, not only because of the limitation it imposes on the operation parameter space, but also due to the severe thermal and electromechanical loadings on the vessel. These difficulties and implications for fusion reactors have attracted increasing attention and a variety of approaches in the attempt to avoid, reduce or overcome the problem have been investigated. The growth of a magnetic perturbation is believed to be responsible for the disruptive process, and previous experiments have examined the effect on this perturbation of magnetic feedback. In DITE experiments have been done to extend this work by using a more sophisticated feedback loop. The detector-coils and feedback saddle-coils (configured to treat the m = 21, n = 1 structure which is dominant in disruption precursors) were mounted inside the vacuum vessel and fast programmable loop-gain and loop-phase controllers were used. Open-loop experiments contained studies of mode locking and plasma response to applied (2,1) fields. The feedback work explored the effect on disruption precursors over a large area in parameter space and was the first to address in detail the effect of feedback on disruptions. Both open-loop and feedback experiments were conducted on Ohmic discharges and discharges with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). The experiments have demonstrated disruption precursor control in both types of discharge. Disruptions were studied in Ohmic plasmas. They were postponed and the density limit was extended.

  14. Sulfate Mineral Phase Equilibria as a Function of Relative Humidity. Intermediate Compositions in the (Mg,Fe,Cu)SO4-H2O System at 1 atm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Peterson, R. C.

    2007-07-01

    Careful characterization of minerals present at the martian surface requires a detailed understanding of hydrous sulfate phase relationships. This study explores the effect of metal substitution on the hydration behaviour of hydrous metal sulfates.

  15. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ) scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy young college women. Methods Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg) between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck). The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ) were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm), weight (kg), fat free mass (FFM, kg), percent body fat (%), and body mass index (BMI). Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire. Results There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014) and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007), while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05). When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024), while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015). Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025), but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in

  16. The Disruptive Child's Play Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleck, Robert T.; Bleck, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects of the Disruptive Child's Play Group (DCPG) on the self-concept of children with disruptive behavior problems. Results indicated that counselors using structured play can have positive effects on the attitudes of disruptive children. The DCPG significantly increased self-concept scores of disruptive children. (RC)

  17. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  18. Structural and composition studies on the mineral of newly formed dental enamel: a chemical, x-ray diffraction, and 31P and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bonar, L C; Shimizu, M; Roberts, J E; Griffin, R G; Glimcher, M J

    1991-11-01

    The present report describes a study of the development and maturation of the mineral component of dental enamel. We prepared porcine enamel of different stages of maturation, from the very immature enamel of unerupted teeth, with a mineral content of 45%, to fully mature enamel, with a mineral content of approximately 99%. We fractionated the less mature enamel by density centrifugation and examined the enamel density fractions and unfractionated enamel by a variety of chemical and physical techniques, including conventional and radial distribution function x-ray diffraction analysis, conventional and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 31P and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The three most immature preparations, from unerupted teeth, had mineral contents of 45, 67, and 91 and Ca/P molar ratios of 1.41, 1.44, and 1.47. Density distribution histograms of the three fractions show that the early maturation of dental enamel mineral is accompanied by an increase in tissue density, reflecting the increase in mineral content. The density distribution in each sample is relatively narrow, indicating that the maturation process occurs at a fairly homogeneous rate, with all enamel in an anatomically defined zone mineralizing to about the same extent. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that even the least mature, least mineralized of these immature samples is considerably more crystalline than the most mature bone mineral studied and that crystalline perfection of the enamel crystals crystals increases further with maturation. Both the a and c axes of the mineral unit cell expand significantly during early stages of maturation. Solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicate that dental enamel contains a DCPD-like HPO4 component in an apatitic lattice, similar to the component previously observed in bone and some synthetic calcium phosphates. The proportion of this DCPD-like component decreases with maturation

  19. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  1. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  2. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  3. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context. PMID:22130341

  4. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  5. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  6. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  7. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  8. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  9. High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues.

    PubMed

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Jiang, Xi; Chen, Li; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Adams, Douglas J; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Shin, Dong-Guk; Rowe, David W

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for efficient phenotyping and histopathology of a variety of tissues. This phenotyping need is evident with the ambitious projects to disrupt every gene in the mouse genome. The research community needs rapid and inexpensive means to phenotype tissues via histology. Histological analyses of skeletal tissues are often time consuming and semi-quantitative at best, regularly requiring subjective interpretation of slides from trained individuals. Here, we present a cryohistological paradigm for efficient and inexpensive phenotyping of mineralized tissues. First, we present a novel method of tape-stabilized cryosectioning that preserves the morphology of mineralized tissues. These sections are then adhered rigidly to glass slides and imaged repeatedly over several rounds of staining. The resultant images are then aligned either manually or via computer software to yield composite stacks of several layered images. The protocol allows for co-localization of numerous molecular signals to specific cells within a given section. In addition, these fluorescent signals can be quantified objectively via computer software. This protocol overcomes many of the shortcomings associated with histology of mineralized tissues and can serve as a platform for high-throughput, high-content phenotyping of musculoskeletal tissues moving forward. PMID:27684089

  10. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718

  11. High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues.

    PubMed

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Jiang, Xi; Chen, Li; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Adams, Douglas J; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Shin, Dong-Guk; Rowe, David W

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for efficient phenotyping and histopathology of a variety of tissues. This phenotyping need is evident with the ambitious projects to disrupt every gene in the mouse genome. The research community needs rapid and inexpensive means to phenotype tissues via histology. Histological analyses of skeletal tissues are often time consuming and semi-quantitative at best, regularly requiring subjective interpretation of slides from trained individuals. Here, we present a cryohistological paradigm for efficient and inexpensive phenotyping of mineralized tissues. First, we present a novel method of tape-stabilized cryosectioning that preserves the morphology of mineralized tissues. These sections are then adhered rigidly to glass slides and imaged repeatedly over several rounds of staining. The resultant images are then aligned either manually or via computer software to yield composite stacks of several layered images. The protocol allows for co-localization of numerous molecular signals to specific cells within a given section. In addition, these fluorescent signals can be quantified objectively via computer software. This protocol overcomes many of the shortcomings associated with histology of mineralized tissues and can serve as a platform for high-throughput, high-content phenotyping of musculoskeletal tissues moving forward.

  12. Stapled endosome disrupting alginate particles for cytosolic delivery of cations.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Little, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Divalent cations, the most prevalent minerals in the body, are responsible for a wide variety of cellular functions including signaling, proliferation, differentiation and cell death, and therefore their transmembrane transportation is tightly regulated. Despite the importance of divalent cations in cell activity, there are currently no intracellular delivery methods for divalent cations or modulation of intracellular levels of minerals. Here, we describe endosome disrupting alginate nanoparticles termed Alginoketals, which can deliver divalent cations to the cytosol of the cells. Alginoketals are generated by crosslinking alginic acid with endosome disrupting ketals, and using divalent cations as the stapling or binding agent. We show that Alginoketals were able to deliver copper (II) in the cytosol of the cancer cells thereby disrupting copper homeostasis and inducing cell death via accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Alginoketal-copper (II)-based particles act as superoxide dismutase mimics and are the first class of divalent cation delivery vehicles, with potential application in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine and drug delivery.

  13. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  14. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highl