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  1. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

  2. [Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Noriaki

    2002-11-01

    Renal osteodystrophy can be classified into several disorders, which is now major problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Most of studies reported that the bone mineral density of HD patients decreased, but there exist the differences depending on many factors such as sex, bone site, years of HD, the type of disorders. The clinical usefulness of bone densitometry has been evaluated in many studies.

  3. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated.

  4. Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A G; Sanchez, T V; Michelsen, O; Chaffee, F L; Fagal, S M

    1988-09-01

    The amount and type of dietary protein affect bone mineral loss after the menopause. This observation was substantiated in 10 y of studies by direct photon absorptiometry, four results of which follow. 1) Studies of 1600 women in southwestern Michigan revealed that those who had followed the lactoovovegetarian diet for at least 20 y had only 18% less bone mineral by age 80 whereas closely paired omnivores had 35% less bone mineral. 2) A study of self-selected weighed food intake showed no statistical difference in nutrient intakes but a difference in Ca:P ratio and acid-base formation of diet, each significant to p less than 0.001. 3) When sulfur intake of a fixed diet was increased, the titratable acidity of the urine increased proportionately. 4) Bone mineral densities of 304 older women from the continental United States closely paralleled those from earlier Michigan studies.

  5. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  6. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  7. Quantifying Mineralization Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Microcomputed Tomography (μCT) is an efficient method for quantifying the density and mineralization of mandibular microarchitecture. Conventional radiomorphometrics such as Bone and Tissue Mineral Density are useful in determining the average, overall mineral content of a scanned specimen; however, solely relying on these metrics has limitations. Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD), the complex array of mineralization densities within a bone sample can be portrayed. This information is particularly useful as a computational feature reflective of the rate of bone turnover. Here we demonstrate the utility of BMDD analyses in the rat mandible and generate a platform for further exploration of mandibular pathology and treatment. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=8) underwent μCT and histogram data was generated from a selected volume of interest. A standard curve was derived for each animal and reference criteria were defined. An average histogram was produced for the group and descriptive analyses including the means and standard deviations are reported for each of the normative metrics. Results Mpeak (3444 Hounsfield Units, SD =138) and Mwidth (2221 Hounsfield Units SD =628) are two metrics demonstrating reproducible parameters of BMDD with minimal variance. A total of eight valuable metrics quantifying biologically significant events concerning mineralization are reported. Conclusion Here we quantify the vast wealth of information depicted in the complete spectrum of mineralization established by the BMDD analysis. We demonstrate its potential in delivering mineralization data that encompasses and enhances conventional reporting of radiomorphometrics. Moreover, we explore its role and translational potential in craniofacial experimentation. PMID:22976646

  8. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  9. Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Oberfield, S.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.; Zemel, B. S.; Hangartner, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. Introduction Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. Methods We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined. Results At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. Conclusions If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106

  10. Bone mineral density in healthy Tunisian women.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hela; Testouri, Nedia; Chihaoui, Manel Ben; Salah, Afef Hadj; Cheour, Elhem; Meddeb, Nihel; Zouari, Bechir; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2009-07-20

    Interpretation of densitometric results requires a comparison with reference bone mineral density (BMD) values of normal age and sex-matched persons. Thus the aim of this study was to determine these values for healthy Tunisian women, to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and to compare our findings with other populations. A cross-sectional study of 1378 Tunisian women aged between 20 and 96 years was carried out using DXA (GE-Lunar Prodigy). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism were excluded. Measurements were taken at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These values were expressed at T-scores, with reference to the mean BMD values of the group aged 20-40 years. The peak bone mass, estimated in this age group was 1.174+0.127 g/cm(2) at the lumbar spine and 1.016+/-0.118 g/cm(2) at the femoral site. It was attained respectively within the age of 25 years and 36 years. For both sites, the expected decline in BMD was shown when the successive age groups [40-49 years] and [50-59 years] were compared. Bone loss was rapid during the first 5 years after menopause. Thereafter BMD declined slowly but continually. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the women over 50 years of age, taking account of peak bone mass observed in our cohort, was 23.3% at the spine and 17.3% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 23.4%. These rates attained respectively 30.4%, 11.8% and 32.9% when we considered the Italian values, which demonstrate the variability of osteodensitometric depending to the reference population adopted.

  11. Bone mineral density in weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M K; Johnell, O; Obrant, K J

    1993-03-01

    The effect of intense physical training on the bone mineral content (BMC) and soft tissue composition, and the development of these values after cessation of the active career, was studied in 40 nationally or internationally ranked male weight lifters. Nineteen were active and 21 had retired from competition sports. Fifty-two age- and sex-matched nonweight lifters served as controls. The bone mineral density (BMD) in total body, spine, hip, and proximal tibial metaphysis was measured with a Lunar Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus and the BMD of the distal forearm was measured with single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Seventeen of the lifters had been measured earlier with SPA in the forearm and 23 in the tibial condyle during their active career in 1975. The BMD was significantly higher in the weight lifters compared with the controls (10% in the total body P < 0.001, 12% in the trochanteric region P < 0.001, and 13% in the lumbar spine P < 0.001). All measured regions except the head showed significant higher bone mass in the weight lifters compared with the controls. In older lifters, the difference from the controls seemed to increase in total body and lumbar vertebrae (BMD), but remained unchanged in the hip. Significant correlation was found between the SPA measurements in 1975 and the corresponding measurements 15 years later in both the forearm (r = 0.51, P < 0.05 at the 1-cm level and r = 0.87, P < 0.001 at the 6-cm level) and in the tibial condyle (r = 0.61, P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  13. Bone mineral density testing in social context.

    PubMed

    Kazanjian, A; Green, C J; Bassett, K; Brunger, F

    1999-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) testing of healthy women continues to increase, despite widespread discrediting of this test as a valid means to predict fracture risk. To find an explanation for this expanding utilization, we turn to the literature of sociology and political science. Two interdisciplinary approaches proved particularly useful in critical examination of technologies related to women and aging: feminist analysis and cross-cultural analysis. BMD testing has grown because it is marketed in ways that draw upon and perpetuate two trends in western popular culture: a) the medical model of the aging female body; and b) the fear of aging, with its associated disability, dependency, and immobility. The feedback loop between popular and scientific knowledge has created and perpetuated the notion that the aging female body is a diseased body. The trend toward defining osteoporosis entirely on the basis of BMD diagnostic criteria has resulted in the transformation of a risk factor into a disease entity. As the onus for managing risk falls increasingly on women as individuals, and as they strive to reach the preferred ideal of normality, the area that defines normality on the continuum is shrinking, while that defining abnormality is increasing. The power relations and private interests served by this altered continuum remain largely unexamined. The effect, however, is to encourage the demand for screening and diagnostic technologies, giving rise to the rapid diffusion of such technologies, even where the research evidence does not support their use.

  14. Bone mineral density in professional female dancers.

    PubMed

    Keay, N; Fogelman, I; Blake, G

    1997-06-01

    To measure the long term effects of dance training and the contribution of the timing and duration of any menstrual disruption on bone mineral density (BMD). Measurement of BMD in 57 premenopausal, previously professionally dance trained women and the relationship to menstrual and training history. Bone density measurements at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The average Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine in the amenorrhoeic dancers was significantly below that for the normal population. The average Z score for BMD at the femoral neck in the eumenorrhoeic dancers was significantly above that for the normal population. There was a significant difference between the average Z score for BMD at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the amenorrhoeic and eumenorrhoeic dancers. Significant negative relationships were found between BMD at the lumbar spine and (1) age at menarche, (2) duration of amenorrhoea, (3) BMD at the femoral neck, and (4) the variable of ideal minus lowest weight, which was independent of amenorrhoea. No significant relationships were found between duration of oral contraceptive pill usage and BMD at either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck in eumenorrhoeic or amenorrhoeic dancers. In order to quantify the effect of a combination of these significant factors, a model of BMD was constructed using multiple regression incorporating the variables duration of amenorrhoea, age at menarche, and ideal minus lowest body weight. In this model R2 was 33.6%, in other words 33.6% of the total variation in the Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine could be accounted for by these factors. Professional female dancers with a history of delayed menarche and amenorrhoea have been identified as another group of premenopausal women potentially at risk of developing osteoporosis because of a decrease in BMD at the lumbar spine. The femoral neck in dancers with a history of amenorrhoea was partially protected from loss of BMD by

  15. Bone mineral density in professional female dancers.

    PubMed Central

    Keay, N; Fogelman, I; Blake, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the long term effects of dance training and the contribution of the timing and duration of any menstrual disruption on bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: Measurement of BMD in 57 premenopausal, previously professionally dance trained women and the relationship to menstrual and training history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density measurements at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The average Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine in the amenorrhoeic dancers was significantly below that for the normal population. The average Z score for BMD at the femoral neck in the eumenorrhoeic dancers was significantly above that for the normal population. There was a significant difference between the average Z score for BMD at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the amenorrhoeic and eumenorrhoeic dancers. Significant negative relationships were found between BMD at the lumbar spine and (1) age at menarche, (2) duration of amenorrhoea, (3) BMD at the femoral neck, and (4) the variable of ideal minus lowest weight, which was independent of amenorrhoea. No significant relationships were found between duration of oral contraceptive pill usage and BMD at either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck in eumenorrhoeic or amenorrhoeic dancers. In order to quantify the effect of a combination of these significant factors, a model of BMD was constructed using multiple regression incorporating the variables duration of amenorrhoea, age at menarche, and ideal minus lowest body weight. In this model R2 was 33.6%, in other words 33.6% of the total variation in the Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine could be accounted for by these factors. CONCLUSION: Professional female dancers with a history of delayed menarche and amenorrhoea have been identified as another group of premenopausal women potentially at risk of developing osteoporosis because of a decrease in BMD at the lumbar spine. The femoral neck in dancers with a

  16. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  17. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Jen-Fen; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients. PMID:24501586

  18. Does bone mineral density affect hip fracture severity?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Simon J; Blyth, Mark J G; Lovell, Frances; Holt, Graeme

    2012-06-01

    The association between hip fracture and reduced bone mineral density is well documented, with reduced bone mineral density predisposing to fracture. However, it is unknown whether an association exists between the magnitude of bone density lost and the severity of the hip fracture sustained. One hundred forty-two patients (96 women, 46 men) with a mean age of 74 years (range, 49-92 years) who sustained a hip fracture following a simple ground-level fall and were treated for this injury were reviewed. All patients had undergone dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scanning of the contralateral hip and lumbar spine. Fractures were classified as intra- or extracapsular or subtrochanteric and then subclassified by degree of severity as simple (stable) or multifragmentary (unstable) fracture patterns.Although a low hip bone mineral density (T- or Z score <2.5) was associated with an increased risk of extracapsular fracture (P=.025) compared with other fracture types, no association existed between bone mineral density and the severity of the resultant hip fracture. Although an association exists between bone mineral density and the risk of fragility fractures, the results of the current study suggest that the severity of hip fractures does not follow this correlation. Therefore, no assumption can be made about bone mineral density of the proximal femur based on the severity of the fracture observed on plain radiographs. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  20. Change of bone mineral density with valgus knee bracing.

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Y; Fukui, N; Nakamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the clinical knee score and bone mineral density of the proximal tibia in an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of valgus knee bracing. The knee score improved after 3 months, and increases in bone mineral density were seen more in the lateral tibial condyle than in the medial. These results suggest that the brace acts by transferring the forces across the knee joint from the medial to the lateral side.

  1. Evaluation of bone mineral density in chronic glue sniffers.

    PubMed

    Dündaröz, M Ruşen; Sarici, S Umit; Türkbay, Tümer; Baykal, Barboros; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Aydin, H Ibrahim; Gökçay, Erdal

    2002-01-01

    Although acute and chronic toxic effects of inhalant (glue) abuse have been well demonstrated on many organ systems, the effects on the skeletal system and bone mineral content of young people with this addiction have, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated by bone mineral density measurement. In the present study bone mineral density was measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method in 25 children and adolescents with inhalant abuse and compared with that of a control group (n=30) to detect whether there was any delay in bone development or any decrease in bone mass. Chronological age, height and weight, serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels of the study group were not significantly different from those of the control group (p>0.05), whereas bone mineral density was significantly reduced in the study group (p=0.001). Teenagers with glue vapor abuse may carry an increased risk of future fracture even though the exact mechanism(s) responsible for the toxicitiy of glue vapor on bone metabolism remains to be determined. To ascertain the exact component of glue responsible for bone demineralisation may be of value in proposing a change in the composition of the glue. Education and/or rehabilitation programs currently have the greatest importance in preventing and overcoming the harmful effects of this public health problem which is so common in young children and adolescents.

  2. Strontium ranelate normalizes bone mineral density in osteopenic patients.

    PubMed

    Malaise, Olivier; Bruyere, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2007-08-01

    To assess the capacity of strontium ranelate to restore normal bone mineral density (WHO definition: T-score >or=-1) in post-menopausal osteopenic women (T-score between -1 and -2.5) at baseline. Post-hoc analysis from SOTI and TROPOS studies of 1428 patients randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of strontium ranelate a day or placebo for three years. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline and each year for three years. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. At lumbar spine, after one, two and three years of treatment with strontium ranelate, 26.4, 42.1 and 58.2% respectively of osteopenic patients normalized their bone mineral density, compared with 6.6, 8.9 and 11.9% in the placebo group (all p<0.001). At total hip, the percentage of patients normalizing their bone mineral density was 5.4, 10.0 and 19.6% in the strontium ranelate group and 1.8, 1.4 and 1.6% in the placebo one (all p<0.001). Strontium ranelate is able to normalize bone mineral density in a significant proportion of osteopenic patients after one, two and three years of treatment. The clinical relevance of these results should be confirmed by direct demonstration of the anti-fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in osteopenic patients.

  3. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  4. Plasma copper and bone mineral density in osteopenia: an indicator of bone mineral density in osteopenic females.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, M Anwar; Kemmler, W; Harsch, Igor; Watling, R J

    2009-01-01

    Copper concentrations in blood plasma have been determined in 25 osteopenic females using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A high degree of correlations has been demonstrated between the copper concentrations in plasma and the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine as measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computerized tomography. Results clearly indicate the involvement of copper in bone health and osteopenia. It is further suggested that plasma copper might be useful as a cheap and simple method indicative of bone mineral density in osteopenic postmenopausal females.

  5. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    PubMed

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  6. Endochondral bone growth, bone calcium accretion, and bone mineral density: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-07-01

    Endochondral bone growth in young growing mammals or adult mammals with persistent growth plates progresses from proliferation, maturation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes to mineralization of cartilaginous matrix to form an osseous tissue. This complex process is tightly regulated by a number of factors with different impacts, such as genetics, endocrine/paracrine factors [e.g., PTHrP, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), IGF-1, FGFs, and prolactin], and nutritional status (e.g., dietary calcium and vitamin D). Despite a strong link between growth plate function and elongation of the long bone, little is known whether endochondral bone growth indeed determines bone calcium accretion, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or peak bone mass. Since the process ends with cartilaginous matrix calcification, an increase in endochondral bone growth typically leads to more calcium accretion in the primary spongiosa and thus higher BMD. However, in lactating rats with enhanced trabecular bone resorption, bone elongation is inversely correlated with BMD. Although BMD can be increased by factors that enhance endochondral bone growth, the endochondral bone growth itself is unlikely to be an important determinant of peak bone mass since it is strongly determined by genetics. Therefore, endochondral bone growth and bone elongation are associated with calcium accretion only in a particular subregion of the long bone, but do not necessarily predict BMD and peak bone mass.

  7. Low bone mineral density and decreased bone turnover in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, Ann-Charlott; Magnusson, Per; Ahlander, Anne-Christine; Karlsson, Jón; Kroksmark, Anna-Karin; Tulinius, Már; Swolin-Eide, Diana

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined bone mineral density, bone turnover, body composition and calciotropic hormones in 24 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (2.3-19.7 years), most of whom were being treated with prednisolone, and 24 age-matched healthy boys. Our study demonstrated lower bone mineral density in the DMD group for total body, spine, hip, heel and forearm measurements. These differences between DMD patients and controls increased with increasing age. Biochemical markers of both bone formation and resorption revealed reduced bone turnover in DMD patients. The fracture rate was not higher in DMD patients. The DMD group had low vitamin D levels but high leptin levels in comparison with the control group. Muscle strength correlated with bone mineral density assessed at the hip and heel in the DMD group. Interventions that increase bone formation should be considered, as DMD patients have reduced bone turnover in addition to their low bone mineral density.

  8. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  9. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P < .001). The effects of rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P < .001). In children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  10. Calcium renal lithiasis and bone mineral density. Importance of bone metabolism in urinary lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, M Á; Sierra Girón-Prieto, M; Orgaz-Molina, J; Zuluaga-Gómez, A; Arias-Santiago, S; Arrabal-Martín, M

    2013-06-01

    Calcium Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease; in its pathophysiology is involved various minerals and metabolic factors that may be altered, including bone and phosphor-calcium metabolism. To establish the scientific evidence and demonstrate the relationship between calcium nephrolithiasis and bone mineral density loss, through the use of bone turnover markers, serum and urinary metabolites. We performed a PubMed literature review using different MeSH Terms like "Nephrolithiasis", "Bone mineral density", "Urinary stones", "Calcium", Bone resorption" and "Bone formation", with different combinations. We only selected articles with abstracts in English or Spanish and discarded clinical cases and articles with inappropriate statistical study. A total of 40 articles were selected. In different studies reviewed have been observed that patients with hypercalciuria have a higher bone mineral density loss with respect to normocalciuric. Among patients with calcium stones (normocalciuric or hypercalciuric), there is loss of bone mineral density, being more evident in patients with stones and hypercalciuria. This mineral density loss is marked and important in patients with recurrent calcium stones. Increased markers like fasting calcium/creatinine and β-CrossLaps are determinant of nephrolithiasis and mineral density loss in these patients. We recommend perform markers of bone turnover and fasting calcium/creatinine in patients with recurrent calcium stones by the significant presence of bone mineral density loss, with a level of evidence III. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  12. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  13. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  14. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  15. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, George; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Alexander, Mathew; Thomas, Maya; Aaron, Sanjith; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months) and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI), and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007) and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05). BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm2) when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm2). Majority of the patients (61%) had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) between cases (n = 32) and controls (n = 37) (P = 0.234). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients. PMID:25221394

  16. Bone mineral density and history of oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Feldblum, P J; Talmage, R V; Zhang, J; Godwin, S E

    1994-02-01

    To examine the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use and bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 352 white, nonsmoking, perimenopausal women aged 40-54 years. We measured bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae 2-4 with dual photon absorptiometry and mid-radius and distal radius with single photon absorptiometry. After controlling for age, body mass, current physical activity, current calcium intake and history of breastfeeding, our analysis did not find substantial differences in BMD at any site between OC ever users and never users. However, OC ever users had slightly higher lumbar BMD among premenopausal women. No significant association was identified between recency of OC use and BMD. The results of our study suggest that when other factors are accounted for, OC use is not strongly associated with BMD among perimenopausal women, although we cannot exclude a slight beneficial effect.

  17. Bone mineral density in estrogen-deficient young women.

    PubMed

    Popat, Vaishali B; Calis, Karim A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Cizza, Giovanni; Reynolds, James C; Sebring, Nancy; Troendle, James F; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis primarily affects postmenopausal women. However, young women with estrogen deficiency also are at increased risk for low bone density. The aim of the study was to assess bone density and associated risk factors for reduced bone density in young, estrogen-deficient women using primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as the disease model. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care research center. We studied women with POI (n = 442), concurrent controls (n = 70), and matched controls from NHANES III (n = 353). We measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patients on average had 2-3% lower BMD at L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip (P < 0.01 at all sites). The modifiable risk factors for BMD below the expected range for age (Z-score <-2) were: more than 1-yr delay in diagnosis of estrogen deficiency (P = 0.018), low (<32 ng/ml) vitamin D levels (P = 0.002), estrogen replacement nonadherence (P = 0.002), low calcium intake (P = 0.005), and lack of exercise (P = 0.005). As compared to Caucasians, African-American and Asian women with POI were 3.18 and 4.34 times more likely, respectively, to have Z-scores below -2 (P = < 0.0001 for both). Race was an overall risk factor, but on regression modeling, not an independent predictor of low bone density. Women with POI have lower bone density compared to regularly menstruating women. Compared to Caucasians, minority women with estrogen deficiency are more likely to have BMD below the expected range for age. This racial disparity appears to be related to a combined effect of several modifiable risk factors. Delay in diagnosis of POI also contributes to reduced bone density by delaying proper therapy.

  18. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  19. Bone mineral density in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hawy, Mahmoud Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Sally Mohamed; Mohamed, Sanaa Mansour

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex. All of the participants were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphorus [P], total and ionized calcium [Ca], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spinal region (L2-L4) in patients group using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and ionized Ca were significantly lower while, serum P, ALP, and PTH were higher in SSNS and SRNS cases than the controls. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) and osteoporosis in two patients (8%). Fracture risk was mild in six (24%), moderate in two (8%), and marked in three (12%) of patients. Bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Fitting of bone mineral density with consideration of anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Short, D. F.; Zemel, B. S.; Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Mahboubi, S.; Oberfield, S. E.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A new model describing normal values of bone mineral density in children has been evaluated, which includes not only the traditional parameters of age, gender, and race, but also weight, height, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. This model may constitute a better comparative norm for a specific child with given anthropometric values. Introduction Previous descriptions of children's bone mineral density (BMD) by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and gender without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of anthropometric variables over a relatively homogeneous population. Methods Multivariate semi-metric smoothing (MS2) provides a way to describe a diverse population using a model that includes multiple effects and their interactions while producing a result that can be smoothed with respect to age in order to provide connected percentiles. We applied MS2 to spine BMD data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of gender, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population's BMD values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values and low mean square errors with clinical needs, a model using age, gender, race, weight, and percent body fat is proposed and examined. Results This model provides narrower distributions and slight shifts of BMD values compared to the traditional model, which includes only age, gender, and race. Thus, the proposed model might constitute a better comparative standard for a specific child with given anthropometric values and should be less dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the cohort used to devise the model. Conclusions The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the model, while creating smooth output curves, makes the MS2 method attractive in modeling practically sized data sets. The clinical use of this model by the bone research community has yet to be fully established. PMID

  1. Bone mineral density in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carfì, A; Liperoti, R; Fusco, D; Giovannini, S; Brandi, V; Vetrano, D L; Meloni, E; Mascia, D; Villani, E R; Manes Gravina, E; Bernabei, R; Onder, G

    2017-07-06

    This study analyzed data of bone mineral density (BMD) from a large cohort of adults with Down syndrome (DS). BMD was found to decrease with age more rapidly in these subjects than in the general population, exposing adults with DS to an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Down syndrome (DS) in adulthood presents with a high prevalence of osteoporosis. However, in DS, bone mineral density (BMD) can be underestimated due to short stature. Furthermore, the rate of age-related decline in BMD and its association with gender in DS has been rarely evaluated or compared with the general population. The present study is aimed at assessing the variation of BMD with age and gender in a sample of adults with DS and to compare these data with those of the general population, after adjusting for anthropometric differences. Adults with DS, aged 18 or older, were assessed dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) at the femoral neck and at the lumbar spine. They were compared with the general population enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 dataset. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for each individual. DXA was evaluated in 234 subjects with DS (mean age 36.93 ± 11.83 years, ranging from 20 to 69 years; 50.4% females). In the lumbar spine both mean BMD (DS 0.880 ± 0.141 vs. NHANES 1.062 ± 0.167, p < 0.001) and BMAD (DS 0.138 ± 0.020 vs. NHANES 0.152 ± 0.020, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the DS sample than in the NAHNES cohort. The same trend was observed at the femoral neck in both BMD (DS 0.658 ± 0.128 vs. NHANES 0.835 ± 0.137, p < 0.001) and BMAD (DS 0.151 ± 0.030 vs. NHANES 0.159 ± 0.028, p<0.001). Age was associated with lower femoral neck BMAD in both samples; importantly, this association was significantly stronger in the DS sample. In the lumbar spine region, no significant association between BMAD and age could be observed in both samples. Adults with DS

  2. Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Moser, Debra K; Clasey, Jody L; Chung, Misook L; Pressler, Susan J; Dunbar, Sandra B; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A

    2016-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in patients with heart failure (HF). A total of 119 patients (age = 61 ± 12 years, 65% male) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine bone mineral density and body composition. In multivariable linear regressions, BMI, relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI), and mineral-free lean mass were positively associated with total body bone mineral density. Mineral-free lean mass was most strongly associated with bone mineral density (β = .398). In multivariable logistic regressions, higher BMI, RSMI, and mineral-free lean mass were associated with lower odds for osteopenia/osteoporosis. Fat mass was not associated with total body bone mineral density or osteopenia/osteoporosis. These results suggest that muscle mass may be the important component of body mass associated with bone mineral density in patients with HF.

  3. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  4. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  5. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, V; Lupoli, G; Esposito Del Puente, A; Rampone, E; Carpinelli, A; Del Puente, A E; Oriente, P

    1998-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known complication of thyrotoxicosis. Prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment has been associated with reduced bone mass and thus with the potential risk of premature development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a chronic L-thyroxine suppressive treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of premenopausal women. Forty consecutive patients (mean age +/- SE = 40.95 +/- 1.56 years) affected by non-toxic goiter underwent bone mineral densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DEXA) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right femoral neck. At the time of the study the patients had been under thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy for 74.95 +/- 10.34 months (range 17-168 months). Baseline levels of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), TSH, calcium and phosphorus were measured and correlated with BMD. The age of starting, duration of treatment, main daily dose, cumulative dose of treatment and body mass index (BMI) were also correlated with BMD. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple linear regression. BMD among female patients was not significantly different from that of the general population matched for age and sex. With the use of the regression model, no significant correlation was found between BMD and the variables considered. In conclusion, our data suggest that L-thyroxine suppressive therapy, if carefully carried out and monitored, has no significant effect on bone mass.

  6. Tensile properties of rat femoral bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and volumetric bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Araiza Arroyo, Francisco J; Rosso, Claudio; Aran, Shima; Snyder, Brian D

    2011-09-02

    Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. Tensile properties of cancellous and cortical bone have been reported previously; however, no relationships describing these properties for rat bone as a function of volumetric bone mineral density (ρ(MIN)), apparent density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) have been reported in the literature. We have shown that at macro level, compression and torsion properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone can be well described as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) using non-destructive micro-computed tomographic imaging and mechanical testing to failure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and osteomalacic animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial tension to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 74-77% of the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity to provide a non-invasive method to assess the tensile behavior of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options.

  7. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  8. Bone mineral density and functional measures in patients with arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Hillard T; Bowen, Richard E; Caputo, Kimberly; Green, Terri A; Lawrence, John F

    2010-01-01

    Patients with arthrogryposis often report decreased ambulation and physical activity. Given that skeletal mineralisation is responsive to force, we identified the need to characterize bone mineral density and functional measures in this population, and conducted a cross-sectional study to establish a reference for future investigations. Thirty consecutive patients aged 5 to 18 years with either the diagnosis of amyoplasia or nonsyndromic arthrogryposis with predominantly lower extremity involvement underwent bone densitometry testing, and lumbar spine Z-scores were calculated against an age and sex-matched control population as is customary in children. Pediatric outcomes data collection instrument (PODCI) and functional independence measure for Children (WeeFIM) assessment forms were completed. Mean Z-scores, PODCI, and WeeFIM scores were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare lumbar spine Z-scores between patients divided by ambulatory status and to correlate WeeFIM and PODCI scores. Mean lumbar spine Z-score was -0.47, with 73% of Z-scores being <0. Mean Z-score among nonambulators or home ambulators was -1.05, as compared to a mean Z-score among limited and unlimited community ambulators of -0.14 with a trend toward significance (P=0.10), and a dose-response relationship between higher bone density and increasing ambulatory function. Mean WeeFIM self-care and mobility quotient scores were 67.5/100 and 70.9/100, respectively. PODCI normative scores were decreased for upper extremity (10/50), transfer/basic mobility (-17/50), and sports/physical function (4/50), but normal in pain/comfort (45/50) and happiness (49/50). A linear relationship was noted between functional ambulation level and WeeFIM quotient and PODCI normative scores. There was good correlation between WeeFIM mobility and PODCI transfers and basic mobility standardised scores (R=0.86). This is the first study to measure bone mineral density in children with arthrogryposis, and

  9. Osteoprotective effect of hormone therapy on bone microarchitecture before impaired bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Hasan; Çırpan, Teksin; Terzi, Rabia; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Aktuğ, Hüseyin; Bilgin, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Material and Methods: In the Animal Ethics Committee approved-study, the effect of treatment with 17 β-estradiol 50 μg/kg and medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg/kg on bone architecture and bone mineral density in rats versus ovariectomized control rats over the course of 20 days were evaluated. Femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels and morphometric measurements were performed. Results: There were no significant differences in the femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels between the groups. In the intact control group, the trabecular structures were significantly superior to those in the other groups. Additionally, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in all other groups. Two parameters reflecting trabecular bone microarchitecture, which include the trabecular count and the trabecular area, demonstrated significant improvement in the hormone replacement group when compared to the ovariectomized control group. In the hormone replacement groups, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in the ovariectomized control group. Conclusion: We suggest that offering estrogen alone or in combination with progestogen can be a beneficial approach in preventing early postmenopausal bone loss regardless of bone mineral density. PMID:24592053

  10. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  11. Study of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hatinder Jeet; Nimarpreet, Kaur; Ashima; Das, Sibadatta; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Shesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by spine and sacroiliac joint involvement that mainly affects young male subjects. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) loss occurs in AS disease course. Bone loss in AS appears to be multifactorial and perhaps involves different mechanisms at different stages of disease. The disease typically affects young males and is associated with progressive functional impairment, increased work disability and decreased quality of life. Osteoporosis is frequent in AS and there is a close association of bone mineral density, bone metabolism and inflammatory activity. Osteoporosis is frequently associated with AS and BMD decreased predominantly in patients with active disease. Aims & Objectives: The aim of the present study was to study bone mineral density in cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) in comparison to age and sex matched controls. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 established cases of AS based on modified New York criteria and 150 controls healthy, age, race, socio-economic matched controls patients. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Hundred cases of AS were subjected to undergo BMD by Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan of different age groups in cases 35.19± 8.23(min age 23- max age 67years) and controls 33.27±5.22(min age 22years - max age 44years) with height observed in cases is 169.67±6-87 and controls 170.99±7.16 with weight varied in cases 65.63±10.27 and controls 70.14±10.67. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a significant complication in ankylosing spondylitis and needs to be monitored and managed at the earliest. Significant osteoporosis can occur even in early disease. Osteoporosis of spine is much more prevalent than femur.BMD spine is still the most important site to define osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis. Rise in BMD in LS spine with duration, is not exclusive for subjects with radiologically evident syndesmophytes

  12. Bone mineral density-affecting genes in Africans.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Haynatzka, Vera; Howell, Ryan; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Fu, Yun-Xin; Yu, Fei; Gallagher, John C.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently reported the role of environmental exposure in the ethnic diversity of bone mineral density (BMD). Potential genetic difference has not been adequately assessed. PURPOSE: To determine allele frequencies of BMD-affecting genes and their association with BMD in Africans. METHODS: Allele frequencies at 18 polymorphic sites in 13 genes that affect BMD in Asians and/or Caucasians were determined in 143 recent immigrants (55 men and 88 women, 18-51 years of age) from sub-Saharan Sudan to the United States. Genetic association studies were performed. RESULTS: Among the 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 were significantly different in allele frequency between Sudanese and Asians, and 10 between Sudanese and Caucasians. Only the osteocalcin gene was not significantly different in allele frequency among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. Allele frequencies in the TGFB, COL1A1 and CSR genes were extremely low (<0.04) in the Sudanese. Frequencies of microsatellite alleles in four genes were significantly different among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. SNPs in the VDR and ERalpha genes were associated with BMD and/or BMC (bone mineral content) at several bone sites. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic difference may play a role in the ethnic diversity in BMD and/or BMC. PMID:16895279

  13. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  14. Bone mineral density and metabolism in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Maayan, C; Bar-On, E; Foldes, A J; Gesundheit, B; Pollak, R Dresner

    2002-05-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients suffer from multiple fractures and have reduced bone pain, which defers the diagnosis. The pathogenesis of bone fragility in FD is unknown. This study aimed to characterize bone mineral metabolism and density in FD. Seventy-nine FD patients aged 8 months to 48 years (mean age 13.9 +/- 10.4 years, median 12.3) were studied. Clinical data included weight, height, bone age, weekly physical activity and history of fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (n = 43), femoral neck (n = 26), total hip (n = 22) and whole body (n = 15) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), parathyroid hormone and urinary N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen (NTx) were determined in 68 patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-two of 79 patients (53%) sustained 75 fractures. Twenty-four of 43 patients had a spine Z-score < -2.0, and 13 of 26 had a femoral neck Z-score < -2.0. Mean femoral neck BMD Z-score was lower in patients with fractures compared with those without (-2.5 +/- 0.9 vs -1.5 +/- 1.0, p = 0.01). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 16 kg/m2 in prepubertal patients and 18.4 kg/m2 in postpubertal patients. Bone age was significantly lower than chronological age (75.5 vs 99.3 months in prepubertal patients, p < 0.001; 151 vs 174 in postpubertal patients, p < 0.05). NTx and osteocalcin levels were higher in FD patients compared with controls (400 +/- 338 vs 303 +/- 308, BCE/mM creatinine p < 0.02; 90 +/- 59.5 vs 61.8 +/- 36.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). B-ALP was lower in FD patients compared with controls (44.66 +/- 21.8 vs 55.36 +/- 36.6 ng/ml, p < 0.04). Mean spine Z-score was significantly lower in physically inactive compared with active patients (-3.00 +/- 1.70 vs -1.77 +/- 1.3, respectively, p = 0.05). We conclude that fractures in FD patients are associated with reduced BMD. FD patients have increased NTx and osteocalcin

  15. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes: selective measurement of bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Hauffa, B; Möhlmann, C; Jeken, C; Reiners, C

    1995-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in 21 children and adolescents with type I diabetes and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. BMD was selectively measured in trabecular and total bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Cortical bone density was calculated. There was a decrease of trabecular bone density (-18.9%, p < 0.01), total bone density (-9.0%, NS) and cortical bone density (-5.1%, NS) in diabetes. Trabecular bone density was inversely correlated with the duration of diabetes and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) (r = -0.48, p = 0.027 and r = -0.63, p = 0.002, respectively). Total BMD correlated inversely with HbA1 (r = -0.52, p = 0.017). pQCT allows the selective measurement of metabolically active trabecular bone where changes of mineralization first occur. We conclude that pQCT is a useful method for investigating BMD in diabetes.

