Science.gov

Sample records for mineral measurements caused

  1. Assessing adherence to teriparatide therapy, causes of nonadherence and effect of adherence on bone mineral density measurements in osteoporotic patients at high risk for fracture.

    PubMed

    Mulgund, Manisha; Beattie, Karen A; Wong, Andy K O; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2009-02-01

    To determine (a) adherence rates at 6, 9 and 18 months amongst patients receiving teriparatide treatment for severe osteoporosis and (b) causes of therapy discontinuation and the effect of teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD) in adherent and nonadherent patients at different time intervals. A retrospective chart review of 111 patients receiving teriparatide from September 2004 to June 2007 was performed. Patients self-reports were used to record adherence and causes of nonadherence at 6, 9 and 18 months. BMDs for all patients were measured using the same DXA scanner at baseline and follow up. Of 111 participants, 17 were male (mean age 60 years) and 94 were female (mean age 69 years). Of these, 12 did not initiate therapy and 4 were lost to follow up. Reported adherence was 89.6% at 6 months, 87.6% at 9 months and 74.7% at 18 months. Causes of nonadherence included cost (n = 4), no benefit (n = 1) and adverse events (n = 8). Common adverse events were leg cramps (n = 9), headache (n = 5) and myalgia (n = 4). Mean spine and femur BMD changes were 3.30% and 0.67% at 4-9 months respectively, and 5.39% and 0.77% at 10-18 months respectively. Adherence to teriparatide was almost 90% at 9 months and decreased to 75% at 18 months. Adverse events led to nonadherence in 20% of patients. Those who were nonadherent had lower baseline BMD values than those who were adherent. Changes in BMD at the lumbar spine were greater than changes observed at the femoral neck.

  2. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  3. Causes of coal-miner absenteeism. Information Circular/1987

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Randolph, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines report describes several significant problems associated with absenteeism among underground coal miners. The vast empirical literature on employee absenteeism is reviewed, and a conceptual model of the factors that cause absenteeism among miners is presented. Portions of the model were empirically tested by performing correlational and multiple regression analyses on data collected from a group of 64 underground coal miners. The results of these tests are presented and discussed.

  4. Bone mineral measurement: Experiment M078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Whittle, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray absorptiometric measurements on bone mineral content, in addition to calcium balance studies, were performed on male volunteers during bed rest periods of 24 to 36 weeks duration and compared to Skylab mission data. Results show that mineral losses occur from the bones of the lower extremities during missions of up to 84 days and that in general they follow the loss patterns of the bed rest situation. The level of loss observed in Spacelab crews are not of clinical concern.

  5. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  6. Bone mineral measurement - Skylab experiment M-078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental observations of loss of bone mineral due to prolonged bedrest or weightlessness are reported. A new, precise method was employed that featured an essentially monoergetic photon source (125I) and a scintillation detector operating in a rectilinear scanning mode to measure bone mineral in the radius, ulna, and os calcis by the absorptiometric technique. Variable but small losses were found during 4-6 weeks of bedrest; losses of up to 40% were noted in the os calcis after 9 months. When the technique was used during the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions, only one crewmen showed significant losses in the os calcis and none in the radius or ulna. The variability recorded during bedrest was connected with the initial 24-hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion and the initial os calcis mineral content. The relevance of prediction terms based on bedrest data to Skylab and longer missions is discussed.

  7. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  8. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  9. Wettability shifts caused by CO2 aging on mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Clarens, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Interfacial forces at the CO2/brine/mineral ternary interface have a well-established impact on multiphase flow properties through porous media. In the context of geologic carbon sequestration, this wettability will impact capillary pressure, residual trapping, and a variety of other key parameters of interest. While the wettability of CO2 on pure mineral and real rock sample have been studied a great deal over the past few year, very little is known about how the wettability of these rocks could change over long time horizons as CO2 interacts with species in the brine and on the mineral surface. In this work we sought to explore the role that dilute inorganic and organic species that are likely to exist in connate brines might have on a suite of mineral species. High-pressure contact angle experiments were carried out on a suite of polished mineral surfaces. Both static captive bubble and advancing/receding contact angle measurements were carried out. The effect of ionic strength, and in particular the valence of the dominant ions in the brine are found to have an important impact on the wettability which cannot be explained solely based on the shifts in the interfacial tension between the CO2 and brine. More significantly, three organic species, formate, acetate, and oxalate, all three of which are representative species commonly encountered in the saline aquifers that are considered target repositories for carbon sequestration. All three organic species show impacts on wettability, with the organics generally increasing the CO2 wetting of the mineral surface. Not all pure minerals respond the same to the presence of organics, with micas showing a more pronounced influence than quartz. Sandstone and limestone samples aged with different kinds of hydrocarbons, a surrogate for oil-bearing rocks, are generally more CO2-wet, with larger contact angles in the CO2/brine system. Over multiple days, the contact angle decreases, which could be attributed to partitioning

  10. [The causes of disability in the miners of iron ore mines].

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, M E; Vysochin, V I; Pan'kova, A A; Galaburda, L D

    1991-04-01

    The authors discuss primary invalidity of ore miners, the causes of invalidity with consideration of classes of diseases, profession, age, sex and length of work. Recommendations directed to reduce invalidity in ore miners are described.

  11. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Synthesized Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimow, P. D.; Luo, S.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Liu, W.; Staneff, G. D.; Ahrens, T. J.; Chen, G.

    2002-12-01

    Direct thermal conductivity (k) measurement of mantle minerals is crucial to constrain the thermal profile of the Earth as well as geodynamic studies of the mantle (e.g., to determine the Rayleigh number). We have embarked on systematic multi-anvil syntheses of dense polycrystalline specimens of mantle phases of adequate size and zero porosity for precise thermal conductivity measurements by the 3ω method (\\textit{Cahill and Pohl, Phys. Rev. B, 1987}) under elevated temperatures (T). Coesite and stishovite (see \\textit{Luo et al., GRL, 2002}) as well as majorite and wadsleyite have been synthesized; ringwoodite and perovskite are scheduled. Preliminary thermal conductivity measurements at ambient pressure on coesite (120 - 300 K, 9.53 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) are consistent with prior room temperature data (\\textit{Yukutake & Shimada, PEPI, 1978}), while our stishovite data at 300 K appear to be low (1.96 Wm-1K-1). Efforts are being made to extend the measurement to higher temperatures (e.g., above Debye temperature Θ D), thus allowing determination of k(T) relationship (say, k~ T-n); success will depend on the decomposition kinetics of these metastable phases. The pressure dependence of k of these synthesized samples can also be measured (\\textit{e.g., Osako et al., HPMPS-6, 2002; Xu et al., EOS, 2001}). Recent thermal conductivity measurement on LiF and Al2O_3 from shock wave loading (\\textit{Holland & Ahrens, 1998}) is consistent with the modeling on MgO and Al2O_3 (\\textit{Manga & Jeanloz, JGR, 1997}) with classical theories. Thus, k values at modest pressures and T (say, above Θ D) would allow extrapolation of k to appropriate mantle conditions.

  12. Acute alloxan toxicity causes granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lianshan; Terayama, Yui; Nishimoto, Taiki; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Alloxan had been recognized as having a direct nephrotoxic effect different from its diabetogenic action. We encountered previously unreported granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe luminal and interstitial mineralization in one diabetic rat after one week of alloxan administration. Histopathologically, many dilated and occluded proximal and distal tubules were segmentally observed in the cortex and outer medulla. The tubular lumen contained minerals and cell debris. Tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and piled up, and they protruded into the lumen, where they enveloped minerals. Mineralization was observed mainly in the tubular lumen, and to some extent in the subepithelium and interstitium. The mineralization beneath the tubular epithelium was often continuous from the subepithelium to the interstitium. In these lesions, the tubular basement membrane was disrupted by mineralization, and a granuloma with multinuclear foreign-body giant cells was formed in the interstitial areas. PMID:27821911

  13. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  14. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  15. [Biologic markers for early diagnosis of effects caused by exposure to coal dust in miners].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, N A; Rushkevich, O P

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied changes in several laboratory values of coal miners in Russian Federation, defined information value of these changes and suggested complex of methods for early preclinical diagnosis of negative effects caused by coal dust in the miners. Dust-related respiratory diseases were proved to develop by stages on molecular level.

  16. Determining Mineral Types and Abundances from Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Mineral types and their abundances were quantitatively determined from laboratory reflectance spectra using principal components analysis (PCA). PCA reduced the measured spectral dimensionality and allowed testing the uniqueness and validity of spectral mixing models. In addition to interpreting absorption bands, in this new approach we interpreted variations in the overall spectral curves in terms of physical processes, namely changes in mixtures of minerals, in particle size and in illumination geometry. Application of this approach to reflectances of planetary surfaces allows interpretation to be extended to quantitative determinations of mineral types and abundances.

  17. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  18. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  19. Mineral recognition mapping using measured spectra based on classification and regression tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yunjun; Su, Yubin; Huang, Jiejun; Ye, Fawang; Zhang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    The alteration of surrounding rock is an important prospecting indicator in mineral exploration, but some important minerals are unclassified or misclassified when using hyperspectral remote sensing mineral recognition. A method for mineral recognition mapping was proposed. In this method, a decision tree discrimination rule was established based on the classification and regression tree data-mining algorithm and the absorption characteristics of field-measured spectra. Compared with spectral angle mapping and mixture-tuned matched filtering (MTMF), this method is shown to be efficient for mineral recognition mapping using hyperspectral images; its accuracy is 85.06%, which is greater than that of the MTMF method (83.91%). The advantages of the proposed method comprise the reduction of errors caused by the setting of the artificial threshold for mineral mapping and the lesser degree of difficulty in its training. Furthermore, the hierarchy structure of the decision tree in this method reflects the recognition process clearly, and the rule nodes are closely related to the spectra of the minerals; therefore, the advantage of this method is the interpretability of the results and the process. This method could be used for mineral recognition and classification using hyperspectral images.

  20. Gum spots caused by cambium miners in black cherry in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode; John E. Baumgras

    1980-01-01

    Six types of gum spots in black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh. were associated with parenchyma flecks caused by the cambium miner Phytobia pruni (Gross). The number of parenchyma flecks and associated gum spots increased with the height of the tree. Four percent of the flecks produced gum spots in the first 18 to 20 feet of the...

  1. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Lunar Soils and Terrestrial Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Buehler, M. G.; Seshardri, S.; Schaap, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using in situ methods. An examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that only a few minerals (silicates and oxides) need be considered for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). This simplifies the measurement requirements and allows a detailed analysis using simple methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils is difficult because of many complex parameters such as soil temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. In this presentation, we will show that the dielectric constant measurement can provide simple detection for oxides such as TiO2, FeO, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  2. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Lunar Soils and Terrestrial Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Buehler, M. G.; Seshardri, S.; Schaap, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using in situ methods. An examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that only a few minerals (silicates and oxides) need be considered for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). This simplifies the measurement requirements and allows a detailed analysis using simple methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils is difficult because of many complex parameters such as soil temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. In this presentation, we will show that the dielectric constant measurement can provide simple detection for oxides such as TiO2, FeO, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  3. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  4. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    SciTech Connect

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.

  5. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    DOE PAGES

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; ...

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methodsmore » for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.« less

  6. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  8. Friction factors and roughness measurements of tubular mineral membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, F.; Leuliet, J. C.; Delplace, F.

    1993-08-01

    No direct measurement of the relative roughness is available for mineral porous media because of the low mechanical resistance of such materials. In this study a method for the experimental determination of the internal diameter and the equivalent roughness is proposed for different commercial membranes used in ultrafiltration and microfiltration processes. The use of classical friction factor correlations is also discussed. The main results are the estimation of the hydraulic diameter of tubular membranes and the use of a quadratic form in order to predict friction factors and the equivalent roughness with an accuracy better than 15%.

  9. Bone mineral density and functional measures in patients with arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Hillard T; Bowen, Richard E; Caputo, Kimberly; Green, Terri A; Lawrence, John F

    2010-01-01

    Patients with arthrogryposis often report decreased ambulation and physical activity. Given that skeletal mineralisation is responsive to force, we identified the need to characterize bone mineral density and functional measures in this population, and conducted a cross-sectional study to establish a reference for future investigations. Thirty consecutive patients aged 5 to 18 years with either the diagnosis of amyoplasia or nonsyndromic arthrogryposis with predominantly lower extremity involvement underwent bone densitometry testing, and lumbar spine Z-scores were calculated against an age and sex-matched control population as is customary in children. Pediatric outcomes data collection instrument (PODCI) and functional independence measure for Children (WeeFIM) assessment forms were completed. Mean Z-scores, PODCI, and WeeFIM scores were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare lumbar spine Z-scores between patients divided by ambulatory status and to correlate WeeFIM and PODCI scores. Mean lumbar spine Z-score was -0.47, with 73% of Z-scores being <0. Mean Z-score among nonambulators or home ambulators was -1.05, as compared to a mean Z-score among limited and unlimited community ambulators of -0.14 with a trend toward significance (P=0.10), and a dose-response relationship between higher bone density and increasing ambulatory function. Mean WeeFIM self-care and mobility quotient scores were 67.5/100 and 70.9/100, respectively. PODCI normative scores were decreased for upper extremity (10/50), transfer/basic mobility (-17/50), and sports/physical function (4/50), but normal in pain/comfort (45/50) and happiness (49/50). A linear relationship was noted between functional ambulation level and WeeFIM quotient and PODCI normative scores. There was good correlation between WeeFIM mobility and PODCI transfers and basic mobility standardised scores (R=0.86). This is the first study to measure bone mineral density in children with arthrogryposis, and

  10. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  11. Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Bulakh, Andrei

    2004-06-01

    This introduction to mineralogy for undergraduate and graduate students in geology and materials science has been designed for a semester course. Covering all aspects of mineralogy in an integrated way, it links mineral properties with broader geological processes, and conveys their economic importance throughout the text. Handy reference tables and a glossary of terms make this study an indispensable guide for the next generation of mineralogy students.

  12. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  13. Mineral formation in joints caused by complete or joint-specific loss of ANK function.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Kyle A; Chen, Hao; Guenther, Catherine; Nguyen, Elizabeth T; Rountree, Ryan B; Schoor, Michael; Kingsley, David M

    2006-08-01

    To reveal the ANK complete loss of function phenotype in mice, we generated conditional and null alleles. Mice homozygous for the null allele exhibited widespread joint mineralization, similar in severity to animals harboring the original ank allele. A delayed yet similar phenotype was observed in mice with joint-specific loss of ANK function. The ANK pyrophosphate regulator was originally identified and proposed to play a key role in articular cartilage maintenance based on a single spontaneous mouse mutation (ank) that causes severe generalized arthritis. A number of human mutations have subsequently been reported in the human ortholog (ANKH), some of which produce skull and long bone defects with no apparent defects in joints or articular cartilage. None of the currently known mouse or human mutations clearly eliminate the function of the endogenous gene. Two new Ank alleles were generated using homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Joint range of motion assays and muCT studies were used to quantitatively assess phenotypic severity in wildtype, heterozygous, and homozygous mice carrying either the null (Anknull) or original (Ankank) allele. A Gdf5-Cre expressing line was crossed to mice harboring the conditional (Ankfloxp) allele to eliminate ANK function specifically in the joints. Histological stains and beta-galactosidase (LACZ) activity were used to determine the correlation between local loss of ANK function and defective joint phenotypes. Anknull/Anknull mice develop severe ectopic postnatal crystal deposition in almost every joint of the body, leading to eventual joint fusion and loss of mobility. The severity of phenotype in these mice is indistinguishable from that of Ankank/Ankank mice. In addition, despite the widespread expression of Ank in many tissues, the specific deletion of Ank in joints also produces joint mineralization and ankylosis. These studies show that ANK function is required locally in joints to inhibit mineral

  14. A high-fiber diet does not cause mineral and nutrient deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Rattan, J; Levin, N; Graff, E; Weizer, N; Gilat, T

    1981-12-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that a healthy population taking a high-fiber diet may develop deficiencies of various minerals and nutrients in three groups of healthy subjects: 1) sixty-eight people regularly supplementing their diet with at least 2 tablespoons of bran for at least 6 months (mean 3 tablespoons for 13 months); 2) forty-three controls not consuming bran supplements; and 3) twenty vegetarians (eight of them consuming bran supplements) who had a very high fiber consumption for many years. The mean serum levels of iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc, magnesium, vitamin A, and cholesterol were within the normal range in all the three groups. In the bran eaters, vitamin A was higher, and alkaline phosphatase and magnesium lower than in the other two groups. In the vegetarians, the phosphorus level was higher and cholesterol and iron binding capacity lower than in the other two groups. There was no correlation between the amount of bran consumed and the blood level of nutrients. The fiber consumption of the vegetarians was very high, more than three times that of the controls. Our study indicates that a moderately or even extremely high consumption of fiber for a long time does not by itself cause mineral or nutrient deficiencies in a western type population.

  15. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  16. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners: ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry, i.e., those with the greatest morbidity, had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain. 7 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners. Ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry--i.e., those with the greatest morbidity--had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral density in athletes.

    PubMed

    Dinç, H; Savci, G; Demirci, A; Sadikoğlu, M Y; Tuncel, E; Yavuz, H

    1996-06-01

    We studied the effect of different training patterns on vertebral trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in male athletes using quantitative computed tomography. Vertebral trabecular (t) and cortical (c) BMDs of the first three lumbar vertebrae were measured using single energy quantitative computed tomography in 51 athletes including 10 weight lifters (mean age 20 years), 13 soccer players (mean age 27 years), 28 wrestlers (mean age 17 years), and 45 age-matched volunteers (mean age 21 years). Measured BMDs were correlated with age, body height and weight, training hours per week, sports years, and type of physical activity. Vertebral tBMDs were found to be 44%, 23%, and 24% higher in the weight lifters, soccer players, and wrestlers, respectively, compared with the volunteers. The corresponding cBMDs were 18%, 6%, and 11% higher than that of volunteers. There was significant correlation between the trabecular and cBMD, and height of the athletes, sports years, training hours per week, and physical activity. The most significant correlation with BMD was the type of physical activity. Both the height of the subjects and physical activity variables showed variations of 47% and 32% in trabecular and cBMD, respectively. According to the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) only the physical activity factor was effective, with a significance level of P < 0.01; the other factors and interactions were not effective (P > 0.05) on trabecular and cBMD. Different training patterns have a different anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs of the vertebrae, and this effect is more pronounced on the trabecular compartment. Weight lifting showed the highest anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs compared with soccer playing and wrestling. Of the independent variables, physical activity showed the highest anabolic effect on the vertebrae. These results may have implications for devising exercise strategies to reduce the possibility of fracture in old age.

  19. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  20. How mineralization and stylolitization record fault reactivation caused by stress changes ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marine, Laborde; Catherine, Homberg; Yasin, Makhloufi; Johann, Schnyder

    2015-04-01

    In multi-phased tectonic basins, reactivation of faults is common and mineralization patterns are complex. The aim of this study is to understand how mineralization and stylolitization of rocks observed at microscopic scale record fault activity during basin-scale stress field variations. For this purpose, we analyzed mesoscale faults and small-scale brittle structures on eight sites in the Vocontian Basin in SE France, as an example of a complex multi-phased basin. The southeastern French Basin resulted from a WNW-ESE rifting which began at Liassic time, later followed by the opening of Tethyan Ocean to the East. This basin was affected by later extensional events during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period during which the Vocontian Basin developed with an E-W orientation. Then, it was affected by two major Pyrenean and Alpine compressions, interrupted by the Oligocene extension. Thin-sections were realized on samples collected along 13 normal faults with vertical offsets up to several meters on seven sites. These thin-sections were analyzed in transmitted light and in cathodoluminescence and the observed structures were consistently characterized in 3D. A microtectonic analysis was also conducted, consisting in the measurement of fault-slip data, veins, and stylolitic planes. The results of this analysis showed that during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic times, the Vocontian Basin has been affected by three major strike-slip regimes in relation with the Pyrenean and the Alpine compressional tectonic phases, and a third later event. The basin extension was poorly recorded on the various sites and did not allow the calculation of the stress tensors. Macroscopic and microscopic fault structures show that all analyzed normal faults contain evidences of reactivation. Microstructures analysis indicated that the history of the investigated faults was complex implying two states of stress driving their activity with (1) an opening episode that may be associated with

  1. Study of Different Involutive Changes in Bone Mineral Density Measured in Ward's Triangle and Trabecular Volume Measured in Iliac Crest in Relation to Age

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, RF; Gallegos, RF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The ageing process causes changes in the bone structure, in bone mineral density, and musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare involutive changes in bone structure that occur in relation to age in men and women through the study of bone mineral density at the Ward's triangle and trabecular volume. Subjects and Methods: In this study, we analysed bone mineral density at Ward's triangle in 70 people (38 men and 32 women) and did a histomorphometric study of trabecular volume at the right iliac crest in 66 samples (42 males and 24 females) obtained from autopsies of court cases, aged between 13 and 83 years. Results: The results show significant correlations between measurements of bone mineral density, trabecular volume values and anthropometric measures of age, gender and body mass index. Conclusions: This study shows involutional changes that occur in the bone mineral density and Ward's triangle in the bone structure during the process of ageing. In addition, both weight and height have a great influence on bone mineral density and changes in bone that occur; and body mass index is a very important determinant of bone mineral density. PMID:26360671

  2. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  3. Dyslipidemia causes overestimation of plasma mitotane measurements

    PubMed Central

    Paci, Angelo; Hescot, Ségolène; Seck, Atmane; Jublanc, Christel; Mercier, Lionel; Vezzosi, Delphine; Drui, Delphine; Quinkler, Marcus; Fassnacht, Martin; Bruckert, Eric; Lombès, Marc; Leboulleux, Sophie; Broutin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mitotane (o,p′-DDD) is the standard treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Monitoring of plasma mitotane levels is recommended to look for a therapeutic window between 14 and 20mg/L, but its positive predictive value requires optimization. We report the case of an ACC patient with a history of dyslipidemia treated with mitotane in whom several plasma mitotane levels >30mg/L were found together with an excellent neurological tolerance. This observation led us to compare theoretical or measured o,p′-DDD and o,p′-DDE levels in a series of normolipidemic and dyslipidemic plasma samples to explore potential analytical issues responsible for an overestimation of plasma mitotane levels. We demonstrate an overestimation of mitotane measurements in dyslipidemic patients. Mitotane and o,p′-DDE measurements showed a mean 20% overestimation in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, compared with normolipidemic plasma. The internal standard p,p′-DDE measurements showed a parallel decrease in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, suggesting a matrix effect. Finally, diluting plasma samples and/or using phospholipid removal cartridges allowed correcting such interference. Learning points Hypercholesterolemia (HCH) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) induce an overestimation of plasma mitotane measurements. We propose a routine monitoring of lipidemic status. We propose optimized methodology of measurement before interpreting high plasma mitotane levels. PMID:27298727

  4. Swimming and cycling do not cause positive effects on bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Marçal, Anderson Carlos; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Figueiredo, Rosa Costa; Sousa, Evitom Corrêa de

    2016-02-17

    Osteoporosis is considered a common metabolic bone disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In this context, physical activity has been used as a non-pharmacological tool for prevention and auxiliary treatment of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of cycling and swimming practice on bone mineral density (BMD). This research was conducted in accordance with the recommendations outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The studies were consulted in the period from 2004 to 2014, through major electronic databases: PubMed(®), SciELO(®) and LILACS(®). Ten studies evaluated the effects of cycling on BMD, and the results showed that nine studies have linked the practice of professional cycling with low levels of BMD. Another 18 studies have reported that swimming has no positive effects on bone mass. We conclude that cycling and swimming do not cause positive effects on BMD; thus, these are not the most suitable exercises for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Depth Variation of Deep Seismicity from in situ Measurements of Mineral Strengths at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strengths of major minerals of Earth's mantle have been measured using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths is used to derive the yield strengths. Systematic analysis of the experimental result for olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite and perovskite indicates that minerals in the upper mantle, the transition zone and the lower mantle have very distinct strength character. Increasing temperature weakens the upper mantle mineral, olivine, significantly. At high temperature and high pressure, the transition zone minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, have higher strengths than the upper mantle mineral. Among all the minerals studied, the lower mantle mineral, perovskite, has the highest strength. While both the upper mantle and the transition zone minerals show a notable strength drop, the strength of the lower mantle mineral shows just an increase of relaxation rate (no strength drop) when the temperature is increased stepwise by 200 K. The strength characteristics of these major mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures indicate that yield strength may play a crucial role in defining the profile of deep earthquake occurrence with depth.

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. ); Kehayias, J. . USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univ.); Kamen, Y.; Dilmanian, F.A. ); Lindsay, R. . Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons)

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Cometabolic mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene caused by hydrocarbon additions to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaly, R.A.; Bartha, R.

    1999-10-01

    The mineralization of [7-{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil was investigated in response to additions of individual hydrocarbons, defined hydrocarbon mixtures, crude oil, and crude oil fractions. Neither substantial BaP mineralization nor enrichment of BaP degraders occurred in BaP-spiked soil in the absence of a suitable hydrocarbon supplement. Crude oil, the saturated and aromatic class components of crude oil, the distillates heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel supported up to 60% mineralization of 80 {micro}g [7-{sup 14}C]BaP per gram of soil in 40 d. Neither single hydrocarbons nor defined hydrocarbon mixtures containing normal and branched alkanes, alicyclics, and aromatics supported comparable BaP mineralization. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} occurred after lag periods characteristic to specific petroleum products and their concentrations. Time required for microbial proliferation, hydrocarbon toxicity, and competitive inhibition might have contributed to these lag periods, but the complete inhibition of BaP mineralization by diesel-fuel vapors pointed to a dominant role of competitive inhibition. A lack of radiocarbon incorporation into soil biomass from [7-{sup 14}C]BaP indicated that at least the initial steps of BaP biodegradation in soil were cometabolic in nature. Suitable hydrocarbon mixtures not only supported BaP mineralization by serving as primary substrates, but also enhanced BaP bioavailability by dissolving this hydrophobic solid.

  9. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  10. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  11. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  12. Physical deposit measures and commercial potential: The case of titanium-bearing heavy-mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Physical measures of mineral deposit characteristics, such as grade and tonnage, long have been used in both subjective and analytic models to predict favorability of areas for the occurrence of mineral deposits of particular types. After a deposit has been identified, however, the explorationist must decide whether to continue data collection, begin an economic feasibility study, or abandon the prospect. The decision maker can estimate the probability that a deposit will be commercial by examining physical measures. The amount of sampling data required before such a probability estimate can be considered reliable can be determined. A logit probability model estimated from onshore titanium-bearing heavy-mineral deposit data identifies and quantifies the relative influence of a deposit's physical measures on the chances of the deposit becoming commercial. A principal conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis is that, along with a measure of deposit size, the characteristics most important in predicting commercial potential are grades of the constituent minerals. Total heavy-mineral-bearing sand grade or even total titanium grade (without data on constituent mineral grades) are poor predictors of the deposit's commercial potential. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  14. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  15. Measurements of mineral oil mist, hydrocarbon vapor, and noise in engine rooms of ships.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, K; Børresen, E

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of oil mist and hydrocarbon vapor to which marine engineers are currently exposed. Measurements were also taken of the sound level in the engine room and the control rooms. Area mist concentration measurements were performed in 21 ferries, 2 cargo ships, and 1 westamaran (an express ship with two keels). Measurements were also performed for four different tasks where exposures above area level were expected. The area level of oil mist in the engine rooms of the different ships varied from not detectable to 0.53 mg/m3 (mean 0.24 mg/m3). The levels of hydrocarbons in the different ships varied from 0.2 to 14.5 mg/m3. The sound level varied from 96 to 108 dB(A) in the engine rooms, and from 70 to 90 dB(A) in the control room. When compared to other studies, it is supposed that the exposure to noise and mineral oil mist in the engine rooms of ships may represent a risk of adverse health effects for workers on Norwegian ships. The sound level may cause neurogenic hearing loss when appropriate hearing protection is not used.