  16. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  17. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up.

  18. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score < -2.0 standard deviation (SD) in a densitometry clinic located in the city of Blumenau (state of Santa Catarina). Anthropometric, clinical and lifestyle variables were obtained from history-taking and physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.

  19. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  20. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  1. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  2. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  3. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  4. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals.

  5. Bone Mineral Density Response from Teriparatide in Patients with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Zhang, Meng; Bockman, Richard

    2017-07-01

    A review of data from large clinical trials reported more than 90% of subjects significantly improved their bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) with teriparatide (TPTD) (bone 39:1268-1275, 1). However, our clinical experience suggests that many patients may be non-responders, raising questions as to the true efficacy of TPTD in improving BMD in osteoporotic patients. The purpose of the study is to determine the rate of improvement in BMD following 18-24 months of teriparatide (TPTD) in patients with osteoporosis within an orthopedic hospital setting. This is a retrospective chart review of patients with osteoporosis who completed 18-24 months of TPTD therapy. The primary endpoint was the change in BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and hip-femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) following treatment. Secondary endpoints included the effect of prior bisphosphonate therapy, age, body mass index (BMI) and family history of fracture on BMD response, and the changes in bone-specific markers during active treatment. Seventy-eight women and men with mean T-scores at the LS = -2.63 met the inclusion criteria. The overall group showed a 10.7% increase in LS-BMD after 24 months of TPTD. Eighty-three percent were considered responders defined as ≥3.0% increase in LS-BMD. Non-responders (16.7%) had mean LS-BMD change = -1.41%. No difference in baseline vitamin D, calcium, creatinine, BMI, age, gender, prior fracture history, or bisphosphonate use was observed between responders and non-responders. No consistent pattern of change in measures of bone markers was noted between responders and non-responders. Eighty-three percent of patients with osteoporosis showed a >3% increase in BMD after TPTD treatment. Baseline parameters, prior bisphosphonate therapy, and the changes in bone markers showed no correlation with final BMD outcome.

  6. [Effects on rats' bone mineral density and bone biomechanics by suspensory simulated weightlessness and removing suspension].

    PubMed

    Tong, Hai-ying; Hu, Su-min; Zhou, Peng; Fu, Qian; Li, Jin; Gao, Xue-min; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2008-04-01

    To study the effects on rats' bone mineral density and bone biomechanics by suspensory simulated weightlessness and removing suspension. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly as control group and model group. Suspend the model group rats for 14 days, then remove suspension and continue to feed for another 14 days. Feed control group rats for 28 days. Detect the bone mineral density (BMD) in vivo of cranial bone, second thoracic vertebra, fourth lumbar vertebra, pelvis, right radioulna and right femoral bone of each group at the 14th day. At the 28th day,execute all the rats and take out of right femoral bone and fourth lumbar vertebra for detecting BMD and the intensity of biomechanics. At the 14th day in experiment, being compared with control group,the BMD of femoral bone, pelvis and lumbar vertebra in model group decreased significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01) and the change of BMD of cranial bone, thoracic vertebra and radioulna in model group was not remarkable (P > 0.05). At the 28th day in experiment, the BMD of femoral bone and lumbar vertebra, the maximal load of femoral bone decreased significantly in model group as compared with control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.01). BMD in vive body showed that suspensory simulated weightlessness for 14 days could cause disorder of bone metabolism and remarkable mineral loss of weight bearing bone, even BMD and biomechanical intensity of weight bearing bone decrease obviously when removing suspension for 14 days. The results suggest that the disorder of bone metabolism could not be recovered in short time.

  7. Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods: Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. Results: The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Conclusions: Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined. PMID:19461899

  8. Low bone mineral density in adult patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Waszczuk, Ewa; Jakubowska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D malabsorption in coeliac disease (CD) predispose to skeletal demineralisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium deficiencies in adult patients with CD and assess whether a gluten-free diet is sufficiently effective for BMD restoration. BMD and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were measured in 35 adult CD patients receiving (19) or not receiving (16) a gluten-free diet (GFD) and in 36 controls. Then the CD patients were treated with a GFD and calcium (1.0 g/day) plus alfacalcidol (0.25-1 μg/day) for one year. Reduced BMD was diagnosed in 57-77% of the patients. Mean calcaemia, calciuria, and 25(OH) vitamin D were lower, but serum PTH and bone-turnover markers (ALP, osteocalcin, ICTP) were significantly higher in the CD patients than in the controls. In the patients on the diet (GFD(+)), BMD was higher than in the GFD(-) patients, but lower than in the controls. The biochemical parameters were normal in the GFD(+) patients except for diminished calciuria. Mean BMD after one year of treatment significantly increased (p < 0.05), mostly in the lumbar spine (mean: 7.3%), but decreased in five patients who did not strictly adhere to the GFD. Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and BMD are very common in adult CD patients. Gluten avoidance increased BMD, although the values remained markedly lower in several patients. Because of chronic calcium deficiency despite GFD, calcium and vitamin D supplementation in most adult CD patients is proposed.

  9. Is There an Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Mammographic Density? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Min; Holley, Susan; Appleton, Catherine; Toriola, Adetunji T

    2017-04-01

    Both bone mineral density (BMD) and breast density are related to reproductive hormone levels. This suggests that BMD and breast density could be meaningfully associated, and serve as surrogate markers for breast cancer risk. However, few studies have investigated the association of BMD with percent mammographic density, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in electronic databases till April 2016 using the following search terms: "bone density," "bone mineral density," "mammographic breast density," "breast density," and "mammographic density." We identified 203 articles, of which 8 met the inclusion criteria for this review. BMD does not appear to be associated with percent mammographic density. BMD at the spine was weakly positively associated with percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women who were not hormone users, while BMD at the hip and legs was positively associated with percent mammographic density among premenopausal women. On the other hand, one study reported an inverse association of BMD at the spine and hip with percent mammographic density among perimenopausal women. In this review, we found no evidence of an association between BMD and percent mammographic density.

  10. Carbonated beverage consumption and bone mineral density among older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S H; Morton, D J; Barrett-Connor, E L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between carbonated beverage consumption and bone mineral density was examined in a community-based cohort of older White women. METHODS: One thousand women 44 to 98 years of age had bone mineral density measured at four sites and provided medical and behavioral histories, including type and quantity of carbonated beverages consumed. RESULTS: Bone mineral density levels were not associated with intake of any type of carbonated beverage after adjustment for age, obesity, calcium intake, exercise, and current use of tobacco and alcohol, thiazides, estrogen, or thyroid hormone. CONCLUSIONS: Modest intake of carbonated beverages does not appear to have adverse effects on bone mineral density in older women. PMID:9103110

  11. [Effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density; bone strength and fracture prevention].

    PubMed

    Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Atsushi

    2006-07-01

    Although vitamin D improves bone mineral density 0.66% per year at spine site and 1.23% per year at femoral neck site, respectively, vitamin D is useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures, especially hip fractures in the elderly. Vitamin D affects microstructure and bone turnover for osteoporotic bone to become strong bone. And vitamin D improves muscle function to prevent falls in the elderly. Moreover the appropriate amount and treatment target of vitamin D must be considered for the elderly with many different diseases.

  12. A semi-mechanistic model of bone mineral density and bone turnover based on a circular model of bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    van Schaick, Erno; Zheng, Jenny; Perez Ruixo, Juan Jose; Gieschke, Ronald; Jacqmin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Development of novel therapies for bone diseases can benefit from mathematical models that predict drug effect on bone remodeling biomarkers. Therefore, a bone cycle model (BCM) was developed that takes into consideration the concept of the basic multicellular unit and the dynamic equilibrium of bone remodeling. The model is a closed form cyclical model with four compartments representing resorption, formation, primary mineralization, and secondary mineralization. Equations describing the time course of bone turnover biomarkers were developed using the flow rate of bone cycle units (BCU) between the compartments or the amount of BCU in each compartment. A disease progression model representing bone loss in osteoporosis, a vitamin D and calcium supplementation (placebo) model, and a drug model for antiresorptive treatments were added to the model. Initial model parameter values were derived from published bone turnover data. The BCM accurately described biomarker-time profiles in postmenopausal women receiving either placebo or bisphosphonate treatment. The slow continual increase in bone mineral density (BMD) observed after 1 year of treatment was accurately described when changes in bone turnover were combined with increases in mineralization. For this purpose, the secondary mineralization compartment was replaced by three catenary chain compartments representing increasing mineral content. The refined BCM satisfactorily predicted biomarker profiles after long-term (10-year) bisphosphonate treatment. Furthermore, the model successfully described individual bone turnover markers and BMD results following treatment with denosumab in postmenopausal women. Analyses with this model could be used to optimize dosing regimens and to predict effects of novel osteoporotic treatments.

  13. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression and Bone Mineral Density: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Almstedt, Hawley Chase; Lewis, Zakkoyya H

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a common therapeutic modality used to reduce swelling after trauma and prevent thrombosis due to postsurgical immobilization. Limited evidence suggests that IPC may decrease the time needed to rehabilitate skeletal fractures and increase bone remodeling. To establish feasibility and explore the novel use of a common therapeutic modality, IPC, on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip of noninjured volunteers. Within-subjects intervention. University research laboratory. Noninjured participants (3 male, 6 female) completed IPC treatment on 1 leg 1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 10 wk. Pressure was set to 60 mm Hg when using the PresSsion and Flowtron Hydroven compression units. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess BMD of the hip in treated and nontreated legs before and after the intervention. Anthropometrics, regular physical activity, and nutrient intake were also assessed. The average number of completed intervention sessions was 43.4 (± 3.8) at an average duration of 9.6 (± 0.8) wk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant time-by-treatment effect at the femoral neck (P = .023), trochanter (P = .027), and total hip (P = .008). On average, the treated hip increased 0.5-1.0%, while the nontreated hip displayed a 0.7-1.9% decrease, depending on the bone site. Results of this exploratory investigation suggest that IPC is a therapeutic modality that is safe and feasible for further investigation on its novel use in optimizing bone health.

  14. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  15. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  16. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  17. Mandibular bone mineral density as a predictor of skeletal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Horner, K; Devlin, H; Alsop, C W; Hodgkinson, I M; Adams, J E

    1996-11-01

    A considerable amount of work has been performed on methods of detecting individuals with low bone mass at an early stage. Some researchers have considered if dental radiographs could have a role in the detection of individuals with osteoporosis. A basic requirement for this would be that bone mass in the jaw relates significantly to that of other skeletal sites in which osteoporosis is a significant problem. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) and that of other skeletal sites commonly used for bone densitometry in the detection of osteoporosis. The second aim was to assess the validity of mandibular BMD as a predictor of BMD in these other sites. 40 edentulous females underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), DXA of the right femoral neck, single photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the proximal and distal forearm and DXA of the mandible. Significant correlations were observed between BMD in the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis and all other skeletal sites (p < 0.02). Five patients (12.5%) had age matched Z-scores of -1.0 or lower in all three non-mandibular sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck and forearm). Using these patients as the proportion of the population with a positive finding of "low bone mass", the sensitivity and specificity of mandibular BMD in predicting low bone mass for these patients was determined. Where a diagnostic threshold for low mandibular BMD was set at one standard deviation below the mean, the mandibular body BMD measurement gave high sensitivity (0.8) and specificity (0.97), the symphysis BMD low sensitivity (0.4) but a high specificity (0.77), while the ramus BMD had a moderate level of sensitivity (0.6) and high specificity (0.91). It is concluded that mandibular BMD assessed by DXA correlates significantly with BMD measurements of other important skeletal sites. The higher correlation coefficients and the greater sensitivity and

  18. Growth hormone therapy and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Van, Phillip L; Baron, Jeffrey; Reynolds, James C; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2004-10-01

    In a previous report, preliminary data showed a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in women with Turner syndrome that had been treated with GH compared with women with Turner syndrome that had not been treated. To clarify this point, we have investigated the effects of GH treatment at multiple sites in this case-control, cross-sectional study. There were 23 women per group, who were similar in age, height, body mass index, estrogen use, and ethnic makeup. Median age (range) at start and duration of GH treatment was 9 (3-17) and 5 (2-9) yr, respectively. GH-treated women had a slightly greater ( approximately 8%, P = 0.03) width of the radial shaft, but otherwise there were no significant differences between groups in bone dimensions or BMD at the distal radius, lumbar spine, or femoral neck. Furthermore, regression analysis in a linear model including independent variables of age, age at diagnosis, body mass index, presence of spontaneous puberty, and GH use confirmed that GH use did not contribute to variation in BMD.

  19. Resistance training and bone mineral density during growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Z; Goettsch, B M; Van Ramshorst, R D; O'Brien, J A; Jaque, S V; Sumida, K D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the efficacy of two different resistance training programs in enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating rats. One exercise mode involved lifting a lighter weight with more repetitions (LI), while the other regimen involved lifting a heavier weight with fewer repetitions (HI) where the total volume of work between exercise programs was equivalent by design. Twenty-three male rats were randomly divided into control (Con, n = 8), LI (n = 7), and HI (n = 8) groups. The LI and HI groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 4 days/wk for 6 wks. After training, serum osteocalcin (OC) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both HI (45.2 +/- 1.7 ng/ml) and LI (39.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml) when compared to Con (29.9 +/- 0.9 ng/ml). Left tibial BMD was significantly (p < 0.05) greater for HI (0.231 +/- 0.004 g/cm (2)) when compared to both LI (0.213 +/- 0.003 g/cm (2)) and Con (0.206 +/- 0.005 g/cm (2)) with no significant difference between LI and Con. The results indicate that both HI and LI are effective in elevating serum OC, implicating an osteogenic response; however, only HI resulted in a significant elevation in BMD.

  20. Determinants of bone mineral density in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Cheung, E Y N; Ho, A Y Y; Lam, K F; Tam, S; Kung, A W C

    2005-12-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are increasing among Asian populations in both genders, but the risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in Asian men is unclear. To determine the hormonal and lifestyle risk factors for low BMD in Asian men, we studied 407 community-dwelling southern Chinese men aged 50 years and above. Medical history and lifestyle habits were obtained with a structured questionnaire. Dietary calcium and phytoestrogen intake were assessed by a semi-quantitative questionnaire. BMD at the spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting blood was analyzed for 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total and bioavailable estradiol (bio-E) and testosterone (bio-T). The mean age of the cohort was 68.42+/-10.4 (50-96) years. In the linear regression model, weight, age, body mass index (BMI), bio-E, PTH, cigarette smoking and weight-bearing exercise were significant determinants of total hip BMD. Together they explained 55% of the total variance of hip BMD, with body weight being the most important determining factor. With age and weight adjustment, height, bio-T and flavonoid intake were identified as additional determinants of total hip BMD. Strategies to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis in Asian men should include lifestyle modification and maintenance of hormonal sufficiency.

  1. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone).

  2. Exercise Training Alters the Bone Mineral Density of Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Sandra M; Moraes, Cristiane; Barbosa, Jorge Eduardo Dos Santos Monteiro; Carraro Eduardo, José Carlos; Fouque, Denis; Pelletier, Solenne; Mafra, Denise

    2016-10-01

    Marinho, SM, Moraes, C, Barbosa, JEdSM, Eduardo, JCC, Fouqe, D, Pelletier, S, and Mafra, D. Exercise training alters the bone mineral density of hemodialysis patients. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2918-2923, 2016-Patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) frequently present low bone mineral density (BMD), and exercise may be useful for treating bone loss. This study aimed to assess the effects of an intradialytic resistance exercise training program (RETP) on BMD in HD patients. Twenty-one patients were enrolled into 2 groups; 10 patients performed exercise (80.0% men; 46.9 ± 12.1 years; 27.0 ± 3.4 kg·m) and 11 patients were in the control group (54.5% men; 50.5 ± 11.5 years; 24.1 ± 8.7 kg·m). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD, lean mass, and body fat before and after the supervised RETP (performed with elastic bands and ankle cuffs in both lower limbs 3 times a week for 24 weeks-72 sessions). In the exercise group, 30.0% of patients presented with osteopenia and 20.0% osteoporosis and in the control group, 45.5% osteopenia and 36.4% osteoporosis. Only in the exercise group, the osteoporosis percentage was reduced to 10.0% and the femoral neck BMD and T-score improved from 0.89 ± 0.1 to 0.93 ± 0.1 g·cm and from -1.3 ± 0.8 to -1.0 ± 0.8 g·cm (p ≤ 0.05), respectively, after the intervention. In contrast, these parameters were reduced in the control group. The results suggest that resistance exercise may be useful for improving the BMD in HD patients. In summary, 24 weeks of the supervised RETP played a role in improving the BMD of HD patients.

  3. Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Amorim, T; Koutedakis, Y; Nevill, A; Wyon, M; Maia, J; Machado, J C; Marques, F; Metsios, G S; Flouris, A D; Adubeiro, N; Nogueira, L; Dimitriou, L

    2017-06-27

    According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites. The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche. The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires. VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMD for potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site. Both females and males VBD have lower BMD at impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMD at impact sites in female VBD.

  4. No change detected by DEXA in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Kold, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess acetabular bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy and to examine whether bone mineral density correlates with postoperative migration of the osteotomised acetabular fragment. Twenty-five female and three male patients scheduled for periacetabular osteotomy were consecutively included. The patients were scanned by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week, 1 year, and 2 1/2 years after surgery. Radiostereometric analyses (RSA) were done at 1, 4, 8, and 24 weeks after surgery. Two and a half years after periacetabular osteotomy, no significant changes in bone mineral density or any biological effect on bone remodelling due a changed loading pattern in the acetabulum could be detected. There was no significant correlation between bone mineral density and migration of the acetabulum. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is not an appropriate method to demonstrate the changes in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy or to predict postoperative acetabular migration.

  5. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  6. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  7. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  8. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  9. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD.

  10. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  11. Effects of genistein on vertebral trabecular bone microstructure, bone mineral density, microcracks, osteocyte density, and bone strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruchun; Ma, Yulin; Sheng, Zhifeng; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Yuhai; Fang, Lingna; Fan, Huijie; Liao, Eryuan

    2008-01-01

    Until now, the effects of phytoestrogen on bone in both women and ovarian hormone-deficient animal models of osteoporosis have remained uncertain. We have aimed here to investigate the effect of genistein (GEN) on trabecular bone quality in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty 7-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: OVX, sham-operated (SHAM), treated with 17beta-estradiol (EST, 10 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), and GEN (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). At 15 weeks postoperation, the compressive test was performed on the L5 vertebral body; additionally, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment was performed to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure parameters of the L6 vertebral body. After fatigue damage testing, the L6 vertebral body was bulk-stained in 1% basic fuchsin and embedded in methylmethacrylate. The L4 vertebral body was embedded in methylmethacrylate for dynamic histomorphometry analysis without staining. Mounted bone slices were used to measure microcrack parameters, empty osteocyte lacuna density (e.Lc.Dn), and osteocyte density (Ot.N/T.Ar). Maximum loading (ML) and Ot.N/T.Ar were significantly lower in the OVX group than in the other groups. E.Lc.Dn was significantly decreased in GEN and EST groups compared to the OVX group. ML was significantly decreased in the GEN group compared to the SHAM group. Microcrack density, microcrack surface density, and microcrack length were significantly increased in the OVX group compared to the other groups. Mineral apposition rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the SHAM and GEN groups. Bone formation rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to other groups. There were no significant differences with regard to mineralizing surface among the four groups. Volumetric BMD at organ was significantly lower in OVX, EST, and GEN groups than in the SHAM group. Bone mineral content was significantly lower in the OVX

  12. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  13. Differences by sex and handedness in right and left femur bone mineral densities.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ali; Dane, Senol; Seven, Bedri; Akar, Sedat; Yildirim, Serap

    2009-12-01

    Left-handedness was reported to be a risk factor for accident-related injuries, head injuries, traumatic brain injuries, sport-related injuries, and bone breaks and fractures. As decreased bone mineral density is a good marker of bone fractures, the femoral bone mineral densities of normal left-handed university students were compared with those of right-handed students. Hand preference of 66 men and 47 women was assessed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of bone mineral density with a Hologic QDR-4500W (S/N 48403) densitometer showed bone mineral densities of both right and left proximal femur regions were higher in right-handed than in left-handed students. These results are consistent with the claim that left-handed participants had higher trauma and injury risk. Also, these results may explain the sex-related differences by handedness for susceptibility in accident-related injuries such as bone fractures.

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Perrie E.; Dunn, Winston; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether NAFLD influences bone health is unknown. AIM To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. METHODS Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and total percent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analyzed in children with NAFLD. RESULTS Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (p<0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (−1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five percent of children with NAFLD had low bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (p < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (p< 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (−2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (−1.58). CONCLUSIONS NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralization in children with NAFLD. PMID:22111971

  15. Comparison of bone mineral density in the jaws of patients with and without chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk Tonguç, M; Ş Büyükkaplan, U; Fentoğlu, Ö; A Gümüş, B; S Çerçi, S; Y Kırzıoğlu, F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although several studies have addressed the relationship between systemic bone mineral status and the severity of periodontitis, there is little knowledge of the relationship between periodontal disease and locally detected bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular bone mineral density of patients with chronic periodontitis with that of periodontally healthy subjects. Methods 48 systemically healthy subjects were included in the study and underwent a periodontal examination to determine their status. 24 subjects were periodontally healthy and the other 24 had moderate or severe chronic periodontitis. The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The region of interest on the body of the mandible was independently determined on the dual energy absorptiometry radiographs, and a computer calculated the bone mineral density of these regions. Results The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects with periodontitis was significantly lower than that of the periodontally healthy subjects (p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the mandibular bone mineral density values and parameters related to the amount of periodontal destruction. Conclusions Low bone mineral density in the jaw may be associated with chronic periodontitis. PMID:22241867

  16. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  17. Assessing Bone Mineral Density Following Acute Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Molly; Hemmati, Pouya; Switzer, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In older patients, bone mineral density (BMD) diminishes with age, increasing susceptibility to femoral neck fractures. Evidence has emerged that patients who should have dual x-ray absorptiometry scans to evaluate their bone health are not doing so. Because computed tomography (CT) attenuation has now been correlated with BMD thresholds relating to osteoporosis, virtually any existing CT scan that includes the L1 vertebra can be used to assess BMD. This study evaluates the utility of CT attenuation in characterizing BMD in patients after femoral neck fractures. Methods: The electronic medical records of adults who presented to a level I trauma center with hip fractures were evaluated for eligibility. Those with a CT scan of the abdomen or other CT scan with a complete view of the L1 vertebra were included. To measure attenuation, a region of interest was selected to include the body of the L1 vertebra in the axial plane and exclude the cortices and posterior venous complex. Results: Of the 589 patients reviewed, 217 met inclusion criteria; 112 were aged 18 to 64, while 105 were ≥65. Eight (7.1%) patients in the younger cohort had a mean CT attenuation below the 110-HU threshold set for 90% specificity, whereas 31 (29.5%) patients in the older cohort had a mean CT attenuation below this threshold. Using the 160-HU threshold set for 90% sensitivity, 39 (34.8%) patients of the younger cohort and 74 (70%) patients of the older cohort were osteoporotic; all differences in CT attenuation by age were strongly significant (P < .0001). Conclusions: A significantly larger proportion of older patients with hip fractures had osteoporosis, helping validate the utility of CT attenuation in this context. In addition, a large proportion of these patients already had these images available, thus potentially helping limit cost and unnecessary medical investigations. PMID:26246948

  18. Bone mineral density predicts fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah L; Lok, Charmaine E; Langsetmo, Lisa; Cheung, Angela M; Szabo, Eva; Pearce, Dawn; Fusaro, Maria; Wald, Ron; Weinstein, Jordan; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-05-01

    Fractures are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The optimal methods by which to assess fracture risk are unknown, in part, due to a lack of prospective studies. We determined if bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and/or high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) could predict fractures in men and women ≥18 years old with stages 3 to 5 CKD. BMD was measured by DXA (at the total hip, lumbar spine, ultradistal, and 1/3 radius) and by HRpQCT (at the radius), and subjects were followed for 2 years for incident morphometric spine fractures and low-trauma clinical fractures. The mean age of the subjects was 62 years with equal numbers having stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD. Over 2 years there were 51 fractures in 35 subjects. BMD by DXA at baseline was significantly lower at all sites among those with incident fractures versus those without. For example, the mean BMD at the total hip in those with incident fractures was 0.77 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.80) and in those without fracture was 0.95 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.92 to 0.98). Almost all baseline HRpQCT measures were lower in those with incident fracture versus those without. For example, volumetric BMD in those with incident fractures was 232 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 213 to 251) and in those without fracture was 317.6 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 306 to 329.1). Bone loss occurred in all subjects, but was significantly greater among those with incident fractures. Our data demonstrate that low BMD (by DXA and HRpQCT) and a greater annualized percent decrease in BMD are risk factors for subsequent fracture in men and women with predialysis CKD.

  19. Cow's Milk Allergy and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Mailhot, Genevieve; Perrone, Vanessa; Alos, Nathalie; Dubois, Josée; Delvin, Edgard; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Recent data suggest that cow's milk allergy (CMA) has become more persistent, prolonging treatment via strict elimination of cow's milk products into a period of skeletal growth. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D status, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D between prepubertal children with persistent CMA and those with non-cow's milk food allergies (NCMA) as control subjects and to assess the use of and compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation among children with persistent CMA. Fifty-two children with persistent CMA and 29 with NCMA were recruited. BMD was measured by using dual energy radiograph absorptiometry, and vitamin D status was assessed by using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium and vitamin D intakes, as well as compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, were recorded. Lumbar spine BMD z scores were significantly lower in children with CMA. Low bone mass was detected in 6% of the CMA group compared with none in the NCMA group. Children with CMA displayed significantly lower calcium intakes than control subjects. Vitamin D status was not reduced in children with CMA compared with control subjects. Fewer than one-half of children with CMA reported the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. However, adherence was high among supplement users, with a mean compliance rate of 5.5 days per week. These prepubertal children with persistent CMA had lower lumbar spine BMD z scores than children with NCMA, which likely resulted from lower calcium intake. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Bone mineral density in collegiate female athletes: comparisons among sports.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Between-groups design. University health care system. All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 +/- 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 +/- 0.055 g.cm (-2)) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 +/- 0.086 g.cm (-2)) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health.

  1. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Conroy, B P; Kraemer, W J; Maresh, C M; Fleck, S J; Stone, M H; Fry, A C; Miller, P D; Dalsky, G P

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to muscular strength in highly trained young male athletes in order to gain insights concerning the influence of heavy resistance training on BMD. Twenty-five elite junior weightlifters (age, 17.4 +/- 1.4 yr) and 11 age-matched controls (16.9 +/- 1.1 yr) volunteered for this investigation. Measurements of BMD (g.cm-2) utilizing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained for the lumbar spine (L2-4) and the proximal femur (neck; trochanter, Ward's triangle). The BMD values for the junior lifters were found to be significantly greater at all sites for the junior weightlifters compared with their age-matched control group. The BMD values of the spine and femoral neck of the junior weightlifters when compared with adult reference data (i.e., 20-39 yr old men) were found to be significantly greater. Both simple and multiple regression analyses demonstrated significant relationships of BMD with strength accounting for 30-65% of the variance. These data suggest that in elite junior weightlifters, muscle strength, highly specific to the sport of weightlifting, has a major influence on BMD due to the influence of the chronic overloads experienced in training.

  3. FRAX and fracture prediction without bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H; Odén, A; Leslie, W D; McCloskey, E V

    2015-01-01

    The major application of FRAX in osteoporosis is to direct pharmacological interventions to those at high risk of fracture. Whereas the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment, with the possible exception of alendronate, is largely independent of baseline bone mineral density (BMD), it remains a widely held perception that osteoporosis therapies are only effective in the presence of low BMD. Thus, the use of FRAX in the absence of BMD to identify individuals requiring therapy remains the subject of some debate and is the focus of this review. The clinical risk factors used in FRAX have high evidence-based validity to identify a risk responsive to intervention. The selection of high-risk individuals with FRAX, without knowledge of BMD, preferentially selects for low BMD and thus identifies a risk that is responsive to pharmacological intervention. The prediction of fractures with the use of clinical risk factors alone in FRAX is comparable to the use of BMD alone to predict fractures and is suitable, therefore, in the many countries where facilities for BMD testing are sparse. In countries where access to BMD is greater, FRAX can be used without BMD in the majority of cases and BMD tests reserved for those close to a probability-based intervention threshold. Thus concerns surrounding the use of FRAX in clinical practice without information on BMD are largely misplaced.

  4. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  5. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  6. Bioactive silica based nanoparticles stimulate bone forming osteoblasts, suppress bone esorbing osteoclasts, and enhance bone mineral density in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Beck, George R.; Ha, Shin-Woo; Camalier, Corinne E.; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Li, Yan; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Weitzmann, M. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes renewal throughout life by a process whereby osteoclasts resorb worn bone and osteoblasts synthesize new bone. Imbalances in bone turnover lead to bone loss and development of osteoporosis and ultimately fracture, a debilitating condition with high morbidity and mortality. Silica is a ubiquitous biocontaminant that is considered to have high biocompatibility. We report that silica nanoparticles mediate potent inhibitory effects on osteoclasts and stimulatory effects on osteoblasts in vitro. The mechanism of bioactivity is a consequence of an intrinsic capacity to antagonize activation of NF-κB, a signal transduction pathway required for osteoclastic bone resorption, but inhibitory to osteoblastic bone formation. We further demonstrate that silica nanoparticles promote a significant enhancement of bone mineral density (BMD) in mice in vivo providing a proof of principle for the potential application of silica nanoparticles as a pharmacological agent to enhance BMD and protect against bone fracture. PMID:22100753

  7. Milk basic protein increases bone mineral density and improves bone metabolism in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, K; Ishida, H; Toba, Y; Aoe, S; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2007-03-01

    Effect of milk basic protein on bone metabolism in healthy young women. Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health than other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction (milk basic protein, MBP), contains several components capable of promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. The object of this study was to examine the effect of MBP on the bone mineral density and bone metabolism of healthy young women. Thirty-five healthy young women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for 6 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 of each subject was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 0 and 6 months of treatment. Serum and urine indexes of bone metabolism were measured at 0, 3 and 6 months. All subjects completed the study in accordance with the protocol. The mean rate of gain of lumbar BMD in the MBP group (1.57%) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (0.13%, P=0.042). When compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type-I collagen (NTx) were significantly decreased, and serum osteocalcin was significantly increased in the MBP group at 6 months. These results suggested that MBP supplementation was effective in increasing BMD in young women and that this increase in BMD may be primarily mediated through the promotion of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption by MBP supplementation.