  16. Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

    2007-12-01

    Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy

  17. Correlating Whole-Body Bone Mineral Densitometry Measurements to Those From Local Anatomical Sites.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Alireza; Dehghan, Pooneh; Ariannia, Saideh; Ahmadzadeh, Arman; Shakiba, Madjid; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Using the same cutoff points for whole-body measurements as for site-specific measurements will result in underestimation of osteoporosis. We assessed the correlation between densitometry measurements for the whole body with those for the femur, lumbar spine, and forearm to evaluate the possibility of replacing site-specific values with whole-body measurements. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all patients referred to a single rheumatology clinic for bone mineral density measurements from 2009 to 2010. All patients who had bone mineral density measurements taken from the hip, lumbar spine, forearm, and whole body were enrolled in the study. Standard bone mineral density measurements were performed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry device (Hologic Delphi A; Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA). Bone mineral density, Z-score, and T-score were measured for all patients and all body regions. The mean age of the 152 participating patients was 56.7 ± 12.6 years, and 97.4% were female. Pearson correlation coefficients of the whole-body bone mineral density values compared with site-specific values in patients over age 50 were 0.66 - 0.75. Using T-score cutoff points of -1 and -2.5 for osteopenia and osteoporosis, whole-body measurements underestimated the percentage of abnormal patients compared with the site-specific measurements (all P < 0.001). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the whole-body bone mineral density showed respective areas under the curve of 0.96 and 0.84 for the diagnosis of abnormal hip bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Using the same cutoff points for whole-body measurements as for site-specific measurements will result in overestimation or especially underestimation of osteopenia and osteoporosis diagnosis. Choosing new and appropriate cutoff points for whole-body densitometric measurements when we want to substitutes this assessment instead of site specific measurements seems mandatory and will decrease the rate of

  18. Ocular injuries caused by metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Erdurman, Fazıl Cüneyt; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Hürmeriç, Volkan; Pellumbi, Alfrida; Durukan, Ali Hakan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2013-05-01

    Bottles containing carbonated drinks are potentially hazardous to the eye. In this study, we aimed to document the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes in a series of patients with ocular injury from flying metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles. Retrospective review of ocular injuries due to metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles. Sixteen eyes of sixteen patients were included in the study. All of the patients were male, with a mean age of 24 years. Ten of the patients had a history of using improper tools for bottle cap removal. The left eye was involved in twelve cases and the right eye in four cases. All patients had contusion-type closed-globe injury. Varying degrees of hyphema were observed in all patients, and vitreous hemorrhage was present in four. The visual acuity at the last follow-up was 20/20 in 15 of the patients. The use of a bottle cap opener is essential for preventing ocular damage from pressed metal caps of carbonated drinks. In addition to popularising the use of screw cap bottles, warning labels that alert consumers about the possibility of eye injury should be placed on carbonated drinks with pressed metal caps.

  19. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.

    PubMed

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    Iron (Fe(0) ) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H(2) S, and scavenge of 'cathodic' H(2) from chemical reaction of Fe(0) with H(2) O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe(0) year(-1) ), while conventional H(2) -scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO(3) , Mg/CaCO(3) ) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m(-1) ). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe(0)  → 4Fe(2+)  + 8e(-) ) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e(-)  + SO(4) (2-)  + 9H(+)  → HS(-)  + 4H(2) O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H(2) rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments.

  20. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year−1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m−1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 → 4Fe2+ + 8e−) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e− + SO42− + 9H+ → HS− + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  1. Direct Measurement of the Wettability of Minerals Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Xu, L.; Lu, H.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The wettability of reservoir rock plays an essential role in affecting the states of fluids (water, oil, etc) in pores which are constructed with various minerals. The contact angle method, which is based on the optical microscope photographs of millimeter-sized droplets on a smooth mineral surface, is one of the most widely employed methods to evaluate the wettability of a rock. However, the real reservoir rocks are composed of several kinds of minerals and thus nonhomogeneous, which leads to different wettability at different location of the rock. The mineral grains are usually micrometer-sized so that the traditional optical contact angle method cannot obtain the wettability of different minerals in the rock. Here we used a tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM, MFP-3D-BIO, Asylum Research) to measure the contact angles of micrometer-sized water droplets on different minerals in a tight sand rock which is mainly composed of quartz, albite, potash feldspar and anorthite. The water droplets varied from submicron to several tens micron in diameter. With the optimization of tool and operation parameters, the AFM tip was well controlled so that the nanoscale morphology of the contact configuration between water film and the mineral surface can be obtained at high resolution without disturbing the liquid surface. The AFM results showed that the contact angles of water on quartz and albite were 30-40 ° and 37-45 °, respectively. The AFM method provides a new measure for the wettability evaluation of reservoir rocks, and it is with potential to be applied to oil and gas hydrate studies.

  2. In-situ magnetic susceptibility measurements as a tool to follow geomicrobiological transformation of Fe minerals.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Katharina; Dippon, Urs; Rijal, Moti Lal; Appel, Erwin; Kappler, Andreas

    2010-05-15

    Fe minerals sorb nutrients and pollutants and participate in microbial and abiotic redox reactions. Formation and transformation of Fe minerals is typically followed by mineral analysis at different time points. However, in lab studies the available sample amount is often limited and sampling may even influence the experimental conditions. We therefore evaluated the suitability of in situ magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements, which do not require sampling, as an alternative tool to follow ferro(i)magnetic mineral (trans-)formation during ferrihydrite reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and in soil microcosms. In our experiments with MR-1, a large initial increase in volume specific MS (kappa) followed by a slight decrease correlated well with the initial formation of magnetite and further reduction of magnetite to siderite as also identified by micro-XRD. The presence of humic acids retarded magnetite formation, and even inhibited magnetite formation completely, depending on their concentration. In soil microcosms, an increase in kappa accompanied by increasing concentrations of HCl-extractable Fe occurred only in microbially active set-ups, indicating a microbially induced change in soil Fe mineralogy. Based on our results, we conclude that MS measurements are suitable to follow microbial Fe mineral transformation in pure cultures as well as in complex soil samples.

  3. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  4. An Investigation of Mineral Dynamics in Sea Ice by Solubility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B.; Kennedy, H.; Papadimitriou, S.

    2016-02-01

    Sea ice is a composite material with a sponge-like structure. The framework of the structure is composed of pure ice, and within the pores exists a concentrated seawater brine. When the temperature is reduced, the volume of this residual brine decreases, while its salinity increases. As a result of the paired changes to temperature and salinity, the brine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral at several points when cooling sea ice towards -30°C, creating a sequence of minerals that precipitate. The presence of countless microscopic salt crystals encapsulated within the ice, coupled with changes in brine volume associated with their precipitation/dissolution, results in changes to the optical and structural properties of the medium that contribute to the surface energy balance in sea ice environments. Furthermore, attainment of mineral equilibrium can result in abrupt changes in brine composition and osmotic conditions in the isolated brine pockets, imposing challenging conditions upon the biota that habitat the sea ice environment. Mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O) each represent minerals that are understood to exist within sea ice. Previous research has focused upon mineral extraction/detection, and the specific temperature for the onset of each minerals precipitation in sea ice; rather than the overarching dynamics. For this reason, solubility measurements of mirabilite, gypsum and hydrohalite in conditions representative of equilibrium sea ice brines were carried between 0 and -28°C, covering a range of undersaturated and supersaturated conditions for each mineral. Results provide accurate data for the onset of each minerals formation in sea ice, as well as important information on the way in which precipitation and dissolution reactions are affected when sea ice warms or cools. By incorporating the solubility data into a model that simluates the temperature-salinity profiles of first-year sea ice, the

  5. Effect of fat content on single- and dual-energy CT measurements of bone mineral: determination using a new system of tissue-mimicking phantom materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmore, Michael S.; Sato, Masahjiko

    2000-04-01

    The effects of fat content on single- and dual-energy CT measurements of bone mineral were quantified using a set of tissue-mimicking phantoms which more accurately represents the in-vivo situation than previous phantoms. The key to performing these measurements in CT is to have a mixture of tissue types within each image voxel, a condition which is not satisfied with standard phantoms. The phantoms used in these studies were solid materials which mimicked 17 different homogeneous mixtures of bone, muscle, and fat. The concept of creating phantoms to mimic different mixtures of these tissues is new. The materials are epoxy-resin based and have different mixtures of phenolic microspheres, polyethylene, and calcium carbonate suspended in them. Single- and dual-energy CT were used to image the phantom materials, and the effects of fat content on bone-mineral measurements were determined. The single-energy CT measurements show how fat content causes an underestimation of the amount of bone mineral present in a specimen, with the underestimation increasing as a function of fat content. With 25% and 50% fat by volume, the single-energy measurements underestimated bone volume percentage by 2.7% and 3.6% respectively. With dual-energy CT, fat content has no effect on the measurement of bone mineral. These results are not surprising. In fact, the effects of fat content on single- and dual-energy CT measurements have been studied many times previously. However, a system of accurately measuring these effects using a set of phantom measurements with physiologically accurate tissue-mimicking materials has not been developed previously. Using these phantoms, dual-energy CT measurements can be accurately calibrated for measurements of bone mineral while the errors possible while measuring bone mineral with single-energy CT can be quantified for any given imaging parameters.

  6. Fine-resolution multiscale mapping of clay minerals in Australian soils measured with near infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Clay minerals are the most reactive inorganic components of soils. They help to determine soil properties and largely govern their behaviors and functions. Clay minerals also play important roles in biogeochemical cycling and interact with the environment to affect geomorphic processes such as weathering, erosion and deposition. This paper provides new spatially explicit clay mineralogy information for Australia that will help to improve our understanding of soils and their role in the functioning of landscapes and ecosystems. I measured the abundances of kaolinite, illite and smectite in Australian soils using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Using a model-tree algorithm, I built rule-based models for each mineral at two depths (0-20 cm, 60-80 cm) as a function of predictors that represent the soil-forming factors (climate, parent material, relief, vegetation and time), their processes and the scales at which they vary. The results show that climate, parent material and soil type exert the largest influence on the abundance and spatial distribution of the clay minerals; relief and vegetation have more local effects. I digitally mapped each mineral on a 3 arc-second grid. The maps show the relative abundances and distributions of kaolinite, illite and smectite in Australian soils. Kaolinite occurs in a range of climates but dominates in deeply weathered soils, in soils of higher landscapes and in regions with more rain. Illite is present in varied landscapes and may be representative of colder, more arid climates, but may also be present in warmer and wetter soil environments. Smectite is often an authigenic mineral, formed from the weathering of basalt, but it also occurs on sediments and calcareous substrates. It occurs predominantly in drier climates and in landscapes with low relief. These new clay mineral maps fill a significant gap in the availability of soil mineralogical information. They provide data to for example, assist with research into soil

  7. Compensation for occupational disease with multiple causes: the case of coal miners respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.; Wagner, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Many diseases associated with occupational exposures are clinically indistinguishable from diseases with non-occupational causes. Given this, how are fair decisions made about eligibility for compensation. This problem is discussed in relation to the federal black lung program. Conflicting definitions of terms--coal workers pneumoconiosis as defined by the medical profession, pneumoconiosis as defined by the United States Congress, and the popular term, black lung--are important considerations in this discussion. Each is embedded in different logical interpretations of the causes of occupational disease and of disability. Alternative views are presented and critically discussed.

  8. Mass Density Measurement of Mineralized Tissue with Grating-Based X-Ray Phase Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Regine; Zanette, Irene; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Dierolf, Martin; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the mineral content distribution in highly mineralized tissues, such as bones and teeth, is fundamental in understanding a variety of structural questions ranging from studies of the mechanical properties to improved pathological investigations. However, non-destructive, volumetric and quantitative density measurements of mineralized samples, some of which may extend several mm in size, remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate the potential of grating-based x-ray phase tomography to gain insight into the three-dimensional mass density distribution of tooth tissues in a non-destructive way and with a sensitivity of 85 mg/cm3. Density gradients of 13 − 19% over 1 − 2 mm within typical samples are detected, and local variations in density of 0.4 g/cm3 on a length scale of 0.1 mm are revealed. This method proves to be an excellent quantitative tool for investigations of subtle differences in mineral content of mineralized tissues that can change following treatment or during ageing and healing. PMID:28002416

  9. Mass Density Measurement of Mineralized Tissue with Grating-Based X-Ray Phase Tomography.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Regine; Zanette, Irene; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Dierolf, Martin; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the mineral content distribution in highly mineralized tissues, such as bones and teeth, is fundamental in understanding a variety of structural questions ranging from studies of the mechanical properties to improved pathological investigations. However, non-destructive, volumetric and quantitative density measurements of mineralized samples, some of which may extend several mm in size, remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate the potential of grating-based x-ray phase tomography to gain insight into the three-dimensional mass density distribution of tooth tissues in a non-destructive way and with a sensitivity of 85 mg/cm3. Density gradients of 13 - 19% over 1 - 2 mm within typical samples are detected, and local variations in density of 0.4 g/cm3 on a length scale of 0.1 mm are revealed. This method proves to be an excellent quantitative tool for investigations of subtle differences in mineral content of mineralized tissues that can change following treatment or during ageing and healing.

  10. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  11. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  12. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength.

  13. In vitro quantitative light-induced fluorescence to measure changes in enamel mineralization.

    PubMed

    Gmür, Rudolf; Giertsen, Elin; van der Veen, Monique H; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; ten Cate, Jacob M; Guggenheim, Bernhard

    2006-09-01

    A sensitive, quantitative method for investigating changes in enamel mineralization of specimens subjected to in vitro or in situ experimentation is presented. The fluorescence-detecting instrument integrates a Xenon arc light source and an object positioning stage, which makes it particularly suitable for the nondestructive assessment of demineralized or remineralized enamel. We demonstrate the ability of in vitro quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to quantify changes in mineralization of bovine enamel discs that had been exposed in vitro to a demineralizing gel (n=36) or biofilm-mediated demineralization challenges (n=10), or were carried in situ by three volunteers during a 10-day experiment (n=12). Further experiments show the technique's value for monitoring the extent of remineralization in 36 specimens exposed in vitro to oral multispecies biofilms and document the repeatability of in vitro QLF measurements (n=10) under standardized assay conditions. The validity of the method is illustrated by comparison with transversal microradiography (TMR), the invasive current gold standard for assessing experimental changes in enamel mineralization. Ten discs with 22 measurement areas for comparison demonstrated a positive correlation between TMR and QLF (r=0.82). Filling a technological gap, this QLF system is a promising tool to assay in vitro nondestructively localized changes in mineralization of enamel specimens.

  14. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gotfredsen, A; Pødenphant, J; Nilas, L; Christiansen, C

    1989-04-01

    We investigated the discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDspine) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMCforearm) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMDspine and BMCforearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMDspine or BMCforearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures (not significant in spinal fracture patients). BMCforearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMDspine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMDspine or BMCforearm, whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements.

  15. Measurement of mixed biomass burning and mineral dust aerosol in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, C. H.; Trautmann, T.; Lindermeir, E.

    2009-03-01

    From January 19th to February 7th, 2008, we installed a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Praia Airport on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Our goal was to measure the combined radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol and mineral dust usually observed there during that time of the year, when mineral dust emerging from the Sahara mixes with biomass burning aerosol transported north-westwards from the Sahelian region. Our measurements were part of the Saharan Mineral Dwst Experiment 2 (SAMUM 2) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as continuation of the SAMUM field experiment in Morocco in 2006. SAMUM 2 is a joint venture of several German research institutes and universities and included both ground based as well as airborne measurements with the DLR Falcon research aircraft. The ground based instrumentation included spectrometers for visible and thermal infrared downwelling radiation, sun photometers, LIDAR and particle impactors while the Falcon was equipped with LIDAR and several instruments for aerosol analysis and sample return. A comparison of the FTIR measurements with radiative transfer simulations yields the expected aerosol forcing in the atmospheric window region after application of a suitable calibration method.

  16. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition of children with well-controlled homocystinuria caused by CBS deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, J S; Lee, D H

    2013-09-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of methionine. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, dislocation of the optic lens, vascular lesions, arterial and venous thromboembolism, skeletal abnormalities, and osteoporosis. Most homocystinuria patients diagnosed in adulthood have severe osteoporosis, and homocystinuria is frequently mentioned as a cause of osteoporosis. Good control of plasma homocysteine may prevent or delay some of these complications. However, the effectiveness of bone mineral density (BMD) gain or fracture prevention has not been addressed. Here, we describe changes in BMD and body composition in 5 CBS deficiency patients who were diagnosed at young age and were managed with good metabolic control. We found that the BMD of each region was within the normal range. BMD gain was adequate and the patients had no significant change in skeletal morphology.

  17. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  18. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    PubMed

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  19. Clay minerals in Northern Plains coal overburden as measured by X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Klages, M.G.; Hopper, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    Mathematical models were tested for changing x-ray diffraction data to percentages of clay minerals in coal overburden. Various factors for adjusting peak areas were tested on 50 eastern Montana samples that contained smectite, illite, and daloinite, with lesser amounts of other minerals. Cation exchange capacities (CEC) of the clays were estimated from the calculated mineral percentages and correlated against measured CEC. The best model gave in r/sup 2/ of 0.89. It was used for estimating clay mineralogy at six mine sites in the Northern Great Plains. Average mineral contents in the surface 8 to 38 m of five of seven drill holes in the Montana-Wyoming border area were 40% smectite, with 20% each of illite and kaolinite. Clays from greater depths in the same area had no smectite and an average of 50% each of illite and kaolinite. All samples from a mine in central North Dakota were high in swelling clay, with an average of 60% smectite and 10% vermiculite.Samples from four holes at a mine in eastern Wyoming were all high in kaolinite, having an average of 50% with 30% illite and 10% interstratified smectite-vermiculite.

  20. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  1. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  2. Potential linkages between mineral magnetic measurements and urban roadside soil pollution (part 2).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Fullen, M A; Booth, C A

    2014-03-01

    Use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual geochemical classes (i.e. Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd), are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.001 n = 60), strong (r = 0.632-0.797), associations with Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. Inter-geochemical correlations suggest anthropogenic influences, which is supported by low χFD% measurements that infer an influence of multi-domain mineralogy are indicative of anthropogenic combustion processes. Results indicate mineral magnetic measurements could potentially be used as a geochemical indicator for soils in certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for monitoring techniques. The mineral magnetic technique offers a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable pollution proxy for soil contamination studies.

  3. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  4. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  5. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  6. [Determination of changes in the mineral content of the bones of diabetics by photon absorption measurements].

    PubMed

    Achkova, P; Diadov, V; Sotirov, G; Diankov, L

    1983-01-01

    The absolute value of mineral content of the bones (MCB), obtained from a single measurement and compared with the so called mean or normal value for a certain age-sex population, cannot be a reliable diagnostic index owing to the great individual discrepancies of MCB, reaching even to +/- 40%. Only the successive, dynamic and compared within each other values of MCB could be of use for the purposes of medical diagnostics and therapy. As a result for periodic measurements in patients with diabetes, the juvenile diabetes was concluded to be characterized by a higher initial MCB value and a faster demineralization, contrary to diabetes that advanced at an older age.

  7. Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  8. Temperature measurement of mineral melt by means of a high-speed camera.

    PubMed

    Bizjan, Benjamin; Širok, Brane; Drnovšek, Janko; Pušnik, Igor

    2015-09-10

    This paper presents a temperature evaluation method by means of high-speed, visible light digital camera visualization and its application to the mineral wool production process. The proposed method adequately resolves the temperature-related requirements in mineral wool production and significantly improves the spatial and temporal resolution of measured temperature fields. Additionally, it is very cost effective in comparison with other non-contact temperature field measurement methods, such as infrared thermometry. Using the proposed method for temperatures between 800°C and 1500°C, the available temperature measurement range is approximately 300 K with a single temperature calibration point and without the need for camera setting adjustments. In the case of a stationary blackbody, the proposed method is able to produce deviations of less than 5 K from the reference (thermocouple-measured) temperature in a measurement range within 100 K from the calibration temperature. The method was also tested by visualization of rotating melt film in the rock wool production process. The resulting temperature fields are characterized by a very good temporal and spatial resolution (18,700 frames per second at 128  pixels×328  pixels and 8000 frames per second at 416  pixels×298  pixels).

  9. Measurement of reactive oxygen metabolites produced by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to mineral dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, P.; Klockars, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop an in-vitro model for studying mineral dust-induced production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human macrophages. Monocytes isolated from human buffy coats were cultured in vitro for 1-6 days. Quartz particles induced both luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) by the adherent cells. However, the luminol response decreased form day to day, obviously due to a decrease in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the cells, whereas the lucigenin response showed no such MPO dependence. The luminol response was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and the MPO-inhibitor azide, while the lucigenin response was inhibited by SOD and catalase but stimulated by azide. There was a positive correlation between the lucigenin responses and the results obtained with the established cytochrome c assay for superoxide, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant. The effects of quartz, titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and wollastonite particles were investigated with the lucigenin assay. Quartz and chrysotile caused prominent light emission by 6-day-old macrophages, whereas titanium dioxide and wollastonite caused weak responses. We conclude that mineral dusts induce production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human monocyte-derived macrophages, and that the quantitative responses depend on both physical and physicochemical dust properties, the nature of which are still to be defined. PMID:2169299

  10. Surface measurements of global warming causing atmospheric constituents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, S N; Youn, Y H; Park, K J; Min, H K; Schnell, R C

    2001-07-01

    The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interest in climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of global warming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and are not being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda, since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to monitor functions of global warming, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has set up a Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station on the western coast of Korea (Anmyun-do) and has been actively monitoring global warming over Northeast Asia. In addition, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured for a similar KMA global warming program at Kosan, Cheju Island since 1990. Aerosol and radiation have also been measured at both sites as well as in Seoul. The observations have been analyzed using diagnostics of climate change in Northeast Asia and also have been internationally compared. Results indicate that greenhouse gases are in good statistic agreement with the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) long-term trends of monthly mean concentrations and seasonal cycles. Atmospheric particulate matter has also been analyzed for particular Asian types in terms of optical depth, number concentration and size distribution.

  11. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  12. Remote Raman measurements of minerals, organics, and inorganics at 430  m range.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E; Misra, Anupam K; Muzangwa, Lloyd G; Berlanga, Genesis; Muchow, Dalton; Porter, John; Sharma, Shiv K

    2016-12-20

    Raman spectroscopy is a characterization technique that is able to analyze and detect water or water-bearing minerals, minerals, and organic materials that are of special interest for planetary science. Using a portable pulsed remote Raman system with a commercial 8 in. (203.2 mm) telescope, a frequency doubled Nd-YAG-pulsed laser, and a spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera, we acquired good quality Raman spectra of various materials from a 430 m standoff distance during daylight with detection times of 1-10 s, in a realistic context in which both the exciting source and the detector are part of the same measurement system. Remote Raman spectra at this distance provided unambiguous detection of compounds such as water and water ice, dry ice, sulfur, sulfates, various minerals and organics, and atmospheric gases. This research work demonstrates significant improvement in the remote Raman technique as well as its suitability for solar system exploration.

  13. SIMS measurements of δ 34S in sulfide minerals from adjacent vein and stratabound ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, Andrew W.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    1991-02-01

    The effects of sample matrix and secondary ion energy on the instrumental fractionation of sulfur isotopes have been studied for troilite, pyrite, and galena using the Cameca IMS-3f ion microprobe. An analytical procedure is described for the measurement of δ 34S on negatively charged sulfur ions from pyrite and galena with a reproducibility better than ±1.5%. Sulfur isotope ratios were measured in pyrite and galena from adjacent stratabound manto orebodies and crosscutting veins in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru. Isotopic compositions (δ 34S CDT) of sulfur in pyrite and galena from vein and manto deposits have a total range from -20 to 10%.. Sulfur in manto galenas has a wide range of isotopic compositions and is usually isotopically heavier than pyrite when both minerals have been analyzed in the same sample. Isotopic disequilibrium between pyrite and galena suggests precipitation from separate fluids, consistent with textural evidence that galena is paragenetically later than pyrite and often replaces it. Formation of ore minerals in the veins appears to have overlapped temporally with the later stages of manto mineralization and continued after manto formation ceased. Sulfur isotope values in pyrite and galena from veins are lower by about 5%. on average than the same sulfides in the mantos, and δ 34S values of vein galenas decrease over the course of vein formation. This shift of δ 34S toward lower values with time may be the result of increased mixing with sulfur from diagenetic sulfides or a decrease in the δ 34S value of aqueous sulfide due to oxidation of the ore fluid in the later stages of deposition. The latter hypothesis is favored because the lead isotopic compositions of the same vein minerals do not indicate an influx of sediment-derived lead and because of the appearance of barite in the final stages of several vein deposits. The majority of pyrite and galena analyses from vein and manto ores are compatible with precipitation from

  14. CKD-induced wingless/integration1 inhibitors and phosphorus cause the CKD-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yifu; Ginsberg, Charles; Seifert, Michael; Agapova, Olga; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Register, Thomas C; Freedman, Barry I; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut; Hruska, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder.

  15. CKD-Induced Wingless/Integration1 Inhibitors and Phosphorus Cause the CKD–Mineral and Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yifu; Ginsberg, Charles; Seifert, Michael; Agapova, Olga; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Register, Thomas C.; Freedman, Barry I.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder. PMID:24578135

  16. Vertical profile measurements of soil air suggest immobilization of gaseous elemental mercury in mineral soil.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Pokharel, Ashok K; Moore, Christopher

    2014-02-18

    Evasion of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)g) from soil surfaces is an important source of atmospheric Hg, but the volatility and solid-gas phase partitioning of Hg(0) within soils is poorly understood. We developed a novel system to continuously measure Hg(0)g concentrations in soil pores at multiple depths and locations, and present a total of 297 days of measurements spanning 14 months in two forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S. Temporal patterns showed consistent pore Hg(0)g concentrations below levels measured in the atmosphere (termed Hg(0)g immobilization), ranging from 66 to 94% below atmospheric concentrations throughout multiple seasons. The lowest pore Hg(0)g concentrations were observed in the deepest soil layers (40 cm), but significant immobilization was already present in the top 7 cm. In the absence of sinks or sources, pore Hg(0)g levels would be in equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations due to the porous nature of the soil matrix and gas diffusion. Therefore, we explain decreases in pore Hg(0)g in mineral soils below atmospheric concentrations--or below levels found in upper soils as observed in previous studies--with the presence of an Hg(0)g sink in mineral soils possibly related to Hg(0)g oxidation or other processes such as sorption or dissolution in soil water. Surface chamber measurements showing daytime Hg(0)g emissions and nighttime Hg(0)g deposition indicate that near-surface layers likely dominate net atmospheric Hg(0)g exchange resulting in typical diurnal cycles due to photochemcial reduction at the surface and possibly Hg(0)g evasion from litter layers. In contrast, mineral soils seem to be decoupled from this surface exchange, showing consistent Hg(0)g uptake and downward redistribution--although our calculations indicate these fluxes to be minor compared to other mass fluxes. A major implication is that once Hg is incorporated into mineral soils, it may be unlikely subjected to renewed Hg(0)g re-emission from

  17. Magnetic Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses common as well as uncommon minerals that are attracted to a hand magnet. Included in the discussion are answers to the following questions: (1) What causes this attraction? and (2) How many different minerals respond to a hand magnet? (ZWH)

  18. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  19. Measuring Fluxes of Mineral Nutrients and Toxicants in Plants with Radioactive Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Hamam, Ahmed M.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Unidirectional influx and efflux of nutrients and toxicants, and their resultant net fluxes, are central to the nutrition and toxicology of plants. Radioisotope tracing is a major technique used to measure such fluxes, both within plants, and between plants and their environments. Flux data obtained with radiotracer protocols can help elucidate the capacity, mechanism, regulation, and energetics of transport systems for specific mineral nutrients or toxicants, and can provide insight into compartmentation and turnover rates of subcellular mineral and metabolite pools. Here, we describe two major radioisotope protocols used in plant biology: direct influx (DI) and compartmental analysis by tracer efflux (CATE). We focus on flux measurement of potassium (K+) as a nutrient, and ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+) as a toxicant, in intact seedlings of the model species barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These protocols can be readily adapted to other experimental systems (e.g., different species, excised plant material, and other nutrients/toxicants). Advantages and limitations of these protocols are discussed. PMID:25177829

  20. Direct measurement of neon production rates by (α,n) reactions in minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Cherniak, Daniele J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of nucleogenic neon from alpha particle capture by 18O and 19F offers a potential chronometer sensitive to temperatures higher than the more widely used (U-Th)/He chronometer. The accuracy depends on the cross sections and the calculated stopping power for alpha particles in the mineral being studied. Published 18O(α,n)21Ne production rates are in poor agreement and were calculated from contradictory cross sections, and therefore demand experimental verification. Similarly, the stopping powers for alpha particles are calculated from SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter software) based on a limited experimental dataset. To address these issues we used a particle accelerator to implant alpha particles at precisely known energies into slabs of synthetic quartz (SiO2) and barium tungstate (BaWO4) to measure 21Ne production from capture by 18O. Within experimental uncertainties the observed 21Ne production rates compare favorably to our predictions using published cross sections and stopping powers, indicating that ages calculated using these quantities are accurate at the ∼3% level. In addition, we measured the 22Ne/21Ne ratio and (U-Th)/He and (U-Th)/Ne ages of Durango fluorapatite, which is an important model system for this work because it contains both oxygen and fluorine. Finally, we present 21Ne/4He production rate ratios for a variety of minerals of geochemical interest along with software for calculating neon production rates and (U-Th)/Ne ages.