  8. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2006-04-15

    Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact

  9. WNT16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Joel; Paternoster, Lavinia; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Bergström, Ulrica; Kähönen, Mika; Leo, Paul J.; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Viikari, Jorma; Ladouceur, Martin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Prince, Richard L.; Sievanen, Harri; Leslie, William D.; Mellström, Dan; Eisman, John A.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David A.; Jones, Graeme; St. Pourcain, Beate; Xiao, Yongjun; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Reid, Ian R.; Ring, Susan M.; Sambrook, Philip N.; Karlsson, Magnus; Dennison, Elaine M.; Kemp, John P.; Danoy, Patrick; Sayers, Adrian; Wilson, Scott G.; Nethander, Maria; McCloskey, Eugene; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Eastell, Richard; Liu, Jeff; Spector, Tim; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Brommage, Robert; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Brown, Matthew A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Richards, J. Brent; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466) located in the WNT16 gene (7q31), associated with CBT (effect size of −0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2×10−9). This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg), also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (−0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3×10−12, and −0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2×10−15, respectively). Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3×10−9), with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9×10−6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2×10−6). We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16−/− mice had 27% (P<0.001) thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%–61% (6.5×10−13bone strength, and risk of fracture. PMID:22792071

  10. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hou-Feng; Tobias, Jon H; Duncan, Emma; Evans, David M; Eriksson, Joel; Paternoster, Lavinia; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Bergström, Ulrica; Kähönen, Mika; Leo, Paul J; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Viikari, Jorma; Ladouceur, Martin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Prince, Richard L; Sievanen, Harri; Leslie, William D; Mellström, Dan; Eisman, John A; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David A; Jones, Graeme; St Pourcain, Beate; Xiao, Yongjun; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Reid, Ian R; Ring, Susan M; Sambrook, Philip N; Karlsson, Magnus; Dennison, Elaine M; Kemp, John P; Danoy, Patrick; Sayers, Adrian; Wilson, Scott G; Nethander, Maria; McCloskey, Eugene; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Eastell, Richard; Liu, Jeff; Spector, Tim; Mitchell, Braxton D; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Brommage, Robert; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Brown, Matthew A; Ohlsson, Claes; Richards, J Brent; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466) located in the WNT16 gene (7q31), associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9)). This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg), also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12), and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15), respectively). Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9)), with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6) and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6)). We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/-) mice had 27% (P<0.001) thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13)bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  11. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  14. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  15. Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, P D; Chrusch, M J; Chad, K E; Shawn Davison, K; Burke, D G

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation combined with resistance training on bone mineral content and density in older men. Twenty-nine older men (age 71 y) were randomized (double blind) to receive creatine (0.3 g/kg creatine for 5 d and 0.07 g/kg thereafter) or placebo while participating in resistance training (12 weeks). Bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after training. There was a time main effect for whole-body and leg bone mineral density (p < or = 0.05) with these measures increasing by approximately 0.5%, and 1%, respectively in the combined groups. There was a group by time interaction for arms bone mineral content, with the group receiving creatine increasing by 3.2% (p < 0.01) and the group receiving placebo decreasing by 1.0% (not significant). Changes in lean tissue mass of the arms correlated with changes in bone mineral content of the arms (r = 0.67; p < 0.01). Resistance training of 12 weeks increases bone mineral density in older men and creatine supplementation may provide an additional benefit for increasing regional bone mineral content. The increase in bone mineral content may be due to an enhanced muscle mass with creatine, with potentially greater tension on bone at sites of muscle attachment.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with low bone mineral density in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pardee, P E; Dunn, W; Schwimmer, J B

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether or not NAFLD influences bone health is not known. To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, gender, race, ethnicity, height and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and gender-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity and total per cent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analysed in children with NAFLD. Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (P < 0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (-1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five per cent of children with NAFLD had low-bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (P < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (-2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (-1.58). The NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralisation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralisation in children with NAFLD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  18. [Bone mineral density as a sign of age-related involution of human bones].

    PubMed

    Iurchenko, M A; Zolotenkova, G V; Pigolkin, Iu I; Fedulova, M V

    2013-01-01

    This review of the literature analyzes the current state of a problem of application of various morphological methods for the investigation of age-related involution of human bone system and their use in the course of forensic personality identification. The difficulties of the application of the available methods of quantitative morphology in determination of biological age, are emphasized. The possibilities of the practical use of radiological methods to study the skeleton, including the determination of the bone mineral density as an indicator of age-related changes of bone tissue, are analyzed. An ambiguity of the research results obtained is noted, and the possible reasons for and the factors contributing to the results variability are considered. It is concluded that the application of computer tomogram densitometry to the various regions of the bone skeleton in complex with some other methods, is promising for the determination of age interval in forensic identification examinations.

  19. Impact of pharmacist-led community bone mineral density screenings.

    PubMed

    Summers, Kelly M; Brock, Tina Penick

    2005-02-01

    Osteoporosis-associated fractures burden both individuals and the overall healthcare system. Bone mineral density (BMD) screening remains the gold standard measure for identifying patients at risk. To determine the impact of convenient, pharmacist-led BMD screening and counseling sessions on identification and education of patients at risk for or with osteoporosis. Nonpregnant persons >18 years of age were eligible for enrollment in this descriptive study. At an urban retail pharmacy, participants underwent risk factor assessment, peripheral BMD scanning, and personalized counseling. At 3 and 6 months after screening, subjects were questioned by telephone regarding any subsequent primary care provider (PCP) interactions, as well as any behaviors initiated and/or medications modified. Of the 102 subjects screened, 22.6% and 11.7% were identified as being at medium risk (T score -1.0 to -2.5) and high risk (T score -2.5 or less) for osteoporosis, respectively. By 6 months, 42.5% of the participants reported increasing their dietary intake of calcium, 29.3% began or increased calcium supplements, and 54.9% positively modified smoking status, exercise level, alcohol consumption, or caffeine intake. Additionally, 24 of 52 subjects who had discussed their results with a PCP by 6 months also received a treatment recommendation. Eighty-nine participants reported the community location increased their likelihood of receiving a BMD scan. Overall, pharmacist-led BMD screenings that include individualized counseling sessions appear convenient, accessible, and beneficial for patients. With the establishment of clinical benefit of and positive reception to such screenings, pharmacists can now look toward securing consistent reimbursement for this vital pharmaceutical care service.

  20. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Caucasian, Filipina, and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Deborah J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah L; Schneider, Diane L

    2003-02-01

    Previous bone mineral density (BMD) studies have suggested Asian women have lower BMD and Hispanic women have similar or higher BMD compared with Caucasian women, partially explained by ethnic differences in body size. This study compared the effect of different variables representing body size on BMD in postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years from three ethnic groups in San Diego County, CA: 354 Caucasians, 285 Filipinas, and 164 Hispanics. In all three groups, BMD was measured by DXA (Hologic 2000) at the hip, lumbar spine, and total body. Lifestyle variables and anthropometric measures were assessed by standard methodology; medication and supplement use were validated by a nurse. Regardless of the variables used to represent body size in the regression modelling, either body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, ethnic differences were minimal across the three groups. The only significant differences observed using the two fully adjusted models (age, height, body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, smoking, alcohol, exercise, current oestrogen and calcium supplement use, and osteoarthritis) were at the total body BMD site where Filipinas had significantly higher BMD than the Caucasians or Hispanics, whose total body BMD was similar to one another. The independent variables in the fully adjusted models explained approximately 20-40% of the variation in BMD at each of the four sites. Income or occupation did not help explain BMD differences, but a pattern of increased BMD among those with some college education in all three groups was observed. Accounting for body size using either body mass index or fat and lean tissue mass along with height and other lifestyle variables minimizes ethnic differences and explains a considerable amount of variation in mean BMD among older ethnic minority and Caucasian women.

  1. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral density in athletes.

    PubMed

    Dinç, H; Savci, G; Demirci, A; Sadikoğlu, M Y; Tuncel, E; Yavuz, H

    1996-06-01

    We studied the effect of different training patterns on vertebral trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in male athletes using quantitative computed tomography. Vertebral trabecular (t) and cortical (c) BMDs of the first three lumbar vertebrae were measured using single energy quantitative computed tomography in 51 athletes including 10 weight lifters (mean age 20 years), 13 soccer players (mean age 27 years), 28 wrestlers (mean age 17 years), and 45 age-matched volunteers (mean age 21 years). Measured BMDs were correlated with age, body height and weight, training hours per week, sports years, and type of physical activity. Vertebral tBMDs were found to be 44%, 23%, and 24% higher in the weight lifters, soccer players, and wrestlers, respectively, compared with the volunteers. The corresponding cBMDs were 18%, 6%, and 11% higher than that of volunteers. There was significant correlation between the trabecular and cBMD, and height of the athletes, sports years, training hours per week, and physical activity. The most significant correlation with BMD was the type of physical activity. Both the height of the subjects and physical activity variables showed variations of 47% and 32% in trabecular and cBMD, respectively. According to the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) only the physical activity factor was effective, with a significance level of P < 0.01; the other factors and interactions were not effective (P > 0.05) on trabecular and cBMD. Different training patterns have a different anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs of the vertebrae, and this effect is more pronounced on the trabecular compartment. Weight lifting showed the highest anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs compared with soccer playing and wrestling. Of the independent variables, physical activity showed the highest anabolic effect on the vertebrae. These results may have implications for devising exercise strategies to reduce the possibility of fracture in old age.

  2. Explore the effectors of bone mineral density in community women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies that involve Asian women have revealed that their bone mineral density (BMD) is lower than that of European and American women. Few studies have simultaneously investigated the cognition, beliefs and behavior that affect BMD. The first aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between demographics, knowledge of osteoporosis, health beliefs about osteoporosis, health-related behavior and BMD. The secondary goal was to explore the major predictive factors that affect the BMD of women in Community. This was an exploratory, community-based, cross-sectional study. Participants (N = 98) completed the osteoporosis related questionnaire and were invited to undergo BMD examinations using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Overall, 73.4% of the participants had heard of the disease but the proportion of correct responses to the questions that tested knowledge of osteoporosis was only 44.0%. The investigation into osteoporosis-related beliefs revealed that women held quite accurate beliefs regarding the prevention of osteoporosis, but only 23.6% of them had undergone a BMD examination. An adjusted odds ratio indicated that if women had normal BMD then they were 1.57 times (95% CI: 1.08-2.29), 1.10 times (95% CI: 1.00-1.12) and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.09-6.86) times than their counterparts, respectively. The results revealed that women with normal BMD were more likely to have positively self-rated health, knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive behavior than their counterparts. The findings indicated that BMD was subjectively determined by a combination of cognitive and behavioral factors. Early detection was the key to preventing osteoporosis.

  3. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, p<0.01). The strongest exercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, p<0.01; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.59, p<0.01). There was a closer association between exercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, p<0.001) followed by petCO(2) and body mass index (R(2)=0.7 and 0.5, respectively, p<0.01). Exercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  4. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on bone mineral density, bone markers, and body composition in older adults

    PubMed Central

    von Mühlen, D.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Bergstrom, J.; Bettencourt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We present results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of 50 mg daily oral DHEA supplementation for one year on bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism and body composition in 225 healthy adults aged 55 to 85 years. Introduction Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels decline dramatically with age, concurrent with the onset of osteoporosis, suggesting a role for DHEA supplementation in preventing age-related bone loss. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of 50 mg daily oral DHEA supplementation for one year on bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism and body composition in 225 healthy adults aged 55 to 85 years. Results DHEA treatment increased serum DHEA and DHEA sulfate levels to concentrations seen in young adults. Testosterone, estradiol and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels increased in women (all p<0.001), but not men, receiving DHEA. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type-1 collagen levels decreased in women (p=0.03), but not men, whereas bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were not significantly altered in either sex. After 12 months, there was a positive effect of DHEA on lumbar spine BMD in women (p=0.03), but no effect was observed for hip, femoral neck or total body BMD, and no significant changes were observed at any site among men. Body composition was not affected by DHEA treatment in either sex. Conclusion Among older healthy adults, daily administration of 50 mg of DHEA has a modest and selective beneficial effect on BMD and bone resorption in women, but provides no bone benefit for men. PMID:18084691

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm −2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm −2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and

  6. Bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.

    PubMed

    Minarich, Laurie A; Kirpich, Alexander; Fiske, Laurie M; Weinstein, David A

    2012-04-05

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of low bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.Methods:A retrospective chart review performed at the University of Florida Glycogen Storage Disease Program included patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib for whom dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis was performed. A Z-score less than -2 SD was considered low. Analysis for association of bone mineral density with age, gender, presence of complications, mean triglyceride and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy, and history of corticosteroid use was performed.Results:In glycogen storage disease Ia, 23/42 patients (55%) had low bone mineral density. Low bone mineral density was associated with other disease complications (P = 0.02) and lower mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (P = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower mean triglyceride concentration in the normal bone mineral density group (P = 0.1).In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib, 8/12 (66.7%) had low bone mineral density. We did not detect an association with duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy (P = 0.68), mean triglyceride level (P = 0.267), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.3), or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P = 0.63) concentration, and there was no evidence that corticosteroid therapy was associated with lower bone mineral density (P = 1).Conclusion:In glycogen storage disease type Ia, bone mineral density is associated with other complications and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. In glycogen storage disease type Ib, bone mineral density was not associated with any covariates analyzed, suggesting multifactorial etiology or reflecting a small sample.Genet Med advance online publication 5 April 2012.

  7. Dietary pseudopurpurin effects on bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  8. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  10. Bone loading during young adulthood predicts bone mineral density in physically active, middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Hinton, Pamela S

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity during growth induces skeletal adaptations that increase bone strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist into middle age. We sought to determine if bone loading during adolescence (ages 13-18 years) or young adulthood (ages 19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of low bone density in adulthood. We also sought to determine if participation in high-impact activities (ie, those that produce a ground reaction force [GRF] > 4 times the individual's body weight] during adolescence and/or young adulthood has a lasting positive effect on adult BMD. Eighty-six, apparently healthy, physically active men (aged 30-60 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone loading during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood were calculated based on GRFs of the reported physical activities. Whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to examine relationships between BMD and bone loading, including body weight and/or age as covariates; logistic regression was used to predict low bone density for age. Participants were grouped based on participation in high-impact activity (never [n = 42], adolescence only [n = 19], or both adolescence and young adulthood [n=23]), and BMDs were compared. Bone loading during young adulthood, but not adolescence, was a significant positive predictor of adult BMD, with the full models explaining 33.4%, 31.7%, 44.6%, and 50.6% of the variance in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD, respectively. Ten participants (11.6%) had low bone density for age based on z scores of the hip or spine. Body weight and lean body mass, but not bone loading, were associated with reduced risk of low bone density for age. Individuals who participated in high-impact activity during both adolescence and young adulthood had greater BMD at all

  11. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  12. [Bone mineralization and mineral status].

    PubMed

    Boivin, Georges

    2003-01-01

    After initial calcification in matrix vesicles or collagen fibrils, bones are continually modified by modelling then remodelling. In bone tissue, the degree of mineralisation of bone structural units is heterogeneous, reflects the rate of bone remodelling, and can be measured using microradiography. Our model is based on the fact that bone remodelling activity and thus the duration of the secondary mineralisation of bone tissue would influence its mineral status (mainly its degree of mineralisation or bone density at tissue level). When the bone remodelling rate increases (menopause, parathyroid hormone), the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue decreases. Conversely, after a diminution of the remodelling rate induced by antiresorptive treatments, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue increases. Strontium ranelate (PROTELOS) has been tested to date as a potential therapeutic agent in patients suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent phase III studies (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] study and the TReatment Of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]) show a decrease in the vertebral and extravertebral fracture risk and an increase in bone mineral density measured at lumbar spine and femoral levels. Strontium ranelate has a unique mechanism of action, since it decreases bone resorption and increases bone formation ('decoupling' agent). Our preliminary observations in animal and man reveal that, because of this dual mechanism of action, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue and the crystal characteristics of bone mineral are maintained at normal levels. More generally, these data indicate that the mineral status of bone tissue should be systematically taken into account during histomorphometric studies of bone.

  13. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone mineral density among male university students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Egami, Isuzu; Wakai, Kenji; Kunitomo, Hirotada; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ando, Masahiko; Nakayama, Toshiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    To investigate associations of lifestyle factors with bone mineral density among young men in Japan, we measured bone mineral density of the second metacarpal bone in 143 male university students, aged 18-22 years, by the computed X-ray densitometry. The subjects completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Their mean+/-standard deviation of bone mineral density was 2.61+/-0.23 mmAl. Body mass index (Spearman's rho=0.232, p=0.006), daily walking time (rho=0.186, p=0.028), and milk consumption at junior (rho=0.250, p=0.003) and senior (rho=0.195, p=0.020) high school were significantly correlated with the bone mineral density. For nutritional variables, the bone mineral density was positively correlated with energy-adjusted intakes of calcium (Pearson's r=0.302, p=0.0002), potassium (r=0.265, p=0.001), saturated fatty acids (r=0.211, p=0.011), and magnesium (r=0.173, p=0.039), and with those of milk and dairy products (r=0.228, p=0.006) and fruits (r=0.205, p=0.014), while being negatively associated with energy-adjusted noodle consumption (r=-0.185, p=0.027). The positive correlation of milk consumption at junior high school with the bone mineral density was not materially altered by adjustment for the body mass index, calcium intake, and walking time. Single-life students had lower bone mineral density compared with those lived with families (p=0.044). Bone mineral density could be increased by modifying dietary habits in young men.

  14. [Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers].

    PubMed

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    2015-09-07

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55,84±7,51. The femoral BMD was 0,94±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,01±0,16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0,99±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,07±0,14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  16. Tibial subchondral bone mineral density: sources of variability and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Boudenot, A; Pallu, S; Toumi, H; Loiseau Peres, S; Dolleans, E; Lespessailles, E

    2013-10-01

    It has been shown that subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) measurement may be a relevant parameter of osteoarthritis (OA) progression. However, factors implicating the reproducibility and contributing to the variability of the measurement have not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the reproducibility of sBMD by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and to further examine its sources of variability. In this study, short-term, intra and inter-observer reproducibility of sBMD was examined on knee images obtained on DXA scans. The influence of software (lumbar spine and forearm modes), knee positioning (flexion or extension), site and size of regions of interest (ROI) and use of rice, on both lateral and medial tibial sBMD, were assessed. Root mean square coefficient of variation (RMS CV) and least significant changes (LSC) were calculated. The short-term precision of sBMD ranged between 2.24% and 5.12% for RMS CV and between 0.053 and 0.135 g/cm(2) for LSC. Good intra-observer precision was found for knee flexion conditions whatever the software used (RMS CV ranging from 0.43 to 1.41%). The reproducibility was dependant from the ROI size (the ROI including joint space exhibiting better precision results than ROI including solely the subchondral plate). For a constant size of the ROI, the precision results were site-dependant. Inter-observer RMS CV results ranged from 0.59 to 5.01% according to ROI and software used. For the specific task of monitoring medial sBMD in the ROI including solely subchondral plate, forearm flexion condition produced the highest intra-observer and short-term precision (respectively RMS CV: 0.45% and 2.77%; LSC: 0.013 and 0.080 g/cm(2)). Taking account into the excellent precision of the sBMD measurements expressed as RMS CV with the protocol proposed in the present study, clinical application of these measurements might be envisaged. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  17. Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Nickols-Richardson, S M; O'Connor, P J; Shapses, S A; Lewis, R D

    1999-06-01

    Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and related factors, in female child artistic gymnasts (n = 9) and their age- (+/-0.3 years), height- (+/-2.8 cm), and weight- (+/-1.7 kg) matched controls (n = 9) were prospectively examined. It was hypothesized that gymnasts would possess higher BMD at baseline, 6, and 12 months later and have greater gains in BMD over 1 year compared with controls. BMD (g/cm2) of the total proximal femur (TPF), Ward's triangle (WT), trochanter (Troch), femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS, L1-L4), and total body (TB) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was measured by a 7-day recall; daily dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated from 3-day records. Serum osteocalcin and urinary pyridinium cross-links were measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Gymnasts versus controls possessed significantly higher BMD at all sites measured. Although not significantly different (p > 0.05), gymnasts compared with controls had moderately larger percentage changes in Troch (% Delta = 8.6 +/- 3.0 vs. 3.8 +/- 5.1%, d = 0.41), FN (% Delta = 6.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.55), LS (% Delta = 7.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.26), and TB BMD (% Delta = 5.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.7%, d = 0.98) as evidenced by the magnitude of the effect sizes (d). Gymnasts versus controls possessed a lower percentage body fat (p < 0.01) and engaged in more hours of very hard activity (p < 0.0001). Calcium, as a percentage of adequate intake, decreased over 12 months (p < 0.01), and urinary cross-links significantly decreased over 6 months in both groups. Female child gymnasts possess higher BMD at the TPF and related sites, LS, and TB compared with nongymnast controls, and 1 year of gymnastics training moderately increases Troch, FN, LS, and TB BMD for gymnasts compared with controls. These findings lend support to the idea that gymnastics training in childhood helps maximize peak BMD.

  18. Peri-acetabular bone mineral density in total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, L.; Dinh, L.; Beaulé, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare peri-acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) between a monoblock acetabular component using a metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing and a modular titanium shell with a polyethylene (PE) insert. The secondary outcome was to measure patient-reported clinical function. Methods A total of 50 patients (25 per group) were randomised to MoM or metal-on-polyethlene (MoP). There were 27 women (11 MoM) and 23 men (14 MoM) with a mean age of 61.6 years (47.7 to 73.2). Measurements of peri-prosthetic acetabular and contralateral hip (covariate) BMD were performed at baseline and at one and two years’ follow-up. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, Harris hip score, and RAND-36 were also completed at these intervals. Results At two years, only zone 1 showed a loss in BMD (-2.5%) in MoM group compared with a gain in the MoP group (+2.2%). Zone 2 showed loss in both groups (-2.2% for MoM; -3.9% for MoP) and zones 3 and 4 a gain in both groups (+0.1% for MoM; +3.3% for MoP). No other between-group differences were detected. When adjusting for BMD of the contralateral hip, no differences in BMD were observed. The only significant differences in functional scores at two years were higher UCLA activity (7.3 (sd 1.2) vs 6.1 (sd 1.5); p = 0.01) and RAND-36 physical function (82.1 (sd 13.0) vs 64.5 (sd 26.4); p = 0.02) for MoM bearings versus MoP. One revision was performed in the MoM group, for aseptic acetabular loosening at 11 months. Conclusions When controlling for systemic BMD, there were no significant differences between MoM and MoP groups in peri-acetabular BMD. However, increasing reports of adverse tissue reactions with large head MoM THR have restricted the use of the monoblock acetabular component to resurfacing only. PMID:23913361

  19. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  20. Calcium phosphate metabolism and bone mineral density with nocturnal hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nigel; Boddington, Janeane; Simmonds, Rosemary; Waldron, Claire; Somerville, Christine; Agar, John

    2006-07-01

    An elevated calcium x phosphate product (Ca x P) is an independent risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. More physiological dialysis in patients undergoing nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) has been shown to produce biochemical advantages compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD) including superior phosphate (P) control. Benefits of dialysate with greater calcium (Ca) concentration are also reported in NHD to prevent Ca depletion and subsequent hyperparathyroidism, but there are concerns that a higher dialysate Ca concentration may contribute to raised serum Ca levels and greater Ca x P and vascular disease. The NHD program at our unit has been established for 4 years, and we retrospectively analyzed Ca and P metabolism in patients undergoing NHD (8-9 h/night, 6 nights/week). Our cohort consists of 11 patients, mean age 49.3 years, who had been on NHD for a minimum of 12 months, mean 34.3 months. Commencement was with low-flux (LF) NHD and 1.5 mmol/L Ca dialysate concentration, with conversion to high-flux (HF) dialyzers after a period (mean duration 18.7 months). We compared predialysis serum albumin, intact parathyroid hormone, P, total corrected Ca, and Ca x P at baseline on CHD, after conversion to LF NHD and during HF NHD. We also prospectively measured bone mineral density (BMD) on all patients entering the NHD program. Bone densitometry (DEXA) scans were performed at baseline (on CHD) and yearly after commencement of NHD. With the introduction of HF dialyzers, the Ca dialysate concentration was concurrently raised to 1.75 mmol/L after demonstration on DEXA scans of worsening osteopenia. Analysis of BMD, for all parameters, revealed a decrease over the first 12 to 24 months (N = 11). When the dialysate Ca bath was increased, the median T and Z scores subsequently increased (data at 3 years, N = 6). The mean predialysis P levels were significantly lower on LF NHD vs. CHD (1.51 vs. 1.77 mmol/L, p = 0.014), while on

  1. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  2. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm(2))], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  3. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  4. Osteoarthritis and bone mineral density: are strong bones bad for joints?

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Sarah A; Dieppe, Paul; Gregson, Celia L; Davey Smith, George; Tobias, Jon H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and disabling joint disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. In OA, pathological changes are seen in all of the joint tissues including bone. Although both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an association between higher bone mineral density (BMD) and OA, suggesting that increased BMD is a risk factor for OA, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. Recently, novel approaches to examining the BMD-OA relationship have included studying the disease in individuals with extreme high bone mass, and analyses searching for genetic variants associated with both BMD variation and OA, suggesting possible pleiotropic effects on bone mass and OA risk. These studies have yielded valuable insights into potentially relevant pathways that might one day be exploited therapeutically. Although animal models have suggested that drugs reducing bone turnover (antiresorptives) may retard OA progression, it remains to be seen whether this approach will prove to be useful in human OA. Identifying individuals with a phenotype of OA predominantly driven by increased bone formation could help improve the overall response to these treatments. This review aims to summarise current knowledge regarding the complex relationship between BMD and OA.

  5. Effect of bone mineral density and amorphous diamond coatings on insertion torque of bone screws.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Arto; Santavirta, Seppo S; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the potential of high-quality amorphous diamond (AD) coatings in reducing the torque and failures of bone screws was studied. Torque values were recorded for 32 stainless steel screws, 2.7 or 3.5 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length. Half of the screw sets were coated with the AD coating before installing in predrilled holes of human cadaveric femoral bone samples. The bone samples were selected from two groups of four persons with mean ages of 34 years (range 25-41 years) and 75 years (range 73-77 years), respectively. The bone mineral density (BMD) values of the samples were determined exactly at the screw insertion site by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In the mechanical tests, insertion and removal torques were measured. BMD had a significant effect on insertion torque; the maximum torque (adjusted with respect to the screw diameter) was significantly higher for the young bone than for the old bone (p < 0.05). By using a polished AD coating, insertion torque was decreased even up to 50% in comparison with the screws without coating. The results suggest that AD coating provides a stable, smooth surface and reduces the risk of screw failures.

  6. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    PubMed

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  8. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  9. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  10. Application of quantitative computed tomography for assessment of trabecular bone mineral density, microarchitecture and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song Shou; Li, Dong; Luo, Yanting; Syed, Younus Saleem; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease, causing increased skeletal fragility characterized by a low bone mass and trabecular microarchitectural deterioration. Assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) is the primary determinant of skeletal fragility. Computed tomography (CT)-based trabecular microarchitectural and mechanical assessments are important methods to evaluate the skeletal strength. In this review, we focus the feasibility of QCT BMD measurement using a calibration phantom or phantomless. The application of QCT could extend the bone mineral density assessment to all patients who underwent a heart, lung, whole-body, and as well as all routine clinical implications of CT scan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations Adequately Reflect Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis?

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Somaye Ansari; Zakeri, Zahra; Fakour, Sirous Risbaf; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2016-10-01

    Periodontitis is the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues. The response of periodontal tissues to local bacteria leads to bone resorption and destruction of periodontal junction. Given the possible association between periodontitis and low bone mineral density, the aim of present study was to find if measurement of salivary biomarkers as a less invasive method, can provide an appropriate screening method for assessment of bone mineral density in patients with chronic periodontitis? A case-control study was conducted on 53 people, including 28 patients with severe chronic periodontitis and 25 healthy people between April 2014 to March 2015 in Zahedan (southeast of Iran). Following Periodontal examination, salivary samples were collected, and the concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate were measured and reported as mg/dl. Bone mineral density of participants was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and reported as gr/cm2. No significant association was found between concentrations of salivary calcium and phosphate levels with bone mineral density in either healthy people or in patients with severe chronic periodontitis, despite a significant bone density reduction (in the femur neck and lumbar spine L2-L4) in the periodontitis group compared to healthy people (P=0.006, and P=0.009 respectively). Concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate do not appear to be good indicators of bone mineral density. Further prospective studies with larger sample size are recommended.

  12. Relationship between Urinary Calcium and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, Khashayar; Maalouf, Naim M; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Moe, Orson W

    2017-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hypercalciuria has been assumed to be pathogenic for bone loss in kidney stone formers, although this association was shown in small cross-sectional studies. We explored the association of urine calcium with bone mineral density in kidney stone formers. We retrospectively studied bone mineral density in kidney stone formers. Excluded were subjects with hypercalcemia, chronic bowel disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis or endogenous creatinine clearance less than 40 ml per minute. We included 250 males and 182 females subdivided into 145 who were estrogen treated and postmenopausal, and 37 who were nonestrogen treated and postmenopausal. We assessed the association of lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density with 24-hour urine calcium on random and restricted diets, and while fasting using univariable and multivariable models adjusting for body mass index, urine sodium and sulfate. On multivariable analysis no significant association was found between urine calcium on a random or a restricted diet, or during fasting conditions and femoral neck or lumbar spine bone mineral density in men and estrogen treated women. In estrogen untreated women lumbar spine bone mineral density inversely correlated with urine calcium on the restricted diet (r = -0.38, p = 0.04 and adjusted r = -0.45, p = 0.02) and in the fasting state (r = -0.42, p = 0.05). Unlike in previous small cross-sectional studies we found no significant relationship between urine calcium and bone mineral density in a large group of calcium kidney stone formers. However, a significant inverse relationship was found in estrogen untreated kidney stone formers only. This study suggests that mechanism(s) other than hypercalciuria explain the lower bone mineral density and the higher fracture risk in patients who are kidney stone formers. It also highlights the role of estrogen on bone

  13. Effect of intravenous pamidronate on bone markers and local bone mineral density in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Muriel S; Oliveri, Beatriz; Mautalen, Carlos A

    2003-10-01

    Bisphosphonates have proven to be effective in patients with fibrous dysplasia of the bone (FD) as shown by their effect on bone pain, markers of bone turnover, or radiological changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of affected bones to assess the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Seven patients (mean age 26 years) received courses of 180 mg intravenous infusion of pamidronate every 6 months (60 mg/day during 3 days). Clinical symptoms, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen were assessed every 3 months. BMD of total skeleton and X-rays of FD areas (FDa) were performed at baseline and at 12 months. BMD of FDa was compared with the contralateral side (CL) using the region of interest program on the total skeleton scan. BMD of total skeleton was normal at baseline. Average BMD of FDa was -11.4% compared with CL, a significantly greater difference than that observed between the left and right sides in healthy controls, -0.7% (P < 0.02). At 12 months bone pain diminished in all patients. Bone turnover markers decreased. Mean total skeleton BMD increased 3.3% (P < 0.02). Subregions of the total skeleton scan presenting FD lesions augmented: arms +9.6% (P < 0.02), legs +4.2%, and pelvis +3.5% (P < 0.05). The increase in mean BMD of FDa was +6.8% compared with +2.6% in CL. No changes were observed on the X-ray. These results indicate that simultaneous determination of markers of bone turnover and BMD of FDa is useful in short-term follow-up to determine the efficacy of intravenous pamidronate.

  14. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  15. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  16. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  17. Relationship between bone turnover biomarkers, mandibular bone mineral density, and systemic skeletal bone mineral density in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Makker, Annu; Singh, Man Mohan; Mishra, Geetanjali; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Jain, Girish Kumar; Jadhav, Satyawan

    2012-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone disorders. Osteoporosis is reported to cause bone loss in the alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible, which provide bony framework for tooth anchorage. However, the association between systemic osteoporosis and oral health remains controversial. Available evidence suggests that Indian women have lower peak bone mass than their Western/other Asian counterparts. The present study evaluated the relationship between mandibular bone mineral density (mBMD), systemic skeletal BMD, and bone metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women. One hundred twenty-four premenopausal and 247 postmenopausal healthy women were included in the study. The BMD of the body of mandible, radius ultradistal, total hip, femur neck, and lateral spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine biomarkers were determined using commercial kits. Univariate regression analysis followed by stepwise multivariate regression analysis to obtain the best fit model demonstrated the BMD of radius ultradistal, serum inorganic phosphorus, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin as significant predictors of mBMD in premenopausal women. The BMD of femur neck, serum ionized calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urine total pyridinoline were significantly associated with mBMD in postmenopausal women. The significant association between mBMD and number of teeth present was observed in the whole group of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Varied predictors of mBMD were observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The results suggest that the screening for these biomarkers and serum ionized calcium should be useful (1) to assess the status of mBMD particularly in women requiring surgical dental intervention that include bone manipulation and (2) for early detection and management of women with the risk of developing osteoporosis.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  19. Association between dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQs) and bone mineral density in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A; Romero, A; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Monteagudo, C; López, G; Lorenzo, Ma L; Ocaña-Peinado, F M; Olea-Serrano, F

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a tight association between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans. The intake of antioxidants may influence Bone Mineral Density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women. A total of 280 women were grouped into three major groups: women aged ≤ 35 years; women aged 36-45, and finally women aged >45 years. Calcaneous Bone Mineral Density (g/cm²) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on the eating habits of each participant were collected with a structured 24-hour diet recall questionnaire. A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was used to calculate antioxidant-nutrient intake. A significant and positive association was observed among Bone Mineral Density and dietary intake of vitamin C and selenium. Zinc intake was significantly related to Bone Mineral Density in the youngest group. Low antioxidant consumers were considered individuals whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was lower or equal than the median (3.5), and high antioxidant consumers were those whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score were higher than 3.5. Bone Mineral Density was higher in the participants defined as high antioxidant consumers in all aged groups. The study showed that there is an association between Bone Mineral Density and the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score in all the women studied. Therefore, new therapies for osteoporosis based on higher dietary antioxidant intakes might be developed basing on the results obtained in this study.

  20. [Bone mineral density in children. Association with musculoskeletal pain and/or joint hypermobility].

    PubMed

    Roberto, Adriana Madureira; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Szejnfeld, Vera; Hilário, Maria Odete E

    2002-01-01

    Joint hypermobility can be associated with benign musculoskeletal pain. The relation between hypermobility and low bone mineral density is still unknown. Osteoporosis can be observed in some genetic syndromes associated with joint hypermobility. The aim of our study was to detect the possible relation between joint hypermobility, benign musculoskeletal pain and bone mineral density in children. Ninety-three children from 5 to 10 years of age were evaluated concerning the presence of joint hypermobility and the presence of musculoskeletal pain based on a questionnaire directed to parents. We also performed densitometry to measure bone mineral density. All children underwent an L2-L4 lumbar bone densitometry. Children were distributed into four groups according to the presence or not of joint hypermobility associated or not with musculoskeletal pain: 29 (31.2%) with hypermobility and pain, 20 (21.5%) with hypermobility and without pain, 22 (23.6%) without hypermobility and with pain and 22 (23.6%) without hypermobility and without pain (control group). Twenty-four children (25.8%) presented reduction in bone mineral density over 10% related to the adequate bone mineral density for age and gender. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in relation to the controls in the following groups: with hypermobility (independently of the presence of pain), with pain (independently of the presence of hypermobility), with hypermobility and without pain and without hypermobility and with pain. Bone mineral density may be lower in children with joint hypermobility (independently of musculoskeletal pain) and in children with pain (independently of hypermobility) when compared to controls.

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Status Among African American Children With Forearm Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Teach, Stephen J.; Singer, Steven A.; Wood, Rachel; Freishtat, Robert; Wright, Joseph L.; McCarter, Robert; Tosi, Laura; Chamberlain, James M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether African American children with forearm fractures have decreased bone mineral density and an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≤20 ng/mL) compared with fracture-free control patients. METHODS: This case-control study in African American children, aged 5 to 9 years, included case patients with forearm fracture and control patients without fracture. Evaluation included measurement of bone mineral density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for associations between fracture status and 2 measures of bone health (bone mineral density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level) while controlling for other potential confounders. RESULTS: The final sample included 76 case and 74 control patients. There were no significant differences between case and control patients in age, gender, parental education level, enrollment season, outdoor play time, height, or mean dietary calcium nutrient density. Cases were more likely than control patients to be overweight (49.3% vs 31.4%, P = .03). Compared with control patients, case patients had lower whole body z scores for bone mineral density (0.62 ± 0.96 vs 0.98 ± 1.09; adjusted odds ratio 0.38 [0.20–0.72]) and were more likely to be vitamin D deficient (47.1% vs 40.8%; adjusted odds ratio 3.46 [1.09–10.94]). CONCLUSIONS: These data support an association of lower bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency with increased odds of forearm fracture among African American children. Because suboptimal childhood bone health also negatively impacts adult bone health, interventions to increase bone mineral density and correct vitamin D deficiency are indicated in this population to provide short-term and long-term benefits. PMID:22926174

  2. Plasma homocysteine, B vitamins and bone mineral density in osteoporosis: a possible risk for bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Ebesunun, M O; Umahoin, K O; Alonge, T O; Adebusoye, L A

    2014-03-01

    Changes in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6 in individuals with osteoporosis are reported to impair collagen cross-linking and contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD). There is paucity of information on these associations in osteoporotic patients at risk of bone fractures in Nigeria. The study evaluated plasma tHcy, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, in relation to BMD in individuals with osteoporosis. Fifty osteoporotic patients age 57.05 +/- 1.9 years were selected and fifty non osteoporotic volunteer's age 54.8 +/- 0.9 years were included as controls. The osteoporotic group consisted of 11 males and 39 females (1:3.5) while the controls consisted of 13 males and 37 females (1:2.8) respectively. Bone mineral density, anthropometric indices plasma tHcy, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, were determined using standard procedures. The results showed remarkably significant increase in plasma tHcy (p < 0.001) (180%) compared with the control value. Striking significant decreases were observed in folic acid (62%), vitamins B12 (42%), B6 (59%) and BMI p < 0.001) compared with control values. Positive correlation was obtained between vitamin B12 and BMD (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Significant increase in tHcy with corresponding decreases in folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6 are related to decrease in BMD in osteoporotic patients. These changes could be important risk factors for bone fracture in osteoporotic Nigerians. Supplementation with the B vitamins may be beneficial to the patients.

  3. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years.

  4. Bone mineral density in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Ozaltin, Fatih; Ozon, Alev; Besbas, Nesrin; Topaloglu, Rezan; Ozen, S; Bakkaloglu, A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), serum and urinary bone turnover parameters in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of serous membranes. Demographic characteristics and MEFV mutations were defined in 48 children diagnosed with FMF (23 F, 25 M; median age 7.0 years (3.0-10.0)). We evaluated the blood counts, acute-phase proteins and serum and urinary bone turnover parameters during attack-free periods. The BMC and BA (bone area) of vertebrae L1-L4 were measured by DEXA. Thirty-eight age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Mean L1-L4 BMC in Group I (patients with two mutations) and II (patients with no or single mutations) were 15.49+/-5.99 g and 15.68+/-4.89 g, respectively, both significantly lower than the mean L1-L4 BMC of control patients, which was 19.59+/-6.7 g (p<0.05). Mean L1-L4 BMD in Group I, Group II and the control group were 0.466+/-0.066 g/cm(2), 0.487+/-0.085 g/cm(2 )and 0.513+/-0.079 g/cm(2), respectively. Mean z-scores in Group I, Group II and the control group were -1.87+/-0.74, -1.55+/-0.92 and -1.39+/-0.84, respectively. Mean L1-L4 BMD and z-score of Group I were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). ESR and SAA (serum amyloid A) levels were higher in Group I patients: 28.3+/-14.5 mm/h and 350+/-62 mg/l in Group I; and 20.5+/-11.7 mm/h and 190+/-68 mg/l in Group II, respectively. In conclusion, FMF patients had lower BMC, BMD and z-scores than a control group. We suggest that decreased BMD, BMC and z-score in FMF patients may be secondary to subclinical inflammation.

  5. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor ... patient's bone mineral density. DEXA machines feature special software that compute and display the bone density measurements ...

  6. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Yu-xin; Zhu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Jian-min; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our meta-analysis was to assess the effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in epileptic children. Searches of PubMed and Web of Science were undertaken to identify studies evaluating the association between antiepileptic drugs and bone mineral density and bone metabolism. A total of 22 studies with 1492 subjects were included in our research. We identified: (1) a reduction in bone mineral density at lumbar spine (standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.61, -0.05]), trochanter (mean difference (MD)=-0.07, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.05]), femoral neck (MD=-0.05, 95% CI [-0.09, -0.02]), and total body bone mineral density (MD=-0.33, 95% CI [-0.51, -0.15]); (2) a reduction in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (MD=-3.37, 95% CI [-5.94, -0.80]) and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (SMD=0.71, 95% CI [0.38, 1.05]); (3) no significant changes in serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, or phosphorus. Our meta-analysis suggests that treatment with antiepileptic drugs may be associated with decreased bone mineral density in epileptic children.

  7. Influence of bone mineral density measurement on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Daswani, Bhavna; Desai, Meena; Mitra, Sumegha; Gavali, Shubhangi; Patil, Anushree; Kukreja, Subhash; Khatkhatay, M Ikram

    2016-03-01

    Fracture risk assessment tool® calculations can be performed with or without addition of bone mineral density; however, the impact of this addition on fracture risk assessment tool® scores has not been studied in Indian women. Given the limited availability and high cost of bone mineral density testing in India, it is important to know the influence of bone mineral density on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. Therefore, our aim was to assess the contribution of bone mineral density in fracture risk assessment tool® outcome in Indian women. Apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women (n = 506), aged 40-72 years, without clinical risk factors for bone disease, were retrospectively selected, and their fracture risk assessment tool® scores calculated with and without bone mineral density were compared. Based on WHO criteria, 30% women were osteoporotic, 42.9% were osteopenic and 27.1% had normal bone mineral density. Fracture risk assessment tool® scores for risk of both major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture significantly increased on including bone mineral density (P < 0.0001). When criteria of National Osteoporosis Foundation, US was applied number of participants eligible for medical therapy increased upon inclusion of bone mineral density, (for major osteoporotic fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 0 and with bone mineral density was 1, P > 0.05, whereas, for hip fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 2 and with bone mineral density was 17, P < 0.0001). Until the establishment of country-specific medication intervention thresholds, bone mineral density should be included while calculating fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Strong familial association of bone mineral density between parents and offspring: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Park, J H; Kim, S H; Shin, S; Park, M J

    2017-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of offspring was significantly associated with their parents' BMD. Parental BMD Z-score ≤-1 was a significant predictor for BMD Z-score ≤-1 in their offspring. Peak bone mass acquisition during early adulthood is more substantially influenced by genetic factors rather than lifestyle or environmental factors.

  9. The relationship between bone mineral density and mammographic density in Korean women: the Healthy Twin study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Stone, Jennifer; Lee, Kayoung

    2011-09-01

    Mammographic density is one of the strong risk factors for breast cancer. A potential mechanism for this association is that cumulative exposure to mammographic density may reflect cumulative exposure to hormones that stimulate cell division in breast stroma and epithelium, which may have corresponding effects on breast cancer development. Bone mineral density (BMD), a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, has been found to be associated with breast cancer. We examined the association between BMD and mammographic density in a Korean population. Study subjects were 730 Korean women selected from the Healthy Twin study. BMD (g/cm(2)) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mammographic density was measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Linear mixed model considering familial correlations and a wide range of covariates was used for analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was completed using SOLAR. In premenopausal women, positive associations existed between absolute dense area and BMD at ribs, pelvis, and legs, and between percent dense area and BMD at pelvis and legs. However, in postmenopausal women, there was no association between BMD at any site and mammographic density measures. An evaluation of additive genetic cross-trait correlation showed that absolute dense area had a weak-positive additive genetic cross-trait correlation with BMD at ribs and spines after full adjustment of covariates. This finding suggests that the association between mammographic density and breast cancer could, at least in part, be attributable to an estrogen-related hormonal mechanism.

  10. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  11. Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Muriel; Ndangang, Marie; Riaudel, Typhaine; de Decker, Laure; Benichou, Jacques; Berrut, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Changes in body composition, including a decrease in muscle and bone mass, accompany aging. Analyse the influence of lean mass on bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women. 37 women were included in this study via an osteoporosis consultation. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methodology (DXA). The BMD was measured at the femoral neck. Each participant had a physical activity test to respond and had to perform handgrip, a four meter walk and one leg balance. Simple regression analyze showed a positive association between lean masse et BMD; after multiple linear regression analysis, we found a positive association between BMD, lean mass, and one leg balance; lean masse and one leg balance were two independent variable. Bone Mineral density was signicantly associated to lean mass and one leg balance.

  12. Hounsfield units for assessing bone mineral density and strength: a tool for osteoporosis management.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Joseph J; Anderson, Paul A; Rosas, Humberto G; Buchholz, Avery L; Au, Anthony G

    2011-06-01

    Measurements obtained from clinical computed tomography examinations may yield information leading to the diagnosis of decreased bone mineral density, without added expense to the patient. The purpose of the present study was to determine if Hounsfield units, a standardized computed tomography attenuation coefficient, correlate with bone mineral density and compressive strength. Twenty-five patients (including eighteen female and seven male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine dual x-ray absorptiometry scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if Hounsfield units correlated with bone mineral density and T-scores. Normative data were generated from lumbar spine computed tomography examinations for eighty consecutive trauma patients and were stratified by age and sex. Separately, polyurethane foam blocks of varying densities were imaged with computed tomography and were subjected to mechanical testing to determine compressive strength. Compressive strength values and Hounsfield units were analyzed for correlation. Significant correlations were found between Hounsfield units and bone mineral density, age, and T-scores and between Hounsfield units and compressive strength (p < 0.001). Hounsfield units obtained from clinical computed tomography scans that are made for other purposes correlate with dual x-ray absorptiometry scores as well as compressive strengths based on osseous models and potentially provide an alternative method for determining regional bone mineral density at no additional cost to the patient. The information could conceivably be applied toward fracture risk assessment, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and early initiation of needed treatment.

  13. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  14. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gulerman, Cavidan

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen is known to affect both mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD), but there are inconsistent results about the association of these density measurements in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, there are scarce data on the relationship between breast density and BMD in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who were never hormone replacement therapy users. A total of 293 postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mammograms and BMD measurements for screening purposes were obtained. Assessment of mammographic breast density was performed by using breast imaging reporting and data system classification. The BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Grade 1 breast density was observed in 64 women (21.8 %), grade 2 in 113 women (38.6 %) and grades 3 and 4 in 116 (39.6 %) women. Breast density decreased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in BMD measures of the hip (p = 0.14) and lumbar spine (p = 0.29) among the breast density categories. After adjusting for age and BMI, the differences in the mean BMD at the hip and lumbar spine across the breast density categories remained insignificant (p = 0.26 and 0.11, respectively). There is no evidence of a relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement therapy.

  15. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  16. Positive relationship between bone mineral density and low back pain in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Takashi; Takasugi, Shin-ichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    There have been a large number of epidemiological studies demonstrating various primary factors that cause musculoskeletal disorders in middle-aged and older women. However, the relationship between low back pain and bone mineral density is not well documented, and no evidence for any direct relationship between the two has been found. To investigate the relationship, we conducted a cross-sectional study, on a population of 2,244 Japanese women aged 25-85 years who were participating in a regional health screening program. Information on lifestyle, reproductive characteristics and the presence of current low back pain was collected by self-administered questionnaires, and bone mineral density at the distal radius was measured. We found increasing bone mineral density to be significantly associated with low back pain in middle-aged women using a logistic regression analysis. Exercise and smoking were also significantly associated with low back pain. This association remained even after entering other lifestyle and reproductive factors into the final model. Accordingly, high bone mineral density would seem to be as important a public health problem as low bone mineral density and osteoporosis when considering the musculoskeletal symptoms and disabilities that appear in middle-aged women.

  17. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  19. Impact of pioglitazone on bone mineral density and bone marrow fat content.

    PubMed

    Pop, L M; Lingvay, I; Yuan, Q; Li, X; Adams-Huet, B; Maalouf, N M

    2017-07-22

    Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of pioglitazone treatment on femoral neck bone marrow (BM) fat content and on bone mineral density (BMD), and to establish if any correlation exists between the changes in these parameters. In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 42 obese volunteers with metabolic syndrome were randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/day) or matching placebo for 1 year. The following measurements were conducted at baseline and during the treatment: liver, pancreas, and femoral neck BM fat content (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy), BMD by DXA, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, and beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Results were available for 37 subjects who completed the baseline and 1-year evaluations. At 12 months, BM fat increased with pioglitazone (absolute change, +4.1%, p = 0.03), whereas BM fat content in the placebo group decreased non-significantly (-3.1%, p = 0.08) (p = 0.007 for the pioglitazone-placebo response difference). Total hip BMD declined in the pioglitazone group (-1.4%) and increased by 0.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.03 between groups). The change in total hip BMD was inversely and significantly correlated with the change in BM fat content (Spearman rho = -0.56, p = 0.01) in the pioglitazone group, but not within the placebo group (rho = -0.29, p = 0.24). Changes in BM fat with pioglitazone were predominantly

  20. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  1. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  2. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  3. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  4. Genetic Determinants of Trabecular and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Densities and Bone Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mellström, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Östen; Grundberg, Elin; Kemp, John P.; Sayers, Adrian; Nethander, Maria; Evans, David M.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Tobias, Jon H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD), not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878) followed by replication (n = 1,052) identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10−14; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10−12; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10−10; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10−9). The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500) followed by replication (n = 1,022) identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10−9). High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729). rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.93) and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735) are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose that a genetic

  5. Assessing Bone Quality in Terms of Bone Mineral Density, Buckling Ratio and Critical Fracture Load

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a sole parameter in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Due to the ease of acquirement of BMD, clinical diagnosis still involves its usage although the limitations of BMD are quite well-established. Therefore, this preliminary study hoped to reduce the errors introduced by BMD alone by incorporating geometric and structural predictors simultaneously to observe if strength was implicitly dependent on the geometry and BMD. Hence, we illustrated the triadic relationship between BMD, buckling ratio (BR) and critical fracture load (Fcr). Methods The geometric predictor was the BR as it involves both the changes in the periosteum and the cortical thickness. Also, structural changes were monitored by finite element (FE) analysis-predicted Fcr. These BR and Fcr measurements were plotted with their respective femoral neck BMD values in elderly female patients (n=6) in a 3-year follow-up study, treated with ibandronate. Results In all the three-dimensional plots (baseline, mid and final year), high Fcr values were found at regions containing high BMD and low BR values. Quantitatively, this was also proven where an averaged highest Fcr across the three years had a relatively higher BMD (46%) and lower BR (19%) than that of the averaged lowest Fcr. The dependence of FE predicted strength on both the geometry and bone density was illustrated. Conclusions We conclude that use of triadic relationships for the evaluation of osteoporosis and hip fractures with the combination of strength, radiology-derived BR and bone density will lay the foundation for more accurate predictions in the future. PMID:25489572

  6. Local calibrated bone mineral density in the mandible presented using a color coding scheme.

    PubMed

    Homolka, P; Beer, A; Birkfellner, W; Gahleitner, A; Nowotny, R; Bergmann, H

    2001-11-01

    Calibrated information on bone mineral density (BMD) may be used in dental implantology to measure "bone quality". It can be used to estimate the expected primary implant stability preoperatively and to guide the surgeon in selecting optimum implant types and operation techniques. Using a preoperative dental computed tomography (Dental-CT) scan, all of this information can be obtained without additional examinations and thus without additional X-ray exposure of the patient. In contrast to bone mineral determination in other body regions, local BMD values are important in the jaw bone. Therefore, a regimen where color-coded information on local bone mineralization is superimposed on Dental-CT images is proposed using the original CT volumes as well as reformatted views.

  7. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  8. Dietary strontium increases bone mineral density in intact zebrafish (Danio rerio): a potential model system for bone research.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Anthony J; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W; Nagy, Tim R; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2010-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model.

  9. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  10. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  11. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Takeaki

    2008-09-01

    This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength.

  12. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-score<0) women. However, Osteocalcin and CTX were higher in women preferring caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle and alcoholic drinks. Body composition and Calcium intake were significantly higher in high-BMD. Low-BMD women reported significantly higher susceptibility and barriers to exercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  13. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  14. Changes in bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and vertebral fracture risk reduction with once weekly teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Shiraki, Masataka

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the surrogacy of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers for incident vertebral fracture using data from 237 patients treated with once weekly 56.5 μg teriparatide or placebo. This analysis was conducted using data from the Teriparatide Once-Weekly Efficacy Research trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for patients with severe osteoporosis in Japan. A total of 237 subjects (placebo group, n = 130; teriparatide group, n = 107) were assessed at baseline and at 72 weeks. Main outcome measures included estimation of the treatment effects of once weekly teriparatide on vertebral fracture risk reduction using percentage changes in lumbar bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. The percentage change in lumbar bone mineral density was 6.69% in the teriparatide group compared with 0.28% in the placebo group (p < 0.01). One incident vertebral fracture occurred in the teriparatide group compared with 16 in the placebo group. The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of the teriparatide group compared with the placebo group were 0.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.56) and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 6.36), respectively. The proportion of treatment effect explained by changes in lumbar bone mineral density was 83% (Freedman's method) and 66% (Chen's method). There were no notable changes in hazard ratios if we adjusted for bone turnover markers. Most of the vertebral fracture risk reduction with once weekly 56.5 μg teriparatide is explained by changes in lumbar bone mineral density rather than changes in bone turnover markers.

  15. Metabolic bone disease and bone mineral density in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Álvarez-Domínguez, Enriqueta; Pérez-Fernández, José M; Moretones-Suñol, Gloria; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Botet-Mussons, Francesc

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in preterm neonates at discharge and identify the optimum cutoff values for serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorus (P) concentrations to diagnose the severity of metabolic bone disease of prematurity. A total of 336 preterm neonates (≤ 31 weeks' gestation and birth weight ≤ 1500 g) were prospectively evaluated for BMD before discharge using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD reference values (at ALP ≤ 500 IU/L) were measured in 279 patients. BMD was classified as poor (<10th percentile) at <0.068 g/cm(2), fair (10th-25th percentile) at 0.068-0.081 g/cm(2), good (25th-75th percentile) at 0.081-0.112 g/cm(2), and very good (>75th percentile) at >0.112 g/cm(2). Increased BMD was associated with a higher birth weight, short duration of parenteral nutrition, and the absence of small for gestational age status, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and other clinical variables. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity was absent (ALP ≤ 500 IU/L) in 279 cases (83.0%), mild (ALP >500 IU/L and P ≥ 4.5 mg/dL) in 46 cases (13.7%), and severe (ALP >500 IU/L and P <4.5 mg/dL) in 11 cases (3.3%). A BMD >0.068 g/cm(2) at discharge indicated a 90.3% probability of not developing metabolic bone disease of prematurity. The factors independently associated with increased BMD included higher birth weight, short duration of parenteral nutrition, absence of intraventricular hemorrhage, exclusive feeding of fortified breast milk, and older age at discharge. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a 'drug holiday' on bone mineral density and bone turnover marker during bisphosphonate therapy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sung Yeol; Kim, Dae Young; Han, Eun Jin; Park, So Young; Yim, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Koo

    2013-05-01

    Recently long-term safety of bisphosphonate raises issues about the duration of therapy. We examined the effects of a drug holiday (DH) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. In Korean, 125 women of 50 years of age or older with T-score≤-3.0 of their lumbar or left femoral BMD initiated bisphosphonate from 1999 based on retrospective chart review. 125 patients who had used bisphosphonate≥5 years started DH in 2006. Lumbar (L1-4), left femoral neck, total BMD, serum parameter (β-crossLaps [CTx], phosphorus, total calcium, total alkaline phosphatase), and urinary parameter (calcium/creatinine ratio) were measured before, the time of starting, and after DH. After DH, lumbar, femoral neck and total BMD did not change significantly (0.757±0.093→0.747±0.102, P=0.135, 0.567±0.079→0.560±0.082, P=0.351, 0.698±0.008→0.691±0.090 g/cm(2), P=0.115, respectively). Serum CTx and total alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly (0.205±0.120→0.791±0.44 ng/mL, P<0.001, 54.52±13.40→60.42±15.543 IU/L, P=0.001, respectively). Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increased significantly (0.132±0.076→0.156±0.093, P=0.012). A DH could be cautiously considered in patients with long-term use of bisphosphonate if there is a concern about severe suppression of bone turnover with respect to long-term use because insignificant changes of BMD and significant increase of bone turnover markers are shown during the period.

  17. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  18. Bone mineral density of skeletal remains: Discordant results between chemical analysis and DXA method.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Boric, Igor; Sliskovic, Livia; Popovic, Marijana; Knezovic, Zlatka; Nikolic, Ivana; Vucinovic, Ana; Vucinovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is a gold standard for bone mineral density measurement and diagnosis of primary and secondary osteoporosis in living persons. DXA is becoming widespread when analysing archaeological material, and is considered to provide an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis in skeletal samples. The aim of this study was to explain the differences in results between bone mineral density (obtained with DXA) and chemical determination of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in skeletal remains. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral content of femoral bone samples exhumed from mass graves of the Second World War. BMD was determined by Hologic QDR 4500 C (S/N 48034) Bone Densitometer. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined with AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) and UV/VIS (Ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study do not support the hypothesis according to which BMD measured by DXA scan has positive correlation with chemically determined concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in bones, especially in acidic soils where there was significant impact of diagenesis observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein intake, weight loss, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Tang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Higher protein diets are promoted for effective weight loss. Striated tissues in omnivorous diets contain high-quality protein, but limited data exist regarding their effects on bone. To examine the effects of energy restriction-induced weight loss with higher protein omnivorous diets versus lower protein vegetarian diets on bone mineral density in overweight postmenopausal women, two randomized controlled feeding studies were conducted. In Study 1, 28 women consumed 750 kcal/day energy deficit diets with 18% energy from protein via lacto-ovo vegetarian sources (normal protein, n = 15) or 30% energy from protein with 40% of protein from lean pork (higher protein, n = 13, omnivorous) for 12 weeks. In Study 2, 54 women consumed their habitual diet (control, n = 11) or 1,250 kcal/day diets with 16% energy from nonmeat protein sources (n = 14) or 26% energy from protein, including chicken (n = 15) or beef (n = 14) for 9 weeks. Study 1: With weight loss (normal protein -11.2%, higher protein -10.1%), bone mineral density was not significantly changed in normal protein (-0.003 ± 0.003 g/cm(2), -0.3%) but decreased in higher protein (-0.0167 ± 0.004 g/cm(2), -1. 4%, group-by-time p < .05). Study 2: The control, nonmeat, chicken, and beef groups lost 1.5%, 7.7%, 10.4%, and 8.1% weight and 0.0%, 0.4%, 1.1%, and 1.4% bone mineral density, respectively. The change of bone mineral density was significant for chicken and beef compared with the control (group-by-time, p < .05). Markers of calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis in blood and urine were not changed over time or differentially affected by diet. Consumption of higher protein omnivorous diets promoted decreased bone mineral density after weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women.

  20. Relationship of Bone Mineralization Density Distribution (BMDD) in Cortical and Cancellous Bone Within the Iliac Crest of Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, D. W.; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P.; Fratzl-Zelman, N.; Fratzl, P.; Silverberg, S. J.; Shane, E.; Cohen, A.; Stein, E.; Nickolas, T. L.; Recker, R. R.; Lappe, J.; Bilezikian, J. P.; Klaushofer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25–48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.CaWidth), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.CaMean). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.CaHigh) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.CaLow). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  1. Milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone mineral density and bone strength in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Takada, Yukihiro; Matsuyama, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yano, Hideo; Toba, Yasuhiro

    2002-11-01

    We investigated the calcium bioavailability of milk calcium, taken with or without cheese. Twenty-four 6-week-old male rats for a meal-feeding experiment were trained to consume an AIN-76 diet within 2 h (2 times per day) for 2 weeks. The rats were then divided into three experimental groups, each fed 2 types of experimental diets: Control group, Cheese group, and Ca-Cheese group. The rats were each alternately given 2 types of experimental diets at 2-h meal-feeding for 31 days. The breaking force and energy of the femur in the Ca-Cheese group were significantly higher than in the control group. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the femur in the Ca-Cheese group was also significantly higher than in the other two groups. These results indicate that milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone strength and BMD efficiently, results that may be useful for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  2. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Volumetric bone mineral density and bone structure in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Foster, Bethany J; Griffin, Lindsay; Strife, C Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L; Jean-Pierre, Darlene K; Leonard, Mary B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased fracture risk and skeletal deformities. The impact of CKD on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical dimensions during growth is unknown. Tibia quantitative computed tomographic scans were obtained in 156 children with CKD [69 stages 2 to 3, 51 stages 4 to 5, and 36 stage 5D (dialysis)] and 831 healthy participants aged 5 to 21 years. Sex-, race-, and age- or tibia length-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular BMD (TrabBMD), cortical BMD (CortBMD), cortical area (CortArea) and endosteal circumference (EndoC). Greater CKD severity was associated with a higher TrabBMD Z-score in younger participants (p < .001) compared with healthy children; this association was attenuated in older participants (interaction p < .001). Mean CortArea Z-score was lower (p < .01) in CKD 4-5 [-0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.80, -0.18)] and CKD 5D (-0.49, 95% CI -0.83, -0.15) compared with healthy children. Among CKD participants, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were positively associated with TrabBMD Z-score (p < .01), and this association was significantly attenuated in older participants (interaction p < .05). Higher levels of PTH and biomarkers of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen) were associated with lower CortBMD and CortArea Z-scores and greater EndoC Z-score (r = 0.18-0.36, all p ≤ .02). CortBMD Z-score was significantly lower in CKD participants with PTH levels above versus below the upper limit of the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) CKD stage-specific target range: -0.46 ± 1.29 versus 0.12 ± 1.14 (p < .01). In summary, childhood CKD and secondary hyperparathyroidism were associated with significant reductions in cortical area and CortBMD and greater TrabBMD in younger children. Future studies are needed to establish the fracture implications of these

  4. The effects of +Gz force on the bone mineral density of fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Naumann, F L; Bennell, K L; Wark, J D

    2001-03-01

    Bone is a metabolically active tissue which responds to high strain loading. The purpose of this study was to examine the bone response to high +Gz force loading generated during high performance flying. The bone response to +Gz force loading was monitored in 10 high performance RAAF pilots and 10 gender-, age-, height-, weight-matched control subjects. The pilots were stationed at the RAAF base at Pearce, Western Australia, all completing the 1-yr flight training course. The pilots flew the Pilatus PC-9 aircraft, routinely sustaining between 2.0 and 6.0 +Gz. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured at baseline and 12 mo, using the Hologic QDR 2000+ bone densitometer. After controlling for change in total body weight and fat mass, the pilots experienced a significant increase in BMD and BMC for thoracic spine, pelvis, and total body, in the magnitude of 11.0%, 4.9%, and 3.7%, respectively. However, no significant changes in bone mineral were observed in the pilots lumbar spine, arms or legs. The control group experienced a significant decrease in pelvic BMC, with no other bone mineral changes observed at any site. These findings suggest that site specific BMD is increased in response to high +Gz forces generated during high performance flying in a PC-9.

  5. Can acetazolamide be used to treat diseases involving increased bone mineral density?

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Juan David; Luis-Yanes, María Isabel; Inglés-Torres, Esther; Arango-Sancho, Pedro; Cabrera-Sevilla, José Eugenio; Duque-Fernández, María Rosario; Gil-Sánchez, Salvador; García-Nieto, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases. PMID:27904825

  6. Jumping exercise preserves bone mineral density and mechanical properties in osteopenic ovariectomized rats even following established osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Okubo, R; Sanada, L S; Castania, V A; Louzada, M J Q; de Paula, F J A; Maffulli, N; Shimano, A C

    2017-04-01

    The effects of jump training on bone structure before and after ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats were investigated. Jumping exercise induced favorable changes in bone mineral density, bone mechanical properties, and bone formation/resorption markers. This exercise is effective to prevent bone loss after ovariectomy even when osteopenia is already established.

  7. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  8. Allelic determinants of vitamin d insufficiency, bone mineral density, and bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Trummer, Olivia; Schwetz, Verena; Walter-Finell, Daniela; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Renner, Wilfried; Gugatschka, Markus; Dobnig, Harald; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Low 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH) vitamin D] status is known to play an important role in many diseases with focus on bone health. Based on recently reported genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency, we aimed to analyze genetic variants of group-specific component (GC), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and cytochrome P450IIR-1 (CYP2R1) for association with vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone fractures. We conducted a cross-sectional BMD and fracture study and a prospective cohort study. The cross-sectional study comprised participants of a BMD screening study, and the prospective cohort study comprised nursing home subjects. The cross-sectional study included 342 subjects (mean age, 55.3 ± 12.0 yr), and the prospective study included 1093 subjects (mean age, 84.0 ± 6.0 yr). Patients were stratified by GC, DHCR7, and CYP2R1 genotypes. For each gene, the allele associated with lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels was designated as "risk allele." The potential role of these risk alleles in fracture risk was analyzed by logistic regression analysis including age and sex as confounders. We measured BMD and fractures. GC genotypes were significantly associated with lower mean 25(OH) vitamin D levels in both cohorts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively). There was no significant association of BMD with any of the genotypes. None of the alleles was associated with past fractures, whereas the DHCR7 G-allele was significantly associated with prospective fractures (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.92; P = 0.011). The DHCR7 gene polymorphism may be a predictor for fracture risk.

  9. Bone mineral density and osteoporosis after preterm birth: the role of early life factors and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Wood, Alexander M; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  10. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  11. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  12. Do metabolic syndrome and its components have an impact on bone mineral density in adolescents?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Valéria Nóbrega; Fiorelli, Luciana Nunes Mosca; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing concern about the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at an early age and its effects on bone mass in adolescents. Adolescence is considered a critical period for bone mass gain. Impaired bone acquisition during this phase can lead to "suboptimal" peak bone mass and increase the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures in old age. The objective of this review was to perform a critical analysis of articles that specifically focus on this age group, evaluating the influence of MetS and its components on bone mineral density in adolescents. A possible relationship between this syndrome and bone mass has been demonstrated, but the number of studies addressing this topic in adolescents is small. Despite the scarcity of evidence, the results of those studies show that Metabolic Syndrome is negatively correlated with bone mass and also that some components of MetS are negatively correlated with bone mineral density in adolescents. However, the associations between MetS and bone mass development need to be further explored in the age group corresponding to adolescence. Further good-quality studies are necessary to complement the understanding of this relationship.

  13. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  14. Bone mineral density and perceived menopausal symptoms: factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sukhee; Song, Rhayun

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between the factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women (i.e. menopausal symptoms, bone mineral density, duration of menopause, hormonal therapy, obesity, inactivity during leisure time, parity, osteoarthritis and drinking coffee). Previous studies have shown that low back pain in postmenopausal women is associated with bone mineral density, menopausal symptoms and lifestyle factors, yet the factors influencing low back pain are not clear and vary with ethnicity. A survey was conducted with postmenopausal women (n = 134) in Korea in 2006. Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, back pain status, menopausal symptoms and health habits were assessed. Participants' mean age was 59 years. About 70% experienced back pain on more than 1 day during the week prior to the survey and 35% suffered back pain daily. Women with back pain reported more severe menopausal symptoms than those without back pain. Based on bone mineral density scores, 26.9% of the women were considered to be at risk of osteoporosis. However, there was no association between back pain status and fracture risk status. Based on a multiple logistic regression model, menopausal symptoms, drinking coffee and inactivity during leisure time were statistically significant influencing factors for low back pain in this sample. The prevalence of low back pain in postmenopausal women should be recognized in association with menopausal symptoms and health habits. Further research is needed to develop interventions for the management of low back pain in postmenopausal women.

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  17. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  18. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  19. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P < 0.05). Water consumption decreased 5.9 times while total fluid consumption increased 1.6-1.9 times in the group consuming cola drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). While we did not detect any pathological oesophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  1. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  2. Bone mineral density evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Adil, Camli; Aydın, Teoman; Taşpınar, Özgür; Kızıltan, Huriye; Eriş, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Poşul, Sevde; Kepekci, Muge; Denizli, Ebru; Güler, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. A consequence of this is chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. We investigated whether there is any difference among DM patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur BMD (bone mineral density), and standard deviation scores (Z score and T score). [Subjects and Methods] This randomized, prospective, controlled, single-blind study was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Faculty of Medicine, Bezm-i Alem Vakıf University. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the patient groups. Healthy individuals were included in the control group. [Results] A total of 126 patients completed the study (63 in the study group, 63 in the control group). There was no significant difference in the results of the laboratory examinations of the cases. The bone mineral densities of the cases were found to be significantly low in terms of the lumbar (L1-4) T scores in the type 2 diabetes group. [Conclusion] Although osteoporosis is one of the potential complications of type 1 diabetes, its effect on bone mineral density in type 2 DM is controversial. In different studies, the bone mineral density values have increased, decreased or remained normal. With the exception of the lumbar (L1-4) T score, similar results were obtained in this study.