  1. Measuring fluxes of mineral nutrients and toxicants in plants with radioactive tracers.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Hamam, Ahmed M; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2014-08-22

    Unidirectional influx and efflux of nutrients and toxicants, and their resultant net fluxes, are central to the nutrition and toxicology of plants. Radioisotope tracing is a major technique used to measure such fluxes, both within plants, and between plants and their environments. Flux data obtained with radiotracer protocols can help elucidate the capacity, mechanism, regulation, and energetics of transport systems for specific mineral nutrients or toxicants, and can provide insight into compartmentation and turnover rates of subcellular mineral and metabolite pools. Here, we describe two major radioisotope protocols used in plant biology: direct influx (DI) and compartmental analysis by tracer efflux (CATE). We focus on flux measurement of potassium (K(+)) as a nutrient, and ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4(+)) as a toxicant, in intact seedlings of the model species barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These protocols can be readily adapted to other experimental systems (e.g., different species, excised plant material, and other nutrients/toxicants). Advantages and limitations of these protocols are discussed.

  2. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  3. Widespread groundwater-level offsets caused by the Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake of 23 August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Nelms, David L.; Sheets, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater levels were offset in bedrock observation wells, measured by the U.S. Geological Survey or others, as far as 553 km from the Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake on 23 August 2011. Water levels dropped as much as 0.47 m in 34 wells and rose as much as 0.15 m in 12 others. In some wells, which are as much as 213 m deep, the water levels recovered from these deviations in hours to days, but in others the water-level offset may have persisted. The groundwater-level offsets occurred in locations where the earthquake was at least weakly felt, and the maximum water-level excursion increased with felt intensity, independent of epicentral distance. Coseismic static strain from the earthquake was too small and localized to have contributed significantly to the groundwater-level offsets. The relation with intensity is consistent with ground motion from seismic waves leading to the water-level offsets. Examination of the hydrographs indicates that short-period ground motion most likely affected the permeability of the bedrock aquifers monitored by the wells.

  4. Specimen size and porosity can introduce error into microCT-based tissue mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Cory, Esther; Patel, Nipun D; Nazarian, Ara; Laib, Andres; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; DeSilva, Jeremy M; MacLatchy, Laura M; Snyder, Brian D; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2009-01-01

    The accurate measurement of tissue mineral density, rho(m), in specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral using polychromatic microCT systems is important, since studies often compare samples with a range of sizes and bone densities. We assessed the influence of object size on microCT measurements of rho(m) using (1) hydroxyapatite rods (HA), (2) precision-manufactured aluminum foams (AL) simulating trabecular bone structure, and (3) bovine cortical bone cubes (BCt). Two beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithms, determined using a 200 and 1200 mg/cm(3) HA wedge phantom, were used to calculate rho(m) of the HA and BCt. The 200 mg/cm(3) and an aluminum BHC algorithm were used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams. Equivalent rho(m) measurements of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg HA/cm(3) rods decreased (r(2)>0.96, p<0.05 for all) as HA rod diameter increased in the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC data. Errors averaged 8.2% across these samples and reached as high as 29.5%. Regression analyses suggested no size effects in the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC data but differences between successive sizes still reached as high as 13%. The linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams increased up to approximately 6% with increasing volume fractions (r(2)>0.81, p<0.05 for all) but the strength of the size-related error was also BHC dependent. Equivalent rho(m) values were inversely correlated with BCt cube size (r(2)>0.92, p<0.05). Use of the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC ameliorated the size-related artifact compared to the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC but errors with this BHC were still significant and ranged between 5% and 12%. These results demonstrate that object size, structure, and BHC algorithm can influence microCT measurements of rho(m). Measurements of rho(m) of specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral must be interpreted with caution unless appropriate steps are taken to minimize these potential artifacts.

  5. Arteriovenous Fistula Affects Bone Mineral Density Measurements in End-Stage Renal Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torregrosa, José-Vicente; Fuster, David; Peris, Pilar; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Solà, Oriol; Domenech, Beatriz; Martín, Gloria; Casellas, Joan; Pons, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hemodialysis needs an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that may influence the structure and growth of nearby bone and affect bone mass measurement. The study analyzed the effect of AVF in the assessment of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examined its influence on the final diagnosis of osteoporosis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Forty patients (52 ± 18 yr) in hemodialysis program (12 ± 8 yr) with permeable AVF in forearm were included. Patients were divided in two groups (over and under 50 yr). BMD of both forearms (three areas), lumbar spine, and femur was measured by DXA. Forearm measurements in each arm were compared. Patients were diagnosed as normal only if all territories were considered nonpathologic and osteoporosis/osteopenia was determined by the lowest score found. Results: Ten patients were excluded and 30 patients were analyzed. BMD in the forearm with AVF was significantly lower than that observed in the contralateral forearm in both groups of patients and in all forearm areas analyzed. When only lumbar spine and femur measurements were considered, 70% of patients were nonpathologic and 30% were osteoporotic. However, inclusion of AVF forearm classified 63% as osteoporotic and a further 27% as osteopenic, leaving only 10% as nonpathologic. Conclusions: Forearm AVF affects BMD measurements by decreasing their values in patients with end-stage renal failure. This may produce an overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, which should be taken into account when evaluating patients of this type. PMID:19713298

  6. Comparison of mineral dust and droplet residuals measured with two single particle aerosol mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Zawadowicz, Maria; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hitzenberger, Regina; Cziczo, Daniel; DeMott, Paul; Möhler, Ottmar

    2017-04-01

    Single Particle mass spectrometers are used to gain information on the chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, aerosol mixing state, and other valuable aerosol characteristics. During the Mass Spectrometry Intercomparison at the Fifth Ice Nucleation (FIN-01) Workshop, the new LAAPTOF single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (AeroMegt GmbH) was conducting simultaneous measurements together with the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. The aerosol particles were sampled from the AIDA chamber during ice cloud expansion experiments. Samples of mineral dust and ice droplet residuals were measured simultaneously. In this work, three expansion experiments are chosen for a comparison between the two mass spectrometers. A fuzzy clustering routine is used to group the spectra. Cluster centers describing the ensemble of particles are compared. First results show that while differences in the peak heights are likely due to the use of an amplifier in PALMS, cluster centers are comparable.

  7. A comprehensive review of radon emanation measurements for mineral, rock, soil, mill tailing and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2011-10-01

    To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive review to cover most studies, published in the past three decades at least, of radon emanation measurements. The radon emanation fraction, a possibility of radon atoms generated in a material escaping from its grains, has been widely measured for a variety of materials. The aim of this review is to organize a huge number of such data accumulated. The representative values of the emanation fraction for minerals, rocks, soils, mill tailings and fly ashes were derived to be 0.03, 0.13, 0.20, 0.17 and 0.03, respectively. Current knowledge of the emanation processes was also summarized to discuss their affected factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  9. Singularity analysis based on wavelet transform of fractal measures for identifying geochemical anomaly in mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming

    2016-02-01

    Multi-resolution and scale-invariance have been increasingly recognized as two closely related intrinsic properties endowed in geofields such as geochemical and geophysical anomalies, and they are commonly investigated by using multiscale- and scaling-analysis methods. In this paper, the wavelet-based multiscale decomposition (WMD) method was proposed to investigate the multiscale natures of geochemical pattern from large scale to small scale. In the light of the wavelet transformation of fractal measures, we demonstrated that the wavelet approximation operator provides a generalization of box-counting method for scaling analysis of geochemical patterns. Specifically, the approximation coefficient acts as the generalized density-value in density-area fractal modeling of singular geochemical distributions. Accordingly, we presented a novel local singularity analysis (LSA) using the WMD algorithm which extends the conventional moving averaging to a kernel-based operator for implementing LSA. Finally, the novel LSA was validated using a case study dealing with geochemical data (Fe2O3) in stream sediments for mineral exploration in Inner Mongolia, China. In comparison with the LSA implemented using the moving averaging method the novel LSA using WMD identified improved weak geochemical anomalies associated with mineralization in covered area.

  10. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  11. Comparison and evaluation of bone measurements for the assessment of mineral phosphorus sources in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shastak, Y; Witzig, M; Hartung, K; Bessei, W; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare different bone measurements in response to supplements of mineral P sources. Comparisons were also made with P retention and digestibility responses determined in a companion study and with blood inorganic phosphate (P(i)) responses. A corn-soybean meal-based basal diet was used (0.35% total P on DM basis). Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSP(a)) or anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP(a)) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.08%, 0.16%, or 0.24%. Each of the 7 diets was fed for 10 d starting 11 d (period 1) or 25 d posthatch (period 2). Bone ash and P were determined, and density criteria were measured using quantitative computed tomography. Responses were evaluated and compared based on linear regression analysis. In general, responses to MSP(a) had a greater slope than DCP(a) for all criteria studied. In period 1, differences between the slopes were significant (P < 0.05) for almost all bone criteria. In period 2, the slopes significantly differed for the amounts of ash and P of all bones studied, for tibia, tarsometatarus, and foot ash percentage, for total and cortical density of tibiae, but not for the other criteria. For the different bones, the ratio of slopes for MSP(a) and DCP(a) was very similar based on the amount of ash in both periods. Foot ash proved to be as sensitive as tibia ash for evaluation of mineral P sources in both periods. Ninety-four percent of the variance of the corticalis content based on quantitative computed tomography measurements could be explained by the amount of tibia ash in period 1. Blood serum P(i) and BW gain were not suitable for P evaluation. We concluded that the ranking of mineral P sources based on bone criteria differed from the ranking that was based on P retention or prececal digestibility. This underlines the need for developing a standard protocol of determination of available P in poultry.

  12. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test.

  13. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  14. Description and measurement of handicap caused by vision impairment.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, J E; McCarty, C A; Hassell, J B; Gilbert, A G

    1999-01-01

    To develop an instrument to describe and quantify handicap caused by vision impairment an item pool was derived from focus groups and from a review of vision-related quality-of-life questionnaires. Only items related to handicap were included and grouped into five subscales. The 76-item 'Impact of Vision Impairment' was administered to 95 people who were vision impaired. Content validity was established by consultation with professionals and with people with impaired vision. Forty-six items remained after the elimination of those found to be irrelevant and others with inter-item correlation coefficients of > or = 0.7. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed an association between visual acuity and type and degree of handicap on subscales, except emotional reaction to vision loss, which is related to cause of vision impairment. The instrument is responsive to the level of vision loss and discriminates the different performances of people with different causes of vision loss.

  15. Bubbles cause seismic wave attenuation: Laboratory measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Grasselli, Giovanni; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) is a key to uncover the saturation and, in general, to improve the monitoring and surveying of subsurface domains. Nevertheless, how fluids that saturate rocks absorb elastic energy (i.e. cause 1/Q) is still poorly understood, studied and incorporated in geophysical methods. One of the invoked mechanisms, wave induced fluid flow (WIFF), is reputed to cause significant attenuation. This mechanism is governed by the flow of viscous fluids into a porous rock, and causes attenuation as a function of the fluid diffusivity [m2/s] and the pressure gradient [Pa/m], which is generated by the propagation of the elastic wave. However, some published, and newly acquired laboratory data-sets reporting 1/Q in almost fully saturated sandstones are difficult to explain with WIFF theories as they are frequency-dependent and have maximum of attenuation at frequencies

  16. Associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female adolescent weightlifters and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Koşar, Şükran Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between swimmers and non-athletes (p > 0.05). Lean and fat mass measures were positively associated with BMC and BMD for the total participants (p < 0.05) while the associations differed when the study groups were analysed separately. In conclusion, both lean and fat mass measures were strongly related to BMC and BMD in female adolescents while these associations differed in swimmers, weightlifters and non-athletes.

  17. Computed digital absorptiometry for measurement of phalangeal bone mineral mass on a slot-scanning digital radiography system.

    PubMed

    Dendere, R; Whiley, S P; Douglas, T S

    2014-11-01

    Computed digital absorptiometry is a low-cost and low-radiation technique for rapid measurement of phalangeal bone mineral mass. We implement and evaluate this technique on a slot-scanning radiography system. Results, based on measurements of excised phalangeal bones, indicate that the technique has potential for use in clinical assessment of osteoporosis. The current gold standard method for bone assessment in the diagnosis of osteoporosis requires specialised and expensive machines, highly trained personnel to conduct the examination and is available only at specialist centres. The technique, termed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), involves taking a bone mineral density measurement at the femur or lumbar spine. Measurements of bone at peripheral sites such as the phalanges using DXA and other techniques have been shown to have potential use in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Computed digital absorptiometry (CDA) is a low-cost, low-radiation radiographic technique for assessing phalangeal bone mineral mass. It uses an aluminium step wedge as a calibration device to compute bone mineral mass in units of equivalent aluminium thickness. In this study, we assess the feasibility of using CDA on a slot-scanning radiography system for measuring phalangeal bone mineral mass. We implement and evaluate fully automated computed digital absorptiometry (CDA) of the middle phalanx of the middle finger on a slot-scanning radiography system. The ash weight of incinerated bones was measured and shown to have a correlation of 0.92 with CDA-derived bone mineral mass. CDA measurements had a coefficient of variation of 0.26%, indicating high precision. We conclude, based on these results, that CDA on a slot-scanning radiography machine may be useful for clinical assessment of osteoporosis.

  18. Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-07-29

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures using a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.

  19. Dual energy x-ray laser measurement of calcaneal bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Töyräs, J.; Kröger, H.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2003-06-01

    In dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) the photon attenuation is assumed to be similar in soft tissue overlying, adjacent to and inside the measured bone. In the calcaneal dual energy x-ray laser (DXL) technique, this assumption is not needed as attenuation by soft tissues at the local bone site is determined by combining DXA and heel thickness measurements. In the present study, 38 subjects were measured with DXL Calscan, Lunar PIXI and Lunar DPX-IQ DXA instruments and Hologic Sahara ultrasound instrument, and the performance and agreement of the instruments were analysed. Furthermore, numerical simulations on the effect of non-uniform fat-to-lean tissue ratio within soft tissue in heel were conducted. In vivo short-term precision (CV%, sCV%) of DXL Calscan (1.24%, 1.48%) was similar to that of Lunar PIXI (1.28%, 1.60%). Calcaneal areal bone mineral densities (BMD, g cm-2) measured using DXL Calscan and Lunar PIXI predicted equally well variations in BMD of femoral neck (r2 = 0.63 and 0.52, respectively) or lumbar spine (r2 = 0.61 and 0.64, respectively), determined with Lunar DPX-IQ. BMD values measured with DXL Calscan were, on average, 19% lower (p < 0.01) than those determined with Lunar PIXI. Interestingly, the difference in BMD values between instruments increased as a function of body mass index (BMI) (r2 = 0.17, p < 0.02) or heel thickness (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.01). Numerical simulations suggested that the spatial variation of soft tissue composition in heel can induce incontrollable inaccuracy in BMD when measured with the DXA technique. Theoretically, in contrast to DXA instruments, elimination of the effect of non-uniform soft tissue is possible with DXL Calscan.

  20. Mitigation measures for highway-caused impacts to birds

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. Jacobson

    Highways cause significant impacts to birds in four ways: direct mortality, indirect mortality, habitat fragmentation, and disturbance. In this paper I discuss highway-related impacts, and suggest solutions from a highway management perspective. Non-flying birds (either behaviorally or structurally) such as gallinaceous birds and ducklings; waterbirds such as terns;...

  1. Can Mineral Fibers Cause Asbestos Related Diseases? The Long Path from the Reserve Mining Case to Today.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos related diseases occur long after exposure and are related to a much broader range of elongated durable particles than expected. Find out why achieving and using a much needed health risk prediction and prevention model for mineral fibers in NE Minnesota has yet to be a...

  2. Can Mineral Fibers Cause Asbestos Related Diseases? The Long Path from the Reserve Mining Case to Today.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos related diseases occur long after exposure and are related to a much broader range of elongated durable particles than expected. Find out why achieving and using a much needed health risk prediction and prevention model for mineral fibers in NE Minnesota has yet to be a...

  3. Measurement of Distal Ulnar Hounsfield Units Accurately Predicts Bone Mineral Density of the Forearm.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Dworak, Theodora C; Grimm, Patrick D; Balazs, George C; Tintle, Scott M

    2017-04-19

    Hounsfield unit (HU) measurement obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist is a potential new screening method for low bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized that HU measurements of the ulnar head obtained from CT scans would correlate with BMD assessed with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the forearm. Patients with both upper-extremity CT and DXA scans performed at a single institution were included in the study. Hounsfield units were manually measured in the distal part of the ulna by 1 author blinded to the DXA results. Average values were then compared with forearm BMD values as determined with a DXA scan. Seventy-seven CT scans of 74 patients were included. Average HU values were significantly lower in the osteoporotic and osteopenic groups in comparison with the normal BMD group. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for osteopenic patients was 145.9 HU. The average forearm T-score for patients with an HU value at or below the cutoff of 146 was significantly lower than the average T-score for those with an HU value of >146 HU (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for low BMD using this cutoff value were calculated to be 91% and 89%, respectively. Distal ulnar HU measurements accurately reflect the BMD of the forearm as diagnosed with a DXA scan. Our results suggest that distal ulnar HU measurements of ≤146 HU are strongly associated with low BMD and that values above this cutoff accurately rule out low forearm BMD with a high degree of sensitivity and negative predictive value. Utilizing this technique may improve the capture of at-risk patients and streamline the screening process for osteoporosis. Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, D; Dharmshaktu, P; Aggarwal, A; Gaurav, K; Bansal, R; Devru, N; Garga, UC; Kulshreshtha, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) loss in endocrinopathies [Graves’ disease (GD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH), hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126) were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (79.59%) compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (59.26%) compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT) was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67%) and HypoH (54.55%) compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting. PMID:27241810

  5. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  6. Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gryparis, Alexandros; Paciorek, Christopher J; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A

    2009-04-01

    In many environmental epidemiology studies, the locations and/or times of exposure measurements and health assessments do not match. In such settings, health effects analyses often use the predictions from an exposure model as a covariate in a regression model. Such exposure predictions contain some measurement error as the predicted values do not equal the true exposures. We provide a framework for spatial measurement error modeling, showing that smoothing induces a Berkson-type measurement error with nondiagonal error structure. From this viewpoint, we review the existing approaches to estimation in a linear regression health model, including direct use of the spatial predictions and exposure simulation, and explore some modified approaches, including Bayesian models and out-of-sample regression calibration, motivated by measurement error principles. We then extend this work to the generalized linear model framework for health outcomes. Based on analytical considerations and simulation results, we compare the performance of all these approaches under several spatial models for exposure. Our comparisons underscore several important points. First, exposure simulation can perform very poorly under certain realistic scenarios. Second, the relative performance of the different methods depends on the nature of the underlying exposure surface. Third, traditional measurement error concepts can help to explain the relative practical performance of the different methods. We apply the methods to data on the association between levels of particulate matter and birth weight in the greater Boston area.

  7. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Zheng, Lu; Wei, Dengyun; Ye, Ming; Li, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years) were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45-50 years, 51-53 years, 54-56 years, 57-59 years, and 60-64 years. Total BMD, L2-4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2-4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%-35% total BMD variance. Different optimal strength measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies.

  8. Trace Determination and Pressure Estimation of Fluorine F2 Caused by Irradiation Damage in Minerals and Synthetic Fluorides.

    PubMed

    Celinski, Vinicius R; Ditter, Michael; Kraus, Florian; Fujara, Franz; Schmedt Auf der Günne, Jörn

    2016-12-19

    Irradiated alkali and earth alkali halides can form metal colloids and halogen molecules, which stay trapped inside the crystal. In this paper we provide (19) F NMR spectroscopic evidence of trapped F2 fluids in heavy ion-bombarded synthesized LiF crystals as well as in a variety of the mineral Villiaumite (NaF). This is the 2nd mineral in which F2 is unambiguously detected in nature. The trace quantification of the latter is in the order of magnitude of 10(-6)  mol g(-1) . Pressures and densities of the F2 fluids are estimated based on the theory of nuclear spin relaxation in dilute gases.

  9. Measuring the isoelectric point of the edges of clay mineral particles: the case of montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Pecini, Eliana M; Avena, Marcelo J

    2013-12-03

    The isoelectric point (IEP) of the edge surface of a montmorillonite sample was determined by using electrophoretic mobility measurements. This parameter, which is fundamental for the understanding of the charging behavior of clay mineral surfaces, was never measured so far because of the presence of permanent negative charges within the montmorillonite structure, charges that mask the electrokinetic behavior of the edges. The strategy was to block or neutralize the structural charges with two different cations, methylene blue (MB(+)) and tetraethylenepentaminecopper(II) ([Cu(tetren)](2+)), so that the charging behavior of the particles becomes that of the edge surfaces. Adsorption isotherms of MB(+) and [Cu(tetren)](2+) at different ionic strengths (NaCl) were performed to establish the uptakes that neutralize the cation exchange capacity (CEC, 0.96 meq g(-1)) of the sample. At high adsorptive concentrations, there was a superequivalent adsorption of MB(+) (adsorption exceeding the CEC) and an equivalent adsorption of [Cu(tetren)](2+) (adsorption reaching the CEC). In both cases, structural charges were neutralized at uptakes very close to the CEC. Zeta potential (ζ) vs pH data at different ionic strengths of montmorillonite with adsorbed MB(+) allowed to estimate an upper limit of the edge's IEP, 5.3 ± 0.2. The same kind of data obtained with adsorbed [Cu(tetren)](2+) provided a lower limit of the IEP, 4.0 ± 0.2. These values are in agreement with previously informed IEP and point of zero charge of pyrophyllite, which is structurally analogous to montmorillonite but carries no permanent charges. The importance of knowing the IEP of the edge surface of clay minerals is discussed. This value characterizes the intrinsic reactivity of edges, that is, the protonating capacity of edge groups in absence of any electric field generated by structural charges. It also allows us to correct relative edge charge vs pH curves obtained by potentiometric titrations and to

  10. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes: selective measurement of bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Hauffa, B; Möhlmann, C; Jeken, C; Reiners, C

    1995-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in 21 children and adolescents with type I diabetes and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. BMD was selectively measured in trabecular and total bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Cortical bone density was calculated. There was a decrease of trabecular bone density (-18.9%, p < 0.01), total bone density (-9.0%, NS) and cortical bone density (-5.1%, NS) in diabetes. Trabecular bone density was inversely correlated with the duration of diabetes and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) (r = -0.48, p = 0.027 and r = -0.63, p = 0.002, respectively). Total BMD correlated inversely with HbA1 (r = -0.52, p = 0.017). pQCT allows the selective measurement of metabolically active trabecular bone where changes of mineralization first occur. We conclude that pQCT is a useful method for investigating BMD in diabetes.

  11. Uncertainty in SMAP Soil Moisture Measurements Caused by Dew

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture is an important reservoir of the hydrologic cycle that regulates the exchange of moisture and energy between the land surface the atmosphere. Two satellite missions will soon make the first global measurements of soil moisture at the optimal microwave wavelength within L-band: ESA's So...

  12. Simulated increases in body fat and errors in bone mineral density measurements by DXA and QCT.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elaine W; Thomas, Bijoy J; Brown, J Keenan; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2012-01-01

    Major alterations in body composition, such as with obesity and weight loss, have complex effects on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of altered body fat on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements are unknown. We scanned a spine phantom by DXA and QCT before and after surrounding with sequential fat layers (up to 12 kg). In addition, we measured lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD by DXA and trabecular spine BMD by QCT in 13 adult volunteers before and after a simulated 7.5 kg increase in body fat. With the spine phantom, DXA BMD increased linearly with sequential fat layering at the normal (p < 0.01) and osteopenic (p < 0.01) levels, but QCT BMD did not change significantly. In humans, fat layering significantly reduced DXA spine BMD values (mean ± SD: -2.2 ± 3.7%, p = 0.05) and increased the variability of measurements. In contrast, fat layering increased QCT spine BMD in humans (mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 2.5%, p = 0.05). Fat layering did not change mean DXA BMD of the femoral neck or total hip in humans significantly, but measurements became less precise. Associations between baseline and fat-simulation scans were stronger for QCT of the spine (r(2)= 0.97) than for DXA of the spine (r(2)= 0.87), total hip (r(2) = 0.80), or femoral neck (r(2)= 0.75). Bland-Altman plots revealed that fat-associated errors were greater for DXA spine and hip BMD than for QCT trabecular spine BMD. Fat layering introduces error and decreases the reproducibility of DXA spine and hip BMD measurements in human volunteers. Although overlying fat also affects QCT BMD measurements, the error is smaller and more uniform than with DXA BMD. Caution must be used when interpreting BMD changes in humans whose body composition is changing.

  13. Measuring and analyzing the causes of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ping; Su, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Since Internet surfing became a daily activity, people have changed their behavior. This research analyzes the causes of problematic Internet use through an online survey, where 1,094 samples were collected. Based on the results of structural equation modeling analysis, the following conclusions are reached: First, novelty, security, and efficiency increase users' online trust. Second, information and efficiency enhance users' sharing and anonymity online. Third, greater trust in Internet environments leads to an increase in a user's cognitive bias toward online behavioral responsibility and Internet addiction. Fourth, a user's attitude toward online sharing further increases the cognitive bias toward online copyright. Fifth, a user's attitude toward anonymity increases cognitive bias toward online copyright, online behavioral responsibility, and deepens Internet addiction.