  3. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  4. Associations of APOE gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and fracture risk: a meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been studied for its potential role in osteoporosis risk. It is hypothesized that genetic variation at common APOE loci, known as E2, E3, and E4, may modulate bone mineral density (BMD) through its effects on lipoproteins and vitamin K transport. To determine the associa...

  5. Heavy Cannabis Use Is Associated With Low Bone Mineral Density and an Increased Risk of Fractures.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Robertson, Roy; Ferreira, Nuno B; McKenzie, James; Fraser, William D; Ralston, Stuart H

    2017-02-01

    To investigate possible associations between recreational cannabis use and bone health in humans. Cross-sectional study of individuals recruited from primary care in the UK between 2011 and 2013. Cases were regular smokers of cannabis divided into moderate (n = 56) and heavy user (n = 144) subgroups depending on whether they reported fewer or more than 5000 cannabis smoking episodes during their lifetime. Controls comprised 114 cigarette smokers. Heavy cannabis users had lower total hip bone mineral density (mean ± SD Z-score: -0.20 ± 0.9 vs +0.2 ± 0.9, P < .0005), lower spine bone mineral density (-0.5 ± 1.2 vs 0.0 ± 1.2, P < .0005), and lower body mass index (BMI; 26.5 ± 6.0 vs 29.0 ± 7.0, P = .01) than controls. Fracture rate was also increased in heavy users (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.95; P < .001). When compared with controls, serum cross-linked C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) concentrations were raised in heavy cannabis users (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 0.2 ± 0.1 pg/mL, P = .045), as were serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) concentrations (47.1 ± 19.2 vs 41.2 ± 17.8 pg/mL, P = .01). Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were reduced in heavy users compared with controls (25.3 ± 16.8 vs 36.9 ± 26.7 nmol/L, P = .002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that heavy cannabis use was an independent predictor of spine bone mineral density, accounting for 5.4% of the variance (P = .035), and total hip bone mineral density, accounting for 5.8% of the variance (P = .001), but mediation analysis suggested that the effect on spine bone mineral density was indirect and mediated through low body mass index. Heavy cannabis use is associated with low bone mineral density, low BMI, high bone turnover, and an increased risk of fracture. Heavy cannabis use negatively impacts on bone health both directly and indirectly through an effect on BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative investigation of bone mineral density using CT and DEXA in a canine femoral model.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Karin; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; Betancur, Stefanie; Almohallami, Amer; Bouguecha, Anas; Mostafa, Ayman; Lerch, Matthias; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2017-04-07

    Bone density measurements using computed tomography (CT) instead of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are currently of great interest in human and veterinary medical research as it would be beneficial to use CT scans obtained for other indications also for determining bone density. For Hounsfield units (HU) measured with CT in specific regions of interests (ROIs) in one or several slice/s a corrrelation with bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in humans and dogs of between 0.44 and 0.77 is reported in the literature. In the present study instead certain volumes of interest (VOIs) obtained by CT scan and the corresponding HU to the respective VOIs were compared with the bone mineral density of the corresponding areas measured by DEXA. The aim of the study was to investigate whether this procedure gives more accurate information about bone density of the bones as 3-dimensional objects of the respective patient. Correlation between measured HU in the respective VOI and BMD measured with DEXA in the corresponding ROI showed a very good correlation of 0.93. Linear regression with R(2) = 0.85 (p = 0.0262) was calculated. Except for VOI5, similar distribution of values and significant differences (p < 0.0001-0.0087) between ROIs/VOIs were detected. Determining HU for assessing bone mineral density in a certain volume provides more accurate results than those previously reported from 2-dimensional (2D) CT measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  9. Increased fracture risk and low bone mineral density in patients with loeys-dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Offoha, Roosevelt U; Oswald, Gretchen L; Skolasky, Richard L; Dewan, Ashvin K; Zhen, Gehua; Shapiro, Jay R; Dietz, Harry C; Cao, Xu; Sponseller, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a recently recognized connective tissue disorder with widespread systemic involvement. Little is known about its skeletal phenotype. Our goal was to investigate the risk of fracture and incidence of low bone mineral density in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive, survey-based study with subsequent chart review from July 2011 to April 2012. Fifty-seven patients (26 men, 31 women) with Loeys-Dietz syndrome confirmed by genetic testing completed the survey (average age, 25.3 years; range, 0.9-79.6 years). There were a total of 51 fractures (33 patients): 35 fractures in the upper extremities, 14 in the lower extremities, and two in the spine. Fourteen patients (24.6%) reported two or more fractures. There was a 50% risk of fracture by age 14 years. The incidence of any fracture in this cohort was 3.86 per 100 person-years. Seventeen patients had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans available for review, 11 (64.7%) of whom had at least one fracture. Thirteen included lumbar spine absorptiometry reports; eight (61.5%) indicated low or very low bone mineral density. In the left hip, ten of 14 participants (71.4%) had low or very low bone mineral density. In the left femoral neck, nine of 13 participants (69.2%) had low or very low bone mineral density. The lowest Z- and T-scores were not associated with an increased number of fractures. Patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have a high risk of fracture and a high incidence of low bone mineral density.

  10. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  11. Relationship between serum albumin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and in patients with hypoalbuminemia.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Ragno, A; Raejntroph, N; Letizia, C; Acca, M

    1999-06-01

    Some discrepancies exist about the relationship between serum albumin level and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis; moreover, most of the studies available have especially concerned patients with osteoporosis, often associated with fractures. Our study, therefore, aims to investigate the presence of a relationship between serum albumin level and bone mineral density in a group of healthy women (n=650; mean age 59.0 +/- 7.4 years) who voluntarily underwent screening for osteoporosis only because they were menopausal (11.2 +/- 7.4 years since menopause) and, for comparison, in a group of outpatients (n = 44; mean age 57.6 +/- 7.0 years; 9.1 +/- 6.7 years since menopause) with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases. The results show a lack of any relationship in healthy women between serum albumin value and bone mineral density; the lack of correlation was also shown when the postmenopausal women were down into normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic (WHO criteria) or in hypo, normal and hyperalbuminemic. The only significant parameters associated with lower bone mineral density, in fact, were age and years since menopause (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001 respectively at lumbar spine and p<0.02 and p<0.001 at femoral neck level). In the group of patients with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases, on the other hand, a relationship between reduced bone mineral density and hypoalbuminemia was found (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively at lumbar spine and femoral neck). In conclusion, in healthy postmenopausal women the serum albumin level does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of bone density reduction, which is mainly due to the number of years since menopause and advancing age. The hypoalbuminemia may be related to the reduction of bone mass only in the subjects affected by diseases associated with a significant albumin reduction.

  12. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  13. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  14. Anorexia nervosa: hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M T; Argente, J

    2002-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a chronic illness that involves a reduction in caloric intake, loss of weight and amenorrhoea, either primary or secondary. In addition to prolonged amenorrhoea, osteopenia and osteoporosis are the most frequent complications. Patients exhibit an alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which is responsible for the menstrual disorders. The increase in gonadotrophin secretion that can be observed after ponderal recuperation suggests that malnutrition could be the most important mechanism involved in the decrease in gonadotrophin secretion. The loss of fat tissue, as a consequence of the restriction of nutrients, has been associated with hypoleptinaemia, abnormal secretion of peptides implicated in food control (neuropeptide Y, melanocortins and corticotrophin-releasing hormone, among others) and diminution of the amount of total body fat. Despite oestrogen therapy, the severe loss of bone mass may progress. Other factors such as weight loss, duration of amenorrhoea and low insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels could contribute to the loss of bone mass in women with anorexia nervosa. The recuperation of weight and, in particular, the amount of total body fat could lead to the spontaneous recuperation of menstruation. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Badescu, Laurentiu; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Magda; Ciocoiu, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and fat (%Fat) in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA) increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS) dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:23024697

  16. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  17. [Secondary anticoagulant prophylaxis with low molecular heparins or oral anticoagulants and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Przedlacki, J; Hajduk, B; Tomkowski, W; Fijałkowska, A; Ostrowski, K; Torbicki, A

    2000-11-01

    A broad spectrum of indications for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) requires an assessment of side effects especially during prolonged administration. There are common risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and osteoporosis; heparin is "the drug of choice" for VTE treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of treatment and prophylaxis with LMWH (enoxaparine sodium) and oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol) for bone structure. Material consists of in- and outpatients. 49 densitometries were performed in 31 patients (in 15 cases double examination). We observed a decrease of bone mineral density in comparison to the initial examination in most cases: mean change of bone mass for examined areas was 3.05%.

  18. [Evaluation of bone mineral density using digital image processing in children receiving anticonvulsants].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiko; Ueda, Satoru; Umezu, Ryouji; Matsuoka, Hisafumi; Sugihara, Shigetaka

    2007-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) increases rapidly in a biphasic manner in childhood. During and after adolescence, BMD correlates more closely with bone age than chronological age. Digital image processing (DIP) allows the rapid assessment of BMD and bone age on one X-ray film. Herein, using DIP methods, the effects of various anticonvulsants on chronological and bone age were evaluated in 98 epilepsy patients (age range, 3-15 years) with no intellectual or motor disorders or diseases affecting bone metabolism. All patients were taking one or a combination of the following anticonvulsants: valproate sodium (VPA); carbamazepine (CBZ); and phenobarbital (PB). Bone maturation scores for radius-ulnar-short bones (RUS) were calculated using Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods. Bone age was determined based on standard Japanese bone-maturation scores. In each patient, Z-scores for chronological and bone ages were calculated by subtracting standard BMD for gender and age from each BMD, then dividing the result by the standard deviation. The Z-score for each drug in relation to the administration period was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. For chronological age, significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods in children taking multiple drugs, but not in children on VPA, CBZ, or PB monotherapy. For bone age, no significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods for all drugs. Children taking multiple drugs showed a significant negative correlation between administration period and Z-scores for BMD calculated based on chronological age (Spearman rank correlation: - 0.457, p = 0.008), but not bone age. Among children receiving long-term VPA administration, bone age was delayed approximately 1 year, and bone maturation may have been delayed. No delay in bone age was noted among children receiving long-term administration of multiple drugs, suggesting that these anticonvulsants do not influence bone maturity. These

  19. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  20. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  1. [Assessment of lipid profiles and bone mineral density in renal transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Peña Amaro, María Pilar; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael José

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and bone mineral metabolism disturbances are common disorders among renal transplant patients, contributing to the apparition of oxidative metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that threaten the integrity of the graft. Describe and observe the evolution of alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and lipid abnormalities in a population of kidney transplant patients. The samples consisted of 119 kidney transplant patients of both sexes, measurements were performed pretransplant and posttransplant for five years of biochemical parameters, anthropometric measurements and measurement of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femur and radioulnar. During the five years after transplantation a significant increase in biochemical parameters, BMI, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension occurs. At six months there is a high percentage of patients with pathologic BMD increase by 4.1% per year of transplantation. After kidney transplantation, a large increase of hyperlipidemia associated with a characteristic pattern of altered lipid with elevated total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and the resulting increase in triglycerides, occurs despite statin therapy, leading to an increase in risk factors for diabetes, hypertension, diseases and cardiovascualres further loss of bone mass which carries a high risk of serious fractures occurs, threatening kidney graft and quality of life of patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary modifications alone do not improve bone mineral density in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Schwaderer, A L; Srivastava, T; Schueller, L; Cronin, R; Mahan, J D; Hains, D

    2011-11-01

    Prior cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between hypercalciuria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adults. However, the natural history of BMD in children with hypercalciuria and its response to therapy has not been evaluated. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the change over time in lumbar (L1 - L4) BMD Z-score measured on sequential DXA scans in 19 children with hypercalciuria treated with dietary recommendations without (n = 12, Group A) and with citrate (n = 7, Group B). The mean lumbar bone density Z-score/year decreased in Group A (-0.11 ±/0.41) indicating that children with hypercalciuria lose L1 - L4 BMD over time. In contrast, the L1 - L4 BMD Zscore/ year increased in Group B (0.19 ± 0.38) suggesting that pharmacologic therapy may reverse this trend. Similarly 75% of patients in Group A, but only 29% patients in Group B had a decrease in L1 - L4 BMD. There was a definite, although not significant, trend towards improved mean bone mineral density Z-score per year and a lower percentage of patients with a decreased Z-score in hypercalciuric children treated with potassium citrate. Our findings suggest the possibility that dietary recommendations alone is not adequate as the bone mineral density of children with hypercalciuria will decrease over time, potentially increasing the risk for osteoporosis as an adult.

  3. Investigation of the relationship between low environmental exposure to metals and bone mineral density, bone resorption and renal function.

    PubMed

    Callan, A C; Devine, A; Qi, L; Ng, J C; Hinwood, A L

    2015-07-01

    Environmental exposure to metals has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Exposure to cadmium has been associated with decreased bone density, an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture and possible renal dysfunction. Older women are a group at risk of renal and bone density impacts and exposure to metals may be an important risk factor for these health outcomes. This study was a cross sectional study of 77 women aged 50 years and above examining the relationship between metals exposure and renal and bone health. Urinary and blood metals concentrations, plasma creatinine, iron, ferritin and transferrin were measured in these subjects. Bone biomarkers assessed included the pyridinium crosslinks, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline measured by ELISA. Renal function was assessed using eGFR and KIM-1. Whole body, hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density was assessed using DEXA. Blood and urinary metals concentrations were generally low in the subjects, with a median urinary cadmium concentration of 0.26 μg/g creatinine (range <0.065-1.03 μg/g). Urinary cadmium was found to be a significant predictor of bone mineral density at whole body, lumber spine, total hip and femoral neck, with increasing urinary Cd concentrations associated with decreased bone density. Urinary cadmium and aluminium concentrations were positively correlated with bone resorption whilst blood zinc and mercury concentrations were negatively correlated. Urinary aluminium was positively correlated with KIM-1 concentrations, a marker of early kidney damage, however blood zinc concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with this biomarker. This study provides additional support for low cadmium exposure being of concern for the health of older women. Further investigation into the role of exposure to other metals on bone and renal health is warranted.

  4. Timing of low bone mineral density and predictors of bone mineral density trajectory in children on long-term warfarin: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Avila, M L; Pullenayegum, E; Williams, S; Shammas, A; Stimec, J; Sochett, E; Marr, K; Brandão, L R

    2016-04-01

    We studied bone mineral density (BMD) of children exposed to long-term warfarin. BMD Z-scores ≤ -2.0 were estimated to occur in less than one fifth of the patients after 10 years of warfarin exposure, and BMI and growth hormone deficiency predicted BMD changes over time. These predictors can help identify high-risk patients. Children with chronic diseases are at increased risk of developing thrombosis, which may require long-term warfarin therapy. Warfarin could further jeopardize the bone health of a population already at risk for bone fragility. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence and timing of low bone mineral density (BMD) and the predictors that influence BMD trajectory in children receiving warfarin for >1 year. We analyzed the results of an institutional protocol that includes dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with or without spinal X-rays and laboratory biomarkers, as required. Low BMD (age, sex, race, and height-for-age-Z-score adjusted BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0) was detected in 13 % (9/70) of the patients at some point during their follow-up; these patients were more likely to have complex underlying medical conditions and low body mass index (BMI) percentile. BMD Z-scores remained within normal range in 87 % of children. Survival analysis showed that the estimated 10-year abnormal BMD-free rate for the entire group was 81 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 69 to 93 %). Trajectory analysis revealed that BMI percentiles at baseline and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were associated with lower BMD Z-scores at the first assessment, whereas baseline BMI percentile was the only predictor of BMD Z-score over time. Our findings identified BMI and GHD as risk factors influencing BMD in children exposed to long-term warfarin, creating an opportunity for early detection and intervention in these patients.

  5. [Bone mineral density disminution post Roux-Y bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Papapietro, Karin; Massardo, Teresa; Riffo, Andrea; Díaz, Emma; Araya, A Verónica; Adjemian, Daniela; Montesinos, Gustavo; Castro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía bariátrica tiene complicaciones metabólicas importantes como la pérdida de masa ósea. Objetivo: Evaluar la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) posterior a by-pass gástrico en Y de Roux (BPYR) en pacientes con indicación de suplemento estándar de calcio y vitamina D. Método: En pacientes con BPYR por obesidad mórbida, 76 mujeres y 22 hombres de diversa edad, con instrucción nutricional, suplemento de calcio y vitamina D, se midió la DMO en columna lumbar y caderas con densitómetro radiológico de doble haz 2 a 3 años post-cirugía. Veinte mujeres fueron seguidas con DMO hasta 54 meses en promedio. Según criterios de Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), se comparó con población control joven y de su edad según sexo, evaluando osteopenia y osteoporosis. Resultados: Hubo correlación negativa de DMO con edad; positiva de DMO con índice de masa corporal y con exceso de peso preoperatorio. En mujeres menores de 45 años, se observó disminución de DMO en 26,8%, sin casos de osteoporosis y en 65,7% en las mayores de 45 años (p = 0,0011), correspondiendo a 45,7% de osteopenia y 20% de osteoporosis, predominantemente en columna lumbar. El subgrupo de mujeres con mayor seguimiento, presentó disminución progresiva de DMO, especialmente en cadera izquierda. En hombres se observó 36% de osteopenia y 14% de osteoporosis. Conclusión: Pacientes de ambos sexos y diversa edad, despues de un BPYR, presentaron osteopenia y osteoporosis, a pesar de suplemento precoz de calcio y vitamina D. Consideramos importante medir DMO seriada, individualizando terapias y controlando factores de riesgo.

  6. Europium-Doped Gd2O3 Nanotubes Increase Bone Mineral Density in Vivo and Promote Mineralization in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Jin, Yi; Ge, Kun; Jia, Guang; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Xinjian; Chen, Shizhu; Ge, Min; Sun, Wentong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Jinchao

    2017-02-22

    Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs) have been extensively applied in the field of bioscience for their photostability and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the distribution and interaction between Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs and metabolism of bone are not yet sufficiently understood. In this study, a systematic study of the toxicity and distribution of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in mice after oral administration was carried out. The results showed that a small number of the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs could pass through biological barriers into the lung, liver, and spleen, but a high concentration was observed in bone. Furthermore, the effects of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs on bone metabolism were systematically studied in vitro and in vivo when accumulating in bone. After being administered to mice, the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs extremely enhanced the bone mineral density and bone biomechanics. In vitro the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization and promoted the expression of osteogenesis genes in preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1 through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. This study will be significant for appropriate application of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in the biomedical field and expounding the molecular mechanism of bone metabolism.

  7. Increasing fluid milk favorably affects bone mineral density responses to resistance training in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Sharman, Matthew J; French, Duncan N; Rubin, Martyn R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; McGuigan, Michael M; Kraemer, William J

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the effects of increasing milk on bone and body composition responses to resistance training in adolescents. Twenty-eight boys (13 to 17 years of age) were randomly assigned to consume, in addition to their habitual diet, 3 servings/day of 1% fluid milk (n=14) or juice not fortified with calcium (n=14) while engaged in a 12-week resistance-training program. For all subjects combined, there were significant (Pbone mineral content (+3.6%), bone mineral density (+1.8%), and maximal strength in the squat (+43%) and bench press (+23%). Compared with juice, the milk group had a significantly greater increase in bone mineral density (0.014 vs 0.028 g/cm(2)). Increasing intake of milk in physically active adolescent boys may enhance bone health.

  8. The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Botella Martínez, Sonsoles; Varo Cenarruzabeitia, Nerea; Escalada San Martin, Javier; Calleja Canelas, Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice. The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'.

  9. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  10. Cadmium and lead in blood in relation to low bone mineral density and tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Alfvén, Tobias; Järup, Lars; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to cadmium may cause kidney and bone damage. Urinary cadmium is commonly used as the dose estimate for the body burden of cadmium. However, elevated levels of cadmium in the urine may reflect not only high levels of cadmium dose but also renal dysfunction. In this study we used blood cadmium as the dose estimate. In addition, we analyzed blood lead. We examined 479 men and 542 women, ages 16-81 years, who were environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium and lead. We used urinary protein alpha 1-microglobulin as a marker for tubular proteinuria and measured forearm bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between blood cadmium and tubular proteinuria was strong, even when we excluded occupationally exposed participants. The subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels had a 4-fold risk of tubular proteinuria compared to the subgroup with the lowest blood cadmium levels. In the older age group (age > 60), the risk of low bone mineral density (z-score < -1) for the subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels was almost 3-fold compared to the group with lowest blood cadmium levels. We found no similar associations for lead. The observed effects may be caused by higher cadmium exposure in the past. This study strengthens previous evidence that cadmium exposure may affect both bone mineral density and kidney function. PMID:12117647

  11. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [EFFECTS IN BODY COMPOSITION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF SIMULATE ALTITUDE PROGRAM IN TRIATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Campo, Domingo Jesús; Rubio Arias, Jacobo Ángel; Jiménez Diaz, José Fernando

    2015-09-01

    body composition is an important factor to improve athletic performance. Futhermore, bone mineral density informs about the bone stiffness of the skeletal system. the aim of the present research was to analyze modifications on body composition and bone mineral density parameters after a seven week intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) program. eighteen male trained triathletes were divided in two groups: an intermittent hypoxia training group (GIHT: n: 9; 26.0 ± 6.7 years; 173.3 ± 5.9 cm; 66.4 ± 5.9 kg; VO2 max: 59.5 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min) that conducted a normoxic training plus an IHT and a control group (GC: n: 9; 29.3 ± 6.8 years; 174.9 ± 4.6 cm; 59.7 ± 6.8 kg; VO2 max: 58.9 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min) that performed only a normoxic training. Training process was standardized across the two groups. The IHT program consisted on two 60 minutes sessions per week at intensities over the anaerobic threshold and atmospheric conditions between 14.5 and 15% FiO2. Before and after the seven week training, body composition and bone mineral density were analyzed. After this training program, the GIHT showed lower values in free fat mass in upper limbs and fat mass in lower limbs (p < 0.05) than before the program. In terms of bone mineral density variables, between the two groups no changes were found. the addition of an IHT program to normoxic training caused an improvement in body composition parameters compared to similar training under normoxic conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio.

  14. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  15. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-07-01

    Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of parathyroid hormone in bone metabolism and health.

  16. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  17. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore.

    PubMed

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 - 60 years. About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample.

  18. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. Methods: It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 – 60 years. Results: About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. Conclusion: The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample. PMID:26430440

  19. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  20. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  1. Anthropometric and fitness variables associated with bone mineral density and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Ke, Jyh-yuh; Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Chao-jan; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-yu

    2011-05-01

    We investigated anthropometric and fitness variables associated with areal bone mineral densities and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Thirty-four children with cerebral palsy, aged 4-12 years, and 33 normal development children were collected. There were significant differences in femoral bone densities and calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation, but not in lumbar bone densities, between cerebral palsy and normal groups. Regression analysis revealed that different anthropometric and fitness variables were linked to bone densities of different skeletal regions in children with cerebral palsy (adjusted r(2) = .41-.67). Growth variables were mainly related to femoral and lumbar bone densities, while muscular endurance was mainly related to femoral and calcaneus bone densities. These findings suggest multiple complex variables can contribute to bone density variations among different skeleton areas in these children. These data can allow clinicians to identifying early these children at risk for low bone density.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  3. Bone mineral density and body composition in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, A B; Ames, R W; Matthews, R D; Reid, I R

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease characterised by chronic pulmonary sepsis and malnutrition. To ascertain whether osteoporosis is a feature of cystic fibrosis in adult patients, total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in a group of eight men and eight women aged 17-42 years. METHODS--Total body and regional BMD (lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck, trochanteric, and Ward's triangle), as well as total body fat and lean mass, were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. A range of biochemical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables was also assessed. RESULTS--Patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly reduced bone density at all sites compared with normal young adults. The mean reductions ranged from 7% at Ward's triangle to 13% at the trochanter. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with BMD at four sites and disease severity negatively correlated with BMD at two sites. Other biochemical and anthropometric variables were not predictive of bone density. Total body fat mass was reduced by 30% compared with normal young adults. CONCLUSIONS--Bone density is decreased in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and BMI and disease severity are independent predictors of bone density. PMID:8346485

  4. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  5. The Progression of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities After Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vitanza, Nicholas A; Hogan, Laura E; Zhang, Guangxiang; Parker, Robert I

    2015-07-01

    Although reduced bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well documented, the degree of demineralization and relation to age are not well described. This is a retrospective chart analysis of 58 patients consecutively treated for ALL without relapse, cranial irradiation, or transplantation. Bone mineral densities were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and patients were divided by sex and age (≤5, 6 to 10, and >10 y) at diagnosis. Serial scans for 6 years after therapy were analyzed as Z-scores. Over 6 years after therapy, 93.1% of patients exhibited a decreased Z-score in at least 1 anatomic site. The difference in Z-score among the age cohorts was significant at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Patients older than 10 years at diagnosis had the lowest Z-scores: -2.78 and -2.87 for boys and -2.39 and -2.91 for girls at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. Children after ALL therapy exhibit a significant bone mineral deficit shortly after completion of therapy that persists for at least 6 years. The degree of bone demineralization can be followed up by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan and is most severe in patients older than 10 years at the initiation of therapy.

  6. Effect of exercise and bisphosphonate on mineral balance and bone density during 360 day antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Morukov, B V; Oganov, V S; Rakhmanov, A S; Buravkova, L B

    1992-12-01

    As we enter a phase of space exploration that will involve long-duration flights, there is a need to use ground-based models to study the long-term effects of countermeasures to prevent the loss of bone mineral in microgravity. Mineral balances, hormone levels, and bone density were measured for 360 days in nine bed rest subjects treated with an exercise program used by cosmonauts. Four of these subjects received the bisphosphonate, ethane-1-hydroxy-1-disphosphonate, 900 mg daily, a drug known to inhibit bone resorption. Compared to a 120 day control period, the bisphosphonate combined with exercise reduced negative calcium balances by 50% for the first 120 days, 80% for the second 120 days, and 69% during the third 120 days. Exercise alone had no effect until the second 120 day period, when calcium balance improved 52%. Negative phosphorus balances were not affected by either treatment. Magnesium balances were negative during the first 120 days and returned to nearly normal during the last 240 days in both groups. The combined exercise and bisphosphonate treatment prevented increases in serum ionized calcium and decreases in plasma calcitonin during the first 120 days, as well as trends toward decreases in the mineral density of the femoral neck. These results suggest that bisphosphonates can be efficiently used together with exercise to reduce calcium loss and prevent some of the changes in mineral metabolism during long-term simulated microgravity.

  7. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone--relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, J; Töyräs, J; Hakulinen, M A; Saarakkala, S; Jurvelin, J S; Lappalainen, R

    2003-03-21

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  8. Assessment of bone mineral density in the jaws and its relationship to radiomorphometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Gulsahi, A; Paksoy, CS; Ozden, S; Kucuk, NO; Cebeci, ARI; Genc, Y

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate maxillary, mandibular and femoral neck bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine any correlation between the bone mineral density of the jaws and panoramic radiomorphometric indices. Methods 49 edentulous patients (18 males and 31 females) aged between 41 and 78 years (mean age 60.2 ± 11.04) were examined by panoramic radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws and femoral neck was measured with a DXA; bone mineral density was calculated at the anterior, premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible. Results The mean maxillary molar BMD (0.45 g cm−2) was significantly greater than the maxillary anterior and premolar BMD (0.31 g cm−2, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean mandibular anterior and premolar BMD (1.39 g cm−2 and 1.28 g cm−2, respectively) was significantly greater than the mean mandibular molar BMD (1.09 g cm−2, P < 0.01). Although BMD in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were correlated, BMD in all the mandibular regions were highly correlated. Maxillary and mandibular BMD were not correlated with femoral BMD. In addition, mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, mental index (MI) or panoramic mandibular index (PMI) values were not significantly correlated with the maxillary and mandibular BMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions The BMD in this study was highest in the mandibular anterior region and lowest in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions. The BMD of the jaws was not correlated with either femoral BMD or panoramic radiomorphometric indices. PMID:20587652

  9. Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lau, E M; Kwok, T; Woo, J; Ho, S C

    1998-01-01

    To compare the bone mineral density and dietary intake of elderly Chinese vegetarian women with omnivores, to compare the bone mineral density of Chinese 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians', and to study the relationship between nutrient intake and BMD in vegetarians. A cross-sectional survey. A community-based study. The vegetarian women (aged 70-89 y) (n = 76) were non-institutionalized subjects. All of them were Buddhists. Their bone mineral density were compared to normal elderly volunteers (aged 70-89 y) (n = 109) who were recruited to establish normal BMD ranges. Their dietary intake was compared to omnivorous subjects from a previous dietary survey (n = 250). Dietary assessment was by the 24 h recall method, and bone mineral density was measured by dual-X-ray-densitometry. The analysis of co-variance was used to compare the BMD between vegetarians and omnivores, with adjustment for potential confounders. The BMD in 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians' were compared by similar methods. The t-test was used to compare dietary intake between omnivores and vegetarians. The relationship between nutrient intake and BMD was studied by correlation and multiple regression. The dietary calorie, protein and fat intake were much lower, but the sodium/creatinine ratio was much higher in vegetarians than omnivores. The BMD at the spine was similar between vegetarians and omnivores. However, the BMD at the hip was significantly lower in vegetarians at some sites (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in BMD between 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians'. BMD in vegetarians appeared to be positively correlated with energy, protein and calcium intake; and negatively associated with urinary sodium/creatinine levels. There is a relationship between diet and BMD. The BMD at the hip was lower in vegetarians than omnivores, but no difference was observed between 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians'. There is a complex relationship between the intake of various nutrient and BMD in vegetarians.

  10. [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Morales, Beatriz Eugenia; Pérez Campos, Eduardo; Gatica Valdez, Noé

    2004-03-01

    With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause. To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period. A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed. We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD). Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

  11. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (p<0.05 for both). In linear regression analyses, the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores were found to be significant contributors for urinary cortisol level (β=1.008, p=0.035; β=2.296, p=0.014, respectively). The femoral neck areal bone mineral density was found to be significantly higher in subjects who had binge eating disorder compared with those without binge eating disorder (p=0.049). Despite the lack of apparent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  12. Pinealectomy affects bone mineral density and structure - an experimental study in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major public health burden and there is great need for a large animal model. Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, has been shown to influence bone metabolism. This study aims to evaluate whether absence of melatonin due to pinealectomy affects the bone mass, structure and remodeling in an ovine animal model. Methods Female sheep were arranged into four groups: Control, surgically ovariectomized (Ovx), surgically pinealectomized (Px) and Ovx+Px. Before and 6 months after surgery, iliac crest biopsies were harvested and structural parameters were measured using μCT. Markers of bone formation and resorption were determined. To evaluate long term changes after pinealectomy, bone mineral density (BMD) was analyzed at the distal radius at 0, 3, 9, 18 and 30 months. Results Cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) declined after 6 months by -13.3% Px and -21.5% OvxPx. The bone loss was due to increased trabecular separation as well as decreased thickness. The histomorphometric quantification and determination of collagen degradation products showed increased bone resorption following pinealectomy. Ovariectomy alone results in a transient bone loss at the distal radius followed by continuous increase to baseline levels. The bone resorption activity after pinealectomy causes a bone loss which was not transient, since a continuous decrease in BMD was observed until 30 months. Conclusions The changes after pinealectomy in sheep are indicative of bone loss. Overall, these findings suggest that the pineal gland may influence bone metabolism and that pinealectomy can be used to induce bone loss in sheep. PMID:22115044

  13. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players

    PubMed Central

    Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare whole and segmental body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players by playing positions. Forty collegiate American football players voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were categorized by playing positions into one of five categories i.e., defensive linemen, offensive linemen, defensive secondary players, offensive secondary players and receivers. Whole body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Offensive and defensive linemen had higher body mass, a body mass index, lean mass and a fat mass index compared to the remaining three positions and a higher lean mass index compared to offensive secondary players and receivers. Offensive linemen had a higher body fat percentage and lower values of upper to lower lean mass than offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers, and higher total mass to the lean mass ratio and fat mass to the lean mass ratio compared to the other players. Offensive linemen had a higher fat mass index and fat mass to the lean mass ratio than defensive linemen. However, in all other measures they were similar. Offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers were similar with respect to the measured variables. Bone mineral density of the players was within the normal range and no difference in lean mass was observed between the legs. In conclusion, findings of this study showed that the total and segmental body composition profile of collegiate American football players reflected the demands of particular playing positions. PMID:28149373

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Bone Mineral Density of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    WILKIN, LINDA D.; JACKSON, MATTHEW C.; SIMS, TRISTAN D.; HADDOCK, BRYAN L.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1.5 million people suffer a bone disease-related fracture every year. Most work investigating bone mineral density (BMD) focuses on post-menopausal females but a report from the Surgeon General in 2004 stated that of particular concern are men, racial and ethnic minorities, poor individuals, individuals with disabilities, and individuals living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density of young adults and to investigate any correlations with variables suggested to influence BMD. BMD was assessed at a younger age than most studies based on the assumption that osteoporosis is a pediatric disorder that manifests in old age. Whole-body BMD, percent body fat (BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM) of 103 college-aged Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics (18 – 34 years of age) were measured using a Lunar Prodigy Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Blacks and Whites were taller than Hispanics. Blacks had higher BMD than Whites and Hispanics. Blacks and Whites had higher t-scores than Hispanics. Weight and LM correlated with BMD for all three groups. Height correlated with BMD for Blacks only. FM correlated with BMD for Hispanics only. In conclusion, BMD is suggested to be higher in Blacks than Whites and Hispanics. LM is suggested to be an important component of bone health. It is important to stress resistance training for building and maintaining bone health throughout life. PMID:27182348

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Bone Mineral Density of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Linda D; Jackson, Matthew C; Sims, Tristan D; Haddock, Bryan L

    An estimated 1.5 million people suffer a bone disease-related fracture every year. Most work investigating bone mineral density (BMD) focuses on post-menopausal females but a report from the Surgeon General in 2004 stated that of particular concern are men, racial and ethnic minorities, poor individuals, individuals with disabilities, and individuals living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density of young adults and to investigate any correlations with variables suggested to influence BMD. BMD was assessed at a younger age than most studies based on the assumption that osteoporosis is a pediatric disorder that manifests in old age. Whole-body BMD, percent body fat (BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM) of 103 college-aged Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics (18 - 34 years of age) were measured using a Lunar Prodigy Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Blacks and Whites were taller than Hispanics. Blacks had higher BMD than Whites and Hispanics. Blacks and Whites had higher t-scores than Hispanics. Weight and LM correlated with BMD for all three groups. Height correlated with BMD for Blacks only. FM correlated with BMD for Hispanics only. In conclusion, BMD is suggested to be higher in Blacks than Whites and Hispanics. LM is suggested to be an important component of bone health. It is important to stress resistance training for building and maintaining bone health throughout life.

  16. How to determine the bone mineral density of the distal humerus with radiographic tools?

    PubMed

    Clavert, Philippe; Javier, R-M; Charrissoux, J L; Obert, L; Pidhorz, L; Sirveaux, F; Mansat, P; Fabre, T

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three methods of prediction of the bone quality of the distal humerus: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Ct-Scan and plain radiographs. The bone mineral density (BMD) of 21 cadaveric distal humerus was determined using DEXA at two levels. Then a CT-scan and anteroposterior radiographs were taken. The cancellous density was estimated with the CT-scan. The cortico-medullar index (CMI) was calculated as cortical thickness divided by total bone thickness on AP views. A significant positive correlation was found between the BMD of the epiphysis and the CMI of r = 0.61. The mean BMD of the distal humerus was 0.559 g/cm(2). Male specimens showed a significantly higher BMD than females. The mean CMI of diaphysis was 1.431 and the mean BMD of the metaphysis region was 0.444 g/cm(2). More than a direct evaluation of the bone density with a CT-scan, the CMI of the distal humerus diaphysis is a predictor of the bone quality of the distal humerus. This should be of great help for the surgeon's decision making in case of fracture of the distal humerus, as open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) of fractures of the distal humerus can lead to failure due to poor bone quality. Basic Science Study, Anatomic Cadaver Study.

  17. Prior ankle fractures in postmenopausal women are associated with low areal bone mineral density and bone microstructure alterations.

    PubMed

    Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Herrmann, F R; Ferrari, S; Rizzoli, R

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis in postmenopausal women, prior ankle fractures were associated with lower areal bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone alterations compared to no fracture history. Compared to women with forearm fractures, microstructure alterations were of lower magnitude. These data suggest that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility. Whether ankle fractures represent fragility fractures associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and/or bone microstructure alterations remains unclear, in contrast to the well-recognised association between forearm fractures and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate aBMD, vBMD and bone microstructure in postmenopausal women with prior ankle fracture in adulthood, compared with women without prior fracture or with women with prior forearm fractures, considered as typically of osteoporotic origin. In a cross-sectional analysis in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study, 63 women with ankle fracture and 59 with forearm fracture were compared to 433 women without fracture (mean age, 65 ± 1 years). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; distal radius and tibia vBMD and bone microstructure were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Compared with women without fracture, those with ankle fractures had lower aBMD, radius vBMD (-7.9%), trabecular density (-10.7%), number (-7.3%) and thickness (-4.6%) and higher trabecular spacing (+14.5%) (P < 0.05 for all). Tibia trabecular variables were also altered. For 1 standard deviation decrease in total hip aBMD or radius trabecular density, odds ratios for ankle fractures were 2.2 and 1.6, respectively, vs 2.2 and 2.7 for forearm fracture, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to women with forearm fractures, those with ankle fractures had similar spine and hip aBMD, but microstructure alterations of lower magnitude

  18. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  19. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Balakrishnan, Anju; Clark, Richard M; Owen, Kevin Q; Koo, Sung I; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2008-08-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss is a major public health concern. Although drug therapies are available, women are interested in alternative/adjunct therapies to slow down the bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation of l-carnitine can influence bone density and slow the rate of bone turnover in an aging ovariectomized rat model. Eighteen-month-old Fisher-344 female rats were ovariectomized and assigned to two groups: (1) a control group in which rats were fed ad libitum a carnitine-free (-CN) diet (AIN-93M) and (2) another fed the same diet but supplemented with l-carnitine (+CN). At the end of 8 weeks of feeding, animals were sacrificed and bone specimens were collected for measuring bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Femoral microarchitectural properties were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Femoral mRNA levels of selected bone matrix proteins were determined by northern blot analysis. Data showed that tibial BMD was significantly higher in the rat fed the +CN diet than those fed the -CN (control) diet. Dietary carnitine significantly decreased the mRNA level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an indicator of bone resorption by 72.8%, and decreased the mRNA abundance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type-1 (COL), measures of bone formation by 63.6% and 61.2%, respectively. The findings suggest that carnitine supplementation slows bone loss and improves bone microstructural properties by decreasing bone turnover.

  20. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  1. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  2. A Review of the Effect of Anticonvulsant Medications on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard H.; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and seizure disorders are common diagnoses in older adults and often occur concomitantly. Objective The goal of this review was to discuss the current hypothesis for the pathogenesis of anticonvulsant-induced bone density loss and the evidence regarding the risk for osteoporosis and fractures in older individuals. Methods A review of the literature was performed, searching in MEDLINE and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and October 2009 with the following search terms: anticonvulsant OR antiepileptic; AND osteoporosis OR bone density OR fracture OR absorptiometry, photon. Studies within the pediatric population, cross-sectional studies, and studies whose results were published in a language other than English were excluded. Results A search of the published literature yielded >300 results, of which 24 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this review. Hepatic enzyme induction by certain anticonvulsant medications appears to contribute to increased metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to inactive metabolites, which results in metabolic bone disease. There is increasing evidence that anticonvulsant use is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis and clinical fractures, especially among older agents such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate. Several observational studies suggest a class effect among anticonvulsant agents, associated with clinically significant reductions in bone mineral density and fracture risk. The use of anticonvulsant medications increases the odds of fracture by 1.2 to 2.4 times. However, only 2 large-scale observational studies have specifically examined the risk among those aged >65 years. This review also identified a randomized controlled trial whose results suggest that supplementation with high-dose vitamin D may be associated with increased bone mineral density in patients taking anticonvulsant medications. However, no randomized controlled trials

  3. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  4. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Ranjanomennahary, P; Ghalila, S Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A; Rachidi, M; Benhamou, Cl; Chappard, C

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (Dapp) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV(Arch)) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 microm of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV(Arch). Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  5. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  6. In vitro osteoclastogenesis from Gaucher patients' cells correlates with bone mineral density but not with Chitotriosidase.

    PubMed

    Bondar, C; Mucci, J; Crivaro, A; Ormazabal, M; Ceci, R; Oliveri, B; González, D; Rozenfeld, P

    2017-10-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations on the gene encoding for the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Type I GD (GD1) patients present anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone alterations. In spite of treatment, bone alterations in GD patients persist, including poor bone mineral density (BMD). Mechanisms leading to bone damage are not completely understood, but previous reports suggest that osteoclasts are involved. Chitotriosidase (CHIT) is the most reliable biomarker used in the follow up of patients, although its correlation with bone status is unknown. The aim of this work was to study the pro-osteoclastogenic potential in patients and to evaluate its correlation with CHIT activity levels and clinical parameters. PBMCs from treated patients and healthy controls were cultured in the presence of M-CSF, and mature osteoclasts were counted. BMD, blood CHIT activity and serum levels of CTX, BAP, and cytokines were evaluated in patients. We found that blood CHIT activity and osteoclast differentiation were significantly increased in patients, but no correlation between them was observed. Interestingly, osteoclast numbers but not CHIT, presented a negative correlation with BMD expressed as Z-score. CTX, BAP and serum cytokines involved in bone remodeling were found altered in GD1 patients. These results show for the first time a correlation between osteoclast differentiation and BMD in GD1 patients, supporting the involvement of osteoclasts in the bone pathology of GD1. Our results also suggest that an altered immune response may play an important role in bone damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in HIV-infected Youth.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Allison Ross; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Rosebush, Julia C; Ruff, Joshua H; Chahroudi, Ann; Labbato, Danielle; Daniels, Julie E; Uribe-Leitz, Monika; Tangpricha, Vin; McComsey, Grace A

    2017-09-11

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant co-morbidity in HIV. However, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation on bone health in this population are limited. This study investigates changes in bone health parameters after 12 months of supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating changes in bone parameters with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in HIV-infected youth 8-25 years old with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 ng/mL. Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and 12 months. One hundred and two subjects enrolled. Over 12 months, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased with all doses, but the high dose (i.e. 120,000 IU/monthly) maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations in an optimal range (≥30 ng/mL or ≥20 ng/mL) throughout the study period for more subjects (85% and 93%, respectively) compared to either the moderate (54% and 88%, respectively) or standard dose (63% and 80%, respectively). All dosing groups showed some improvement in BMD; however, only the high-dose arm showed significant decreases in bone turnover markers for both procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (-3.7 ng/mL; P=0.001) and Β-CrossLaps (-0.13 ng/mL; P=0.0005). High dose vitamin D supplementation (120,000 IU/month) given over 12 months decreases bone turnover markers in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency, which may represent an early, beneficial effect on bone health. High vitamin D doses are needed to maintain optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

  8. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  9. Maternal beef and postweaning herring diets increase bone mineral density and strength in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Olausson, Hanna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nookaew, Intawat; Khoomrung, Sakda; Andersson, Louise; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Holmäng, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    The maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the long-term health of the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal and postweaning crossover isocaloric diets based on fish or meat affect the geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties of bone in mouse offspring in adulthood. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. After weaning, half of the pups in each group were fed the same diet as their dams, and half were fed the other diet. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body and lumbar spine were measured in the offspring by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 21 weeks of age. At 22-26 weeks, tibia bone geometry (length, cortical volumetric (v) BMD, BMC, area and thickness) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and the biomechanical properties of the tibia were analyzed by the three-point bending test. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 was analyzed at 12 weeks. In comparison to the maternal herring diet, the maternal beef diet increased aBMD and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine of adult offspring, as well as cortical vBMD, BMC, bone area, and thickness at the mid-diaphyseal region of the tibia and the biomechanical properties of tibia strength. In contrast, a postweaning beef diet decreased aBMD in the lumbar spine and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine compared with a postweaning herring diet, which instead increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. The change from a maternal beef diet before weaning to a herring diet after weaning decreased body weight and increased the cortical area, vBMD, BMC, thickness, and strength of the tibia. These significant crossover effects indicate that a preweaning maternal beef diet and a postweaning herring diet are optimal for increasing BMC and bone strength in offspring in adulthood.

  10. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  11. Variation of the mineral density in cortical bone may serve to keep strain amplitudes within a physiological range.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W C; van Ruijven, L J; Brugman, P; Langenbach, G E J

    2013-08-01

    Within-bone variation in mineral density could be functional. A heterogeneous mineral-density distribution might serve to maintain habitual amplitudes of bone strain within a non-harmful, i.e., physiological range. Regions of a bone that would be strained the most on the basis of architecture alone might have a higher mineral density to make them more stiff and resistant to strain. We hypothesised that the cortical bone of the rabbit mandible contains such a functional distribution of mineral density. We thereby expected similar mineral-density patterns in the mandibles of different individuals due to the shared masticatory function. Secondly, we hypothesised that the highest mineral densities occur in mandibular regions predicted to be exposed to the largest amplitudes of strain-when taking into account bone architecture only. Mineral-density maps of the cortical bone of rabbit mandibles were obtained using micro-computed tomography (μCT). The μCT scans of two rabbits were converted into finite-element models (FEMs). To predict mandibular deformation during biting, these models were loaded by muscle forces and reaction forces. The forces acted on the condyles and on either the incisal or molar bite point. The FEMs were assigned a homogeneous material stiffness to calculate the strain amplitudes that would occur when only the architecture of the mandibular bone would be of influence. We found the cortical bone-mineral density patterns to be similar in all six mandibles. The mineral density of the corpus was higher than that of the ramus. A second consistent feature of the mandibular mineral-density distribution was that the medial ridge of the temporal-muscle insertion groove contained more mineral than its surrounding regions. The strain amplitudes calculated with the FEMs were variable and did not feature clear corpo-ramal differences. However, specific mandibular bone sites calculated to be exposed to the largest amplitudes of strain, including the medial

  12. Relationship of focal erosions, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Maurizio; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frediani, Bruno; Iagnocco, Annamaria; LA Montagna, Giovanni; Minisola, Giovanni; Caminiti, Maurizio; Varenna, Massimo; Adami, Silvano

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship among focal bone erosions and bone mineral density (BMD), 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 1191 RA patients (1014 women, 177 men, mean age 58.9 ± 11.1 yrs) participating in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Radiographic evidence of typical bony erosions on hands or forefeet was found in 64.1% of patients. In those with bone erosions as compared to those without, mean BMD Z score values were significantly lower at both the spine (-0.74 ± 1.19 vs -0.46 ± 1.31; p = 0.05) and the hip (-0.72 ± 1.07 vs -0.15 ± 1.23; p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients not taking vitamin D supplements, PTH levels were significantly higher in those with erosive arthritis (25.9 ± 14.0 vs 23.1 ± 11.6 pg/ml; p = 0.01); whereas the 25OHD concentrations were very similar in the 2 groups. The mean differences for BMD and PTH among the erosive and nonerosive RA remained statistically significant when values were simultaneously adjusted for all disease and mineral metabolism factors (i.e., age, sex, menopause, disease duration, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire, activities of daily living, Steinbrocker functional state, glucocorticoid therapy, body weight, and bisphosphonate treatment). Our results suggest that the presence of bone erosions in RA correlates with low BMD levels and high PTH levels, and that these associations are independent of the degree of functional impairment and other common determinants of bone mass and mineral metabolism in adults with RA. These findings suggest that treatments to prevent bone loss or suppress PTH levels might positively affect the progression of bone erosions in RA.

  13. Reference data for bone mineral density in Swedish women using digital x-ray radiometry.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Bo; Bodin, Lennart; Rask, Eva; Schvarcz, Erik; Möller, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, digital X-ray radiometry (DXR) has been used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the metacarpal bones. The aim of this study was to establish Swedish reference material for bone mass in women, measured in the metacarpal bones with DXR, and compare these data with the data from the manufacturer. A sample of 1440 women aged 20-79yr living in Örebro County was randomly assigned from the population register. Microdose mammography was used (Sectra MDM L30; Sectra Imtec AB, Linköping, Sweden) to measure BMD. Cole's LMS method was used to calculate DXR. Six hundred sixty-nine (48.3%) women participated. Peak bone mass occurred at the age of 43.4yr with a BMD of 0.597g/cm(2) (standard deviation: 0.050). Our Swedish data correlated well with the manufacturer's material. Only among women aged 50-59yr did BMD differ, where the Swedish sample had lower values. The LMS method can be used to describe the DXR data and provide a more detailed picture of bone density distribution. DXR-BMD in Swedish women aged 20-79yr is equivalent to findings from other studies, showing the same distribution of BMD in most age groups except for ages 50-59yr. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Compressive axial mechanical properties of rat bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and micro-ct based mineral density.

    PubMed

    Cory, Esther; Nazarian, Ara; Entezari, Vahid; Vartanians, Vartan; Müller, Ralph; Snyder, Brian D

    2010-03-22

    Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. With recent advances in computing power of personal computers, virtual alternatives to mechanical testing are gaining acceptance and use. We have previously introduced such a technique called structural rigidity analysis to assess mechanical strength of skeletal tissue with defects. The application of this technique is predicated upon the use of relationships defining the strength of bone as a function of its density for a given loading mode. We are to apply this technique in rat models to assess their compressive skeletal response subjected to a host of biological and pharmaceutical stimulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing axial compressive mechanical properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone as a function of equivalent bone mineral density, bone volume fraction or apparent density over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and partially nephrectomized animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial compression to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 71-78% of the mechanical properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone based on equivalent mineral density, bone volume fraction or apparent density over a wide range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity analysis introduced by the authors to provide a non-invasive method to assess the compressive strength of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options.

  15. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels.

  16. Effects of estrogen deficiency and low bone mineral density on healthy knee cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Santos; Largo, Raquel; Calvo, Emilio; Bellido, Miriam; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of estrogen deficiency and bone mass loss on normal knee cartilage in mature rabbits. Bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 13 rabbits, 6 of which also received systemic glucocorticoid for 4 weeks. Seven additional healthy rabbits were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar spine, knee, and subchondral bone of the knee at baseline and 22 weeks after OVX. After sacrifice, the knees were dissected, macroscopy was assessed, and histological cartilage abnormalities were evaluated according to the Mankin score. Correlations of Mankin with BMD at different regions were also performed. When compared to baseline, differences in BMD were only found in spine and knee of the animals receiving glucocorticoids. All the animals subjected to OVX had a significantly higher Mankin score than controls. Mankin was upper in OVX animals receiving glucocorticoids, but differences were not significant. The Mankin score was inversely related with BMD in lumbar spine (r = -0.67; p < 0.01). Although low bone mineral density contributes to the minor osteoarthritic alterations observed in our model, estrogen deficiency itself seems to act directly to induce the main pathogenic effects in healthy cartilage of the rabbit.

  17. Higher Serum Insulin Concentrations Positively Influence the Bone Mineral Density in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ambika P; Alvarez, Jessica; Huisingh, Carrie; Casazza, Krista; Gower, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental stage of increased insulin resistance that also is a critical period for bone mass accrual. Historically, African Americans (AA) have lesser risk for osteoporotic fractures compared to European Americans (EA). AA also have higher incidence of insulin resistance. The possibility that bone health and insulin secretion or concentrations are linked has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the associations of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) with insulin sensitivity and secretion in healthy adolescent girls and healthy female adults and to evaluate ethnic differences in these associations. Observational cohort design. University of Alabama at Birmingham, between January 2010 and September 2011. Healthy, female, non-smoking adolescents and young adults (14-55 years) were enrolled in this observational cohort study. Adolescents had significantly higher fasting insulin (P=0.0002), insulin area under the curve [AUC] (P= 0.0004) and lower insulin sensitivity (P=0.0005) compared to adults. Among adolescents, AA race was significantly associated with BMD (β=0.086, P=0.01) and BMAD (β=0.0075, P=0.002); however, adjusting for insulin AUC explained this difference. Insulin AUC (β=0.0006, P=0.029) and fasting insulin (β=0.0005, P=0.01) were positively associated with BMAD only in AA adolescents. Insulin AUC and fasting insulin were not significant predictors of BMD for adults. The higher insulin concentration among AA adolescents is associated with increased BMD and higher BMAD.

  18. Bone mineral density and hip axis length in Singapore's multiracial population.

    PubMed

    Goh, James C H; Low, Siew Leng; Das De, Shamal; DasDe, Shamal

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic differences in bone density and hip geometry are known to exist, even within the same population. A recent study in Singapore showed that there were significant racial differences in hip fracture rates, with Chinese having the highest incidence of hip fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) and hip axis length in Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. A total of 1575 women aged 20-59 yr were recruited, of which 77.6% (1222) were Chinese, 7.7% (122) Malays, and 14.7% (231) Indians. There was no significant difference in peak BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck among the three ethnic groups. However, in the older age group (50-59 yr), both Chinese and Malay women had significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to Indian women. There was no significant loss in BMD of the lumbar spine between the second and fifth decades in all the three races. Between the second and fifth decade, Chinese and Malay women had significant bone loss in the femoral neck of 6.6% and 8.2%, respectively, whereas Indian women did not show any significant bone loss. Chinese women had significantly longer hip axis length compared to either Malay or Indian women (9.87 +/- 0.52 cm vs 9.67 +/- 0.49 cm; p < 0.005; and 9.69 +/- 0.55 cm, p < 0.05, respectively). The initial findings suggest racial differences in bone density and hip geometry exist in the local community. Future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies to determine the age-related bone loss in these three racial groups. It is also important to investigate the differences of spine and hip fracture rates and their relationship with bone density and hip axis length.

  19. Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorban-Sabbagh, Mahin; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadi-Simab, Saeedeh; Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal. Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed. Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass. Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment. PMID:27689105

  20. Creatine monohydrate increases bone mineral density in young Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Antolic, Anamaria; Roy, Brian D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Wohl, Gregory R; Shaughnessy, Stephen G; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M

    2007-05-01

    Creatine kinase, found in osteoblasts, is an enzyme that is upregulated in response to interventions that enhance bone mass accretion. Creatine monohydrate supplementation can increase fat-free mass in young healthy men and women and can reduce markers of bone breakdown in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation with creatine monohydrate on bone structure and function in growing rats, to establish a therapeutic model. Creatine monohydrate (2% w.w.) (CR; N = 16) or standard rat chow (CON; N = 16) was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at 5 wk of age, for 8 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of the protocol. The rats were sacrificed, and one femur was removed for the determination of mechanical properties. The CR-treated rats showed greater lumbar BMD and femoral bending load at failure compared with the CON rats (P < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that creatine monohydrate potentially has a beneficial influence on bone function and structure; further investigation is warranted into its effect on bone functional properties and its effects in disorders associated with bone loss.

  1. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens.

  2. The role of Dkk1 in bone mass regulation: correlating serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Butler, Joseph S; Murray, David W; Hurson, Conor J; O'Brien, Julie; Doran, Peter P; O'Byrne, John M

    2011-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a major signaling cascade in bone biology, playing a key role in regulating bone development and remodeling, with aberrations in signaling resulting in disturbances in bone mass. The objectives of our study were to correlate serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density (BMD) and assess the potential role of Dkk1 as a serological marker of bone mass. Serum was collected from a cohort of patients (n = 36), 18 patients with a reduced BMD and 18 control patients. Serum Dkk1 expression as quantified by ELISA was correlated with lumbar and femoral t- and z-scores. Serum Dkk1 concentration in the osteoporosis group was significantly higher than control group (941 ± 116 vs. 558 ± 47 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Serum Dkk1 expression was highly correlated with bone mass variables with inverse associations found between serum Dkk1 expression and lumbar t-score (r = -0.34, p = 0.00433), lumbar z-score (r = -0.22, p = 0.1907), femur t-score (r = -0.42, p = 0.0101), and femur z-score (r = -0.43, p = 0.0089). Our data further emphasizes the pivotal role played by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone mass regulation. Dkk1, a powerful antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, may have a role to play as a serological marker for disorders of bone mass, warranting further evaluation.

  3. Estrogen Deficiency Increases Variability of Tissue Mineral Density of Alveolar Bone Surrounding Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Matthew S.; Hong, Semi; Lee, Hye Ri; Fields, Henry W.; Johnston, William M.; Kim, Do-Gyoon

    2010-01-01

    Objective Estrogen deficiency increases bone remodeling leading to increased variability of tissue mineral density (TMD). Due to the functional demands of mastication, alveolar bone around teeth is inherently a highly remodeled region of bone tissue with a highly variable distribution of TMD. This study investigated the effect of estrogen deficiency on the TMD distribution of alveolar bone. Design Using three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of sham surgery (Sham) and ovariectomized (OVX) rat mandible sections, alveolar bone region (AB) and control bone region (CB) of interest were isolated. Based on histograms of gray levels equivalent to TMD values, mean (Mean), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (COV=SD/Mean) were computed. Fifth and 95th percentile gray level values were also obtained (Low5 and High5, respectively). Absolute value of percentage (%) differences of the gray level parameters between AB and CB regions were computed. Results Both SD and COV were significantly higher in AB region than those in CB region for all specimens of both Sham and OVX groups (p<0.001). The mean values of % differences for SD were moderately higher (p<0.073) and those for COV and Low5 were significantly higher for the OVX group than for the Sham group (p<0.04). Conclusions Higher variability of mineralization observed in AB of OVX group indicates that estrogen deficiency amplifies the active bone remodeling of AB already present due to mastication. These findings provide an insight that the increased variability of TMD induced by estrogen deficiency may compromise the mechanical stability of the tooth-bearing alveolar bone. PMID:20541742

  4. Influence of nutrition and lifestyle on bone mineral density in children from adoptive and biological families.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Selma; Baric, Irena Colic; Satalic, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena; Bobic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The precise contributions of hereditary and environmental factors to bone density are not known. We compared lifestyle predictors of bone density among adopted and biological children. The study comprised 18 adopted children (mean [SD] age, 14.0 [4.1] years) with their non-biological parents and 17 children with their biological parents. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) was measured at the lumbar spine, total femur, and distal radius. Nutritional intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Information on smoking and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients, corrected for energy intake, and all lifestyle characteristics except sleep duration were similar in biological children and their parents. As compared with their parents, adopted children had significantly different energy, protein, and calcium intakes and physical activity levels. In a regression model, BMD z scores of adopted children and their parents were significantly inversely associated at the spine and total femur, whereas BMD z scores of biological children and their parents were significantly positively associated at all measurement sites. The greatest proportion of total variance in BMD was accounted for by calcium intake among adopted children and by parental BMD among biological children. For some lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes, the differences between parents and children were more obvious among adoptive families than among biological families. The most important lifestyle predictor of bone density was calcium intake.

  5. Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density among haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; de la Rosa, Rafael José Esteban

    2009-03-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a serious problem for patients with chronic kidney disease. Measurements of bone mineral density, T-score and Z-score were taken in the lumbar region and femur of 73 patients who were being treated on the haemodialysis programme. These measurements were compared with the anthropometric values of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) obtaining a positive correlation between them. Alterations in the bone mineral metabolism are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among haemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Bone mass diminution, together with fracture risk, is a frequent finding in these patients; this fact is explained by different factors, amongst which are those related to their anthropometric values. Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied, T-score and Z-score measurements were taken in the neck of the femur, trochanter, intertrochanter, 1/3 of proximal femur, Ward's triangle and L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae; body composition was also studied. With this aim, DXA densitometry was used on 73 haemodialysis patients (40 men and 33 women). The mean of the total haemodialysis time in these patients was 9.7 years. The group showed a very significant positive correlation between BMD, weight, height, BMI, fractures, dialysis time and intact PTH. CKD patients undergoing the haemodialysis programme show a significant BMD reduction, which affects both lumbar spine and femur. Weight and height affect BMD and bone change, being thus important factors of prediction for fracture risk. Furthermore, BMI is the main determinant of BMD, a finding that is confirmed in the units in this study and with the evidence described by other authors (Negri et al. (2005).

  6. Is bone mineral density advantage maintained long-term in previous weight lifters?

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M K; Johnell, O; Obrant, K J

    1995-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was done in order to ascertain whether there is a lifelong beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) of early, long-lasting, and intense physical exercise. Forty-eight male ex-weight lifters, mean age 64 years (range 50-79) participated. They had followed a training program of an average of 10 hours/week (range 4-20) for an average of 13 years (range 1-34). They had all retired from competitive sport an average of 30 years (range 7-50) ago. Sixty-six age-matched volunteers served as controls. The bone mineral density (BMD, areal density, g/cm2) in the total body, spine, and hips and the fat content and lean body mass were measured with the LUNAR DPX bone mass scanner. In ex-weight lifters 50-64 years of age, the BMD was greater than in controls. After 65 years, no difference was found between the former weight lifters and their controls.

  7. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p < 0.01). This correlation appeared to be more clearly observed in the subgroup with a high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  8. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  9. Lean body mass and leg power best predict bone mineral density in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Witzke, K A; Snow, C M

    1999-11-01

    We evaluated anthropometric and performance measures that best predict bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in 54 adolescent girls (14.6 +/- 0.5 yr; 22.7 +/- 14.0 months past menarche). Whole body, femoral neck, greater trochanter, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and mid-femoral shaft BMD and BMC, and whole body bone-free lean mass and fat mass were assessed using DXA (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Knee extensor strength and leg power were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry and the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test, respectively. Whole body lean mass was correlated with BMD at all bone sites (r = 0.45-0.77; P < 0.001) and was more highly correlated with bone at all sites than was body weight. Leg power was also associated with BMD at all sites (r = 0.41-0.67; P < 0.001), whereas leg strength correlated significantly with all sites (r = 0.41-0.53; P < 0.001) except the lumbar spine. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that 59% of the variance in whole body BMD was predicted by lean mass alone. No other variables, including fat mass, height, months past menarche, leg power, or leg strength, contributed additionally to the regression model. Similarly, lean mass was the only predictor of lumbar spine and femoral shaft BMD (R2 = 0.25, R2 = 0.37, respectively), while femoral neck and trochanteric BMD were best predicted by leg power (R2 = 0.38, R2 = 0.36, respectively). Similar but stronger models emerged using BMC as the outcome, with lean mass and leg power explaining the most variance in BMC values. In this group of adolescent girls, lean body mass and leg power best predicted BMC and BMD of the whole body, lumbar spine, femoral shaft, and hip, which may suggest an important role for muscle mass development during growth to maximize peak bone density.

  10. Determinants of bone mineral density in young Australian women; results from the Safe-D study.

    PubMed

    Callegari, E T; Garland, S M; Gorelik, A; Wark, J D

    2017-06-28

    The study aimed to explore determinants of bone parameters in young women. Most bone parameters were associated with height and lean mass. Bone parameters were not associated with vitamin D status. Future research should address whether interventions aimed at improving lean mass are beneficial to bone health in young women. The implementation of prevention strategies during young adulthood may be crucial for osteoporosis prevention in later life, yet literature examining the determinants of bone health in premenopausal women is limited. We aimed to assess determinants of bone health, including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), in females aged 16-25 years, living in Victoria, Australia, recruited through Facebook advertising. Serum 25OHD was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and bone health was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in 326 participants. Mean (± standard deviation) serum 25OHD was 69 ± 28 nmol/L and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD <50 nmol/L) was 26%. Seven percent of participants (n = 23) reported taking a vitamin D supplement. Two percent of participants had low lumbar spine bone mineral density (Z-score <-2.0), 5% at the hip and 7% at the femoral neck. Serum 25OHD levels were not associated with DXA bone parameters, nor with pQCT bone parameters. Most bone parameters were positively associated with height and lean mass. Vitamin D status was not associated with bone health in young women in the current study. Our findings suggest that targeting other modifiable factors, such as lean body mass, is likely to be beneficial to bone health in young women. Longitudinal studies examining the association between vitamin D status and bone health in young women are necessary to confirm our findings. In addition, whether raising 25OHD levels is advantageous for young women's bone health is yet to be determined.

  11. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  12. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  13. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  14. Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, L T; Nguyen, P L T; Le, T T T; Doan, T A T; Tran, N T; Le, T A; Nguyen, T V

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition. Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women. One hundred and five Mahayana Buddhist nuns and 105 omnivorous women (average age = 62, range = 50-85) were randomly sampled from monasteries in Ho Chi Minh City and invited to participate in the study. By religious rule, the nuns do not eat meat or seafood (i.e., vegans). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). Lean mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass were also obtained from the DXA whole body scan. Dietary calcium and protein intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. There was no significant difference between vegans and omnivores in LSBMD (0.74 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2); mean +/- SD; P = 0.18), FNBMD (0.62 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 g/cm(2); P = 0.35), WBBMD (0.88 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.12 g/cm(2); P = 0.31), lean mass (32 +/- 5 vs. 33 +/- 4 kg; P = 0.47), and fat mass (19 +/- 5 vs. 19 +/- 5 kg; P = 0.77) either before or after adjusting for age. The prevalence of osteoporosis (T scores < or = -2.5) at the femoral neck in vegans and omnivores was 17.1% and 14.3% (P = 0.57), respectively. The median intake of dietary calcium was lower in vegans compared to omnivores (330 +/- 205 vs. 682 +/- 417 mg/day, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between dietary calcium and BMD. Further analysis suggested that whole body BMD, but not lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD, was positively correlated with the ratio of animal protein to vegetable protein. These

  15. Is antipsychotic treatment linked to low bone mineral density and osteoporosis? A review of the evidence and the clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Matthieu P K; Howes, Oliver D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis is increasingly common worldwide and there is growing concern that the long-term use of antipsychotic medications increases the risk of this disorder. In this review we consider whether antipsychotics may contribute to the development of osteoporosis through reductions in bone mineral density (BMD), discuss the possible mechanisms involved and consider the clinical implications of such a relationship. Methods We searched the literature for studies in this area published between 1966 and 2010 using the Medline and PubMed databases and the following search terms: (schizophrenia OR antipsychotic OR neuroleptic) AND (osteoporosis OR hyperprolactinaemia OR bone mineral density). Results The available data indicates that statistically significant reductions in bone mineral density are frequently seen in patients prescribed antipsychotic medications and suggests that there is a higher incidence of clinically significant reductions compared with the normal population. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware for the potential negative effects of antipsychotic medications on bone mineral density, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for osteoporosis. Recommendations regarding routine monitoring of bone mineral density for patients prescribed antipsychotic medications cannot be made on the basis of existing evidence and more research is required. Is antipsychotic treatment linked to low bone mineral density and osteoporosis? A review of the evidence and the clinical implications PMID:22228316

  16. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    PubMed

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index <40) in this cross-sectional study. In order to examine the association of serum adipokine levels with RMR and BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight <20 kcal/24 h/kg were more obese (p < 0.05). Another noteworthy finding was that participants with lower RMR/kg demonstrated higher total BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, other adipokines such as vaspin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and ANGPL6 did not affect the relationship between RMR and BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by

  17. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  18. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  19. Automated, foot-bone registration using subdivision-embedded atlases for spatial mapping of bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Commean, Paul K; Hildebolt, Charles; Sinacore, Dave; Prior, Fred; Carson, James P; Kakadiaris, Ioannis; Ju, Tao

    2013-06-01

    We present an atlas-based registration method for bones segmented from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, with the goal of mapping their interior bone mineral densities (BMDs) volumetrically. We introduce a new type of deformable atlas, called subdivision-embedded atlas, which consists of a control grid represented as a tetrahedral subdivision mesh and a template bone surface embedded within the grid. Compared to a typical lattice-based deformation grid, the subdivision control grid possesses a relatively small degree of freedom tailored to the shape of the bone, which allows efficient fitting onto subjects. Compared with previous subdivision atlases, the novelty of our atlas lies in the addition of the embedded template surface, which further increases the accuracy of the fitting. Using this new atlas representation, we developed an efficient and fully automated pipeline for registering atlases of 12 tarsal and metatarsal bones to a segmented QCT scan of a human foot. Our evaluation shows that the mapping of BMD enabled by the registration is consistent for bones in repeated scans, and the regional BMD automatically computed from the mapping is not significantly different from expert annotations. The results suggest that our improved subdivision-based registration method is a reliable, efficient way to replace manual labor for measuring regional BMD in foot bones in QCT scans.