  14. Direct Radiative Forcing from Saharan Mineral Dust Layers from In-situ Measurements and Satellite Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Vázquez-Navarro, M.; Gasteiger, J.; Chouza, F.; Weinzierl, B.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust is the major species of airborne particulate matter by mass in the atmosphere. Each year an estimated 200-3000 Tg of dust are emitted from the North African desert and arid regions alone. A large fraction of the dust is lifted into the free troposphere and gets transported in extended dust layers westward over the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea. Especially over the dark surface of the ocean, those dust layers exert a significant effect on the atmospheric radiative balance though aerosol-radiation interactions. During the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in summer 2013 airborne in-situ aerosol measurements on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, near the African coast and the Caribbean were performed. In this study we use data about aerosol microphysical properties acquired between Cabo Verde and Senegal to derive the aerosol optical properties and the resulting radiative forcing using the radiative transfer package libRadtran. We compare the results to values retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI data using the RRUMS algorithm. The RRUMS algorithm can derive shortwave and longwave top-of-atmosphere outgoing fluxes using only information issued from the narrow-band MSG/SEVIRI channels. A specific calibration based on collocated Terra/CERES measurements ensures a correct retrieval of the upwelling flux from the dust covered pixels. The comparison of radiative forcings based on in-situ data to satellite-retrieved values enables us to extend the radiative forcing estimates from small-scale in-situ measurements to large scale satellite coverage over the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gyula; Imre, Kornélia; Molnár, Ágnes; Gelencsér, András

    2017-07-01

    Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of -13-+21 µg m-3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of -53… + 69 %.

  16. [A Method to Extract Content of Minerals Based on Measured Hyperspectral Data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-jun; Wang, Qin-jun; Chen, Yu; Hu, Fang; Xu, Ru; Lin, Qi-zhong

    2015-06-01

    To improve the accuracy of mineral content extraction by linear decomposition model, a method was established, which took rock spectra with wavelength from 350 to 2 500 nm as the data source, identified minerals based on spectral matching methods, applied Hapke model to transform spectral reflectance into single scattering albedo and resolved single scattering albedo to get mineral content. In this method, sectional noise filtering and regional mineral spectra library were added to improve the identifying accuracy. Based on the analysis on the fifth Baogutu rock body, compared with XRD results, accuracies of quartz, feldspar class and altered minerals identification were 75%, 100% and 92.2% separately. Accuracy of the content extraction of feldspar class, hornblende and altered minerals were 80.5%, 64%, 92.36% separately. This method added mineralogy symbiotic relationship into mineral identification to ensure the reliability, proposed the idea of sectional noise filtering to avoid the influence of filtering algorithm, applied the single scattering albedo to avoid the complex nonlinearly calculations to improve the accuracy theoretically. This method has a certain guiding significance for the work such as rapid analysis of alteration information.

  17. Atelectasis formation during anesthesia: causes and measures to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, G; Rothen, H U

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange is regularly impaired during general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation. This results in decreased oxygenation of blood. A major cause is collapse of lung tissue (atelectasis), which can be demonstrated by computed tomography but not by conventional chest x-ray. Collapsed lung tissue is present in 90% of all subjects, both during spontaneous breathing and after muscle paralysis, and whether intravenous or inhalational anaesthetics are used. There is a correlation between the amount of atelectasis and pulmonary shunt. Shunt does not increase with age. In obese patients, larger atelectatic areas are present than in lean ones. Finally, patients with chronic obstructive lung disease may show less or even no atelectasis. There are different procedures that can be used in order to prevent atelectasis or to reopen collapsed lung tissue. The application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been tested in several studies. On the average, arterial oxygenation does not improve markedly, and atelectasis may persist. Further, reopened lung units re-collapse rapidly after discontinuation of PEEP. Inflation of the lungs to an airway pressure of 40 cm H2O, maintained for 7-8 seconds (recruitment or "vital capacity" manoeuvre), re-expands all previously collapsed lung tissue. During induction of anaesthesia, the use of a gas mixture, that includes a poorly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, may prevent the early formation of atelectasis. During ongoing anaesthesia, pulmonary collapse reappears slowly if a low fraction of oxygen in nitrogen is used for the ventilation of the lungs after a previous VC-manoeuvre. On the other hand, ventilation of the lungs with pure oxygen results in a rapid reappearance of atelectasis. Thus, ventilation during anaesthesia should be done if possible with a moderate fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2, e.g. 0.3-0.4). Alternatively, if the lungs are ventilated with a high inspiratory fraction of oxygen, the use of PEEP

  18. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Pitfalls in measurement and interpretation of bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M. K.; Kharb, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common disorder of elderly population all over the world as well as in India. The presence of osteoporosis predicts fracture risk. Fragility fracture has marked morbidity as well as mortality. Thus, osteoporosis has marked therapeutic and economic implications. Osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD). The gold-standard method to assess BMD is dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In India, hologic and lunar machines are most commonly used to measure BMD; these machines have their own normative data from which patients BMD is compared and results are generated. As per recommendations, all postmenopausal women and men above 70 years need BMD estimation other than quite a few other specific indications as well. With increasing life expectancy, increased awareness of osteoporosis, and availability of DXA machines, there is flooding of requests for BMD estimation. In view of all this, it becomes imperative on part of physicians, orthopedicians, rheumatologists, and endocrinologists alike to be fully aware about pitfalls in BMD assessment by DXA and interpretation of BMD reports. PMID:23776890

  19. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  20. Mineral magnetic measurements as a particle size proxy for urban roadside soil pollution (part 1).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Booth, C A; Fullen, M A

    2014-03-01

    The use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored as an alternative means of normalizing particle size effects. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay), more discrete intervals within classes (e.g. fine sand or medium silt) and cumulative size fractions (e.g. clay + fine silt) are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 n = 60), moderate negative (rs = -0.3 to -0.557) associations with clay, silt and sand content. Contrary to earlier research findings which found positive relationships, this indicates that magnetic measurements cannot always provide a predictable particle size proxy and it is only certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for granulometric normalization by this technique. However, if future researchers working in other soil settings can identify a formal predictable relationship, the technique is known to offer a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable proxy for normalizing particle size effects in soil contamination studies.

  1. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  2. Bone Mineral Density and Fatty Degeneration of Thigh Muscles Measured by Computed Tomography in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, as an independent fracture factor from Bone mineral density (BMD), muscle weakness due to the fatty degeneration of thigh muscles have been attracting attentions as causes of hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the body composition and BMD and fatty degeneration of thigh muscles of the female patients over 65 years old with osteoporotic hip fracture. Methods This study was conducted with 178 female osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Total hip BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional muscle area (CSmA), muscle attenuation coefficient (MAC), and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of gluteus maximus, hip abductors, quadriceps and hamstring muscle were measured with computed tomography. Normalized IMAT (nIMAT) was calculated by dividing the fat area in the muscle into the size of each muscle. The correlation between each measurement is examined then the differences between the intertrochanteric fracture group and the femoral neck fracture group were analyzed. Results CSmA and MAC of quadriceps were the largest and nIMAT was the lowest. CSA and CSmA of the four muscles showed a statistically significant positive correlation with weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. MAC of 2 gluteal muscles was positively correlated with weight, BMI and BMD. nIMAT of all four muscles was positively correlation with weight and BMI but nIMAT of 2 mid-thigh muscles was positively correlation with BMD. Conclusions Muscle size and fatty degeneration in the thigh muscles were most positively correlated with the body weight. BMD was positively correlation with CSA and CSmA of all thigh muscles, and MAC of 2 gluteal muscles and fatty degeneration of 2 mid-thigh muscles. There was no statistically significant difference in the size of the femoral muscle and the degree of fatty degeneration between the two fracture groups. PMID:27965943

  3. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  4. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-19

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale.

  6. A laboratory study of the influence of iron(II) bearing minerals on the nuclear magnetic resonance measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, K.; Knight, R.

    2008-12-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation is a geophysical technique which can be used to measure water content and estimate hydraulic conductivity in the top 100 m of Earth's surface. We conducted a laboratory study to measure the effect of the concentration of iron(II) minerals on NMR relaxation rates of water-saturated sand mixtures. We measured mixtures of quartz sand (diameter < 420μm) and four different iron(II) minerals in granular form (diameters ranging from 45 to 53μm): troilite (FeS), pyrite (FeS2), siderite (Fe(II)CO3), and vivianite (Fe(II)PO4+nH2O). The iron(II) minerals were mixed with quartz to concentrations of 1 and 2% by weight iron. The NMR response of the water-saturated samples was measured and used to calculate four averaged relaxation rates for each iron(II) mineral mixture: the total mean log, bulk fluid, surface, and diffusion relaxation rates. The surface area of the samples was also measured and used to calculate the surface relaxivity. The results of this study are: 1) The mean log and surface relaxation rates of all the samples increase with iron(II) concentration. 2) For the troilite, pyrite and siderite mixtures the surface relaxivity increased with concentration of iron(II); for the vivianite mixtures the surface relaxivity remained constant for iron(II) concentrations of 1 and 2%. 3) The diffusion relaxation rate was non-zero and was slower than the surface relaxation rate for the troilite and vivianite mixtures; the diffusion relaxation rate was zero for the siderite and pyrite mixtures. The results of this study allow us to correct for the presence of iron(II) minerals in the interpretation of NMR data.

  7. Elastic anisotropy of uniaxial mineralized collagen fibers measured using two-directional indentation. Effects of hydration state and indentation depth

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Roschger, Paul; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized turkey leg tendon (MTLT) is an attractive model of mineralized collagen fibers, which are also present in bone. Its longitudinal structure is advantageous for the relative simplicity in modeling, yet its anisotropic elastic properties remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of elastic anisotropy of mineralized collagen fibers by using nano- and microindentation to probe a number on MTLT samples in two orthogonal directions. The large dataset allowed the quantification of the extent of anisotropy, depending on the final indentation depth and on the hydration state of the sample. Anisotropy was observed to increase with the sample re-hydration process. Artifacts of indentation in a transverse direction to the main axis of the mineralized tendons in re-hydrated condition were observed. The indentation size effect, that is, the increase of the measured elastic properties with decreasing sampling volume, reported previously on variety of materials, was also observed in MTLT. Indentation work was quantified for both directions of indentation in dried and re-hydrated conditions. As hypothesized, MTLT showed a higher extent of anisotropy compared to cortical and trabecular bone, presumably due to the alignment of mineralized collagen fibers in this tissue. PMID:22664658

  8. Comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dual photon absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements of the lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dunn, W.L.; Brown, M.L.; Morin, R.L.; Riggs, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    A new x-ray-based (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) instrument for measurement of bone mineral in the spine and hips was compared with a commercial dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) instrument that uses a 153Gd source (DP3, Lunar Radiation Corporation). Measurements were made on phantoms and lumbar spines of patients to study accuracy, precision, limitations, and compatibility of results between instruments. Both instruments measure bone mineral of integral bone in terms of area bone density with an entrance exposure of less than 5 mR. For spinal bone mineral measurements, the DEXA instrument had a shorter scanning time and higher resolution images than the DPA system. The DEXA instrument also showed better precision in a spine phantom and reduced influence of thickness for patient measurement. For bone mineral content, accuracy was about equal for both instruments; for measurements of the area of the region of interest, accuracy was better with the DEXA instrument. With both instruments, fat had little effect on bone mineral density in bone phantom studies. Measurements on both instruments were influenced by the location of a bone phantom within the photon beam. Results in patients showed good correlation (r = 0.988) for bone mineral density. Measurements of bone mineral density in patients were consistently lower with the DEXA instrument because of better accuracy in area measurements. The new x-ray-based instrument is a major advance in bone mineral absorptiometry and provides improved, yet less expensive, measurements in research and clinical applications.

  9. Comparative measurements of bone mineral density and bone contrast values in canine femora using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and conventional digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K; Nolte, I; Galindo-Zamora, V; Lerch, M; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Behrens, B A; Bouguecha, A; Betancur, S; Almohallami, A; Wefstaedt, P

    2017-05-11

    Aseptic loosening due to bone remodelling processes after total hip replacement is one common cause for revision surgery. In human medicine, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the gold standard for quantitative evaluation of bone mineral density, whereas in veterinary medicine conventional radiography is used for follow-up studies. Recently, a method has been described using digital X-ray images for quantitative assessment of grey scale values of bone contrast. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA with grey scale values (GV) measured in digital X-ray images (RX50, RX66) ex vivo. The measured GV in the chosen X-ray settings showed on average a good correlation (r = 0.61) to the measured BMD with DEXA. Correlation between the two X-ray settings was very good (r = 0.81). For comparisons among regions of interests (ROIs) a difference of 8.2% was found to be statistically significant, whereas in the case of RX50 and RX66 differences of 5.3% and 4.1% were found to be statistically significant. Results indicate that measuring absolute changes in bone mineral density might be possible using digital radiography. Not all significant differences between ROIs detectable with DEXA can be displayed in the X-ray images because of the lower sensitivity of the radiographs. However, direct comparison of grey scale values of the periprosthetic femur in one individual patient during the follow-up period, in order to predict bone remodelling processes, should be possible, but with a lesser sensitivity than with DEXA. It is important that the same X-ray settings are chosen for each patient for follow-up studies.

  10. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosols from Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hansell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne dust aerosols worldwide contribute a significant part to air quality problems and, to some extent, regional climatic issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in oceans). Evaluating the direct solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large SIN ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impact, on the other hand, is rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (approx.10 W/sq m) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Although the magnitude of the LW impact is much smaller than that of the shortwave (SW), it can still have a noticeable influence on the energy distribution of Earth-atmosphere system, particularly due to the strong light-absorptive properties commonly found in many terrestrial minerals. The current effort is part of an ongoing research study to perform a global assessment of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) during major field deployments of key dust source regions worldwide. In this work we present results stemming from two previous field deployments: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years, both utilizing NASA Goddard's mobile ground-based facility. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal (16.73degN, 22.93degW), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE), China near the source between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. Due to the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of dust properties during field experiments, a deterministic I-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements (i.e., spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for physical/microphysical, mineralogy, and single-scattering properties) is employed to evaluate dust's local instantaneous SW/LW DARE both at the surface and at the top of

  11. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  12. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

  13. High-calcium mineral water as a calcium supplementing measure for post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Coiro, V; Zanardi, G; Saccani Jotti, G; Rubino, P; Manfredi, G; Chiodera, P

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the possibility of enhancing blood calcium levels in totally thyroidectomized patients by supplementation with 1 L/d carbonate-bicarbonate-high-calcium mineral water. This study enrolled 95 outpatients, totally thyroidectomized four months earlier, and hence treated with oral calcium and vitamin-D. At recruitment, ionized blood calcium was either below (Group A; N. 55) or above (Group B; N. 40, randomly divided in Group B1 [N. 20] and Group B2 [N.20]) the lower limit of the normal range (1.12 mmol/L). For one month, Group A was treated with 1 L/d high-calcium (483 mg/L) mineral water and continued the usual therapy with Ca and vitamin-D. In contrast, Group B1 and Group B2 substituted their Ca and vitamin-D therapy with 1 L/d high-calcium mineral water (Group B1) or 1 L/d of placebo mineral water (Ca:80 mg/L) (Group B2). After one month, a significant 7.5% increase in blood ionized-calcium levels was observed in Group A, no change in Group B1 and a significant drop below normality in Group B2 (Group B2 vs Group B1, P<0.001). Thereafter, 1 L/d of the high-calcium mineral water, given to Group B2 instead of placebo for an additional month, significantly enhanced ionized-calcium levels above the lower limit of normality (Group B2 vs Group B1, NS). These experiments show that calcium supplementation as 1 L/d of a high-calcium mineral water may efficaciously enhance blood calcium levels in thyroidectomized patients. This complementary treatment might at least in part contribute to the prevention and/or treatment of hypocalcemia and substitute vitamin-D and calcium therapies after thyroidectomy.

  14. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  15. Disruption of OsEXO70A1 Causes Irregular Vascular Bundles and Perturbs Mineral Nutrient Assimilation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Bin; Hu, Li; Chen, Weilan; Li, Tao; Hu, Binhua; Zheng, Ling; Lv, Zheng; You, Shuju; Wang, Yuping; Ma, Bingtian; Chen, Xuewei; Qin, Peng; Li, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Normal uptake, transportation, and assimilation of primary nutrients are essential to plant growth. Tracheary elements (TEs) are tissues responsible for the transport of water and minerals and characterized by patterned secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening. Exocysts are involved in the regulation of SCW deposition by mediating the targeted transport of materials and enzymes to specific membrane areas. EXO70s are highly duplicated in plants and provide exocysts with functional specificity. In this study, we report the isolation of a rice mutant rapid leaf senescence2 (rls2) that exhibits dwarfism, ferruginous spotted necrotic leaves, decreased hydraulic transport, and disordered primary nutrient assimilation. Histological analysis of rls2-1 mutants has indicated impaired cell expansion, collapsed vascular tissues, and irregular SCW deposition. Map-based cloning has revealed that RLS2 encodes OsEXO70A1, which is one of the 47 members of EXO70s in rice. RLS2 was widely expressed and spatially restricted in vascular bundles. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that RLS2 was present on both membrane and nuclear regions. Expression analysis revealed that mutations in rls2 triggers transcriptional fluctuation of orthologous EXO70 genes and affects genes involved in primary nutrient absorption and transport. In brief, our study revealed that RLS2 is required for normal vascular bundle differentiation and primary nutrient assimilation. PMID:26691393

  16. Ultrasound backscatter measurements of intact human proximal femurs--relationships of ultrasound parameters with tissue structure and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Malo, M K H; Töyräs, J; Karjalainen, J P; Isaksson, H; Riekkinen, O; Jurvelin, J S

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound reflection and backscatter parameters are related to the mechanical and structural properties of bone in vitro. However, the potential of ultrasound reflection and backscatter measurements has not been tested with intact human proximal femurs ex vivo. We hypothesize that ultrasound backscatter can be measured from intact femurs and that the measured backscattered signal is associated with cadaver age, bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure. In this study, human femoral bones of 16 male cadavers (47.0±16.1 years, range: 21-77 years) were investigated using pulse-echo ultrasound measurements at the femoral neck in the antero-posterior direction and at the trochanter major in the anteroposterior and lateromedial directions. Recently introduced ultrasound backscatter parameters, independent of cortical thickness, e.g., time slope of apparent integrated backscatter (TSAB) and mean of the backscatter difference technique (MBD) were obtained and compared with the structural properties of trabecular bone samples, extracted from the locations of ultrasound measurements. Moreover, more conventional backscatter parameters, e.g., apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent integrated backscatter (FSAB) were analyzed. Bone mineral density of the intact femurs was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). AIB and MDB measured from the femoral neck correlated significantly (p<0.01) with the neck BMD (R2=0.44 and 0.45), cadaver age (R2=0.61 and 0.41) and several structural parameters, e.g., bone volume fraction (R2=0.33 and 0.39, p<0.05 and p<0.01), respectively. To conclude, ultrasound backscatter parameters, measured from intact proximal femurs, are significantly related (p<0.05) to structural properties and mineral density of trabecular bone.

  17. Correlation between Bone Mineral Density Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Hounsfield Units Measured by Diagnostic CT in Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungjoon; Chung, Chun Kee; Oh, So Hee; Park, Sung Bae

    2013-11-01

    Use of quantitative computed tomography (CT) to evaluate bone mineral density was suggested in the 1970s. Despite its reliability and accuracy, technical shortcomings restricted its usage, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) became the gold standard evaluation method. Advances in CT technology have reduced its previous limitations, and CT evaluation of bone quality may now be applicable in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if the Hounsfield unit (HU) values obtained from CT correlate with patient age and bone mineral density. A total of 128 female patients who underwent lumbar CT for back pain were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 66.4 years. Among them, 70 patients also underwent DXA. The patients were stratified by decade of life, forming five age groups. Lumbar vertebrae L1-4 were analyzed. The HU value of each vertebra was determined by averaging three measurements of the vertebra's trabecular portion, as shown in consecutive axial CT images. The HU values were compared between age groups, and correlations of HU value with bone mineral density and T-scores were determined. The HU values consistently decreased with increasing age with significant differences between age groups (p<0.001). There were significant positive correlations (p<0.001) of HU value with bone mineral density and T-score. The trabecular area HU value consistently decreases with age. Based on the strong positive correlation between HU value and bone mineral density, CT-based HU values might be useful in detecting bone mineral diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  18. Correlation between Bone Mineral Density Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Hounsfield Units Measured by Diagnostic CT in Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjoon; Chung, Chun Kee; Oh, So Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use of quantitative computed tomography (CT) to evaluate bone mineral density was suggested in the 1970s. Despite its reliability and accuracy, technical shortcomings restricted its usage, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) became the gold standard evaluation method. Advances in CT technology have reduced its previous limitations, and CT evaluation of bone quality may now be applicable in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if the Hounsfield unit (HU) values obtained from CT correlate with patient age and bone mineral density. Methods A total of 128 female patients who underwent lumbar CT for back pain were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 66.4 years. Among them, 70 patients also underwent DXA. The patients were stratified by decade of life, forming five age groups. Lumbar vertebrae L1-4 were analyzed. The HU value of each vertebra was determined by averaging three measurements of the vertebra's trabecular portion, as shown in consecutive axial CT images. The HU values were compared between age groups, and correlations of HU value with bone mineral density and T-scores were determined. Results The HU values consistently decreased with increasing age with significant differences between age groups (p<0.001). There were significant positive correlations (p<0.001) of HU value with bone mineral density and T-score. Conclusion The trabecular area HU value consistently decreases with age. Based on the strong positive correlation between HU value and bone mineral density, CT-based HU values might be useful in detecting bone mineral diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:24379944

  19. Age measurements of potassium-bearing sulfide minerals by the 40Ar/39Ar technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Lanphere, M.A.; Erd, Richard C.; Blake, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined for sulfide minerals for the first time. The occurrence of adequate amounts of potassium-bearing sulfides with ideal compositions K3Fe10S14 (???10 wt.% K) and KFe2S3 (???16 wt.% K) in samples from a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak, California, prompted an attempt to date these materials. K3Fe10S14, a massive mineral with conchoidal fracture, gives an age of 29.4 ?? 0.5 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar), indistinguishable from the 28.3 ?? 0.4 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar) and 30.2 ?? 1.0 m.y.8 (conventional K-Ar) ages obtained for associated phlogopite (8.7 wt.% K). KFe2S3, a bladed, fibrous sulfide, gives a younger age, 26.5 ?? 0.5 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar), presumably owing to Ar loss. ?? 1978.

  20. Wood strength loss as a measure of decomposition in northern forest mineral soil

    Treesearch

    Martin Jurgensen; David Reed; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Peter Laks; Anne Collins; Glenn Mroz; Marek Degorski

    2006-01-01

    Wood stake weight loss has been used as an index of wood decomposition in mineral soil, but it may not give a reliable estimate in cold boreal forests where decomposition is very slow.Various wood stake strength tests have been used as surrogates of weight loss, but little is known on which test would give the best estimate of decomposition over a variety of soil...

  1. Complex Apical Intraradicular Infection and Extraradicular Mineralized Biofilms as the Cause of Wet Canals and Treatment Failure: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Candeiro, George T M; Bugea, Calogero; Siqueira, José F

    2016-03-01

    This article describes 2 cases that showed persistent intracanal exudation (wet canal) even after several visits of antimicrobial endodontic treatment. Histologic and histobacteriologic investigation was conducted for determination of the cause. The 2 cases involved teeth with apical periodontitis lesions, which presented persistent exudation refractory to treatment after several visits. In case 1, it was not possible to achieve a dry canal, and surgery had to be performed. In case 2, attempts to dry the canal succeeded and the canal was filled, but follow-up examination showed an enlarged apical periodontitis lesion and extraction was performed. Biopsy specimens consisting of the root apex and apical periodontitis lesion for case 1 and the whole root for case 2 were subjected to histologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Both cases showed complex bacterial infection in the apical root, affecting both the intraradicular space and the outer root surface. Case 1 showed bacterial biofilms in ramifications, on untouched walls, and extending to the external root surface to form a thick and partially mineralized structure with high bacterial density. Different bacterial morphotypes were evidenced. Case 2 had a ledge on the apical canal wall created during instrumentation, which was filled with necrotic debris, filling material, and bacteria. The walls of the apical portion of the canal were covered by a bacterial biofilm, which was continuous with a thick extraradicular biofilm covering the cementum and dentin in resorptive defects. The extraradicular biofilm showed areas of mineralization and was dominated by filamentous bacteria. The 2 cases with wet canals and treatment failure were associated with complex persistent infection in the apical part of the root canal system extending to form thick and partially mineralized biofilm structures (calculus) on the outer apical root surface.

  2. Laboratory Measurements of Oxygen Gas Release from Basaltic Minerals Exposed to UV- Radiation: Implications for the Viking Gas Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The biology experiments onboard the Viking Landers determined that the Martian soils at Chryse and Utopia Planitia contain an unknown chemical compound of a highly oxidizing nature. The Gas Exchange Experiments (GEx) demonstrated that the humidification of a 1-cc Martian soil sample resulted in the production of as much as 790 nanomoles of oxygen gas. Yen et al. (2000) have provided experimental evidence that superoxide radicals can be generated on plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) grain surfaces by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of oxygen gas. Adsorbed superoxide radicals are thought to react readily with water vapor, and produce oxygen gas in quantities sufficient to explain the Viking GEx results. Direct evidence for the formation of oxygen gas, however, was not provided in the experiments of Yen et al (2000). Accordingly, the motivation of this study is to determine whether superoxide radicals adsorbed on labradorite surfaces are capable of producing oxygen gas upon exposure to water vapor. We have constructed an experimental apparatus that is capable of monitoring oxygen gas release from basaltic mineral powders that have been exposed to UV-radiation under Martian atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus consists of a stainless-steel vacuum chamber with a UV- transparent window where sample radiation exposures are performed. The vacuum chamber has multiple valved ports for injection of gases and water vapor. The vacuum chamber is connected via a precision leak valve to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which measures changes in the composition of the headspace gases over our mineral samples. We will report on the results of our experiments, which are aimed at detecting and quantifying oxygen gas release from UV-exposed basaltic mineral samples using this new experimental facility. These results will further constrain whether superoxide ions adsorbed on mineral surfaces provide a viable explanation for the Viking GEx results, which have

  3. Clinical measures, smoking, radon exposure, and risk of lung cancer in uranium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to the radioactive daughters of radon is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in mining populations. An investigation of incidence of lung cancer following a clinical survey of Ontario uranium miners was undertaken to explore whether risk associated with radon is modified by factors including smoking, radiographic silicosis, clinical symptoms, the results of lung function testing, and the temporal pattern of radon exposure. METHODS: Miners were examined in 1974 by a respiratory questionnaire, tests of lung function, and chest radiography. A random selection of 733 (75%) of the original 973 participants was followed up by linkage to the Ontario Mortality and Cancer Registries. RESULTS: Incidence of lung cancer was increased threefold. Risk of lung cancer among miners who had stopped smoking was half that of men who continued to smoke. There was no interaction between smoking and radon exposure. Men with lung function test results consistent with airways obstruction had an increased risk of lung cancer, even after adjustment for cigarette smoking. There was no association between radiographic silicosis and risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer was associated with exposures to radon daughters accumulated in a time window four to 14 years before diagnosis, but there was little association with exposures incurred earlier than 14 years before diagnosis. Among the men diagnosed with lung cancer, the mean and median dose rates were 2.6 working level months (WLM) a year and 1.8 WLM/year in the four to 14 year exposure window. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of lung cancer associated with radon is modified by dose and time from exposure. Risk can be substantially decreased by stopping smoking. PMID:8943835

  4. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses.

  5. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  6. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  7. Precision and accuracy of in vivo bone mineral measurement in rats using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, S; Vandromme, J; Neve, J; Aguilera, A; Muregancuro, A; Peretz, A; Kinthaert, J; Ham, H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring bone mineral content at different sites of the skeleton in rats. In vitro the reproducibility error was very small (< 1%), but in vivo the intra-observer variability ranged from 0.9% to 6.0%. Several factors have been shown to affect in vivo reproducibility: the reproducibility was better when the results were expressed as bone mineral density (BMD) rather than bone mineral content (BMC), intra-observer variability was better than the inter-observer variability, and a higher error was observed for the tibia compared with that for vertebrae and femur. The accuracy of measurement at the femur and tibia was assessed by comparing the values with ash weight and with biochemically determined calcium content. The correlation coefficients (R) between the in vitro BMC and the dry weight or the calcium content were higher than 0.99 for both the femur and the tibia. SEE ranged between 0.0 g (ash weight) and 2.0 mg (Ca content). Using in vitro BMC, ash weight could be estimated with an accuracy error close to 0 and calcium content with an error ranging between 0.82% and 6.80%. The R values obtained between the in vivo and in vitro BMC were 0.98 and 0.97 respectively for femur and tibia, with SEE of 0.04 and 0.02 g respectively. In conclusion, the in vivo precision of the technique was found to be too low. To be of practical use it is important in the design of experimentation to try to reduce the measurement error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Measurement of the orbit fluctuation caused by an insertion device with the amplitude modulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatani, T.; Agui, A.; Yoshigoe, A.; Matsushita, T.; Takao, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2004-05-12

    We have developed a new method to extract only the orbit fluctuation caused by changing magnetic field error of an insertion device (ID). This method consists of two main parts. (i) The orbit fluctuation is measured with modulating the error field of the ID by using the real-time beam position measuring system. (ii) The orbit fluctuation depending on the variation of the error field of the ID is extracted by the filter applying the Wavelet Transform. We call this approach the amplitude modulation method. This analysis technique was applied to measure the orbit fluctuation caused by the error field of APPLE-2 type undulator (ID23) installed in the SPring-8 storage ring. We quantitatively measured two kinds of the orbit fluctuation which are the static term caused by the magnetic field error and the dynamic term caused by the eddy current on the ID23 chamber.

  9. Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust - Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Nikolic, Jugoslav

    2016-09-01

    Dust aerosols are very efficient ice nuclei, important for heterogeneous cloud glaciation even in regions distant from desert sources. A new generation of ice nucleation parameterizations, including dust as an ice nucleation agent, opens the way towards a more accurate treatment of cold cloud formation in atmospheric models. Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation. We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively. The model results were compared against satellite and ground-based cloud-ice-related measurements, provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) in Potenza, southern Italy. The predicted ice nuclei concentration showed a reasonable level of agreement when compared against the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cloud ice water. The developed methodology permits the use of ice nuclei as input into the cloud microphysics schemes of atmospheric models, assuming that this approach could improve the predictions of cloud formation and associated precipitation.

  10. In-situ Nd isotope measurements on accessory minerals: Insights into isotope equilibration during metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Kemp, Tony; Pirard, Cassian

    2015-04-01

    Understanding isotope equilibration processes during metamorphism has huge implications for a range of geoscience applications, ranging from provenance studies of sedimentary units to the origin of magmas and ore bodies. Furthermore, recent claims of isotope disequilibrium situations during the melting of continental crust have questioned the reliability of using certain isotope systems to track magma sources. Our recent work investigated a prograde sequence of high-temperature, low-pressure (350-650 ˚C, ~3-5 kbar) metasedimentary rocks from the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia that underwent widespread pervasive fluid flow at peak metamorphism. In situ Nd-isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICP-MS found that the detrital signature of apatite survives temperatures of 500 °C. However, the observed isotope equilibration of REE-bearing accessory minerals at ~600 °C, before the onset of partial melting, suggests that isotope disequilibrium is unlikely during high-grade metamorphism of upper crustal rocks where fluid induced melting takes place. Here, we extend our research to metasedimentary rocks from (ultra)-high pressure metamorphic terrains from northern New Caledonia, and Dabieshan, China that represent pressure and temperature conditions found in subduction zones. Our study helps to understand isotope equilibration processes from heterogeneous protoliths as well as the impact of retrogression and the resetting of isotope systems over a pressure-temperature range from ~350 °C to 700 °C and ~15 kbar to 40 kbar. Nd isotope analyses of apatite, allanite, titanite, xenotime, monazite, lawsonite and epidote in pelitic and psammitic samples allow the investigation of isotope equilibration on a mineral and sub-mineral scale, as well as comparison with traditional bulk rock isotope analyses. Our preliminary results show that under high-pressure conditions (~20 to 30 kbar) and temperatures to ~650 °C, REE-bearing phases show variable ɛNd values in some cases. These

  11. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  12. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; hide

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  13. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  14. Assessing in situ mineralization of recalcitrant organic compounds in vadose zone sediments using delta13C and 14C measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Brian C; Aelion, C Marjorie; Stone, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Few techniques exist to measure the biodegradation of recalcitrant organic compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) in situ, yet predictions of biodegradation rates are needed for assessing monitored natural attenuation. Traditional techniques measuring O2, CO2, or chemical concentrations (in situ respiration, metabolite and soil air monitoring) may not be sufficiently sensitive to estimate biodegradation rates for these compounds. This study combined isotopic measurements (14C and delta13C of CO2 and delta13C of CHCs) in conjunction with traditional methods to assess in situ biodegradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) and its metabolites in PCE-contaminated vadose zone sediments. CHC, ethene, ethane, methane, O2, and CO2 concentrations were measured over 56 days using gas chromatography (GC). delta13C of PCE, trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), delta13C and 14C of vadose zone CO2 and sediment organic matter, and delta13C, 14C, and deltaD of methane were measured using a GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometer or accelerator mass spectrometer. PCE metabolites accounted for 0.2% to 18% of CHC concentration suggesting limited reductive dechlorination. Metabolites TCE and DCE were significantly enriched in (13)C with respect to PCE indicating metabolite biodegradation. Average delta13C-CO2 in source area wells (-23.5 per thousand) was significantly lower compared to background wells (-18.4 per thousand) indicating CHC mineralization. Calculated CHC mineralization rates were 0.003 to 0.01 mg DCE/kg soil/day based on lower 14C values of CO2 in the contaminated wells (63% to 107% modern carbon (pMC)) relative to the control well (117 pMC). Approximately 74% of the methane was calculated to be derived from in situ CHC biodegradation based on the 14C measurement of methane (29 pMC). 14C-CO2 analyses was a sensitive measurement for quantifying in situ recalcitrant organic compound mineralization in vadose zone sediments for which limited

  15. Heterogeneous freezing of droplets with immersed mineral dust particles - measurements and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Shaw, R. A.; Covert, D.; Mentel, T. F.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Reitz, P.; Spindler, C.; Clauss, T.; Kiselev, A.; Hallbauer, E.; Wex, H.; Mildenberger, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2010-04-01

    During the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of duST), LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) was used to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of size selected, coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. Particles were coated with succinic acid (C4H6O4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Ice fractions at mixed-phase cloud temperatures ranging from 233.15 K to 239.15 K (±0.60 K) were determined for all types of particles. In this temperature range, pure ATD particles and those coated with C4H6O4 or small amounts of H2SO4 were found to be the most efficient ice nuclei (IN). ATD particles coated with (NH4)2SO4 were the most inefficient IN. Since the supercooled droplets were highly diluted before freezing occurred, a freezing point suppression due to the soluble material on the particles (and therefore in the droplets) cannot explain this observation. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the coatings lead to particle surface alterations which cause the differences in the IN abilities. Two different theoretical approaches based on the stochastic and the singular hypotheses were applied to clarify and parameterize the freezing behavior of the particles investigated. Both approaches describe the experimentally determined results, yielding parameters that can subsequently be used to compare our results to those from other studies. However, we cannot clarify at the current state which of the two approaches correctly describes the investigated immersion freezing process. But both approaches confirm the assumption that the coatings lead to particle surface modifications lowering the nucleation efficiency. The stochastic approach interprets the reduction in nucleation rate from coating as primarily due to an increase in the thermodynamic barrier for ice formation (i.e., changes in interfacial free energies). The singular approach interprets the reduction as resulting from a

  16. Evaluation of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for in situ measurement of bone mineral density of equine metacarpi.

    PubMed

    McClure, S R; Glickman, L T; Glickman, N W; Weaver, C M

    2001-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ. Sample Population-12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses. Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures.

  17. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  18. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2010-12-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry-generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we find that FHH adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFFH ~ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFFH ~ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  19. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFHH ∼ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFHH ∼ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  20. Can Hip Fracture Prediction in Women be Estimated beyond Bone Mineral Density Measurement Alone?

    PubMed Central

    Geusens, Piet; van Geel, Tineke; van den Bergh, Joop

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hip fractures is multifactorial and includes bone and fall-related factors. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD-related and BMD-independent geometric components of bone strength, evaluated by hip strength analysis (HSA) and finite element analysis analyses on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and ultrasound parameters are related to the presence and incidence of hip fracture. In addition, clinical risk factors contribute to the risk of hip fractures, independent of BMD. They are included in the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) case finding algorithm to estimate in the individual patient the 10-year risk of hip fracture, with and without BMD. Fall risks are not included in FRAX, but are included in other case finding tools, such as the Garvan algorithm, to predict the 5- and 10-year hip fracture risk. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors, markers of bone resorption and genetic background have been related to hip fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic worldwide and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] predict hip fracture risk. In the context of hip fracture prevention calculation of absolute fracture risk using clinical risks, BMD, bone geometry and fall-related risks is feasible, but needs further refinement by integrating bone and fall-related risk factors into a single case finding algorithm for clinical use. PMID:22870438

  1. Magnetic Ghosts: Mineral Magnetic Measurements On Roman and Anglo-saxon Graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, N.

    The location of inhumations, in the absence of ferrous grave goods, often presents a considerable challenge to archaeological geophysics given the small physical size of the features and the slight contrast between the fill of the grave and the surround- ing subsoil. Even during excavation, the identification of graves may be complicated where site conditions do not favour the preservation of human skeletal remains and often only a subtle soil stain is likely to survive. A recent initiative in the United King- dom has seen the formation of the Buried Organic Matter Decomposition Integrated with Elemental Status (BODIES) research group, to examine the decomposition of organic artefacts in ancient graves with respect to localised changes in pH, redox po- tential and nutrient status. This paper presents initial results from a limited mineral magnetic study of two grave sites in an attempt to ascertain whether the decomposi- tion of organic remains may lead to a detectable magnetic signature within the soil. Results from a series of isothermal, hysteresis and magneto-thermal experiments will be presented together with surface magnetometer and topsoil susceptibility surveys.

  2. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moure, Alessandro; Reichmann, Peter; Remigio Gamba, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s-1, in steps of 1 mm s-1, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  3. [Bone mineralization and mineral status].

    PubMed

    Boivin, Georges

    2003-01-01

    After initial calcification in matrix vesicles or collagen fibrils, bones are continually modified by modelling then remodelling. In bone tissue, the degree of mineralisation of bone structural units is heterogeneous, reflects the rate of bone remodelling, and can be measured using microradiography. Our model is based on the fact that bone remodelling activity and thus the duration of the secondary mineralisation of bone tissue would influence its mineral status (mainly its degree of mineralisation or bone density at tissue level). When the bone remodelling rate increases (menopause, parathyroid hormone), the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue decreases. Conversely, after a diminution of the remodelling rate induced by antiresorptive treatments, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue increases. Strontium ranelate (PROTELOS) has been tested to date as a potential therapeutic agent in patients suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent phase III studies (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] study and the TReatment Of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study [TROPOS]) show a decrease in the vertebral and extravertebral fracture risk and an increase in bone mineral density measured at lumbar spine and femoral levels. Strontium ranelate has a unique mechanism of action, since it decreases bone resorption and increases bone formation ('decoupling' agent). Our preliminary observations in animal and man reveal that, because of this dual mechanism of action, the degree of mineralisation of bone tissue and the crystal characteristics of bone mineral are maintained at normal levels. More generally, these data indicate that the mineral status of bone tissue should be systematically taken into account during histomorphometric studies of bone.

  4. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  5. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols: Insights from elemental composition measured at the Izaña Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Prospero, Joseph M.

    2016-10-01

    Regional variations of dust mineral composition are fundamental to climate impacts but generally neglected in climate models. A challenge for models is that atlases of soil composition are derived from measurements following wet sieving, which destroys the aggregates potentially emitted from the soil. Aggregates are crucial to simulating the observed size distribution of emitted soil particles. We use an extension of brittle fragmentation theory in a global dust model to account for these aggregates. Our method reproduces the size-resolved dust concentration along with the approximately size-invariant fractional abundance of elements like Fe and Al in the decade-long aerosol record from the Izaña Observatory, off the coast of West Africa. By distinguishing between Fe in structural and free forms, we can attribute improved model behavior to aggregation of Fe and Al-rich clay particles. We also demonstrate the importance of size-resolved measurements along with elemental composition analysis to constrain models.

  6. Dawsonite synthesis and reevaluation of its thermodynamic properties from solubility measurements: Implications for mineral trapping of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénézeth, Pascale; Palmer, Donald A.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Horita, Juske

    2007-09-01

    Over the last decade, a significant research effort has focused on determining the feasibility of sequestering large amounts of CO 2 in deep, permeable geologic formations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Most models indicate that injection of CO 2 into deep sedimentary formations will lead to the formation of various carbonate minerals, including the common phases calcite (CaCO 3), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3) 2), magnesite (MgCO 3), siderite (FeCO 3), as well as the far less common mineral, dawsonite (NaAlCO 3(OH) 2). Nevertheless, the equilibrium and kinetics that control the precipitation of stable carbonate minerals are poorly understood and few experiments have been performed to validate computer codes that model CO 2 sequestration. In order to reduce this uncertainty we measured the solubility of synthetic dawsonite according to the equilibrium: NaAlCO(OH)+2HO⇌Al(OH)4-+HCO3-+Na+H, from under- and oversaturated solutions at 50-200 °C in basic media at 1.0 mol · kg -1 NaCl. The solubility products ( Qs) obtained were extrapolated to infinite dilution to obtain the solubility constants ( Kso). Combining the fit of these logKso values and fixing ΔCp,roat-185.5J·mol·K-1 at 25 °C, which was derived from the calorimetric data of Ferrante et al. [Ferrante, M.J., Stuve, J.M., and Richardson, D.W., 1976. Thermodynamic data for synthetic dawsonite. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report Investigation, 8129, Washington, D.C., 13p.], the following thermodynamic parameters for the dissolution of dawsonite were calculated at 25 °C: ΔGro=102.1kJ·mol, ΔHro=97.0kJ·mol and ΔSro=-17.1J·mol·K-1. Subsequently, we were able to derive values for the Gibbs energy of formation ( ΔfG298.15o=-1782±2kJ·mol), enthalpy of formation ( ΔfH298.15o=-1960±7kJ·mol) and entropy ( S298.15o=131±2J·mol·K-1) of dawsonite. These results are within the combined experimental uncertainties of the values reported by Ferrante et al. (1976). Predominance diagrams are presented

  7. A fast experimental beam hardening correction method for accurate bone mineral measurements in 3D μCT imaging system.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Khodor; Bekaert, Virgile; Brasse, David; Laquerriere, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Bone mineral density plays an important role in the determination of bone strength and fracture risks. Consequently, it is very important to obtain accurate bone mineral density measurements. The microcomputerized tomography system provides 3D information about the architectural properties of bone. Quantitative analysis accuracy is decreased by the presence of artefacts in the reconstructed images, mainly due to beam hardening artefacts (such as cupping artefacts). In this paper, we introduced a new beam hardening correction method based on a postreconstruction technique performed with the use of off-line water and bone linearization curves experimentally calculated aiming to take into account the nonhomogeneity in the scanned animal. In order to evaluate the mass correction rate, calibration line has been carried out to convert the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficient into bone masses. The presented correction method was then applied on a multimaterial cylindrical phantom and on mouse skeleton images. Mass correction rate up to 18% between uncorrected and corrected images were obtained as well as a remarkable improvement of a calculated mouse femur mass has been noticed. Results were also compared to those obtained when using the simple water linearization technique which does not take into account the nonhomogeneity in the object.

  8. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density in rabbit vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Norris, S A; Pettifor, J M; Gray, D A; Biscardi, A; Buffenstein, R

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit could be a superior animal model to use in bone physiology studies, for the rabbit does attain true skeletal maturity. However, there are neither normative bone mineral density (BMD) data on the rabbit nor are there any validation studies on the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure spinal BMD in the rabbit. Therefore, our aim was twofold: first, to investigate whether DXA could be used precisely and accurately to determine the bone mineral content (BMC). bone area (BA). and BMD of the rabbit lumbar spine: Second. to evaluate the new generation fan-beam DXA (Hologic QDR-4500) with small animal software by comparing two DXA methodologies QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 with each other, as well as against volumetric bone density (VBMD) derived from Archimedes principle. As expected. there was a magnification error in the QDR-4500 (BMC, BA. and BMD increased by 52%. 38%. and 10%, respectively, when the vertebrae were positioned flat against the scanning table). With the magnification error kept constant (vertebrae positioned 10 cm above the scanning table to match the height in vivo). there were no differences among the mean BMC. BA. and BMD of the rabbit vertebrae (Ll-L7) in vivo and in vitro using the QDR-4500 (p > 0.05). BMC, BA, and BMD differed between QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 in vitro because of a magnification error when the vertebrae were flat on the table (p <0.0001). and, consequently. the machines did not correlate with one another (p > 0.05). However, the BMC, BA, and BMD of the two DXAs did significantly correlate with each other in vivo and in vitro when the magnification error was compensated for (r = 0.44 and 0.52. i2 = 0.45 and 0.63. and 12 = 0.41 and 0.60. respectively. p < 0.05-0.008). The BMC and BMD (in vivo and in vitro) of the rabbit vertebrae measured by QDR-4500 was significantly correlated with VMBD, ash weight, and mineral content (,2 = 0.67-0.90,j <0.01-0.0001). Therefore, the QDR-4500 can be used to yield precise and

  9. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  10. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  11. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  12. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  13. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    PubMed

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  14. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  15. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    PubMed

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  16. Measurement of Charged Current Coherent Pion Production by Neutrinos on Carbon at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Mislivec, Aaron Robert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus coherent pion production is a rare neutrino scattering process where the squared four-momentum transferred to the nucleus is small, a lepton and pion are produced in the forward direction, and the nucleus remains in its initial state. This process is an important background in neutrino oscillation experiments. Measurements of coherent pion production are needed to constrain models which are used to predict coherent pion production in oscillation experiments. This thesis reports measurements of νµ and νµ charged current coherent pion production on carbon for neutrino energies in the range 2 < Eν < 20 GeV. The measurements were made using data from MINERνA, which is a dedicated neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment that uses a fi scintillator tracking detector in the high-intensity NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. Coherent interactions were isolated from the data using only model-independent signatures of the reaction, which are a forward muon and pion, no evidence of nuclear breakup, and small four-momentum transfer to the nucleus. The measurements were compared to the coherent pion production model used by oscillation experiments. The data and model agree in the total interaction rate and are similar in the dependence of the interaction rate on the squared four- momentum transferred from the neutrino. The data and model disagree significantly in the pion kinematics. The measured νµ and νµ interaction rates are consistent, which supports model predictions that the neutrino and antineutrino interaction rates are equal.

  17. Prediction of All-Cause Mortality Based on the Direct Measurement of Intrathoracic Impedance.

    PubMed

    Zile, Michael R; Sharma, Vinod; Johnson, James W; Warman, Eduardo N; Baicu, Catalin F; Bennett, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic impedance-derived OptiVol fluid index calculated using implanted devices has been shown to predict mortality; direct measurements of impedance have not been examined. We hypothesized that baseline measured impedance predicts all-cause mortality; changes in measured impedance result in a change in the predicted mortality; and the prognostic value of measured impedance is additive to the calculated OptiVol fluid index. A retrospective analysis of 146,238 patients within the Medtronic CareLink database with implanted devices was performed. Baseline measured impedance was determined using daily values averaged from month 6 to 9 after implant and were used to divide patients into tertiles: group L = low impedance, ≤ 65 ohms; group M = medium impedance, 66 to 72 ohms; group H = high impedance, ≥ 73 ohms. Change in measured impedance was determined from values averaged from month 9 to 12 post implant compared with the 6- to 9-month values. OptiVol fluid index was calculated using published methods. All-cause mortality was assessed beginning 9 months post implant; changes in mortality was assessed beginning 12 months post implant. Baseline measured impedance predicted all-cause mortality; 5-year mortality for group L was 41%, M was 29%, and H was 25%, P < 0.001 among all groups. Changes in measured impedance resulted in a change in the predicted mortality; the prognostic value of measured impedance was additive to the OptiVol fluid index. Direct measurements of intrathoracic impedance using an implanted device can be used to stratify patients at varying mortality risk. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Prediction of All-Cause Mortality Based on the Direct Measurement of Intrathoracic Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Zile, Michael R.; Sharma, Vinod; Johnson, James W.; Warman, Eduardo N.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Bennett, Tom D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrathoracic impedance-derived OptiVol fluid index calculated using implanted devices has been shown to predict mortality; direct measurements of impedance have not been examined. We hypothesized that baseline measured impedance predicts all-cause mortality; changes in measured impedance result in a change in the predicted mortality; and the prognostic value of measured impedance is additive to the calculated OptiVol fluid index. Methods and Results A retrospective analysis of 146,238 patients within the Medtronic CareLink data base with implanted devices was performed. Baseline measured impedance was determined using daily values averaged from month 6 to 9 post implant and were used to divide patients into tertiles; Group L= Low Impedance: ≤ 65 ohms, M= Medium Impedance: 66–72 ohms, H= High Impedance: ≥ 73 ohms. Change in measured impedance was determined from values averaged from month 9 to 12 post implant compared to the 6 to 9 month values. OptiVol fluid index was calculated using published methods. All-cause mortality was assessed beginning 9 months post implant; changes in mortality beginning 12 months post implant. Baseline measured impedance predicted all-cause mortality; 5 year mortality for group L was 41%, M was 29%, H was 25%, p < 0.001 among all groups. Changes in measured impedance resulted in a change in the predicted mortality; the prognostic value of measured impedance was additive to the OptiVol fluid index. Conclusions Direct measurements of intrathoracic impedance using an implanted device can be used to stratify patients at varying mortality risk. PMID:26699393

  19. Influence of bone mineral density measurement on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Daswani, Bhavna; Desai, Meena; Mitra, Sumegha; Gavali, Shubhangi; Patil, Anushree; Kukreja, Subhash; Khatkhatay, M Ikram

    2016-03-01

    Fracture risk assessment tool® calculations can be performed with or without addition of bone mineral density; however, the impact of this addition on fracture risk assessment tool® scores has not been studied in Indian women. Given the limited availability and high cost of bone mineral density testing in India, it is important to know the influence of bone mineral density on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. Therefore, our aim was to assess the contribution of bone mineral density in fracture risk assessment tool® outcome in Indian women. Apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women (n = 506), aged 40-72 years, without clinical risk factors for bone disease, were retrospectively selected, and their fracture risk assessment tool® scores calculated with and without bone mineral density were compared. Based on WHO criteria, 30% women were osteoporotic, 42.9% were osteopenic and 27.1% had normal bone mineral density. Fracture risk assessment tool® scores for risk of both major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture significantly increased on including bone mineral density (P < 0.0001). When criteria of National Osteoporosis Foundation, US was applied number of participants eligible for medical therapy increased upon inclusion of bone mineral density, (for major osteoporotic fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 0 and with bone mineral density was 1, P > 0.05, whereas, for hip fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 2 and with bone mineral density was 17, P < 0.0001). Until the establishment of country-specific medication intervention thresholds, bone mineral density should be included while calculating fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Simultaneous Interferometric Measurement of Corrosive or Demineralizing Bacteria and Their Mineral Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Fig. 3A), Streptococcus mutans UA159 on hydroxyapatite (Fig. 3B), FIG. 1. Measurement of the edge of a drop of water and its steel interface. Above...B) S. mutans UA159 on hydroxyapatite . The black arrowhead highlights the peak indicative of the hydroxyapatite surface. (C) Sulfate-reducing...processes, such as the demineralization of tooth enamel by S. mutans lactic acid secretions (6, 9, 20). By directly visualizing real-time height changes in

  1. The impact of osteophytic and vascular calcifications on vertebral mineral density measurements in men.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, E S; Oviatt, S K; Mann, T

    1990-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of extravertebral calcification on spinal bone density determinations, we measured lumbar vertebral density in 71 hospitalized and 58 normal men using dual photon absorptiometry. The extent of vascular and osteophytic calcification was graded from lateral lumbar radiographs. Fifty-five (43%) of the subjects had identifiable osteophytes, and 86 (67%) had vascular calcifications. Despite similar ages and weights in subjects with and without ostephytes, those with osteophytes had greater spinal density (1.34 vs. 1.17 g/cm2; P less than 0.001), and there was a strong correlation between osteophyte severity and spinal density (r = 0.41; P less than 0.00001). Proximal femoral density was not different in those with and without osteophytes. The distribution of osteophytes in this population was not random, and as a result, the presence of osteophytes obscured the the relationship of bone density to age as well as the comparison of hospitalized to normal men. Vascular calcification had a minimal effect on vertebral density. In summary, osteophytic calcification exerted an important influence on the measurement of spinal bone density in men. This effect should be considered in both clinical and research applications of integral vertebral density measures.

  2. The titration of clay minerals I. Discontinuous backtitration technique combined with CEC measurements.

    PubMed

    Tournassat, Christophe; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Tisserand, Delphine; Charlet, Laurent

    2004-05-01

    Previous experimental studies on clay potentiometric titration have been unable to distinguish inorganic cation exchange in the interlayer and on basal plane surfaces from specific pH-dependent sorption of cations and anions on the edges. In this study, we refined a titration technique, combining discontinuous backtitration and cation exchange capacity (CEC) measurements, and applied it to the potentiometric titration of Na- and Ca-conditioned montmorillonites. This technique can be used to accurately measure cation exchange, edge surface proton charge, dissolution of clay, and precipitation of new phases. Thus, a precise measurement of the variations of net proton surface charge is possible. This has important implications for clay surface modeling (see part II of this article) and for processes that depend on the clay surface charge, e.g., alteration, rheological processes, and contamination retention applications. In addition, this study confirms the adsorption of ionic pairs such as CaCl+ in exchange site positions and shows that CaOH+ could behave like CaCl+. This result, together with the evidence of precipitation of a Ca?Si phase over a short time-scale (1 week) at high pH and low temperature, can be used to model clay-concrete interactions more accurately. We confirmed and quantified the H+/Na+ exchange reaction at low pH. Finally, we demonstrate that both the edge surface charge and the permanent structural charge are compensated for by the nonspecific sorption of cations from solution across the entire pH range from 4 to 11. Under these conditions, the surface potential is fully screened and does not need to be invoked in modeling sorption processes on clay particles in dilute suspensions.

  3. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  4. Dual-photon absorptiometry: Comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue mass measurements in vivo with established methods

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Heshka, S.; Kehayias, J.J.; Pierson, R.N.