  20. Can Hip Fracture Prediction in Women be Estimated beyond Bone Mineral Density Measurement Alone?

    PubMed Central

    Geusens, Piet; van Geel, Tineke; van den Bergh, Joop

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hip fractures is multifactorial and includes bone and fall-related factors. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD-related and BMD-independent geometric components of bone strength, evaluated by hip strength analysis (HSA) and finite element analysis analyses on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and ultrasound parameters are related to the presence and incidence of hip fracture. In addition, clinical risk factors contribute to the risk of hip fractures, independent of BMD. They are included in the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) case finding algorithm to estimate in the individual patient the 10-year risk of hip fracture, with and without BMD. Fall risks are not included in FRAX, but are included in other case finding tools, such as the Garvan algorithm, to predict the 5- and 10-year hip fracture risk. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors, markers of bone resorption and genetic background have been related to hip fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic worldwide and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] predict hip fracture risk. In the context of hip fracture prevention calculation of absolute fracture risk using clinical risks, BMD, bone geometry and fall-related risks is feasible, but needs further refinement by integrating bone and fall-related risk factors into a single case finding algorithm for clinical use. PMID:22870438

  1. Association of bone mineral density with polymorphism of the human calcium-sensing receptor locus.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, K; Orimo, H; Hosoi, T; Miyao, M; Ota, N; Nakajima, T; Yoshida, H; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Emi, M

    2000-03-01

    A strong correlation between bone mass and genetic factors has been shown in twins and family studies. Some of the genes involved would regulate bone metabolism, bone formation, and resorption, all processes that determine bone mass. One candidate genes, calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) in the parathyroid gland, regulates calcium homeostasis by sensing decreases in extracellular calcium level and effecting an increase in secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium (Ca) reabsorption in the kidney. We have investigated a possible association between the CA-repeat polymorphism at the human CASR gene locus and the bone mineral density (BMD) of radial bone in 472 postmenopausal Japanese women. Genotypes were classified into nine groups according to the number of CA repeats present, from 20 to 12. BMD was expressed as the adjusted BMD, which was the body mass index (BMI), and age-adjusted average BMD. The 247 women who had an A3 allele (228 bp, containing 18 repeats of CA) had significantly lower adjusted BMD (mean +/- SD: 0.303 +/- 0.059 versus 0.316 +/- 0.063 g/cm(2); P = 0.0308) than the participants (n = 201) who did not carry an allele of that size. This result suggests that genetic variation at the CASR gene locus is associated with some determinants for BMD in postmenopausal women.

  2. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  3. Lack of biochemical hypogonadism in elderly Arab males with low bone mineral density disease.

    PubMed

    Al Attia, Haider M; Jaysundaram, Krishnasamy; Saraj, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the relationship between androgen levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Arab males. Forty-five elderly Arab males underwent Dual X-ray absorptiometry for measurement of BMD. The outcomes were defined as per WHO description. Assays for testosterone (T), gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and estradiol (E2), in the serum were carried out. The ratio of T/LH was used as a surrogate for the cFT assay. We excluded patients receiving hormonal ablation for prostatic neoplasm and patients with chronic liver or renal disease and patients receiving corticosteroids. Twelve were osteoporotic (26.5%); 22 osteopenic (49%); and 11(24.5%) had normal outcome. Osteoporotic patients were significantly older (78.17 +/- 7.59 years) than the osteopenic (70.14 +/- 5.92, P bone density that appears to be independent of androgen levels. Osteoporotics were significantly older than those with osteopenia or normal bone density. Aging seemed to have overridden the effect of normal sex hormones on bone density in these patients. Before considering these results as a possible exception to the widely established role of the hypoandrogenemia in male osteoporosis, other potential factors impacting on bone density need to be considered.

  4. [Changes in bone mineral density of postmenopausal women in relation to the menstrual cycle length].

    PubMed

    Enchev, E; Dimitrakova, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between the age of menarche, the length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding and fracture risk in the postmenopausal period. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle length and lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. We investigated three groups of postmenopausal women (each - n = 50). The first group included women with menstrual duration of 27 days during reproductive age, the second group included postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 28 days during the reproductive age, and the third group consisted of postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 30 days during reproductive age. The average age of women was 58.80 +/- 0.94 y. in the first group, 60.36 +/- 5.12 y. in the second group and -61.84 +/- 0.80 y. in the third group. Age, age of menarche, number of childbirths, length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding, and lumbar bone density were assessed and registered for each woman. We used DXA in a anterior-posterior projection to assess the bone density of the lumbar spine; the obtained results are shown in gram/cm2. The women from the third group, with average menstrual cycle length of 30 days, reach menopause at a significantly later age, have longer menstrual cycle and shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density, compared to the other two groups. The data from our research show that women with anamnesis for average normal menstrual cycle length of 30 days reach menopausal period at a significantly later age, have shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density compared to those with shorter menstrual cycle duration (27 and 28 days).

  5. Influence of electromagnetic fields and protective effect of CAPE on bone mineral density in rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Cicek, Ekrem; Cerci, Sevim Sureyya; Cerci, Celal; Oral, Baha; Koyu, Ahmet

    2006-10-01

    Most mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz or 1800 MHz. An electromagnetic field has some biological effects on the behavior of the cell population of bone. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the radiation emitted by mobile phones on bone mineral density (BMD). The effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the radiation-induced changes were also investigated. In the study, 48 Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into five groups as follows: control, irradiated with 900 MHz, irradiated with 900 MHz and treatment, irradiated with 1800 MHz, irradiated with 1800 MHz and treatment groups. The rats in the control group (first group) were left within the experimental setup during 30 min/day for 28 days without radiation exposure. Nine hundred-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both second and third groups for 28 days (30 min/day); 1800-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both fourth and fifth groups for 28 days (30 min/day). Third and fifth groups were also treated by CAPE for 28 days. Treatment groups received 10 microml/kg/day CAPE i.p. before the irradiation. Bone mineral densities were determined in all groups. BMD was found to be decreased in the irradiated groups and to be increased in the treatment groups. The changes were not significant (p >0.05).

  6. Copper deficit as a potential pathogenic factor of reduced bone mineral density and severe tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Sierpinska, T; Konstantynowicz, J; Orywal, K; Golebiewska, M; Szmitkowski, M

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated if men and women with severe tooth wear were at increased risk of general bone loss. Enamel biopsies obtained from 50 subjects aged 47.5 ± 5 years showed decreased copper content, which was associated with reduced spine bone mineral density, suggesting deficits of this trace element contributing to bone demineralization, enamel attrition, and deteriorated quality of mineralized tissues. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between enamel trace minerals and bone mineral density (BMD) in severe tooth wear. We hypothesized that similar factors contributed to both the excessive abrasion of dental enamel and reduced BMD in subjects with tooth wear. Fifty patients aged 47.5 ± 5 years with severe tooth wear and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers with normal dental status were studied regarding dietary intakes of trace elements, serum and salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) concentrations, and serum PTH, osteocalcin, and hydroxyvitamin D levels. Tooth wear was determined using clinical examination based on standard protocol according to Smith and Knight. In all subjects, acid biopsies of the maxillary central incisors were carried out to assess mineral composition of the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to measure Ca and Zn, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze Cu content. BMD was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tooth wear patients had reduced lumbar spine, but not femoral, BMD relative to controls (p < 0.001). No differences were found in enamel Ca concentration and Zn content was slightly higher in tooth wear patients than in controls whereas Cu content was significantly decreased in the patients: 19.59 ± 16.4 vs 36.86 ± 26.1 μg/l (p = 0.01) despite similar levels of Cu in serum and saliva. The differences were independent of serum 25-OH-D, osteocalcin concentrations or PTH

  7. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, P<0.001), 2.5% higher at the lumbar spine (0.022 g/cm2, P<0.001), and 1.9% lower at the distal radius (0.007 g/cm2, P=0.002). In women with continuous exposure the multivariable adjusted risk of hip fracture was slightly reduced (risk ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.96, P=0.028) as was the risk of vertebral fracture (0.73, 0.55 to 0.97, P=0.033). There was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of wrist fracture (1.32, 1.00 to 1.71, P=0.051) and no difference in risk of humerus fracture (0.85, 0.58 to 1.23, P=0.378). Conclusions Long term exposure to fluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  8. Quantification of the relative contribution of estrogen to bone mineral density in men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study quantified the relative contributions of estrogen (E2) and total testosterone (TT) to variation in bone mineral density in men and women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study which involved 200 men and 415 women aged 18 to 89 years. BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) was measured by DXA. Serum levels of E2 and TT were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. The association between E2, TT, and BMD was analyzed by the multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age and BMI. The contribution of each hormone to the variation in BMD was quantified by the bootstrap method. Results In women, higher serum levels of E2, but not TT, were significantly associated with greater BMD at the FN (P = 0.001) and LS (P < 0.0001). In men, higher serum levels of E2 were independently associated with greater FNBMD (P = 0.008) and LSBMD (P = 0.086). In the multiple linear regression model, age, body weight and E2 accounted for 50-55% variance in FNBMD, and 25% (in men) and 48% (in women) variance in LSBMD. Variation in E2 accounted for 2.5% (95% CI 0.4 - 7.8%) and 11.3% (95% CI 8.1 - 15.3%) variation in FNBMD in men and women, respectively. Moreover, E2 contributed 1.2% (95% CI 0.1 - 5.8%) and 11.7% (95% CI 8.5 - 15.9%) variation in LSBMD in men and women, respectively. Conclusions Estrogen is more important than testosterone in the determination of age-related bone mineral density men and women of Vietnamese background. However, the relative contributions of estrogen to bone mineral density in men are likely modest. PMID:24364861

  9. Prevalence of bone mineral density testing and osteoporosis management following low- and high-energy fractures.

    PubMed

    Angthong, Chayanin; Rodjanawijitkul, Santi; Samart, Supawat; Angthong, Wirana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of post-fracture bone mineral density (BMD) testing and osteoporosis treatment in patients admitted to the orthopedic department for low-energy or high-energy fractures and to identify factors affecting prevalence of post-fracture BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment. A total of 265 patients aged 45 years or older admitted with low-energy or high-energy fractures were reviewed between January 2010 and May 2011. Information regarding age, gender, fracture site and history of post-fracture BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment, including data reporting experiences of attending orthopedists (young: <10, senior: >10 years of experience) were recorded. Of the 265 patients (175 female, 90 male), 259 (97.7%) patients had low-energy fractures and 6 (2.3%) suffered high-energy fractures. Of 259 low-energy fractures, 99 (38.2%) underwent BMD testing and had mean total T-scores of -2.04±1.01 (proximal-femur) and -2.12±1.27 (lumbar-spine). Only one high-energy fracture patient (16.7%) underwent BMD testing, with a T-score of -1.1 (proximal-femur) and -2.7 (lumbar-spine). Eighty-six (32.5%) patients (85 low-energy fractures; 1 high-energy fracture) with diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis from BMD testing were treated with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates. Bone mineral density testing was significantly higher in low-energy fracture patients who were treated by a young orthopedist, a common fracture site (proximal-femur, distal-radius, vertebrae) or were female (p<0.05). Bone mineral density investigation and treatment rates are currently suboptimal. The current gap in adequate care necessitates multidisciplinary intervention in order to lessen the incidence of future fractures, particularly in patients over the age of 45.

  10. Comparison of calibrated and uncalibrated bone mineral density by CT to DEXA in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyabara, Y; Holmes, D; Camp, J; Miller, V M; Kearns, A E

    2012-08-01

    Coronary artery disease and osteoporosis increase in women after menopause. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the heart used to evaluate coronary arterial calcification include images of the thoracic vertebrae. The utility of using these images to assess bone health in women remains to be defined. Analyses of thoracic spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) from CT scans of the heart were performed to determine how specific calibration affects the ability to assess vBMD in recently menopausal women and to evaluate how vBMD relates to areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Women (n = 111) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic underwent a CT scan of the heart that included calibration phantoms and a DEXA of the lumbar spine. The Spine Cancer Assessment program was used to determine vBMD of thoracic vertebrae with and without the calibration correction. Trabecular bone vBMD at T8 averaged 163.57±28.58 and 157.94±27.55 mg/cc (mean±standard deviation, SD) for calibrated and uncalibrated values, respectively. The relationship between calibrated and uncalibrated measures approached unity (R = 0.98). Lumbar spine (L2-4) aBMD was 1.19±0.16 g/cm(2) (mean±SD). Both calibrated and uncalibrated thoracic vBMD correlated positively and significantly with lumbar aBMD, but the relationship was less than unity (R = 0.63). Uncalibrated measures of thoracic spine vBMD obtained from CT scans of the heart may provide clinically relevant information about bone health and osteoporosis/osteopenia risk in recently menopausal women.

  11. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density by Computed Tomography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157

  12. Possible role of lymphocytes in glucocorticoid-induced increase in trabecular bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Grahnemo, Louise; Jochems, Caroline; Andersson, Annica; Engdahl, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Claes; Islander, Ulrika; Carlsten, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids is associated with osteoporosis. Many of the treated patients are postmenopausal women, who even without treatment have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lymphocytes have been shown to play a role in postmenopausal and arthritis-induced osteoporosis, and they are targeted by glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind effects of glucocorticoids on bone during health and menopause, focusing on lymphocytes. Female C57BL/6 or SCID mice were therefore sham-operated or ovariectomized and 2 weeks later treatment with dexamethasone (dex), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen, or vehicle was started and continued for 2.5 weeks. At the termination of experiments, femurs were phenotyped using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution micro-computed tomography, and markers of bone turnover were analyzed in serum. T and B lymphocyte populations in bone marrow and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dex-treated C57BL/6 mice had increased trabecular bone mineral density, but lower cortical content and thickness compared with vehicle-treated mice. The dex-treated mice also had lower levels of bone turnover markers and markedly decreased numbers of spleen T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, these effects could not be repeated when mice were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. In addition, dex did not increase trabecular bone in ovariectomized SCID mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes. In contrast to most literature, the results from this study indicate that treatment with dex increased trabecular bone density, which may indicate that this effect is associated with corticosteroid-induced alterations of the lymphocyte populations. PMID:25359897

  13. Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Miyahara, Tatsuro; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Seto, Hikaru; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2003-01-01

    The effects of berberine in senescence accelerated mice P6 (SAMP6) were investigated to learn whether the alkaloid affects bone mineral density (BMD). Oral administration of berberine (10 mg/kg/d) to male and female mice for 22 weeks resulted in an increase in BMD in both sexes. A decreased concentration of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) in urine was only observed in female mice. There was no effect on body or tibia weight or on the concentration of procollagen type I carboxyterminal extension peptide (PICP) in serum.

  14. Lower Serum Creatinine Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Subjects without Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Choi, Soo In; Lim, Jung Soo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Lee, Mi Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with deterioration of bone mineral density. Because serum creatinine can serve as a marker of muscle mass, we evaluated the relationship between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in an older population with normal renal function. Methods Data from a total of 8,648 participants (4,573 men and 4,075 postmenopausal women) aged 45–95 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010). Bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut points of serum creatinine for sarcopenia were below 0.88 mg/dl in men and 0.75 mg/dl in women. Subjects were divided into two groups: low creatinine and upper normal creatinine according to the cut point value of serum creatinine for sarcopenia. Results In partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, serum creatinine was positively associated with both BMD and ASM. Subjects with low serum creatinine were at a higher risk for low BMD (T-score ≤ –1.0) at the femur neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, and at the total hip and lumbar spine in women after adjustment for confounding factors. Each standard deviation increase in serum creatinine was significantly associated with reduction in the likelihood of low BMD at the total hip and lumbar spine in both sexes (men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.74−0.96] at the total hip, OR = 0.8 [95% CI = 0.68−0.96] at the lumbar spine; women: OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.73–0.95] at the total hip, OR=0.81 [95% CI = 0.67–0.99] at the lumbar spine). Conclusions Serum creatinine reflected muscle mass, and low serum creatinine was independently associated with low bone mineral density in subjects with normal kidney function. PMID:26207750

  15. Bone mineral density is decreased in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pooled mean difference (MD) of BMD at each site and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. The between-study heterogeneity of effect size was quantified using the Q statistic and I (2). Data were extracted from four observational studies involving 680 subjects. At lumbar spine (L2-L4), BMD is significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.01, P value = 0.003, I (2) = 0%) (Fig. 1). At femoral neck, BMD is not significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of 0.01 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.01, P value = 0.23, I (2) = 0%) (Fig. 2). In this meta-analysis, we observe that BMD at lumbar spine is decreased in FMS compared with normal individuals. Patients with FMS should be assessed for risk of osteoporosis. Fig. 1 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, for patients with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. CI-confidence interval Fig. 2 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the femoral neck, for patients with and without

  16. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  17. Bone mineral density in adolescents with eating disorders exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer; Sy, Alice; Johnson, Natasha; Findlay, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective chart review was used to collect data from adolescents seen in a specialized eating disorder program over an 11-year period in order to investigate any association between exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and bone mineral density (BMD). SSRI users were matched with controls based on age (within 1.5 years), gender, eating disorder diagnosis, and percent ideal body weight (within 5%), resulting in a sample of 31 pairs. SSRI users had significantly lower BMD z-scores, compared to controls (-1.094 vs. -0.516, p < .035), suggesting that exposure to SSRIs may be a risk factor for lowered BMD.

  18. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Ayatollahi, Sayed Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children. PMID:26401143

  19. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  20. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  1. Bone mineral density response to long-term bisphosphonate therapy in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Parisi, M S; Oliveri, M B; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare disease related to a genetic mutation in which bone formation at osseous sites is altered. In the last few years, bisphosphonates have become one of the choice drugs to treat this disease. A 26-yr-old woman presented after 6 wk of spontaneous right leg pain owing to a fissure fracture of the right femoral neck. She reported precocious puberty at the age of 2, with diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome. Radioisotope bone scanning, radiographic, biochemical, and densitometric studies were performed. Treatment with bisphosphonates was started because bone turnover biochemical markers were abnormal. Oral olpadronate followed by iv pamidronate substantially decreased bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total skeleton and subareas was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) throughout the 5 yr of treatment. At the end of this period, BMD of the total skeleton had increased 6.2%. However, BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia, the legs and pelvis, had increased 12.7 and 11%, respectively. Region of interest analysis of individual bones of the legs performed with the total skeleton scan revealed that BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia was lower than that of the less affected contralateral bones. During the first 3 yr, treatment with bisphosphonates substantially increased BMD of the right femur and tibia (22 and 28%, respectively). After that, values seemed to stabilize. DXA evaluation of the total skeleton and its subareas was useful to evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the plateau observed in BMD values after 3 yr of treatment suggests that treatment could have been discontinued when the densitometric values stabilized.

  2. Does cancellous screw insertion torque depend on bone mineral density and/or microarchitecture?

    PubMed

    Ab-Lazid, Rosidah; Perilli, Egon; Ryan, Melissa K; Costi, John J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-01-22

    During insertion of a cancellous bone screw, the torque level reaches a plateau, at the engagement of all the screw threads prior to the screw head contact. This plateau torque (T(Plateau)) was found to be a good predictor of the insertion failure torque (stripping) and also exhibited strong positive correlations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ovine bone. However, correlations between T(Plateau) and aBMD, as well as correlations between T(Plateau) and bone microarchitecture, have never been explored in human bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether T(Plateau), a predictor of insertion failure torque, depends on aBMD and/or bone microarchitecture in human femoral heads. Fifty-two excised human femoral heads were obtained. The aBMD and microarchitecture of each specimen were evaluated using dual X-ray Absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. A cancellous screw was inserted into specimens using an automated micro-mechanical test device, and T(Plateau) was calculated from the insertion profile. T(Plateau) exhibited the strongest correlation with the structure model index (SMI, R=-0.82, p<0.001), followed by bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R=0.80, p<0.01) and aBMD (R=0.76, p<0.01). Stepwise forward regression analysis showed an increase for the prediction of T(Plateau) when aBMD was combined with microarchitectural parameters, i.e., aBMD combined with SMI (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.72) and aBMD combined with BV/TV and BS/TV (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.74). In conclusion, T(Plateau), a strong predictor for insertion failure torque, is significantly dependent on bone microarchitecture (particularly SMI and BV/TV) and aBMD.

  3. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  4. Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R; Rutherford, O M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body scan also gave values for percentage body fat and regional bone densities. Calcium intake and physical activity levels were measured by questionnaire. The rowers had significantly higher BMD in the spine and total body than the triathletes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and sedentary controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). There were no differences between the triathletes and controls. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in the triathletes than in the controls (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the rowers and controls. All groups fell within the normal range for testosterone. In a step-wise multiple regression, including age, body mass, height, calcium intake and activity, no single factor had a significant effect on spine BMD. Body mass had a significant effect on total body BMD and could account for the differences between the groups. A significant positive correlation was found between calcium intake and total body BMD. The heavy weight training typical of rowing training seemed to result in significant bone accretion. The low testosterone levels in the triathletes may have negated any positive effect of the increased exercise on BMD.

  5. Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tatsuhiko; Onoe, Yoshiko; Yoshikata, Remi; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    BACK GROUND AND AIMS: It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted. Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire. The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, p<0.001). BMI, total intake of energy, intake of protein, intake of phosphate, and energy expenditure positively correlated significantly to BMD at lumbar and total hip (p<0.05) using simple linear regression. BMI (regression coefficient (b))=0.088, p<0.001), bone alkaline phosphatase (b= -0.050, p=0.012), total energy expenditure (b=0.019, p<0.001), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007). In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.

  6. Risk of low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kengo; Setoguchi, Takao; Tawaratsumida, Hiroki; Arishima, Yoshiya; Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Shigemizu, Sanae; Aoki, Noriko; Akimoto, Masaki; Otsubo, Hideo; Matsuda, Takemasa; Kakoi, Hironori; Izumi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Sunahara, Nobuhiko; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-09-30

    Osteoporosis is a complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We identified risk factors for osteoporosis during treatment with biologics. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 186 patients with biologics-treated RA. We compared the characteristics of those with BMD ≥70% of young adult mean (YAM) and those with BMD <70% of YAM, and undertook multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for bone loss. Mean age and disease duration, the proportion of females, scores in the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and history of vertebral fracture were significantly greater in the BMD <70% of YAM group, but body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the BMD <70% of YAM group. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of other biomarkers of RA activity, the proportion treated with methylprednisolone, or the duration or choice of biologics. The proportions of patients treated with anti-osteoporosis drugs and parathyroid hormone were significantly higher in the BMD <70% of YAM group. In the multivariable analysis, advanced age, female, longer disease duration, history of past thoracic or lumbar vertebral fracture, higher Steinbrocker classification and lower BMI were significant factors for BMD <70% of YAM. We identified risk factors for bone loss in patients with RA treated with biologics. Before suppression of disease activity by biologics, bone loss might already be advanced. We recommend that patients with RA who possess these risk factors be considered for earlier and more intense treatment to prevent bone loss, as well as addressing RA disease progression.

  7. Determinants of bone mineral density in immobilization: a study on hemiplegic patients.

    PubMed

    del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Mandes, M G; Mantova, D; Scarpa, R; Oriente, P

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis that develops during immobilization is a severe condition that confers increased risk of fractures with their burden of mortality and disability. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of immobilization osteoporosis. As a model of this condition we studied hemiplegic subjects, measuring bone mineral density in the paralyzed lower limb as compared with the non-paralyzed one. In spite of the limits related to the loss of nervous stimulation, this model offers the advantage of a proper control for the complex genetic and environmental cofactors involved. We examined 48 hemiplegic subjects (31 men, 17 women in menopause) admitted consecutively over a 9-month period. Mean length immobilization was 10.9 months for men (range 1-48 months) and 7.8 months for women (range 1-40 months). The average time since menopause was 14.9 years (range 1.7-23.9 years). For each subject the following were performed: questionnaire, medical examination, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the scores for spasticity and for lower limb motor capacity in order to account for the different degrees of disability among patients. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at both femoral necks. For each patient we defined a percentage difference in bone loss between the paralyzed and non-paralyzed limb. Regression coefficient were calculated by multiple logistic regression. There was significant bone loss in the paralyzed limb in both sexes, accounting for up to 6.3% in women. Multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of bone loss depends significantly and directly on the length of immobilization, even when controlling for age and sex in the regression model (R = 0.193, p = 0.034). However, when time since menopause was included in the regression model, with length of immobility as a covariate, it was the only significant determinant of bone loss (R = 0.312, p = 0.039). No additional factors were observed among

  8. Ibandronate dose response is associated with increases in bone mineral density and reductions in clinical fractures: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sebba, Anthony I; Emkey, Ronald D; Kohles, Joseph D; Sambrook, Philip N

    2009-03-01

    This meta-analysis pooled data from the four phase III clinical trials of ibandronate to assess the relationship between ibandronate dose, changes in bone mineral density, and rates of both clinical and non-vertebral fractures. Individual patient data from the intent-to-treat population of the BONE, IV fracture prevention, MOBILE, and DIVA studies were included for analysis. The relationship between ibandronate dose and bone mineral density at both the lumbar spine and at the total hip was assessed qualitatively. The relationship between lumbar spine bone mineral density and clinical fracture rate, and the relationship between total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate, were assessed both qualitatively and using mathematical models. A total of 8710 patients were included in this analysis. Both lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density were observed to increase with increasing ibandronate dose. The incidence of all clinical fractures was observed to decrease as lumbar spine bone mineral density increased. A statistically significant inverse linear relationship was observed between percent change in lumbar spine bone mineral density and the rate of clinical fractures (P=0.005). A non-significant curvilinear relationship was observed between percent change in total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate. Increased ibandronate exposure is associated with increasing gains in the lumbar spine bone mineral density and decreasing clinical fracture rates. A non-linear relationship may exist between increases in the total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate.

  9. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  10. A comparison of bone mineral density in adolescent female swimmers, soccer players, and weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Bellew, James W; Gehrig, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the effect of sports of varying skeletal loading on bone density in adolescent female athletes. Bone mineral densities of female swimmers, soccer players, and weight lifters were examined. Between-sport comparisons were made using a one-way analysis of covariance with age and body mass index as covariates and group bone mass density (BMD) was compared to the World Health Organization's (WHO) normative values for adult females. BMD was significantly greater in the soccer group compared to the weight lifting (p = 0.025) and swimming groups (p = 0.001) with no difference between weight-lifting and swimming groups (p = 0.209). Compared to normative data from the WHO, soccer was the only sport whose participants' BMDs were significantly greater than adult norms (p = 0.003), while those of the swimmers were significantly less (p < 0.001) than adult females, and the weight lifters were not different (p = 0.103). Participation in sports such as soccer or weight lifting with significant skeletal loading may enhance BMD in adolescent females.

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Baran, Rıza Taner; Baran, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. Methods: The study group included 33 adolescent girls with hypogonadism (14 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and 19 with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). FSH, luteinizing hormone, estradiol levels, and BMD (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the chronological age and bone age of the two patient groups, namely, with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. There was also no significant difference between BMD z-score values obtained from measurements from the spine and the femur neck of patients in the two groups (p-values were 0.841 and 0.281, respectively). In the hypergonadotropic group, a moderately negative correlation was detected between FSH level and BMD z-score measured from the femur neck (ρ=-0.69, p=0.001), whilst no correlation was observed between FSH levels and height adjusted BMD-z scores measured from the spine (ρ=0.17, p=0.493). FSH level was not found to be an independent variable affecting BMD z-score. Conclusion: BMD z-scores were detected to be similar in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and FSH levels were not found to have a clinically relevant impact on BMD. PMID:27087454

  12. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P < 0.01) while serum minerals and ALP concentrations showed no significant difference. The treatment group had dramatically decreased biomarkers and increased BMD than OVX group (P < 0.01). Histomorphometry analysis showed worse bone microarchitecture parameters in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group which were significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the OVX group (P < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  13. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN). Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7) after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses). Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036). The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p < 0.01), but not with BMC. Regular physical activity tended to show a positive effect on bone recovery, but the effect of hormone replacement therapy was not significant. Using age-related standards, the post-discharge sample for the substudy presented IGF-I levels below the 5th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to

  14. The Impact of Freezing on Bone Mineral Density: Implications for Forensic Research.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amanda R; Ross, Ann H

    2017-03-01

    It is common for researchers using animal or human remains for scientific study to freeze samples prior to use. However, effects of freezing on bone macro- or microstructure are relatively unknown. The research objective of this study was to determine whether freezing could potentially bias experimental results by analyzing changes in bone mineral density (BMD) with the freezing of remains over time. Eight fetal pigs were scanned to determine their initial BMD before freezing. Three piglets underwent a freeze-thaw cycle to assess the effects of the freezing process. Four piglets were frozen and scanned weekly for 20 weeks to assess freezing over time. The overall average between the fresh initial scan and final frozen scan was significantly different (p < 0.001). Per contra, the final thawed BMD scans did not differ from the initial fresh scan (p = 0.418). Thus, completely thawed remains are recommended for experimental studies.

  15. Body composition and bone mineral density in competitive athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; Dieli, M; Vintaloro, G; Gibilaro, M; Giacone, G; Cottini, E

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the vertebral spine, appendicular skeleton, and whole body was studied in male athletes who chronically trained by different forms of skeletal loading. Eighteen subjects performed weight-bearing activity (canoeists, n = 18), and 14 performed non-weight-bearing activity (cyclists, n = 14). Twenty-eight age-matched male students served as non-athletic controls. The canoeists had significantly higher spine, pelvic and total body BMD than cyclists and controls. No intergroup difference was observed in the BMD of arms and legs despite the fact that physical activity of canoeists and cyclists were characterized by forceful muscular contractions. It is concluded that weight-bearing activity is essential to obtain beneficial skeletal effects on total and regional bone mass in young subjects.

  16. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  17. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  18. Densitometric study of the clavicle: bone mineral density explains the laterality of the fractures.

    PubMed

    Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra, Marcelo; Isabel Pozzi, Maria; Busin, Gabriela; Crestana Zanetti, Lucas; Antônio Lazzarotto Terra Lopes, José; Orso, Vinícius

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown laterality in clavicle fractures, such that the left side is more frequently fractured. The present study had the aim of evaluating whether the clavicle on the dominant side is denser and thus explaining the greater incidence of fractures on the non-dominant side. This was a descriptive study on 52 healthy patients, who were classified according to age, sex and whether the dominant or non-dominant side was affected. The participants comprised 28 women (53.8%) and 24 men (46.2%). Regarding the dominant side, 30 were right-handed (57.7%) and 22 were left-handed (42.3%). The mean age was 25 years. In this study, it could be seen that the non-dominant side had greater bone mass than the dominant side. It was also observed that the bone density was greater in the middle and distal thirds on the non-dominant side, with a statistically significant difference. In the women, the density was also greater on the non-dominant side; this difference was not significant in relation to the dominant side, but there were significant differences between the middle thirds (p < 0.001) and the distal thirds (p < 0.006). Variations in bone density, toward higher and lower bone mass, may have been responsible for the fractures. According to the findings from this study, fractures occur more in the middle third of the non-dominant clavicle, as a result of greater bone mineral mass, which gives rise to lower flexibility and fractures in the region.