    1989-06-01

    This study extended initial observations that indicated the potential of dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM) and fat in vivo. DPA-derived TBBM and fat were compared with established methods in 13 subjects (aged 24-94 y) who underwent measurement of body density (Db), total-body water (TBW), potassium (TBK), calcium (TBCa, delayed-gamma neutron activation), and nitrogen (prompt-gamma neutron activation). TBBM was highly correlated with TBCa (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001) and the slope of TBCa vs TBBM (0.34) was similar to Ca content of ashed skeleton (0.34-0.38). DPA-measured fat (means +/- SD, 16.7 +/- 4.9 kg) correlated significantly (r = 0.79-0.94; p less than 0.01-0.001) with fat established by Db (16.3 +/- 5.4 kg), TBW (16.0 +/- 4.3 kg), TBK (17.7 +/- 4.6 kg), combined TBW-neutron activation (17.6 +/- 5.9 kg), and means of all four methods (16.9 +/- 4.8 kg). DPA thus offers a new opportunity to study human skeleton in vivo and to quantify fat by a method independent from the classical assumption that bone represents a fixed fraction of fat-free body mass.

  5. Modeling of the mineral contribution of dust to PM10 directly from the measurements of VIIRS Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albina, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Africa is well known as the largest producing region of dust, which is transported across the Atlantic to the Caribbean, under specific weather conditions. Saharan dust was observed, over the Caribbean Basin, to try to determine the roles they may play in human health, and in the fertilization of Amazon Forest. Scientists have not only used the satellite sensors MODIS and VIIRS to measure the volume of dust that makes this trans-Atlantic journey, but also the AERONET network of photometers, and PM10 Suspended Particulate Matter. We have successfully compared and shown a high correlation between the measurements from VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and PM10 so that to be able to determine an accurate modeling of the mineral contribution of dust to PM10 directly from the measurements of VIIRS. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to accurately forecast the daily mean concentration of PM10 using linear regression models. In this way, countries of the Caribbean region which cannot afford Particle Sensor for Pm10 will be able to have a precise idea of the PM10 daily forecast upon there region.

  6. Study of the Earth’s interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures using a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.

  7. Analysis of In-Situ of Ozone Measurements in Saharan Mineral Dust during AEROSE Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, E. D.; Morris, V. R.; Nalli, N. R.; Joseph, E.

    2012-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic Aerosol and Oceanographic Science Expeditions (AEROSE) are a series of experiments that began in 2004 and take place in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. AEROSE collects a unique set of critical measurements to characterize the microphysical and chemical evolution of the Saharan dust aerosols during long-range transport. Continuous in-situ surface level measurements over the tropical Atlantic allows for accurate determination of lower tropospheric ozone concentrations, and its effects on the regional environment and climate that may be used to validate satellite observations. Ozone is instrumental in regulating the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity and can influence background levels of trace chemical species which affect the composition of the atmosphere and create climatic variations. Several studies have shown that ozone concentrations diminish with increased loading of dust particles from the Sahara. Current theories indicate that decomposition of ozone may be due to NOx titrations, decreased radiation, photocatalysis, interactions with organics, or heterogeneous reactions. In effort to understand the response of marine boundary layer ozone with coarse aerosols, analyses of ozone concentrations and aerosol correlations found in dusty Saharan air masses from various cruises will be presented.

  8. Transport of mineral dust derived from airborne wind lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Groß, Silke; Rahm, Stephan; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment conducted between the 10 of June and the 15 of July 2013, the transport and properties of Saharan dust were characterized by a 2-µm Doppler wind lidar (DWL) deployed on the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. Unlike aerosol lidars, the DLW is able to simultaneously measure wind fields and -by means of an adequate calibration- aerosol optical properties, which is more adequate for aerosol transport studies. The retrieved horizontal and vertical wind speed provide a direct observation of dust long range transport mechanisms across the Atlantic (e.g. by the African easterly jet) from Western Africa to the Caribbean. Vertical wind observations revealed the structure of island induced lee waves in the Cape Verde and Barbados regions. A novel method for the calibration of DWLs based on simultaneous measurements with a ground-based aerosol lidar and sun photometer was developed. After being calibrated, the system is able to retrieve quantitative aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients, which is usually not obtained from coherent lidars. Results from the validation with a ground-based aerosol lidar in Barbados and the CALIPSO satellite instrument will be discussed.

  9. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  10. A study of the deep mineralization evaluation based on field measured spectra in Wushan-copper deposit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haifeng; Lin, Qinzhong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qinjun; Jing, Linhai

    2014-11-01

    With the development of Hyperspectra and the method of rock-mineral information extraction, several cores were analyzed based on analytical spectral devices (ASD) and rock-mineral information extraction in Wushan-cooper deposit area. Aiming at the low accuracy of mineral identification with hyperspectral data, the present study established regional spectra library on the basis of the study area geological background, section noise filtering and fast Fourier transform processing methods. Using the rapid quantificational identification model, the rock-mineral alternation information was extracted to build core profile and 3D model to discuss the deep mineralization evaluation. Combing with the regional metallogenic background, the alteration information indicated that the ore mineral was related with multiple alteration assemblages and there may be rock mass in deep space. The Cu element contents and ore mineral were closely related with the skarnization, silicification and chloritization. It also suggested that the deposit was skarn type in less than 1000 m depth, which was affected by the sandstone. Meanwhile, in more than 1000 m depth, the deposit was controlled by composite minerallzation types, which was associated with the previous geology and mineral deposits studies. In summary - this study supported a two stage mineralization model for the Wushan-copper deposit area - namely - the first stage of synsedimentary hydrothermal exhalative stage and the second stage of magmatichydrothermal ore-forming stage.

  11. Laboratory measurements of contact nucleation by mineral dusts, bacteria, and soluble salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaus, Joseph

    We present results from experiments that emulate atmospheric ice nucleation by aerosols. We have refined experimental techniques to improve measurements of ice forming nuclei in the contact mode. Our results show that atmospherically relevant dusts such as kaolinite, feldspar, rhyolitic ash, and Arizona Test Dust have efficiencies in the contact mode that are higher than the immersion mode. Experiments with bacteria show that biological material has the potential to contribute significantly to ice concentrations, but has large variability. By choosing a soluble compound as an ice nucleus, we are able to place bounds on the timescale for contact freezing and estimate the nucleation time from impact to be 10--9 seconds. Finally, we conclude that the contact mode can increase nucleation rates in two ways: by the creation of a triple-phase line with an insoluble nucleus, or by the collision event.

  12. Depth-related changes in community structure of culturable mineral weathering bacteria and in weathering patterns caused by them along two contrasting soil profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xia-Fang; Xi, Jun; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.

  13. Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure. PMID:24077700

  14. A non-invasive measure of minerals and electrolytes in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Silver, Burton

    1991-01-01

    A system for collecting epithelial cells from the oral mucosa for the determination of ion concentration is discussed with application to the study of man's adaptation to microgravity. A number of characteristics of these cells influenced the choice for clinical testing. They are non-cornified epithelial cells located on the inferior aspect of the tongue; therefore, they are well protected from trauma. They have the capability of reflecting relatively recent physiologic changes since they are renewed every three days and have aerobic metabolism. Most importantly, they are easily accessible and can be removed by a wooden applicator stick with minimum discomfort. Smears of cells removed in this manner show predominantly individual cells rather than sheets of contiuous cells. This facilitates the visual isolation of single cells with the electron microscope for analysis. NASA's principle effort in the development of a test to measure the ion concentration in sublingual cells has been research by the biomedical program carried out by scientists with expertise in skeletal metabolism. These efforts were directed toward determining the biological meaning and deviations in interacellular ions in nonhuman primates and in male volunteers for experiments in a model for weightlessness. A brief one page summary of the experiments and results are presented.

  15. Proxies and measurement techniques for mineral dust in Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Urs; Barbante, Carlo; Bigler, Matthias; Delmonte, Barbara; Fischer, Hubertus; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gaspari, Vania; Kaufmann, Patrik; Lambert, Fabrice; Maggi, Valter; Marino, Federica; Petit, Jean-Robert; Udisti, Roberto; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Wegner, Anna; Wolff, Eric W

    2008-08-01

    To improve quantitative interpretation of ice core aeolian dust records, a systematic methodological comparison was made. This involved methods for water-insoluble particle counting (Coulter counter and laser-sensing particle detector), soluble ion analysis (ion chromatography and continuous flow analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) cores were used. All methods correlate very well among each other, but the ratios of glacial age to Holocene concentrations, which are typically a factor approximately 100, differ between the methods by up to a factor of 2 with insoluble particles showing the largest variability. The recovery of ICP-MS measurements depends on the digestion method and is differentfor different elements and during different climatic periods. EDC and EDML samples have similar dust composition, which suggests a common dust source or a common mixture of sources for the two sites. The analyzed samples further reveal a change of dust composition during the last deglaciation.

  16. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches: Assessment by in situ O2 microprofile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, M.; Turnewitsch, R.; Toyofuku, T.; Kitazato, H.; Glud, R. N.

    2016-10-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O2 consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746±103 μmol m-2 d-1; n=27) was 3-times higher than at the Tonga Trench axis site (10800 m; 225±50 μmol m-2 d-1; n=7) presumably reflecting the higher surface water productivity in the Northern Pacific. Comparing benthic O2 consumption rates measured in the central hadal Tonga Trench to that of nearby (60 km distance) abyssal settings (6250 m; 92±44 μmol m-2 d-1; n=16) revealed a 2.5 higher activity at the trench bottom. Onboard investigations on recovered sediment furthermore revealed that the prokaryotic abundance and concentrations of phytopigments followed this overall trend (i.e minimum values at the abyssal site followed by higher values from the Tonga and Izu-Bonin Trenches axis, respectively). Excess 210Pb profiles suggested that mass-wasting events contributed to the deposition of material enhancing the concentration of organic matter in the central trench as compared to the abyssal settings. Our results complement recent findings from the Challenger deep in the Mariana Trench area, which also revealed elevated diagenetic activity in the central trench underpinning the importance of hadal ecosystems for the deep sea carbon cycling.

  17. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density measurements: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Howard, G M; Nguyen, T V; Harris, M; Kelly, P J; Eisman, J A

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation and covariation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and their relationships to bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-nine monozygotic (MZ) and 44 dizygotic (DZ) female twins between 20 and 83 years of age (53 +/- 13 years, mean +/- SD) were studied. Digital (phalangeal) QUS (speed of sound [SOS]) and calcaneal QUS (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and velocity of sound [VOS]) were measured using a DBM Sonic 1200 ultrasound densitometer and a CUBA ultrasound densitometer, respectively. Femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Familial resemblance and hence heritability (proportion of variance of a trait attributable to genetic factors) were assessed by analysis of variance, univariate, and multivariate model-fitting genetic analyses. In both QUS and BMD parameters, MZ twins were more alike than DZ pairs. Estimates of heritability for age- and weight-adjusted BUA, VOS, and SOS were 0.74, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Corresponding indices of heritability for LS, FN, and TB BMD were 0.79, 0.77, and 0.82, respectively. In cross-sectional analysis, both BUA and SOS, but not VOS, were independently associated with BMD measurements. However, analysis based on intrapair differences suggested that only BUA was related to BMD. Bivariate genetic analysis indicated that the genetic correlations between BUA and BMD ranged between 0.43 and 0.51 (p < 0.001), whereas the environmental correlations ranged between 0.20 and 0.28 (p < 0.01). While the genetic correlations within QUS and BMD measurements were significant, factor analysis indicates that common genes affect BMD at different sites. Also, individual QUS measurements appear to be influenced by some common sets of genes rather than by environmental factors. Significant environmental correlations were only found for BMD

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-08-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an improved understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  19. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  20. Temperature error in radiation thermometry caused by emissivity and reflectance measurement error.

    PubMed

    Corwin, R R; Rodenburghii, A

    1994-04-01

    A general expression for the temperature error caused by emissivity uncertainty is developed, and it is concluded that lower-wavelength systems provide significantly less temperature error. A technique to measure the normal emissivity is proposed that uses a normally incident light beam and an aperture to collect a portion of the energy reflected from the surface and to measure essentially both the specular component and the biangular reflectance at the edge of the aperture. The theoretical results show that the aperture size need not be substantial to provide reasonably low temperature errors for a broad class of materials and surface reflectance conditions.

  1. The effect of risedronate on bone mineralization as measured by micro-computed tomography with synchrotron radiation: correlation to histomorphometric indices of turnover.

    PubMed

    Borah, Babul; Ritman, Erik L; Dufresne, Thomas E; Jorgensen, Steven M; Liu, Sheng; Sacha, Jarek; Phipps, Roger J; Turner, Russell T

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of our study was to determine changes in bone mineralization in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated for 3 years with risedronate or placebo. A secondary goal was to determine the relationship between mineralization and indices of bone turnover measured on the same biopsies. The degree of mineralization was measured by micro-computed tomography using Synchrotron radiation (Synchrotron microCT) in the trabecular bone of paired transiliac biopsies taken at baseline and after 3 years of treatment from patients receiving risedronate 5 mg daily (n=11) or placebo (n=8). In the risedronate-treated patients, the average mineralization (Avg-MIN) and peak mineralization (Peak-MIN) at 3 years were significantly increased from baseline by 4.7% (P<0.0001) and 5.4% (P=0.0003), respectively and showed significant negative correlation to turnover indices. In the placebo-treated patients, the increases in Avg-MIN (2.0%) and Peak-MIN (1.6%) were not significantly different from baseline and correlation to turnover indices was weaker. Risedronate significantly reduced the ratio of low- to high-mineralized bone fractions estimated by volume (BMR-V) and surface area (BMR-S) by 70.1% and 54.1%, respectively from baseline. These changes were consistent with the significant reduction of turnover from baseline assessed by reductions in mineralizing surface, MS/BS (-72.8%); activation frequency, Ac.F (-60.4%); and bone formation rate, BFR-BV (-63.6%) in the same biopsies in the risedronate-treated patients. Comparing the pair-wise changes from baseline, risedronate significantly reduced the low-mineralized bone fraction in comparison to placebo, as indicated by a larger reduction of BMR-V (P=0.015) and BMR-S (P=0.035). In the risedronate group, BMR-V and BMR-S showed significant positive correlation to MS/BS (R2: 0.83 and 0.92, respectively). The correlations to Ac.F and BFR-BV were also significant, with BMR-S showing a strong relation (R2: 0.77 and 0.79, respectively

  2. A preliminary assessment of year long relative loose mineral intake and range cow productivity in Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ssessment of the effectiveness of supplementary mineral nutrition in range cattle to promote important economic traits is lacking due a paucity of methods to measure cause and effect relationships, dynamic dietary mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of mineral intake quantificat...

  3. A preliminary assessment of year long relative loose mineral intake and range cow productivity in Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of the effectiveness of supplementary mineral nutrition in range cattle to promote important economic traits is lacking due a paucity of methods to measure cause and effect relationships, dynamic dietary mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of mineral intake quantifica...

  4. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  5. Local Variation in Femoral Neck Cortical Bone: In Vitro Measured Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Jenkins, Thomas; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dunlop, Doug G; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-12-17

    Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally around the circumference of the femoral neck, allowing examination of spatial variability within the cortical bone. Fractured tissue was less resistant to indentation in the thinner superolateral segment compared to other segments and other groups. BMD around the fractured femoral necks appeared more consistent than that of nonfractured tissue, where BMD was reduced in the superolateral segment for the other groups. Cortical bone was thin in the superolateral segment for all groups except for the osteoarthritic group, and was thicker in the inferomedial segment for both osteoarthritic and fractured groups, resulting in the largest variation in buckling ratio (ratio of cortical bone diameter to cortical bone thickness) around the femoral neck for the fractured group. With age, healthy controls appeared to have lower inferomedial cortical thickness, whereas no significant differences in Reference Point Indentation measurements and density were observed. The study has

  6. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T

    2003-11-01

    The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid

  7. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing

  8. Measurement of Cu and Zn adsorption onto surficial sediment components: new evidence for less importance of clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Yu

    2011-05-30

    Clay minerals in surficial sediment samples, collected from the Songhua River in China, were separated via sedimentation after removal of Fe/Mn oxides and organic materials; Cu and Zn adsorption onto the sediment components was then evaluated. Clay minerals were examined via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Clay minerals were found to consist mainly of illite, kaolinite, chlorite and an illite/smectite mixed layer. Non-clay minerals were dominated by quartz and orthoclase. The retention of Cu and Zn by clay minerals was 1.6 and 2.5 times, respectively, greater than that of the whole, untreated surficial sediment. Compared to the other critical components in sediments related to metal sorption (Mn oxides, Fe oxides and organic materials), the adsorption capacity of clay minerals was found to be relatively lower on a unit mass basis. These data suggest that, although clay minerals may be important in the adsorption of heavy metals to aquatic sediments, their role is less significant than Fe/Mn oxides and organic materials.

  9. Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Exchange from a Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on a Mineral Soil Measured with Eddy Covariance Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S.; Shurpali, N.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O) in the atmosphere have been linked to anthropogenic activities. Energy production based on fossil fuels is the main sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Strategies to reduce CO2 emissions include use of bioenergy crops as energy source. To evaluate the real atmospheric value of bioenergy, knowledge on CO2 and N2O balances of ecosystems under bioenergy crop cultivation is needed. Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.) is increasingly being used as a bioenergy crop in the Nordic countries. It grows well in northern Europe as it tolerates flooding, requires short growing season and thrives well under low temperatures. Currently RCG is cultivated on an area of about 19000 ha in Finland and it is the highest yielding grass grown for energy purpose in Finland. The long rotation period (about ten years) of RCG cultivation without tilling favors carbon allocation into soil. First results from RCG cultivations on peat soil show that it is a promising land use option on such soils favoring soil carbon sequestration with low N2O emissions (Hyvönen et al. 2009; Shurpali et al. 2009). In order to devise a sound bioenergy policy based on this grass, studies on soils with variable characteristics under different climatic and hydrological regimes is urgently needed. Micrometeorological eddy covariance technique is suitable to study GHG fluxes at an ecosystem level (Baldocchi 2003). It is useful for continuous, direct and long-term measurements. Eddy covariance technique has been successfully used for measuring CO2 exchange in various ecosystems. The eddy covariance technique has also been used to measure N2O emissions (Denmead 2008). Aims of this study are to quantify the CO2 and N2O exchange of RCG cultivation on a mineral soil employing eddy covariance technique and to identify the key factors controlling the gas exchange. The study site on mineral soil is located in Eastern Finland. RCG was sown in spring

  10. Diagnosing causes of cloud parameterization deficiencies using ARM measurements over SGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Betts, A. K.

    2010-03-15

    Decade-long continuous surface-based measurements at Great Southern Plains (SGP) collected by the US Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are first used to evaluate the three major reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I and NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II) to identify model biases in simulating surface shortwave cloud forcing and total cloud fraction. The results show large systematic lower biases in the modeled surface shortwave cloud forcing and cloud fraction from all the three reanalysis datasets. Then we focus on diagnosing the causes of these model biases using the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) products (e.g., vertical distribution of cloud fraction, cloud-base and cloud-top heights, and cloud optical depth) and meteorological measurements (temperature, humidity and stability). Efforts are made to couple cloud properties with boundary processes in the diagnosis.

  11. Study of angle measuring error mechanism caused by rotor run-outs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Dabao; Zhang, Wenying; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-11-01

    In a rotating angle measuring system, errors of grating sensor, installation and rotor run-outs will affect angle measuring error. The error caused by rotor run-outs is usually the biggest and the hardest to eliminate of them. To improve the accuracy, the table should be fabricated precisely, thus, the table system will be complicated and expensive. This paper provides a method to solve the challenge by using two gratings in the same table, whose gratings respectively grooved on end face and side face. The error mechanism of end face and side face caused by axial and radial rotor run-outs by were deduced. It can be concluded from the analysis that end face grating is sensitive when radial rotor run-outs happens, side face grating is sensitive when axial rotor run-outs happens. Due to the conclusion, combined type gratings with one end face grating and one side face grating can be used to restrain the error caused by Rotor Run-outs of table.

  12. From Nm-Scale Measurements Of Mineral Dissolution Rate To Overall Dissolution Rate Laws: A Case Study Based On Diopside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, D.; Saldi, G.; Hellmann, R.; Knauss, K.

    2011-12-01

    While we expect conventional reactive transport simulations to provide reliable estimations of the evolution of fluid-rock interactions over time scales of centuries and even more, recent experimental studies showed that they could hardly be satisfactorily used on simplified systems (e.g. batch carbonation experiments on single minerals), on time scales of weeks [1]. Among the reasons for such inconsistencies is the nature of the rate laws used in the geochemical codes, which heavily relies on our description of the fundamental mechanisms involved during water(-CO2)-mineral reactions. Silicate dissolution constitutes a key step of GCS processes. Whereas the dissolution rate of silicate minerals has been extensively studied at far-from-equilibrium conditions, extrapolating such rates over a broad range of solution composition relevant for GCS has proven challenging. Regarding diopside, recent studies [2, 3] suggested that below 125 °C, an unexpected drop of the rate occurred for Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr) as low as -76 kJ.mol-1, with severe consequences on our ability to predict the rate of complex processes such as carbonation reactions [3]. The mechanism responsible for such a drop remains unclear and therefore needs to be deciphered. An examination of our previous data [3] led us to envisage that two different, non-exclusive aspects were worth investigating: (i) the possible passivating ability of interfacial, nm-thick Si-rich layers developed on weathered silicate surface, and (ii) the stop of etch pits formation on crystal surface, each mechanism being found to be responsible for drops of olivine [1] and albite [4] dissolution rates, respectively. Our ongoing experiments aim at better constraining these two mechanisms, and determining in turn whether one of them could explain the above-mentioned drop of diopside dissolution rate. Classical flow-through experiments with controlled SiO2(aq) concentrations are combined with both ex situ AFM and VSI

  13. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  14. Can forearm bone mineral density be measured with dxa in the supine position? A study in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhua; Xing, Yan; Zhou, Qi; Jin, Wenya; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to confirm that forearm bone mineral density (BMD) results obtained with the patient in the supine position are equivalent to results obtained with patient in the sitting position. The subjects were a Chinese sample of 82 healthy adults (35 males and 47 females; age: 22.5-59.8 yr; body mass index: 17.6-32.4). Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with the forearm positioned in the sitting and supine positions. Repeated measurements were available for some subjects, and the average of the repeats for those subjects were used in the analysis. The standard enCORE software (GE Lunar, Madison, WI) adjustment for supine position was applied to the BMD values obtained in the supine position for 33% radius, ultradistal (UD) radius, and radius total regions of interest (ROIs) to give sitting-equivalent values. The supine sitting-equivalent results were regressed on the sitting values through the origin. There were statistically significant differences in the UD and total-radius forearm results between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD. The correlation coefficients of UD and total radius were 0.967 and 0.976, respectively. There was no significant difference between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD in the 33% radius forearm BMD. The correlation coefficient of 33% radius was 0.956. For Chinese subjects, there was no significant difference in BMD for the 33% radius, the only ROI recommended for diagnosis by ISCD. Forearm scans could be accomplished with the patient suitably positioned for the routine lumbar spine and proximal femur scans.

  15. Method for qualitative determination of measurement errors caused by sample fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, David L.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the papers and inks used to produce color hard copy products contain fluorescent materials. Most density and/or color instruments use the ratio of value of the light returned by the sample at each wavelength relative to that returned by a white calibration standard to derive the measurement value. Generally, no effort is made to differentiate between light reflected by the sample and light emitted by the sample due to fluorescence. The blue emitted light resulting from the inclusion of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) in graphic arts materials is excited by violet and ultraviolet (UV) light in the instrument illumination source. Differences in instrument source UV intensity can cause significant differences in the blue reflectance values of FWA containing samples reported by the instrument measurement system. Standard reference materials (SRM) which contain known amounts of FWA are commercially available. These SRMs allow a semiquantitative assessment of the UV content of an instrument's illuminating source. A further refinement, using thin UV cutoff filters, allows the qualitative determination of the presence or absence of FWA in paper samples. We anticipate that with the use of other thin filters, measurement errors caused by visible light excited fluorescence of inks, particular yellows, will be possible.

  16. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Rahman, Khaista; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns' hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were "newborns' hyperbilirubinemia", "newborns' jaundice", "Physiological Jaundice" and "Patholigical Jaundice". The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations.

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ULLAH, Sana; RAHMAN, Khaista; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. Methods: The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were “newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia”, “newborns’ jaundice”, “Physiological Jaundice” and “Patholigical Jaundice”. The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Results: Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Conclusion: Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations. PMID:27398328

  18. Development of an Electronic Pediatric All-Cause Harm Measurement Tool Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, David Christopher; Bisarya, Hema; Classen, David C; Kirkendall, Eric S; Lachman, Peter I; Matlow, Anne G; Tham, Eric; Hyman, Dan; Lehman, Samuel M; Searles, Elizabeth; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J

    2016-12-01

    To have impact on reducing harm in pediatric inpatients, an efficient and reliable process for harm detection is needed. This work describes the first step toward the development of a pediatric all-cause harm measurement tool by recognized experts in the field. An international group of leaders in pediatric patient safety and informatics were charged with developing a comprehensive pediatric inpatient all-cause harm measurement tool using a modified Delphi technique. The process was conducted in 5 distinct steps: (1) literature review of triggers (elements from a medical record that assist in identifying patient harm) for inclusion; (2) translation of triggers to likely associated harm, improving the ability for expert prioritization; (3) 2 applications of a modified Delphi selection approach with consensus criteria using severity and frequency of harm as well as detectability of the associated trigger as criteria to rate each trigger and associated harm; (4) developing specific trigger logic and relevant values when applicable; and (5) final vetting of the entire trigger list for pilot testing. Literature and expert panel review identified 108 triggers and associated harms suitable for consideration (steps 1 and 2). This list was pared to 64 triggers and their associated harms after the first of the 2 independent expert reviews. The second independent expert review led to further refinement of the trigger package, resulting in 46 items for inclusion (step 3). Adding in specific trigger logic expanded the list. Final review and voting resulted in a list of 51 triggers (steps 4 and 5). Application of a modified Delphi method on an expert-constructed list of 108 triggers, focusing on severity and frequency of harms as well as detectability of triggers in an electronic medical record, resulted in a final list of 51 pediatric triggers. Pilot testing this list of pediatric triggers to identify all-cause harm for pediatric inpatients is the next step to establish the

  19. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Toelly, Andrea; Bardach, Constanze; Weber, Michael; Gong, Rui; Lai, Yanbo; Wang, Pei; Guo, Yulin; Kirschke, Jan; Baum, Thomas; Gruber, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Aim To evaluate the differences in phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in contrast-enhanced routine MDCT scans at different contrast phases, and to develop an algorithm for calculating a reliable BMD value. Materials and Methods 112 postmenopausal women from the age of 40 to 77 years (mean age: 57.31 years; SD 9.61) who underwent a clinically indicated MDCT scan, consisting of an unenhanced, an arterial, and a venous phase, were included. A retrospective analysis of the BMD values of the Th12 to L4 vertebrae in each phase was performed using a commercially available phantom-less measurement tool. Results The mean BMD value in the unenhanced MDCT scans was 79.76 mg/cm³ (SD 31.20), in the arterial phase it was 85.09 mg/cm³ (SD 31.61), and in the venous phase it was 86.18 mg/cm³ (SD 31.30). A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between BMD values on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans. There was no significant difference between BMD values in the arterial and venous phases (p = 0.228). The following conversion formulas were calculated using linear regression: unenhanced BMD = -2.287 + 0.964 * [arterial BMD value] and -4.517 + 0.978 * [venous BMD value]. The intrarater agreement of BMD measurements was calculated with an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.984 and the interobserver reliability was calculated with an ICC of 0.991. Conclusion Phantom-less BMD measurements in contrast-enhanced MDCT scans result in increased mean BMD values, but, with the formulas applied in our study, a reliable BMD value can be calculated. However, the mean BMD values did not differ significantly between the arterial and venous phases. Key points  · BMD can be assessed on routine CT scans using a phantom-less tool.. · i. v. contrast agent significantly elevates BMD values measured on routine CT scans.. · BMD values measured in the arterial and venous phase did not differ significantly.. · Conversion formulas

  20. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  1. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A en español Tabla ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  2. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  3. Effects of hydroxychloride sources of copper, zinc, and manganese on measures of supplement intake, mineral status, and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves.

    PubMed

    Caramalac, L S; Netto, A Saran; Martins, P G M A; Moriel, P; Ranches, J; Fernandes, H J; Arthington, J D

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Cu, Zn, and Mn source on measures of 1) preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements and 2) mineral status and pre- and postweaning performance of beef calves. In Exp. 1, 4 trials were conducted to assess the effect of source of Cu (750 mg/kg; Trial 1), Zn (2,000 mg/kg; Trial 2), Mn (3,000 mg/kg; Trial 3), and all 3 elements (Trial 4) on preferential intake of mineral-concentrated supplements. Supplements differed only by source of Cu, Zn, and Mn, which included hydroxychloride (hydroxy), sulfate, and organic options. In each trial, the 3 supplements were simultaneously offered to 8 pens of early-weaned calves (2 calves/pen; 126 ± 8.0 kg average BW) for a 4-h period and preferential intake was determined. When offered the opportunity to select among 3 supplement options, calves consumed more ( < 0.001) supplement containing hydroxy vs. organic or sulfate sources of Cu (Trial 1), Zn (Trial 2), and Mn (Trial 3). In Trial 4, when all 3 elements were combined within a single supplement, calves almost exclusively selected ( < 0.001) the hydroxy vs. organic or sulfate sources (82.9, 10.4, and 6.7% of total supplement intake, respectively [SEM 3.16]). In Exp. 2, calves were supplemented at a rate of 114 g/calf daily for 84 d before weaning (2 calves/pasture; 10 and 12 pastures in yr 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated to contain no supplemental minerals (control); hydroxy Cu, Zn, and Mn; or copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, and manganese oxide (sulfate/oxide). Total supplement intake was greater ( = 0.01) for calves consuming the hydroxy vs. the sulfate/oxide sources of Cu, Zn, and Mn (9.0 vs. 7.2 kg [SEM 0.45]). Preweaning calf BW gain did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) among treatments; however, calves provided mineral-fortified supplements had greater ( = 0.003) liver concentrations of Co and Se and tended ( = 0.07) to have greater liver concentrations of Cu at weaning compared with the controls. Calves

  4. Measurement of temperature decrease caused by blood flow in focused ultrasound irradiation by thermal imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Hatano, Yuichi; Mori, Yashunori; Shen, Rakushin; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to estimate the local temperature changes caused by a thick blood vessel, the temperature distribution in a tissue phantom with a thick blood vessel during focused ultrasound irradiation was measured by a thermal imaging method. The blood flow rate in the simulated blood vessel was varied and the relationship between flow rate and temperature decrease was examined. The phantom using the thermal imaging method is divided into two parts, and the increases in temperature distribution as a function of blood flow rate are measured using a thermocamera under constant ultrasound irradiation. The irradiation conditions of ultrasound waves were a central frequency of 1 MHz, a wave number length of 200 cycles, and a duty ratio of 0.2. The irradiation duration was 5 min, and the ultrasound intensity I SPTA was 36 W/cm2. The amount of temperature decrease caused by the cooling effect of blood flow increased with the blood flow rate and it became constant at a certain threshold of blood flow rate. The threshold of blood flow rate is about 250 ml/min.

  5. Bone mineral content measured by DEXA scan in preterm neonates receiving total parentral nutrition with and without phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Awad, H A; Farid, T M; Khafagy, S M; Nofal, R I

    2010-09-15

    Intravenous phosphorus preparation was not available in Egypt till recently. So we aimed to prove the positive effect of adding intravenous phosphorus to total parentral nutrition (TPN) on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (PO4) metabolism ofpreterm neonates by measuring bone mineral content (BMC) using DEXA scan. A case-control study was conducted in NICU of Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital of Ain Shams University which is a tertiary care unit in Cairo. Thirty preterm infants were prospectively enrolled in the study divided into 2 groups; 15 preterm infants received TPN with phosphorus supplementation (group 1) and 15 preterm received TPN without phosphorus supplementation (group 2). Serum Ca, PO4 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were done together with urinary calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio, abdominal ultrasound and DEXA scan. There were no significant difference regarding serum Ca and PO4 between group 1 and 2. Yet there were highly significant increase in serum ALP and urinary Ca/Cr ratio in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.001). Also group 1 had significantly higher BMC compared to group 2 even with TPN duration less than 15 days (p = 0.001). BMC was significantly positively correlated with G.A and B.W in both groups and was significantly negatively correlated with serum ALP in group 2 and with urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in group 1. Duration of TPN as short as 2 weeks can affect negatively the BMC as documented by DEXA scan in preterm infants receiving TPN without phosphorus supplementation.

  6. The determination of serum concentrations of osteocalcin in growing pigs and its relationship to end-measures of bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Combs, T R; Colombo, G; Fanti, P

    1996-11-01

    Osteocalcin, a 49-amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein produced by the osteoblast, has been shown in laboratory animals to be a better marker of bone turnover than alkaline phosphatase. To determine serum osteocalcin levels in growing pigs, we isolated pure porcine osteocalcin and developed a double-antibody RIA. To evaluate the effects of dietary Ca and P levels on serum osteocalcin, 36 individually penned crossbred pigs (19.5 kg initial BW) were fed fortified corn-soybean meal diets (.95% lysine) containing four levels of Ca (.42, .66, .90, 1.14%) and P (.35, .55, .75, .95%) in a 30-d test. Increasing dietary Ca and P improved body weight gain quadratically (P < .02). Most bone traits improved quadratically (P < .05) with increasing Ca and P. Pigs were bled on d 0, 10, 20, and 30 to determine serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and osteocalcin. Osteocalcin decreased (P < .02) linearly with increasing Ca and P on d 10, 20, and 30. However, this effect was much more pronounced on d 20 and 30. Alkaline phosphatase decreased with the first incremental increase in dietary Ca and P, but was not affected by higher levels on any day measured. Osteocalcin was inversely correlated with growth rate (r = -.54, P < .01), bone strength (r = -.57, P < .01), metacarpal ash (r = -.29, P < .10), femur ash (r = -.60, P < .01), and femur ash weight (r = -.65, P < .01). Similar results were found for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alkaline phosphatase was not correlated with performance or most bone traits on d 30. Based on this model, these results suggest that serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are better predictors of bone mineralization and(or) turnover in pigs than serum alkaline phosphatase.

  7. Low to Extremely Low Water Abundances Measured in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in Mafic to Granitic Apollo Rock Clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Christoffersen, R.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Mills, R. D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar sample-based volatile studies have focused on assessing the inventory and distribution of water in the Moon. Some have focused on the relatively young mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which result from partial melting of the relatively young lunar mantle. Less certain is the water inventory for the oldest materials available, which have the greater potential to record the earliest history of volatiles in the Moon (and thus provide evidence for the "wet" vs. "dry" accretion hypotheses of the Earth-Moon system. Studies of volatiles in ancient lunar rocks have largely focused on apatite. One recent FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer) study of plagioclase reported a relatively "wet" (approximately 320 parts per million) magma for primordial ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Another, a NanoSIMS study of alkali feldspar, reported a "wet" (approximately 1 weight percentage) felsic magma, but due to the differentiation processes required for silicic magmatism in the lunar crust, predicted an essentially "dry" (less than 100 parts per million) bulk Moon. Thus, despite evidence that appears to complicate the early "dry" Moon paradigm, there is no apparent unanimity among the measurements, even those on apatite. This disparity is clearly seen by the order of magnitude different water estimates for lunar "alkali-rich suite rocks" (Fig. 1). Some of the apparent differences may be explained by recent improvements in the apatite-based water estimates that better account for relative compatibilities of OH-, Cl, and F. In the present work, we seek to expand our understanding of the volatile abundances in early formed lunar magmas, their source reservoirs, and to address the potential role that felsic magmas play on the lunar hydrogen budget over time by employing NanoSIMS analysis of nominally anhydrous minerals.

  8. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Camelia

    2013-06-14

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  9. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    PRODAN, CAMELIA; SLATER, LEE; NTARLAGIANNIS, DIMITRIOS

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  10. An investigation of mineral dynamics in frozen seawater brines by direct measurement with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Kennedy, Hilary

    2015-08-01

    Frozen seawater is a composite material with a sponge-like structure. The framework of the structure is composed of pure ice, and within the pores exists a concentrated seawater brine. When the temperature is reduced, the volume of this residual brine decreases, while its salinity increases. As a result of the paired changes to temperature and salinity, the brine eventually becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral, resulting in the precipitation of microscopic crystals throughout the ice structure. Due to experimental constraints, the current understanding about the formation of these minerals relies on the analysis of the residual brine, rather than the mineral phase. Here synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was used to assess the dynamics that occur between ice, brine, and mineral phases within frozen seawater brines that were subjected to cooling and warming at subzero temperatures. The method was able to detect crystalline phases of ice, mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), and hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O). Results illustrate a highly dynamic geochemical environment where ice-brine-mineral interactions tend toward an equilibrium crystallization process, which supports the process of seawater freezing that is described by the Gitterman Pathway and FREZCHEM model. This study highlights the power of synchrotron techniques in observing the mineralogical dynamics of inaccessible environmental systems.

  11. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 1. Mineral abundances inferred from spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weidong; Lucey, Paul G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Di, Kaichang; Wan, Wenhui; Xu, Bin; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei; Xue, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer on board the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission measured the lunar surface reflectance at a close distance (~1 m) and collected four spectra at four different sites. These in situ lunar spectra have revealed less mature features than that measured remotely by spaceborne sensors such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 mission and the Spectral Profiler on board the Kaguya over the same region. Mineral composition analysis using a spectral lookup table populated with a radiative transfer mixing model has shown that the regolith at the landing site contains high abundance of olivine. The mineral abundance results are consistent with that inferred from the compound measurement made by the on board alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer.

  12. Measurements of television interference caused by a vertical-axis wind machine. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the 17 m Darreius at Albuquerque, NM, has been studied by carrying out measurements at a number of sites in the vicinity of the VAWT. The rf sources used were the commercial vhf and uhf TV signals available in the area. Ambient field-strength measurements showed that the signals on all TV channels except one were strong, and provided good reception at all test sites. With the antenna (properly) oriented for maximum direct signal, unacceptable interference was observed on some channels at sites out to 33 m from the WT in the forward and backward regions. With the antenna beam directed at the WT, interference varying from slight to violent were observed at all sites on some or all TV channels. A simple theoretical model has been developed for analyzing the TVI produced by a VAWT like the Darrieus. Using the model in conjunction with measured data, an approximate expression for the equivalent scattering area A of the Darrieus has been developed. It is found that A is wavelength (lambda) dependent and varies as lambda/sup 1/2/.

  13. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  14. Petrographic and isotope constraints on the origin of authigenic carbonate minerals and the associated fluid evolution in Late Permian coal measures, Bowen Basin (Queensland), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. T.; Golding, S. D.; Glikson, M.

    2000-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate minerals are ubiquitous throughout the Late Permian coal measures of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. In the northern Bowen Basin, carbonates include the following assemblages: siderite I (δ 18OSMOW=+11.4 to +17%, δ 13CPDB=-5.3 to +120), Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II mineral association (δ 18OSMOW=+7.2 to +10.20, δ 13CPDB=10.9 to -1.80 for ankerite) and a later calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+5.9 to +14.60, δ 13CPDB=-11.4 to +4.40). In the southern Bowen Basin, the carbonate phase consists only of calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+12.5 to +14.80, δ 13CPDB=-19.4 to +0.80), where it occurs extensively throughout all stratigraphic levels. Siderite I occurs in mudrocks and sandstones and predates all other carbonate minerals. This carbonate phase is interpreted to have formed as an early diagenetic mineral from meteoric waters under cold climate and reducing conditions. Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II occur in sandstones as replacement of volcanic rock fragments. Clay minerals (illite-smectite, chlorite and kaolinite) postdate Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates, and precipitation of the later calcite is associated with clay mineral formation. The Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates and later calcite of the northern Bowen Basin are regarded as having formed as a result of hydrothermal activity during the latest Triassic extensional tectonic event which affected this part of the basin, rather than deep burial diagenesis during the Middle to Late Triassic as previously reported. This hypothesis is based on the timing relationships of the authigenic mineral phases and the low δ18O values of ankerite and calcite, together with radiometric dating of illitic clays and recently published regional geological evidence. Following the precipitation of the Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates from strongly 18O-depleted meteoric-hydrothermal fluids, continuing fluid circulation and water-rock interaction resulted in dissolution of these carbonate phases as well as labile fragments of volcaniclastic rocks

  15. Measurement and understanding of single-molecule break junction rectification caused by asymmetric contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hamill, Joseph M.; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-08-07

    The contact effects of single-molecule break junctions on rectification behaviors were experimentally explored by a systematic control of anchoring groups of 1,4-disubstituted benzene molecular junctions. Single-molecule conductance and I-V characteristic measurements reveal a strong correlation between rectifying effects and the asymmetry in contacts. Analysis using energy band models and I-V calculations suggested that the rectification behavior is mainly caused by asymmetric coupling strengths at the two contact interfaces. Fitting of the rectification ratio by a modified Simmons model we developed suggests asymmetry in potential drop across the asymmetric anchoring groups as the mechanism of rectifying I-V behavior. This study provides direct experimental evidence and sheds light on the mechanisms of rectification behavior induced simply by contact asymmetry, which serves as an aid to interpret future single-molecule electronic behavior involved with asymmetric contact conformation.

  16. A Survey of Productivity in the Construction Industry: Measurement and Causes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    The .t topic of leadership in Construction has received alot - F attenti3. in the construction management profession-al journa- lately. It is seen as...MEASUREMENT AND CAUSES(U) GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING P M ARN DEC 87 UNCLASSIFIED F /G 12/08 U mmomEohmoEmiE EEEhhEhE 1𔃺...i 1,7v of tne S.:horn ai+ Civil En~gneering E4~~~~~~ ~ ~ e.l C 91A T7-:-i.’Z + - c~n lv by Partial F:r-.-Fii s f - -I GERI0NTTT FTCNLG A NTOFTEUNVRIT

  17. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  18. Empirical versus modelling approaches to the estimation of measurement uncertainty caused by primary sampling.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Jennifer A; Ramsey, Michael H; Damant, Andrew P; Wood, Roger

    2007-12-01

    Measurement uncertainty is a vital issue within analytical science. There are strong arguments that primary sampling should be considered the first and perhaps the most influential step in the measurement process. Increasingly, analytical laboratories are required to report measurement results to clients together with estimates of the uncertainty. Furthermore, these estimates can be used when pursuing regulation enforcement to decide whether a measured analyte concentration is above a threshold value. With its recognised importance in analytical measurement, the question arises of 'what is the most appropriate method to estimate the measurement uncertainty?'. Two broad methods for uncertainty estimation are identified, the modelling method and the empirical method. In modelling, the estimation of uncertainty involves the identification, quantification and summation (as variances) of each potential source of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to purely analytical systems, but becomes increasingly problematic in identifying all of such sources when it is applied to primary sampling. Applications of this methodology to sampling often utilise long-established theoretical models of sampling and adopt the assumption that a 'correct' sampling protocol will ensure a representative sample. The empirical approach to uncertainty estimation involves replicated measurements from either inter-organisational trials and/or internal method validation and quality control. A more simple method involves duplicating sampling and analysis, by one organisation, for a small proportion of the total number of samples. This has proven to be a suitable alternative to these often expensive and time-consuming trials, in routine surveillance and one-off surveys, especially where heterogeneity is the main source of uncertainty. A case study of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts is used to broadly demonstrate the strengths and weakness of the two methods of uncertainty estimation. The estimate

  19. Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat

    2014-02-04

    Most of the 48 million annual deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) occur without medical attention at the time of death so that the causes of death (COD) are largely unknown. A review of low-cost methods of obtaining nationally representative COD data is timely. Despite clear historic evidence of their usefulness, most LMICs lack reliable nationally representative COD data. Indirect methods to estimate COD for most countries are inadequate, mainly because they currently rely on an average ratio of 1 nationally representative COD to every 850 estimated deaths in order to measure the cause of 25 million deaths across 110 LMICs. Direct measurement of COD is far more reliable and relevant for country priorities. Five feasible methods to expand COD data are: sample registration systems (which form the basis for the ongoing Million Death Study in India; MDS); strengthening the INDEPTH network of 42 demographic surveillance sites; adding retrospective COD surveys to the demographic household and health surveys in 90 countries; post-census retrospective mortality surveys; and for smaller countries, systematic assembly of health records. Lessons learned from the MDS, especially on low-cost, high-quality methods of verbal autopsy, paired with emerging use of electronic data capture and other innovations, can make COD systems low-cost and relevant for a wide range of childhood and adult conditions. Low-cost systems to obtain and report CODs are possible. If implemented widely, COD systems could identify disease control priorities, help detect emerging epidemics, enable evaluation of disease control programs, advance indirect methods, and improve the accountability for expenditures of disease control programs.

  20. Dynamic Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Respirations Caused by Changing Oxygen Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, D.; Saad, N.

    2015-12-01

    The necessity for constant monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is clearly evident now more than ever. Moreover, interpreting and understanding the processes that dictate the production and consumption of these gases will allow for proper management of GHGs in order to mitigate its detrimental climate effects. Presence of oxygen, or lack of it, is the driving force for determining pathways within biochemical redox reactions. Experiments to find correlations between oxygen and greenhouse gases have helped us understand photosynthesis, denitrification and beyond. Within the past few years measurements of O2 and nitrous oxide have been used over a wide ranging array of disciplines; from studying avenues for redox chemistry to characterizing gas profiles in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. We present a full analysis solution, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, for simultaneous measurements of N2O, CO2, CH4, H2O, NH3, and O2 concentrations in soil flux, in order to better understand dynamics of ecological and biogeochemical processes. The stability and high temporal resolution of the five-species CRDS analyzer, coupled with a continuous high-precision O2 measurement (1-σ <200ppm) produces a complete picture of biogeochemical processes, for which a multitude of additional research experiments can be conceived. Adding another dimension to explore to help determine the rate at which these greenhouse gases are produced or consumed, allows scientists to further address fundamental scientific questions. Data is presented showing precision, drift and limitations of the O2 sensor measurement as well as the validity of spectroscopic corrections with the CRDS analyzer caused by changing O2. Experimental data is also presented to explore correlations of soil respiration rates of N2O, CO2 and CH4 due to differing soil O2 contents at varying timescales from minutes to days.

  1. On-line Differential Thermal Isotope Analysis: A New Method for Measuring Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes of Hydration Water in Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauska, T.; Hodell, D. A.; Walters, G.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen (16O,17O,18O) and hydrogen (H,D) isotopes of hydration water in minerals provide a rich source of information about the conditions under which hydrated minerals form on Earth and other planetary bodies (e.g. Mars). We have developed a new method for measuring different types of bonded water (e.g., molecular, hydroxyl) contained in hydrated minerals by coupling a thermal gravimeter (TG) and a cavity ringdown laser spectrometer (CRDS). The method involves step heating a mineral sample, precisely measuring the weight loss and enthalpy as the sample undergoes dehydration and dehydroxylation, whilst simultaneously determining the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of the water vapor evolved from the mineral sample by cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy (CRDS). Nitrogen carrier gas is used to transfer the sample from the TG to the CRDS via a heated line and interface box. The interface includes the capability of (i) cryogenic trapping discrete types of water for samples containing small amounts of water; (ii) injecting small quantities of water of known isotopic value for calibration; and (iii) converting volatile organic compounds to nascent amounts of water using a catalyst. The CRDS continually measures water vapor concentration in the optical cavity and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios. Isotopic values are calculated by integrating the product of the water amount and its isotopic value for the separated peaks after correcting for background. Precision of the method was estimated by comparing isotope results of total water for gypsum measured by DTIA with our conventional method of extraction and analysis (Gázquez et al., 2015. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 29, 1997-2006). Errors for the isotopic values of total hydration water vary between ±0.08 and ±0.34 ‰ for δ18O and between ±0.16 and ±0.86 ‰ for δD. We demonstrate the application of the DTIA method to a variety of hydrous minerals and mineraloids including gypsum, clays, and amorphous

  2. A long femur scan field does not alter proximal femur bone mineral density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus Eoin; Hocking, Jane; Cournoyer, Susan; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James

    2011-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) femur scan field might be useful for the detection of atypical, subtrochanteric femur fractures (ASFF). Thirty adult subjects underwent triplicate measures of femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA using a conventional (i.e., short) and a longer femur scan field. Differences in measured BMD between the 2 scan field lengths were small and less than the precision error inherent in DXA testing. A longer proximal femur scan field does not substantially alter BMD measurements made at the FN and TH and may be useful for the detection of ASFF in clinical practice.

  3. [Cross-sectional study of factors related to Achilles bone mineral density measured by an ultrasound system].

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Hayashi, K; Nakamura, H; Yamada, A; Ogino, K

    1999-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and life-style related factors including exercise and dietary habits in 1016 pre-menopausal women and 856 post-menopausal women in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. The achilles BMD in 1,872 women ages between 19 and 85 years were measured from 1995 to 1996 by an ultrasound system. The stiffness index calculated by the Lunar Achilles ultrasound machine was used as the BMD in this analysis. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the following information: medical history, pregnancy, delivery and menstrual history, height at 20-years of age, present number of teeth, fracture history, sports exercise history, food intake frequency, smoking and drinking history, and daily physical activity. Analysis of covariance and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the contribution of life-style related factors to BMD after adjustment for age and BMI (Body mass index) in pre- and post-menopausal women, respectively. Results were as follow: 1) BMD was inversely associated with increasing age in pre- and post-menopausal women. The BMD level of post-menopausal women were lower than that of pre-menopausal women in each 5-year age group. The pearson's correlatin coefficient between age and BMD was significant at -0.25 and -0.44 in pre- and post-menopausal women, respectively. 2) Body mass index (BMI) and BMD were positively correlated in pre- and post-menopausal women. 3) In pre-menopausal women, lower BMD was associated with the following factors: age, lower BMI, no history of joining a sports club in junior high school, absence of current regular sports, being inactive in daily life, having joint pains, lower number of remaining teeth and lower dairy product intake. 4) In post-menopausal women, lower BMD was associated with the following factors: age, lower BMI, no history of joining a sports club in junior high school, past history of fracture and longer

  4. Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation.

  5. Screening for osteoporosis using easily obtainable biometrical data: diagnostic accuracy of measured, self-reported and recalled BMI, and related costs of bone mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, D J; Brandon, S; Dinant, G J; van Wersch, J W

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled body mass index (BMI) for osteoporosis and osteopenia; to determine the diagnostic costs, in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, per osteoporotic or osteopenic patient detected, using different BMI tests; and to determine the extent to which the results can be used within the framework of the current screening program for breast cancer in The Netherlands. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the south of The Netherlands, 1155 postmenopausal women aged 50-80 years were asked for their present height and their weight at age 20-30 years. Subsequently their actual weight, height and BMD of the lumbar spine (DXA) were measured. The BMD cutoff was 0.800 g/cm2 for osteoporosis and 0.970 g/cm2 for low BMD (osteoporosis + osteopenia). After receiver operating characteristic analysis, age was cut off at 60 years and BMI at 27 kg/m2. Diagnostic accuracies of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled BMI were evaluated using predictive values (PV) and odds ratios. The resulting 'true positive' and 'false positive' rates were used to calculate diagnostic costs (i.e., DXA) for each osteoporotic patient or low-BMD patient detected. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the study population was 25%, that of low BMD 65%. Only the age-BMI tests 'age > or = 60, BMI < or = 27' showed PVs for osteoporosis (31-41%) and for low BMD (71-81%) that were higher than the prior probabilities for these conditions. Related odds ratios were 2.14-3.18 (osteoporosis) and 1.87-3.04 (low BMD). The objective BMI test detected 50% of the osteoporotic patients. Using the self-reported BMI test and the recalled BMI test, detection rates increased to 55% and 69%, respectively. Concomitant costs per osteoporotic patient detected rose by 24%. Detection of patients with a low BMD increased from 38% for objective BMI and

  6. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  7. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  8. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Regular exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can result in symptoms and signs of peripheral vascular, neurological and other disorders collectively known as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The measurement of the effects of hand-transmitted vibration involves converting the evidence of disorder (symptoms and signs) into information that can be stored. Evaluation requires the use of scales on which to indicate the severity of the various symptoms and signs. Assessment involves a judgement of severity relative to a criterion, usually for a specific purpose (e.g. to decide on removal from work or compensation). The measurement and evaluation of symptoms and signs is necessary when monitoring patient health and when performing epidemiological studies for research. The assessment of the severity of the hand-arm vibration syndrome is currently performed with staging systems, but the criteria are not clear and not related to defined methods for measuring or evaluating the symptoms and signs. Recognizing that similar symptoms can occur without injury from occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration, this paper attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration (i.e. 'unusual symptoms') and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the symptoms (e.g. their extent) and the related signs (e.g. their probability relative to the probability of the sign being present in persons not exposed to vibration) are defined. A method of relating unusual symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. Assessments of severity will vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration, and will depend on local practice and convenience, but a way of combining evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated in a staging system. Although inherently complex, the methods may assist the collection of data required to improve

  9. Quantitative ultrasound measurements of the calcaneus and hand phalanges in elderly Spanish men: relationship with peripheral bone mineral density of the hand phalanges.

    PubMed

    Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Moran, Jose M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Fernandez-Fernandez, Pilar; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this pilot study were to describe quantitative ultrasound (US) measurements and peripheral bone mineral density (BMD) of the hand phalanges on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and to examine the correlations between them in elderly Spanish men. We studied 199 healthy men (mean age ± SD, 73.31 ± 5.10 years). The participants were not taking any medications, and they reported no diseases, including diseases that are associated with abnormalities in mineral metabolism. Phalangeal and calcaneal quantitative US measurements and phalangeal BMD measurements were performed in all participants. A bivariate correlation analysis showed no association between quantitative US assessments at the phalanges or the calcaneus (P = .409). After adjustment for potential confounders, the correlation between phalangeal BMD and phalangeal quantitative US measurements was r = 0.417 (P < .0001), and the correlation for calcaneal quantitative US was r = 0.26 (P = .001). Further adjustment by percentage of body fat increased quantitative US correlations with phalangeal BMD: r = 0.450 (P < .0001) at the phalanges; r = 0.291 (P = .001) at the calcaneus. There is a small correlation between quantitative US measurements at the calcaneus and phalangeal BMD that increases to a moderate level with quantitative US measurements at the phalanges in elderly Spanish men. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Pulse thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of sound, de-mineralized and re-mineralized enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Sharp, Nathan; Adams, Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Current limitations for diagnosing mineralization state of tooth enamel can lead to improper surgical treatments. A method is investigated by which the tooth health state is characterized according to its thermal response, which is hypothesized to be sensitive to increased porosity in enamel that is caused by demineralization. Several specimens consisting of previously extracted human teeth a re prepared by exposure to Streptococcus mutans A32-2 in trypticase-soy-borth supplemented with 5% sucrose at 37°C for 3 or 6 days to de-mineralize two 1×1mm2-windows on each tooth. One of these windows is then re-mineralized with 250 or 1,100ppm-F as NaF for 10 days by pH-cyclic-model. Pulse thermography is used to measure the thermal response of these sections as well as the sound (healthy) portions of the specimen. A spatial profile of the thermal parameters of the specimens is then extracted from the thermography data and are used to compare the sound, de-mineralized, and re-mineralized areas. Results show that the thermal parameters are sensitive to the mineralization state of the tooth and that this method has the potential to accurately and quickly characterize the mineralization state of teeth, thereby allowing future dentists to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment for teeth that have experienced demineralization.