  19. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin was positively correlated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (r = 0.391, P < 0.001) and weakly negatively correlated with β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (r = -0.225, P < 0.001; r = -0.091, P = 0.046; r = -0.108, P = 0.018; respectively) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  20. Local Variation in Femoral Neck Cortical Bone: In Vitro Measured Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Jenkins, Thomas; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dunlop, Doug G; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-12-17

    Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally around the circumference of the femoral neck, allowing examination of spatial variability within the cortical bone. Fractured tissue was less resistant to indentation in the thinner superolateral segment compared to other segments and other groups. BMD around the fractured femoral necks appeared more consistent than that of nonfractured tissue, where BMD was reduced in the superolateral segment for the other groups. Cortical bone was thin in the superolateral segment for all groups except for the osteoarthritic group, and was thicker in the inferomedial segment for both osteoarthritic and fractured groups, resulting in the largest variation in buckling ratio (ratio of cortical bone diameter to cortical bone thickness) around the femoral neck for the fractured group. With age, healthy controls appeared to have lower inferomedial cortical thickness, whereas no significant differences in Reference Point Indentation measurements and density were observed. The study has

  1. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. [Increased bone mineral density in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Robin-Lersundi, Alvaro; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Ochagavía Cámara, Santiago; Díez-Valladares, Luis; Torres García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Changes in bone metabolism and bone mineral density are observed in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The objective of this work was to analyse the increase in bone mineral density, as well the laboratory results, after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective study was conducted in which the bone mineral density values at femoral and lumbar level were analysed, together with the serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and alkaline phosphatase in 13 renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism before and after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroidectomy is associated with an increase in bone mineral density at femoral and lumbar level, with an increase of 8.6 ± 6.7% at lumbar level, and 4 ± 16.1% at femoral level. The decrease in calcium after the parathyroidectomy was 2.8 mg/dL (95% CI; 1.9-4). The decrease in PTH was 172 pg/mL (95% CI; 98-354) and the decrease in alkaline phosphatase was 229 U/L (95% CI; 70-371). Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid glands in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism increases the bone mineral density. Furthermore, the calcium, PTH and alkaline phosphatase returned to normal in the long-term. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations of low vitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations with bone mineral density in perinatally HIV-infected children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. ...

  4. Socioeconomic status and bone mineral density in adults by race/ethnicity and gender: the Louisiana osteoporosis study.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Zhao, L-J; Xu, Q; Wu, K-H; Deng, H-W

    2017-02-24

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions.

  5. Polymorphism of vitamin D3 receptor and its relation to mineral bone density in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boroń, D; Kamiński, A; Kotrych, D; Bogacz, A; Uzar, I; Mrozikiewicz, P M; Czerny, B

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease with important genetic factors. We evaluated the frequency of polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 VDR gene receptor. The study included 800 women at the postmenopausal (505) and reproductive (295) age. Statistically significant changes, depending on the genotype, were shown. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease of strong genetic origin with population variability determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Recognition of different genetic variants underlying development of osteoporosis would make it possible to administer individual symptomatic treatment as well as early prophylactics of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 VDR gene receptor and assessment of its relations with the clinical parameters of osseous turnover and degree of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study included 800 women at the postmenopausal (505) and reproductive (295) age throughout the Wielkopolska region in Poland. The postmenopausal group included women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and the healthy ones. Women at the reproductive age were healthy. Frequency of the tested gene polymorphism was evaluated in the group where bone mineral density (BMD) was marked and in the control group. The obtained test results pointed to correlation of polymorphism VDR 283G/A with the BMD scores for the lumbar vertebrae in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis, therefore the ones at risk of fractures. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism correlated with reduced BMD values. Polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 receptor gene has been proved to be the genetic factor of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The polymorphism mentioned above has been proved to be a factor of mineral bone density changes of women.

  6. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Four cohort, 1 case-control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss.

  7. Bone Mineral Density as a Marker of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure in Psychotic Disorder: A 3 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037

  8. Lower extremity muscle strength does not independently predict proximal femur bone mineral density in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Owings, T M; Pavol, M J; Grabiner, M D

    2002-03-01

    The relationship described in the published literature between muscle strength and bone mineral density of older adults is not entirely certain. It is possible that the direct relationship reported in some studies is biased by failing to mathematically account for the biological influence of body weight and body height on both bone mineral density and muscle strength. This study sought to determine if the relationships between measures of lower extremity muscle strength and bone mineral density of the proximal femur are independent of body size (i.e., body height and body weight) in healthy older adults. We recruited 50 older women and 29 older men, all of whom were healthy community dwellers and not involved in resistance training. Quantitative analysis of the isometric strength of the bilateral ankle, knee, and hip joints and assessment of bone mineral density of the proximal femur were conducted. Muscle strength values were adjusted for the influence of body height and body weight using an allometric scaling procedure. The correlations between proximal femur bone mineral density and the unadjusted strength values were weak but statistically significant. After adjusting muscle strength to account for the influence of body height and body weight, the magnitudes of the correlations between bone mineral density and muscle strength diminished substantially and were not significantly different from zero. The results reveal that, for a typical sample of healthy older adults not involved in resistance training, the relationship between maximal isometric muscle strength of lower extremity joints and proximal femur bone mineral density is reliant on body size.

  9. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Lee, Myung-Han; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Sangyeob; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Han Sung; Bae, Kiho

    2015-11-16

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001). Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  10. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Lee, Myung-Han; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Sangyeob; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Han Sung; Bae, Kiho

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001). Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression. PMID:26580614

  11. Nutrition, mild hyperparathyroidism, and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Ueno, Kimiko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Okuda, Yoko; Saito, Toshiko; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2005-11-01

    The adverse effects of poor nutrition on the bones of young Asian women have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible associations of vitamin D nutrition, calcium intake, and other nutrients with bone metabolism and bone mass in young Japanese women. The subjects were 108 female college students aged 19-25 y. Dietary nutrients were measured by using the duplicate sampling method on 3 weekdays. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers were also measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and femur was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The proportions of the subjects with low 25(OH)D (< 30 nmol/L) and high intact parathyroid hormone (> or = 6.9 pmol/L) concentrations were 32.4% and 15.7%, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (P = 0.0265) and calcium intake (P = 0.0103) were inversely associated with serum intact parathyroid hormone. In addition to weight and physical activity, the presence of mild hyperparathyroidism was associated with a low BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.0062) and the femoral neck (P = 0.0250), and a low calcium intake was associated with a low BMD of the femoral neck (P = 0.0044). Low calcium intake (based on low BMD of the femoral neck only) and mild hyperparathyroidism (based on low BMD of both the femoral neck and lumbar spine), partly explained by low vitamin D nutrition and a low calcium intake, are important predictors of low BMD in young Japanese women. Effects of poor nutrition and mild hyperparathyroidism on bone peak bone mass in young women should be further investigated in longitudinal studies.

  12. Soft tissues, areal bone mineral density and hip geometry estimates in active young boys: the PRO-BONE study.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Kelly; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Klentrou, Panagiota; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; De Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A; Moreno, Luis A; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Soft tissues, such as fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), play an important role in bone development but this is poorly understood in highly active youths. The objective of this study was to determine whether FM or LM is a stronger predictor of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in a group of physically active boys after adjusting for height, chronological age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), FM, and LM. Participants included 121 boys (13.1 ± 1.0 years) from the PRO-BONE study. Bone mineral content (BMC) and aBMD were measured at total body, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and hip structural analysis was used to estimate bone geometry at the femoral neck. Body composition was assessed using DXA. The relationships of FM and LM with bone outcomes were analysed using simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that total body (less head) aBMD was significantly correlated with LM but not FM. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that FM, after accounting for height, age, MVPA and LM had no significant relationship with aBMD or hip geometry estimates, except for arms aBMD. By contrast, there were positive associations between LM and most aBMD and hip geometry estimates, after accounting height, age, MVPA and FM. The results of this study suggest that LM, and not FM, is the stronger predictor of aBMD and hip geometry estimates in physically active boys. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN17982776.

  13. Association of testosterone and bone mineral density with tooth loss in men with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balendra P; Makker, Annu; Tripathi, Arvind; Singh, Man M; Gupta, Vivek

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the mean testosterone and bone mineral density (BMD) levels in men with and without tooth loss. Two hundred three male subjects aged 30-65 years satisfying the study criteria were selected and then examined for bone mineral density, testosterone level, clinical attachment loss, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility and tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 15.0) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA), and differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Independent sample "t" test was used to compare the results, and receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was performed to obtain the cut-off. The mean testosterone level in subjects without tooth loss was 4.41 ± 2.57, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 2.79 ± 1.15 (P = 0.001). The mean BMD in subjects without tooth loss was 0.99 ± 0.13, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 0.96 ± 0.12 (P = 0.046). The testosterone level and BMD in subjects with tooth loss were significantly lower than those in subjects without tooth loss. Testosterone is a good predictor of tooth loss, but its efficiency decreases with increasing tooth loss. BMD is not a good predictor of tooth loss.

  14. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  15. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yizhong; Lin, Jinkuang; Cai, Siqing; Yan, Lisheng; Pan, Yuancheng; Yao, Xuedong; Zhuang, Huafeng; Wang, Peiwen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  16. IGF-1 bioavailability is increased by resistance training in older women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Parkhouse, W S; Coupland, D C; Li, C; Vanderhoek, K J

    2000-02-07

    We investigated if long-term resistance training would increase insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) bioavailabilty at rest in older women (68+/-1 years) with low bone mineral density. IGF-1 levels were significantly lower (P<0.05), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins -1 and -3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3) significantly higher than an age-matched healthy normal group. Resistance training resulted in significant (P<0.05) increases in repetition maximums across all exercises (range 41-78%). Resting IGF-1 levels were significantly (P<0.05) elevated (70%) by the resistance training whereas no significant changes occurred in IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 and IGFBP-3/IGF-1 ratios were significantly decreased (approximately - 50%) as a result of resistance training (P<0.05). Thus, IGF-1 bioavailability was increased as a result of resistance training induced increases in IGF-1 levels in older women with low bone mineral density. These alterations in the IGF-1 system may be contributing to the significant strength gain observed with the resistance training in this population.

  17. [Adolescents do not lose bone mineral density postpartum: comparative study with adult women].

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Morales, Rosa María; Flores-García, Adriana; Lira, Josefina; Isoard, Fernando; de Santiago, Soledad; Casanueva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the pattern of bone mineral density (BMD), serum concentrations of estradiol and calcium levels, dietary calcium, body mass index (BMI), and lactation in adolescents and adult women at 15, 90, and 365 postpartum days (ppd). A prospective cohort study was conducted of 33 adolescents and 39 adult women. Anthropometric and dietetic evaluations were performed, as well as evaluations of bone mineral density in L2-L4 and femur neck. Estradiol concentrations and calcium serum levels were determined. L2-L4 BMD increased by 16% in adolescents, and 3% in adult women from day 15 to 365 ppd. While age was associated with this change (β=13.779, EE=3.5, p=0.001), lactation was not (β=-0.705, EE=0.647, p=0.283). The adult women had a higher L2-L4 BMD at 15, 90, and 635 ppd (1.151 vs 0.978 g/cm², 1.195 vs 1.070 g/cm², 1.195 vs 1.123 g/cm², respectively) (p<0.003). Adolescents' BMD increased three times more than that of adult women. For all women, BMD was dependent of age and independent of lactation.

  18. Effects of Cushing disease on bone mineral density in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Serbis, Anastasios; Sinaii, Ninet; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Keil, Margaret F; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Reynolds, James C; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with Cushing disease before and after transphenoidal surgery (TSS). Hologic dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of 35 children with Cushing disease were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen of the 35 patients had follow-up DXA scans performed 13 to 18 months after TSS. BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) for lumbar spine (LS) L1 to L4 and femoral neck (FN) were calculated. Preoperatively, 38% and 23% of patients had osteopenia of the LS and FN, respectively. Both BMD and BMAD Z-scores of the LS were worse than those for the FN (-1.60 +/- 1.37 versus -1.04 +/- 1.19, P = .003), and (-1.90 +/- 1.49 versus -0.06 +/- 1.90, P < .001); postoperative improvement in BMD and BMAD were more pronounced in LS than in the FN (0.84 +/- 0.88 versus 0.15 +/- 0.62, P<.001; and 0.73 +/- 1.13 versus -0.26 +/- 1.21, P = .015). Pubertal stage, cortisol levels, and length of disease had no effect on BMD. In children with Cushing disease, vertebral BMD was more severely affected than femoral BMD and this effect was independent of degree or duration of hypercortisolism. BMD for the LS improved significantly after TSS; osteopenia in this group may be reversible. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with significant changes in the BMD parameters. At 12 months, curcumin treatment led to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown.

  20. Quantitative micro-computed tomography: a non-invasive method to assess equivalent bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Snyder, Brian D; Zurakowski, David; Müller, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    One of the many applications of micro computed tomography (microCT) is to accurately visualize and quantify cancellous bone microstructure. However, microCT based assessment of bone mineral density has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Specifically, the effects of varying imaging parameters, such as tube voltage (kVp), current (microA), integration time (ms), object to X-ray source distance (mm), projection number, detector array size and imaging media (surrounding the specimen), on the relationship between equivalent tissue density (rhoEQ) and its linear attenuation coefficient (micro) have received little attention. In this study, in house manufactured, hydrogen dipotassium phosphate liquid calibration phantoms (K2HPO4) were employed in addition to a resin embedded hydroxyapatite solid calibration phantoms supplied by Scanco Medical AG Company. Variations in current, integration time and projection number had no effect on the conversion relationship between micro and rhoEQ for the K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p>0.05 for all cases]. However, as expected, variations in scanning tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media (referring to the solution that surrounds the specimen in the imaging vial) significantly affected the conversion relationship between mu and rhoEQ for K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p<0.05 for all cases]. A multivariate linear regression approach was used to estimate rhoEQ based on attenuation coefficient, tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media for K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms, explaining 90% of the variation in rhoEQ. Furthermore, equivalent density values of bovine cortical bone (converted from attenuation coefficient to equivalent density using the K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms) samples highly correlated [R2=0.92] with the ash densities of the samples. In conclusion, Scanco calibration phantoms can be used to assess equivalent

  1. Bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) measurements as well as identify risk factors for low BMD and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 45 PsA women, 52 Ps women and 98 healthy female controls (HC). Clinical risk factors for low bone density and osteoporotic fracture were evaluated by a specific questionnaire. An X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine, total femur and total body was performed on all patients. Skin and joint outcomes were measured by specific tools (PASI, HAQ and DAS28). Morphometric vertebral fractures were evaluated by lumbar and thoracic spine X-ray, according to Genant's method. Results There were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), total lean mass and bone mineral density among the groups. However, the PsA group had a significantly higher body fat percentage (BF%) than the Ps and HC groups. Osteoporotic fractures were more frequently observed in PsA and Ps groups than in the HC group (P = 0.01). Recurrent falls and a longer duration of disease increased the risk of fracture (odds ratio (OR) = 18.3 and 1.08, respectively) in the PsA group (P = 0.02). Disability was the main factor related to osteoporotic fracture in the Ps group (odds ratio (OR) = 11.1) (P = 0.02). Conclusions Ps and PsA patients did not present lower BMD. However, they had a higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures and higher risk of metabolic syndrome. Patients with a longer duration of disease, disability and recurrent falls need preventive measures. PMID:21299865

  2. Value of bone scintigraphy for detection and ageing of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis and correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density.

    PubMed

    Kucukalic-Selimovic, Elma; Begic, Amela

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common of the metabolic bone diseases, and is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly. Bone scintigraphy is used to detect skeletal lesions at the earliest possible time, to monitor the course of the skeletal discase and to evaluate the metabolic activity of skeletal lesions. The aim of this study was to determine, by using the bone scan age of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis, and make correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density. Material and methods 30 female patients were studied with bone scintigraphy after BMD.BMD was measurred with DEXA Hologic QDR 4500 Elite System. Correlation between T-score and uptake of radiofarmaceutical (Tc-99mMDP) was 0.849, and it was high. Intensity of uptake of Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy is an accurate method for the detection and ageing of fractures in osteoporotic patients.

  3. Association between low bone mineral density and increased α-defensin in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Rosa; Migliaccio, Valeria; Savino, Rocco; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the concentration of α-defensin human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1; a peptide released by neutrophils) in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women and to compare bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of this peptide. We consecutively enrolled 61 postmenopausal women. Bone density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and α-defensin HNP-1 was identified by proteomic analysis of salivary fluid specimen. We found a significant difference in bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of α-defensin HNP-1 in salivary fluid. In particular, women with higher α-defensin concentrations had the lowest bone density in comparison with those with a lower concentration of defensin (P = 0.03 between groups). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses showed a significative inverse relationship between bone mineral density and age (r = -0.58, β = -0.56) and peak of α-defensin (r = -0.26, β = -0.21). Low bone mineral density is found in postmenopausal women with high α-defensin HNP-1 concentrations. Therefore, α-defensin HNP-1 could be a novel biomarker for osteoporosis.

  4. Serum levels of vitamin B12 are not related to low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Carvalho, Ariane Vieira; Maksud, Fabiana Alves Nunes; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis and vitamin B12 deficiency are conditions with an increasing prevalence over time. It has been described an association between low serum vitamin B12, osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures, but the studies are heterogeneous and the results are controversial. To investigate the association between plasma levels of vitamin B12 and bone mineral density in a group of asymptomatic women after menopause. Asymptomatic postmenopausal women were consecutively invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (lumbar spine and femur) was measured by DXA Lunar Prodigy Vision, and blood levels of vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAF), and parathyroid hormone were determined. For the diagnostic of osteoporosis the World Health Organization criteria were considered. Seventy women were included, mean age 62.5 ± 7 years. Eighteen (25.7%) women had normal bone mineral density, 33 (47.1%) had osteopenia and 19 (27.1%) had osteoporosis. Six (8.6%) patients had wrist fracture; two (2.8%) reported a diagnosis of vertebral fracture and only one (1.4%) patient had suffered a hip fracture. The levels of vitamin B12 (mean ± SD, pg/mL) of women with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia and osteoporosis were 590.2 ± 364.3, 536.6 ± 452.3, and 590.2 ± 497.9, respectively (P = 0.881). Multiple regression analysis showed that body mass index and BAF were the main predictors of lumbar spine bone mineral density. The results indicate that vitamin B12 serum levels are not related to bone mineral density in this group of Brazilian postmenopausal women.

  5. Bone mineral density levels of college-aged women in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Kate; Ford, Mary Allison; Turner, Lori Waite; Denny, George

    2003-11-01

    Osteoporosis has affected more than 20 million American, women, completely altering their way of life. Osteoporosis is highly preventable if steps are taken to build healthy bone; however, many college students do not have lifestyle habits that have a positive effect on their bones. For this study, a questionnaire was used to investigate childhood dairy consumption, high school sport participation, dieting behaviors, eating behaviors and bone mineral density levels of college women at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Eighty percent of the participants were Caucasian or of Asian descent, while 20% were of other races; 34% of the participants consumed three or more servings of milk a day as children, while current calcium consumption was at an average of 16 servings a week. Many of the participants were active in high school, as 67% participated in high school sports. Fifty-two percent of the college women in the sample had dieted in the past year, and 44% perceived they were not at a desirable weight. Forty-five percent skip more than three meals a week. Of the participants, two had osteoporosis and 23 had osteopenia. Clearly, development of osteoporosis is not limited to older adults, and college women are in need of education related to bone health.

  6. Bone mineral density in children with Fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E.; Barnum, Jessie L.; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S.; Baker, K. Scott; Wagner, John E.; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). While low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls, and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (Cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 Cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-forage Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by 0.8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ −1 than healthy controls (42% vs. 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and Cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower BMI and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients. PMID:25591848

  7. Bone mineral density in children with fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E; Barnum, Jessie L; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S; Baker, K Scott; Wagner, John E; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L

    2015-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure, usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by .8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ -1 than healthy controls (42% versus 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower body mass index and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients.

  8. The effects of antihypertensive drugs on bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kwi Young; Kang, Yoongoo; Kim, Mirinae; Kim, Youngkyun; Yi, Hyoju; Kim, Juryun; Jung, Hae-Rin; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2013-08-01

    The effects of several antihypertensive drugs on bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural changes in ovariectomized (OVX) mice were investigated. Eight-week-old female C57/BL6 mice were used for this study. Three days after ovariectomy, mice were treated intraperitoneally with nifedipine (15 mg/kg), telmisartan (5 mg/kg), enalapril (20 mg/kg), propranolol (1 mg/kg) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/kg) for 35 consecutive days. Uterine atrophy of all mice was confirmed to evaluate estrogen deficiency state. BMD and micro-architectural analyses were performed on tibial proximal ends by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). When OVX mice with uterine atrophy were compared with mice without atrophy, BMD decreased (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in BMD loss between different antihypertensive drugs (P = 0.005). Enalapril and propranolol increased BMD loss in mice with atrophied uteri compared with control mice. By contrast, thiazide increased BMD in mice with uterine atrophy compared with vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.048). Thiazide (P = 0.032) and telmisartan (P = 0.051) reduced bone loss and bone fraction in mice with uterine atrophy compared with the control. Thiazide affects BMD in OVX mice positively. The reduction in bone loss by thiazide and telmisartan suggest that these drugs may benefit menopausal women with hypertension and osteoporosis.

  9. Effects of aging and postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on skin elasticity and bone mineral density in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Endo, Yukie; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Minegishi, Takashi; Ishikawa, Osamu; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    Skin collagen content and bone mass decrease with aging. Loss of collagen from the skin might decrease its elasticity. We investigated associations between skin elasticity, bone mineral density (BMD), age, and menopausal hypoestrogenism. Thirty-eight healthy Japanese postmenopausal women were studied (mean age, 55.7 +/- 5.9 yr; range, 48 to 71). Skin elasticity was measured using a suction device applied to the dorsal right forearm. BMD values of L2 to 4 vertebral bodies were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age showed significant negative correlations with both skin elasticity and BMD (r = -0.57, p<0.001 and r = -0.40, p<0.05, respectively). Years since menopause also showed significant negative correlations with both skin elasticity and BMD (r = -0.51, p<0.01 and r = -0.41, p<0.05, respectively). We also found a positive correlation between skin elasticity and BMD in these postmenopausal women (r = 0.44, p<0.01). In conclusion, we demonstrated declining skin elasticity and bone mass in postmenopausal women to possibly be age- and estrogen-related. Additionally, decreased skin elasticity might serve as a predictor of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  10. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test.

  11. Trends in bone mineral density in young adults with cystic fibrosis over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Putman, Melissa S; Baker, Joshua F; Uluer, Ahmet; Herlyn, Karen; Lapey, Allen; Sicilian, Leonard; Tillotson, Angela Pizzo; Gordon, Catherine M; Merkel, Peter A; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in clinical care have led to increased life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) over the past several decades. Whether these improvements have had significant effects on bone health in patients with CF is unclear. This is a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in adults with CF evaluated in 1995-1999 to age-, race-, and gender-matched patients with CF evaluated in 2011-2013 at the same center on calibrated DXA machines. The cohorts were similar in terms of age, BMI, pancreatic insufficiency, presence of F508del mutation, and reproductive history. In the most recent cohort, pulmonary function was superior, and fewer patients had vitamin D deficiency or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Areal BMD measures of the PA spine, lateral spine, and distal radius were similarly low in the two cohorts. Although pulmonary function and vitamin D status were better in patients in the present-day cohort, areal BMD of the spine was reduced in a significant number of patients and was no different in patients with CF today than in the late 1990s. Further attention to optimizing bone health may be necessary to prevent CF-related bone disease. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in Bone Mineral Density in Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis over a 15 Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Melissa S.; Baker, Joshua F.; Uluer, Ahmet; Herlyn, Karen; Lapey, Allen; Sicilian, Leonard; Tillotson, Angela Pizzo; Gordon, Catherine M.; Merkel, Peter A.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Improvements in clinical care have led to increased life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) over the past several decades. Whether these improvements have had significant effects on bone health in patients with CF is unclear. Methods This is a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in adults with CF evaluated in 1995–1999 to age-, race-, and gender matched patients with CF evaluated in 2011–2013 at the same center on calibrated DXA machines. Results The cohorts were similar in terms of age, BMI, pancreatic insufficiency, presence of F508del mutation, and reproductive history. In the most recent cohort, pulmonary function was superior, and fewer patients had vitamin D deficiency or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Areal BMD measures of the PA spine, lateral spine, and distal radius were similarly low in the two cohorts. Conclusions Although pulmonary function and vitamin D status were better in patients in the present-day cohort, areal BMD of the spine was reduced in a significant number of patients and was no different in patients with CF today than in the late 1990s. Further attention to optimizing bone health may be necessary to prevent CF-related bone disease. PMID:25698451

  13. [Investigation of mineral density and the bone structure following 105 day experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105)].

    PubMed

    Prostiakov, I V; Novikov, V E; Morukov, B V

    2010-01-01

    Healthy volunteers' bone system investigation was performed before and after 105 days experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Volumetric bone mineral density (VBMD), bone mineral density (BMD), structural parameters of radius and tibia were evaluated. There were no significant BMD changes revealed in skeletal parts critical in terms of biomechanical properties. pQCT examination noted microarchitecture deterioration of radius that was reflected in decreasing of trabecular number and increasing of bone tissue inhomogeneity. Decreasing VBMD both cortical and trabecular bone were revealed for tibia. Unexpectedly, increasing oftrabecular number and decreasing of inhomogeneity were revealed for tibia. Experiment showed that only the complex investigation including DXA and pQCT measurements gives an idea about bone system changes under simulated experiment conditions.

  14. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  15. The effect of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on bone mineral density in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Semra; Kara, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    1) To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) doses on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 2) Investigate other factors influencing BMD. Twenty-six children with CAH and 11 healthy controls included in the study. All of the patients were examined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer. The metabolic control state, age at diagnosis GC dose (mg/m2/day), pubertal status, 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP) levels, bone age (BA), and lumber BMD were evaluated in all cases. BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR) values were determined. Patients were grouped according to mean on-therapy serum 17 OHP levels as tight control (17 OHP<10 nmol/L) (n:13) and poor control (17 OHP>10 nmol/L) (n:13). All groups were compared with each other. The age range was 2.1-15.7 years and the mean age (+/- SD) 9.3 (+/- 3.5) years. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of GC doses, lumbar BMD values [BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR)]. However, the BMI value was higher in children with CAH than normal healthy controls. The BA of the poor control, late diagnosed groups and male patients were higher than tight control, early diagnosed group and female patients, respectively. BMC and BA were lower than the control group in tight control with early diagnosed patients. The cBABMD z-score was lower in males with poor control than males with tight control. There were no similar results in female patients. Although GC treatment seems not to influence BMD in CAH patients in our study, further studies are needed to additionally evaluate daily calcium (Ca) intake

  16. The effect of anticonvulsant use on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S W; Ko, C H; Lee, C Y

    2016-06-01

    Studies showed that use of anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs) might be associated with reduced bone mineral density. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of anticonvulsants on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. The secondary objective was to identify their risk factors for low bone mineral density. This case series with internal comparisons was conducted in a paediatric residential rehabilitation centre in Hong Kong. Overall, 32 patients were enrolled. The study group comprised 18 patients (6 males, 12 females) aged 5.0 to 19.5 years (mean ± standard deviation, 13.8 ± 4.7 years); all were prescribed anticonvulsant therapy for more than 2 years. The comparison group comprised 14 patients (6 males, 8 females) aged 7.0 to 19.1 years (mean, 16.4 ± 3.0 years) who were concomitant non-ambulatory residents with cerebral palsy and were not prescribed any anticonvulsant therapy prior to study recruitment. Patients underwent a physical examination, blood tests, nutritional assessment, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the total body less head. Z-scores were calculated. There was no significant difference in Z-scores of total body less head between groups. Among children with low bone mineral density (Z-scores ≤-2.0) and normal bone mineral density, multivariate analysis revealed that higher weight-for-age Z-score (adjusted odds ratio=0.015) and presence of puberty (adjusted odds ratio=0.027) were independent factors for bone mineral density improvement. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P=0.315) was not significant. Nagelkerke R(2) was 0.677, signifying a relatively well-fitting model. There was no evidence that anticonvulsant therapy has any detrimental effect on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. A low weight-for-age Z-score was associated with low bone mineral density. Early nutritional intervention to optimise body weight may help to increase bone mineral

  17. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    PubMed

    Schündeln, Michael M; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J; Hauffa, Pia K; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 -L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively). Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001), but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation. The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  18. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. Study Design The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. Results The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 –L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 –L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively). Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001), but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation. Conclusions The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands. PMID:27014874

  19. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Common Variable Immunodeficiency and X-Linked Agammaglobulinaemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Ali; Azizi, Gholamreza; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Karimipour, Mehdi; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Yazdani, Reza; Ebrahimi, Sareh Sadat; Ebrahimi, Mehran; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Tafaroji, Javad; Ziaee, Vahid; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the most common group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, resulting from different defects in the development and function of B cell lineage. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are two of the major types of PADs. Optimal growth and subsequently bone health could potentially compromise due to the interference of several factors in PAD with childhood onset. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with CVID and XLA. BMD of 37 CVID and 19 XLA patients was examined. Total BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the calculated scores were compared internally and externally with age-sex matched and ethnic-specific reference. Related factors associated with bone density including immune-related complications, serum calcium, phosphate, total alkaline phosphatase, 25(OH) vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were recorded. The median age at the time of study was 20 years among all patients and was not statistically different between CVID and XLA groups and the mean of body mass index (BMI) was 19.4±4.6 kg/cm². Thirty-eight (67.9%) of total patients had normal BMD and 18 (32.1%) patients had a low BMD. BMI was positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. The number of low BMD patients in CVID (40.5%) group was more than the XLA (15.8%). Beside nutritional, gastrointestinal and infectious complications which are shared in both groups of patients, CVID patients are more prone to alteration of BMD due to association with lymphoproliferative and endocrine diseases. Therefore routine evaluation of bone density and treatment adjustment should be considered in all PAD patients particularly in CVID patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Assessment of trabecular bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Haengbok; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Youngjae; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Juhyung; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Kijeong; Chang, Jinhwa; Chang, Dongwoo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related changes and anatomic variation in trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in normal cats. Seventeen normal cats were included in this study and divided into the following 3 age groups:<6 months (n=4), 2-5 years (n=10) and >6 years (n=3). A computed tomographic scan of each vertebra from the 12th thoracic to the 7th lumbar spine and the pelvis was performed with a bone-density phantom (50, 100 and 150 mg/cm(3), calcium hydroxyapatite, CIRS phantom(®)). On the central transverse section, the elliptical region of interest (ROI) was drawn to measure the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) value. Those values were converted to equivalent tBMD (mg/cm(3)) by use of the bone-density phantom and linear regression analysis (r(2) >0.95). The mean tBMD value of the thoracic vertebrae (369.4 ± 31.8 mg/cm(3)) was significantly higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae (285 ± 58.1 mg/cm(3)). The maximum tBMD occurred at the T12, T13 and L1 levels in all age groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean tBMD value among the 3 age groups at the T12 (P<0.001), T13 (P<0.001) and L4 levels (P=0.013), respectively. The present study suggests that age-related changes and anatomic variation in tBMD values should be considered when assessing tBMD using QCT in cats with bone disorders.

  1. Whole-body vibration effects on bone mineral density in women with or without resistance training.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Brendan; Fenning, Andrew; Dugan, Eric; Guinane, Jodie; MacRae, Kristy

    2009-12-01

    Whole-body vibration exposure may translate into improved bone mass in young adult women. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of graded whole-body vibration or vibration exposure plus resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD), hematological measures for bone remodeling, and exercise metabolism in young women. There were 51 healthy active women [mean (SD) age, 21.02 (3.39) yr; height, 165.66 (6.73) cm; body mass 66.54 (13.39) kg] who participated in the intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to whole-body vibration (WBV), whole-body vibration plus resistance training (WBV+RT), or control (CONT) groups for 16 wk. A repeated-measure ANOVA found no significant (P < 0.05) group differences in BMD at the completion of 16 wk. A significant within group change was apparent for the WBV (2.7% femoral neck) and WBV+RT (femoral neck 1.9%; vertebra 0.98%). WBV and WBV+RT experienced a significant (P < 0.05) 60% and 58% increase in adiponectin, 48% and 30% in transforming growth factor-beta1, and 17% and 34% in nitric oxide with an accompanying 50% and 36% decrease in osteopontin, 19% and 34% in interleukin-1beta, and 38% and 39% in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The results indicate graded whole-body vibration exposure may be effective in improving BMD by increasing bone deposition while also decreasing bone resorption. Whole-body vibration may also provide an efficient stratagem for young women to achieve peak bone mass and help stave off osteoporosis later in life and provide a novel form of physical training.

  2. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, F; Speelman, A D; van Nimwegen, M; van der Schouw, Y T; Backx, F J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M; Verhaar, H J J

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Several factors may be involved in the development of bone loss, including malnutrition, immobilization, low body mass index, decreased muscle strength, vitamin D deficiency and medication use. This study investigates the prevalence of osteoporosis and possible risk factors associated with bone loss in early stage PD. In 186 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5, mean age 64.1 years, 71 % men) bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with DEXA. T- and Z-scores were calculated. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that contributed to BMD. 25-OH-vitamin D status of PD patients was compared with 802 controls (mean age 63.3 years, 50 % men) using linear regression analysis. Osteoporosis (11.8 %) and osteopenia (41.4 %) were common in PD patients. Mean Z-score for the hip was 0.24 (SD 0.93), and for the lumbar spine 0.72 (SD 1.91). Female gender, low weight, and low 25-OH-vitamin D were significantly correlated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. PD patients had lower 25(OH)D serum levels than controls (B = -10, p = 0.000). More than half of the patients with early stage PD had an abnormal BMD. Female gender, low weight, and low vitamin D concentration were associated with bone loss. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations were reduced in PD patients. These results underscore the importance of proactive screening for bone loss and vitamin D deficiency, even in early stages of PD.

  3. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual.

  4. Exercise and regional bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analytic review of randomized trials