  11. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  12. Mechanical coupling between myosin molecules causes differences between ensemble and single-molecule measurements.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Warshaw, David M; Debold, Edward P

    2012-08-08

    In contracting muscle, individual myosin molecules function as part of a large ensemble, hydrolyzing ATP to power the relative sliding of actin filaments. The technological advances that have enabled direct observation and manipulation of single molecules, including recent experiments that have explored myosin's force-dependent properties, provide detailed insight into the kinetics of myosin's mechanochemical interaction with actin. However, it has been difficult to reconcile these single-molecule observations with the behavior of myosin in an ensemble. Here, using a combination of simulations and theory, we show that the kinetic mechanism derived from single-molecule experiments describes ensemble behavior; but the connection between single molecule and ensemble is complex. In particular, even in the absence of external force, internal forces generated between myosin molecules in a large ensemble accelerate ADP release and increase how far actin moves during a single myosin attachment. These myosin-induced changes in strong binding lifetime and attachment distance cause measurable properties, such as actin speed in the motility assay, to vary depending on the number of myosin molecules interacting with an actin filament. This ensemble-size effect challenges the simple detachment limited model of motility, because even when motility speed is limited by ADP release, increasing attachment rate can increase motility speed.

  13. (2) H/(1) H measurements of amphiboles and nominally anhydrous minerals (clinopyroxene, garnetand diamond)usinghigh-temperatureCF-EA-PY-IRMS.

    PubMed

    Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe; Demeny, Attila; Boulvais, Philippe; Lange, Lutz; Jacob, Dorrit E; Kovacs, Istvan

    2017-09-20

    We have used ahigh-precision, high efficiency method for themeasurementof the(2) H/(1) H ratios of hydrous silicates (amphiboles) and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as clinopyroxene, garnet and diamond, which are usually extremely resistant to pyrolysis. This opens up new fields of investigation to better understand the conditionsof formation fordeep-Earth minerals. The technique described hereinvolvesIsotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) online in continuous flow mode with an Elemental Analyzer (EA) using"purge and trap" technology rather than conventional packed column-GC gas separation. The system is equipped with a special high temperature furnace reaching 1500°C, with a longer hot zone and improved temperature stability. Emphasis is put on the efficiency of the system to reliably pyrolyserefractory minerals difficult to analyse with other conventional systems. While conventional systems usually fail to generate hydrogen suitable for isotopic analyses, with the technique presented here we were able to measure (2) H/(1) H ratios from 4diamond samples (δ(2) H= -60, -77, -84 and -79‰ V-SMOW; average SD =4.5‰; n=2),3 garnet samples (δ(2) Hfrom -70 to -63‰), and 9 clinopyroxenes (δ(2) H from -92 to -58‰) associated with7 amphiboles (δ(2) Hfrom -76 to -27‰) from single mantle rock. The possibility of using such a system to reliably measure (2) H/(1) H ratios from refractory minerals, which are usually extremely difficult to analyse, offers a new tool of investigation for giving us unrivaled clues to study the Earth's deep interiors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Europium retention onto clay minerals from 25 to 150 °C: Experimental measurements, spectroscopic features and sorption modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tertre, E.; Berger, G.; Simoni, E.; Castet, S.; Giffaut, E.; Loubet, M.; Catalette, H.

    2006-09-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) onto kaolinite and montmorillonite was investigated up to 150 °C. The clays were purified samples, saturated with Na in the case of montmorillonite. Batch experiments were conducted at 25, 40, 80 and 150 °C in 0.5 M NaClO 4 solutions to measure the distribution coefficients (Kd) of Eu as a trace element (<10 -6 mol/L) between the solution and kaolinite. For the Na-montmorillonite, we used Kd results from a previous study [Tertre, E., Berger, G., Castet, S., Loubet, M., Giffaut, E., 2005. Experimental study of adsorption of Ni 2+, Cs + and Ln 3+ onto Na-montmorillonite up to 150 °C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta69, 4937-4948] obtained under exactly the same conditions. The number and nature of the Eu species sorbed onto both clay minerals were investigated by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in specific experiments in the same temperature range. We identified a unique inner-sphere complex linked to the aluminol sites in both clays, assumed to be dbnd AlOEu 2+ at the edge of the particles, and a second exchangeable outer-sphere complex for montmorillonite, probably in an interlayer position. The Kd values were used to adjust the parameters of a surface complexation model (DLM: diffuse layer model) from 25 to 150 °C. The number of Eu complexes and the stoichiometry of reactions were constrained by TRLFS. The acidity constants of the amphoteric aluminol sites were taken from another study [Tertre, E., Castet, S., Berger, G., Loubet, M., Giffaut, E. Acid/base surface chemistry of kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite at 25 and 60 °C: experimental study and modelling. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press], which integrates the influence of the negative structural charge of clays on the acid/base properties of edge sites as a function of temperature and ionic strength. The results of the modelling show that the observed shift of the sorption edge towards low pH with increasing temperature results solely from the contribution of the

  15. Effect of measurement network densities and stratification on the uncertainty of implied emission factors for national N2O budgets from agricultural mineral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Soeren

    2015-04-01

    Among other GHG sources that are reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) national budgets of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils are often characterized by the highest estimation uncertainties within the sectors "agriculture" and "land use and land use change". The majority of recent national emission inventories in Europe are based on Tier 1 approaches. Nitrous oxide emissions from mineral soils are highly influenced by anthropogenic and environmental conditions like soil properties and climate. Specification of those controlling factors on a national to regional scale can highly influence the spatial emission pattern and might cause systematic errors when using Tier 1 emission factors. Regionally stratified emission factors reflecting conditions that determine the N2O flux rates from agricultural soils could significantly improve the accuracy of national nitrous oxide emission inventories (Tier 2). If these stratified emission factors are based on measurement networks the density and stratification of measurement networks with respect to spatial variability of soil properties and climate is an important driver of emission factor uncertainty. In the last two decades, intensive effort has been spend on the experimentally determination of nitrous oxide emissions at plot scale and related drivers resulting in numerous published data sets that were collected and analyzed within meta-studies and European and international projects. We give an overview on recently available data on direct nitrous oxide emissions on agricultural land in Europe. Mixed linear models are trained on these data sets. These models estimate N2O emissions in response to management, meteorological data and soil properties. Based on the developed mixed linear models the effect of N2O measurement network density and stratification on bias and uncertainty of national implied emission factors from agricultural soils are quantified by Monte Carlo

  16. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  17. [Mineralization of the basal ganglia as the supposed cause of poor tolerance of zuclopenthixol in a patient with long-term untreated paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wichowicz, Hubert M; Wilkowska, Alina; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Kummer, Łukasz; Konarzewska, Joanna; Raczak, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Formations described as intracranial calcifications can appear in the course of diseases of the central nervous system, other systems and organs (e.g. endocrine), but also as a disorder of idiopathic character. They are frequently located in subcortical nuclei and usually constitute an incidental finding. This report presents the case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia for approximately 40 years, who did not agree to any treatment and was hospitalized against her will because she was the threat to the lives of others. She was treated with zuklopentixol resulting in positive symptoms reduction and considerable improvement in social functioning. Unfortunately neurological symptoms appeared: bradykinesis, rigidity--of the type of the lead pipe, balance, posture and gait abnormalities, disturbances in precise hands movements, double-sided Rossolimo's sign, plantar reflex without the participation of the big toe on the left. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated changes in the form of lenticular nuclei calcification and reduction of signal intensity in posterior parts of both putamens. Neurological symptoms decreased significantly after switching to atypical neuroleptic (olanzapine), and the patient did not require any additional treatment. Mineralization of the basal ganglia can often be associated with psychiatric disorders and it shouldn't be neglected because it can require modification of pharmacotherapy or additional neurological treatment.

  18. Study of asthenopia caused by the viewing of stereoscopic images: measurement by MEG and other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagura, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Masayuki

    2006-02-01

    Three-Dimensional (hereafter, 3D) imaging is one of the very powerful tools to help the people to understand the spatial relationship of objects. Various glassless 3D imaging technologies for 3D TV, personal computers, PDA and cellular phones have been developed. These devices are often viewed for long periods. Most of the people who watch 3D images for a long time, experience asthenopia or eye fatigue. This concerns a preliminary study that attempted to find the basic cause of the problem by using MEG and the other devices. Plans call for further neurophysiological study on this subject. The purpose of my study is to design a standard or guidelines for shooting, image processing, and displaying 3D images to create the suitable images with higher quality and less or no asthenopia. Although it is difficult to completely avoid asthenopia when viewing 3D images, it would be useful if guidelines for the production of such images could be established that reduced its severity. The final goal of my research is to formulate such guidelines with an objective basis derived from measurement results from MEG and other devices. In addition to the study I was in charge of the work to install the world largest glasses-free 3D display to Japan Pavilion Nagakute in the 2005 World Exposition, Aichi, Japan during March, 25th to September 25th, 2005. And several types of large screen for 3D movies were available for testing, the result of the test to this report are added.

  19. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    International Strategic Minerals Inventory) are the basis for some reserves estimates. The USGS collects information about the quantity and quality of mineral resources but does not directly measure reserves, and companies or governments do not directly report reserves to the USGS. Reassessment of reserves is a continuing process, and the intensity of this process differs for mineral commodities, countries, and time period. Throughout the history of Mineral Commodity Summaries and its predecessor prior to 1978, Commodity Data Summaries, the presentation of resource data has evolved. Although world resources have been discussed each year, presentation of reserves and reserve base data varied. From 1957 through 1979, only reserves information was published in the reports, but from 1980 through 1987, only estimates of reserve base, a concept introduced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and the USGS in 1980, were published. Beginning in 1988, both reserves and reserve base information were listed for each mineral commodity where applicable and available. Prior to 1996, the minerals availability studies conducted by the USBM and work with international collaborators were the basis for reserve base data reported in Mineral Commodity Summaries. When the USBM was closed in 1996, this function was discontinued. Since that time, reserve base estimates have been updated to be consistent with changes in reserves, but the nonreserves component of the information upon which the reserve base data were estimated is not current enough to support defensible reserve base estimates. For that reason, publication of reserve base estimates was discontinued for Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. A resource/reserve classification for minerals, based on USGS Circular 831 (published with the U.S. Bureau of Mines) is Appendix C, and a directory of USGS minerals

  1. A Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Metal Adsorption at the Biofilm/Mineral Interface: Comparison Between Thermodynamic Model Results and In-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Ha, J.; Wang, Y.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Cordova-Ardy, C.; Gescher, J.; Bargar, J. R.; Rogers, J.; Eng, P. J.; Ghose, S. K.; Farges, F.; Spormann, A. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces in water-rock systems. Bacteria are effective adsorbents of metal ions and can form colonies on the surfaces of minerals. The resulting biofilm coatings may create local microenvironments that could change significantly trace metal ion sorption compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify the different types of metal binding sites in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 (wild type) as well as the nature of the functional groups involved in metal complexation. Adsorption affinities of these sites for Pb(II) and Zn(II) as well as site densities were determined by fitting metal adsorption data as a function of pH and ionic strength using a constant capacitance model in the FITEQL computer code. Electrokinetic techniques were used to determine the biofilm influence on the overall mineral surface charge. This influence was quantified by determining the in-situ partitioning of Pb(II) between S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms and highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-alumina (1-102) and hematite (0001) using the long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) method. ATR-FTIR spectra of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 revealed the presence of carboxyl, amide, and phosphate groups, as well as carbohydrate moieties. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of S. oneidensis MR-1 cell surfaces indicate that the bacterial surfaces become negatively charged at pH ~ 3.5, suggesting a high Pb(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of the biofilm. Changes in ionic strengths from 1M to 0.01M NaNO3 had no effect on the interactions of the metal ions with the bacteria, suggesting that the physical structure of the cell wall does not change over this range of electrolyte concentrations. The thermodynamic stability of metal complexes on S. oneidensis and the binding sites concentrations for these metal complexes have been determined by FITEQL

  2. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  3. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  4. Increased zinc accumulation in mineralized osteosarcoma tissue measured by confocal synchrotron radiation micro X‐ray fluorescence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pemmer, Bernhard; Roschger, Andreas; Turyanskaya, Anna; Smolek, Stephan; Maderitsch, Angelika; Hischenhuber, Peter; Foelser, Martin; Simon, Rolf; Lang, Susanna; Puchner, Stephan E.; Windhager, Reinhard; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wobrauschek, Peter; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Roschger, Paul; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal tissue levels of certain trace elements such as zinc (Zn) were reported in various types of cancer. Little is known about the role of Zn in osteosarcoma. Using confocal synchrotron radiation micro X‐ray fluorescence analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of Zn in high‐grade sclerosing osteosarcoma of nine patients (four women/five men; seven knee/one humerus/one femur) following chemotherapy and wide surgical resection. Levels were compared with adjacent normal tissue. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging as well as histological examinations was also performed. On average, the ratio of medians of Zn count rates (normalized to calcium) in mineralized tumor tissue was about six times higher than in normal tissue. There was no difference in Zn levels between tumor fraction areas with a low fraction and a high fraction of mineralized tissue, which were clearly depicted using quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Moreover, we found no correlation between the Zn values and the type of tumor regression according to the Salzer‐Kuntschik grading. The underlying mechanism of Zn accumulation remains unclear. Given the emerging data on the role of trace elements in other types of cancer, our novel results warrant further studies on the role of trace elements in bone cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. X‐Ray Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28239202

  5. Comparison of Radiative Forcing Calculations Due to Mineral Dust from a Transport Model, Satellite Measurements and an Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Hsu, Christina; Joiner, Joanna; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1999-01-01

    This study uses information on mineral aerosol from a transport model to calculate global radiative forcing values. The transport model is driven by assimilated meteorology and outputs three-dimensional dust spatial information for various size ranges. The dust fields are input to an off-line radiative transfer calculation to obtain the direct radiative forcing due to the dust fields. During June, July and August of 1988 presence of dust 1) reduces the global net incoming radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by 0.3 to 0.7 W/sq m and 2) reduces net incoming radiation at the earth's surface by 1.3 to 2.0 W/sq m. Over Africa our estimates of the reduction of radiation at the top of atmosphere compare well with TOA reductions derived from ERBE and TOMS satellite data. However, our heating rates are not consistent with analysis temperature increments produced by the assimilation system over regions of high aerosol loading. These increments are based on differences between temperature observations and temperatures from the assimilation general circulation model. One explanation is that the lower tropospheric temperatures retrieved by TOVS are being contaminated by mineral aerosol.

  6. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars. PMID:28382177

  7. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  8. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  9. Geodetic measurements for monitoring rapid crustal uplift in southeastern Alaska caused by the recent deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A.; Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Ohta, Y.; Larsen, C.; Freymueller, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers at high latitudes are considered to be extremely sensitive to climate change and thus monitoring of glaciers is a clue to evaluate the future effect of global warming and the related phenomena. Ice mass changes also produce a time-variable surface load and give us useful data to investigate subsurface structure of the earth, especially to constrain the flow characteristics of the mantle. Larsen et al. [EPSL05] have extensively studied on vertical crustal movement in SE Alaska to reveal the world's fastest glacial isostatic uplifting, which can be attributed to the response associated with deglaciation. Displacement data, however, can only be used to constrain the sum of the elastic response to present-day ice melting (PDIM) and the viscoelastic one to past changes in ice. A Japan-US joint research project, ISEA (International geodetic research project in SouthEast Alaska), was initiated in 2005 to add new geodetic data and to refine the viscoelastic model derived by the previous studies. Absolute gravity data have been acquired at the five sites in the stdudy area using a Micro-g LaCoste absolute gravimeter, FG5#111. At each site data were collected over a 48~62 hour period. The long-term variation in absolute gravity at 2 stations, HNSG and BRM, where the measurements were performed in 1987 by Sasagawa et al. [JGR89] demonstrates rapid gravity decrease with rates of -4.4 micro-gal/yr, and -3.0 micro-gal/yr, respectively, and can be attributed to uplifting and mass-redstribution. ISEA supplements pre-existing continuous GPS (CGPS) stations operated by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the UNAVCO (Plate Boundary Observatory, PBO) and improves the spatial coverage in and around Glacier Bay. The time series of the site coordinates obtained for Queen Inlet (QUIC), which locates close to a zone of maximum uplift, shows obvious uplifting, even though there are long- term gaps because of an antenna cable trouble in 2006 and power outage in 2008 causing rather

  10. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  11. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  12. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  13. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  14. Minimum detectable limits of measuring bone mineral density using an energy dispersive X-ray diffraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, A. W.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    In the clinical environment, the most common method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD) loss is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which relies on the transmission of X-ray photons through the volume of interest. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), which utilises coherent X-ray scattering, potentially is a more accurate method. As part of the development of a precision EDXRD system, an experiment was performed using a range of bone and fat mix phantoms, which were also used for DEXA evaluation. The results are presented here and suggest initial minimum detectable limits of the order of 5% BMD loss for the EDXRD experiment and 10-15% for the DEXA assessment.

  15. Portable Radiometer Identifies Minerals in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Machida, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hand-held optical instrument aids in identifying minerals in field. Can be used in exploration for minerals on foot or by aircraft. The radiometer is especially suitable for identifying clay and carbonate minerals. Radiometer measures reflectances of mineral at two wavelengths, computes ratio of reflectances, and displays ratio to user.

  16. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  17. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher J L; Lozano, Rafael; Flaxman, Abraham D; Serina, Peter; Phillips, David; Stewart, Andrea; James, Spencer L; Vahdatpour, Alireza; Atkinson, Charles; Freeman, Michael K; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Black, Robert; Ali, Said Mohammed; Baqui, Abdullah H; Dandona, Lalit; Dantzer, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Vinita; Dhingra, Usha; Dutta, Arup; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gómez, Sara; Hernández, Bernardo; Joshi, Rohina; Kalter, Henry D; Kumar, Aarti; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Lucero, Marilla; Mehta, Saurabh; Neal, Bruce; Praveen, Devarsetty; Premji, Zul; Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Remolador, Hazel; Riley, Ian; Romero, Minerva; Said, Mwanaidi; Sanvictores, Diozele; Sazawal, Sunil; Tallo, Veronica; Lopez, Alan D

    2014-01-09

    Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Physician review of verbal autopsy questionnaires is less accurate

  18. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. Methods We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Results Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Conclusions Physician review of verbal

  19. Comparison of Sex Steroid Measurements in Men by Immunoassay versus Mass Spectroscopy and Relationships with Cortical and Trabecular Volumetric Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Singh, Ravinder J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Riggs, B. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Introduction While immunoassays have been used extensively for measurement of serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, there is concern about their specificity, particularly at low E2 levels as present in men. Methods We compared T and E2 measured by mass spectroscopy to levels measured by immunoassay in men (n = 313, age 22 to 91 years) and related these to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at various skeletal sites. Results Serum T and non-SHBG bound (or bioavailable) T levels by immunoassay correlated well with the corresponding mass spectroscopy measurements (R = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, P < 0.001); the correlations for serum E2 measured using the two techniques were less robust (R = 0.63 for total E2 and 0.84 for bioavailable E2, P < 0.001). Overall relationships between serum bioavailable T and E2 levels with vBMD at various skeletal sites were similar for the immunoassay and mass spectroscopic measures. Conclusions Although E2 levels with immunoassay correlate less well with the mass spectroscopic measurements than do the T measurements in men, our findings indicate that the fundamental relationships observed previously between vBMD and the sex steroids by immunoassay are also present with the mass spectroscopic measurements. PMID:18338096

  20. VOC and VOX in fluid inclusions of quartz: New chemical insights into hydrothermal vein mineralization by GC-MS and GC-IRMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Kirnbauer, Thomas; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Fischer, Jan; Spiekermann, Patrik; Schreiber, Ulrich; Mulder, Ines; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid inclusions (FIs) in minerals are known to contain a variety of different liquids, gases, and solids. The fluids get trapped during mineral growth and can preserve the original mineral-forming fluid or fluids of later events. A new analytical technique developed by Mulder et al. (2013) [1] allows to measure trace gases in FIs. For the measurements, grains of 3-5 mm diameter are ground in an airtight grinding device, releasing the volatiles from FIs into the gas phase, where they can be measured by GC-MS, GC-FID and GC-IRMS. The Taunus covers the southeastern part of the thrust-and-fold-belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The Variscan rock sequences comprise sedimentary and volcanic units ranging from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous. Several types of hydrothermal mineralization can be distinguished, which are - in regard to the Variscan orogeny - pre-orogenic, orogenic, late-orogenic, post-orogenic and recent in age [2]. They include SEDEX, vein, Alpine fissure, disseminated and stockwerk mineralizations. Thus, the Taunus mineralizations enable investigations of different hydrothermal systems at different age in one region. For most of them extensive studies of stable and radiogenic isotopes exist. Quartz crystals of post-orogenic quartz veins and Pb-Zn-Cu bearing veins [3] were selected for our FI investigation. Sulphur containing compounds like COS and CS2 dominate the FIs but there are also volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) like different butenes, benzene, toluene and cyclopentene that were found very often. In some samples volatile halogenated organic carbons (VOX) like chloro- and bromomethane were found. Some FIs even contain iodomethane, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride and -bromide. The non-fossil-fuel subsurface chemistry of VOC and VOX is not fully understood. There are a lot of unknown geogenic sources [4][5]. For a better understanding δ13C- and δ2H-values of CH4 were measured by GC-IRMS to examine if the detected organic compounds are formed biotic

  1. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  2. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  3. Systematic Errors in the Measurement of Emissivity Caused by Directional Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Vishnevetsky, Irna; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2003-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface emissivity is essential for applications in remote sensing (remote temperature measurement), radiative transport, and modeling of environmental energy balances. Direct measurements of surface emissivity are difficult when there is considerable background radiation at the same wavelength as the emitted radiation. This occurs, for example, when objects at temperatures near room temperature are measured in a terrestrial environment by use of the infrared 8 -14- μm band. This problem is usually treated by assumption of a perfectly diffuse surface or of diffuse background radiation. However, real surfaces and actual background radiation are not diffuse; therefore there will be a systematic measurement error. It is demonstrated that, in some cases, the deviations from a diffuse behavior lead to large errors in the measured emissivity. Past measurements made with simplifying assumptions should therefore be reevaluated and corrected. Recommendations are presented for improving experimental procedures in emissivity measurement.

  4. Centimeter-scale surface deformation caused by the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake sequence at the Carter farm site—Subsidiary structures with a quaternary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.; Horton, J. Wright; Carter, Mark W.

    2016-08-25

    Centimeter-scale ground-surface deformation was produced by the August 23, 2011, magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake that occurred in Mineral, Virginia. Ground-surface deformation also resulted from the earthquake aftershock sequence. This deformation occurred along a linear northeast-trend near Pendleton, Virginia. It is approximately 10 kilometers (km) northeast of the M5.8 epicenter and near the northeastern periphery of the epicentral area as defined by aftershocks. The ground-surface deformation extends over a distance of approximately 1.4 km and consists of parallel, small-scale (a few centimeters (cm) in amplitude) linear ridges and swales. Individual ridge and swale features are discontinuous and vary in length across a zone that ranges from about 20 meters (m) to less than 5 m in width. At one location, three fence posts and adjoining rails were vertically misaligned. Approximately 5 cm of uplift on one post provides a maximum estimate of vertical change from pre-earthquake conditions along the ridge and swale features. There was no change in the alignment of fence posts, indicating that deformation was entirely vertical. A broad monoclinal flexure with approximately 1 m of relief was identified by transit survey across surface deformation at the Carter farm site. There, surface deformation overlies the Carter farm fault, which is a zone of brittle faulting and fracturing along quartz veins, striking N40°E and dipping approximately 75°SE. Brecciation and shearing along this fault is interpreted as Quaternary in age because it disrupts the modern B-soil horizon. However, deformation is confined to saprolitized schist of the Ordovician Quantico Formation and the lowermost portion of overlying residuum, and is absent in the uppermost residuum and colluvial layer at the ground surface. Because there is a lack of surface shearing and very low relief, landslide processes were not a causative mechanism for the surface deformation. Two possible tectonic models and one

  5. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. We studied 367,932 adults (20-93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996-2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24-1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54-2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 when eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10-2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66-2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32-1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96-2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention and management strategies in individuals with CKD

  6. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  7. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039

  8. Effect of relative humidity on light scattering by mineral dust aerosol as measured in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Jones, X.; Maring, H. B.; Prospero, J. M.

    1998-12-01

    Using an integrating nephelometer, we measured aerosol light scattering during a month-long experiment conducted in April 1994 on Barbados, West Indies (13.17°N, 59.43°W). Concurrent measurements of aerosol composition showed that the trade wind aerosol mass was alternatively dominated by sea salt and by mineral dust transported from North Africa. Dust concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 257 μg m-3, and sea salt ranged from 9.4 to 29 μg m-3. Nonsea-salt sulfate (nss SO4=) was generally a minor component with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.2 μg m-3. We obtained hygroscopic growth factors (HGF) by calculating the ratio of the aerosol scattering coefficient (ASC) measured at ambient relative humidity (RH), which ranged from 67% to 83%, to the ASC measured with the sample air stream heated so as to reduce the RH to under 40%. Over the course of the experiment, HGF ranged from 1.13 to 1.69, with lower values corresponding to high dust concentration periods. By a variety of procedures, including the chemical apportioning of ASC, we derived the HGF for mineral dust; depending on the technique used, values ranged from 1.0 to 1.1. In contrast, we obtain for sea salt an HGF of 1.8±0.2, a value consistent with previously reported measurements. The low HGF values obtained for dusty periods suggest that only minor amounts of hygroscopic materials are associated with dust. Consequently, the radiative properties of North African dust in the atmosphere will be relatively insensitive to RH changes.

  9. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised. PMID:27775250

  10. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    PubMed

    Ock, Minsu; Lee, Jin Yong; Oh, In Hwan; Park, Hyesook; Yoon, Seok Jun; Jo, Min Woo

    2016-11-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised.

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  12. Near-source surface seismic measurements for the NPE, NPE Calibration, Hunter`s Trophy, and Mineral Quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, R.E.; Leverette, J.A.; Stump, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    An extensive seismic network was deployed on the surface of Rainier Mesa for both the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) Calibration shot as well as the full scale NPE event. This network was very similar to previous deployments for the nuclear events MISTY ECHO, MINERAL QUARRY, and HUNTERS TROPHY. For the full scale NPE event three-component accelerometers and seismometers were fielded at 32 sites across the mesa. A slightly smaller network with 28 stations was in operation for the 300 pound NPE calibration event. The mesa top array included both accelerometers and seismometers. The accelerometers were used to obtain data from the main NPE event while the seismometers with their higher sensitivity were used to record the 300 pound cal shot and several hundred after events from the NPE. Large spatial variations in ground motion are evident in both the full mesa data set as well as a small (80 m on a side) aperture, 9-element triangular array. This paper summarizes the data and discusses wave propagation effects. A companion paper presents a comparative source analysis.

  13. Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS): an in Situ Instrument for Mineral and Volatile-element Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Gruener, J. E.; Gibbons, F. L.; Allton, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS) offers a specific implementation for the generic thermal analyzer/evolved-gas analyzer (TA/EGA) function included in the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) strawman payload; applications to asteroids and comets are also possible. The baseline TAPS is a single-sample differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), backed by a capacitive-polymer humidity sensor, with an integrated sampling mechanism. After placement on a planetary surface, TAPS acquires 10-50 mg of soil or sediment and heats the sample from ambient temperature to 1000-1300 K. During heating, DSC data are taken for the solid and evolved gases are swept past the water sensor. Through ground based data analysis, multicomponent DSC data are deconvolved and correlated with the water release profile to quantitatively determine the types and relative proportions of volatile-bearing minerals such as clays and other hydrates, carbonates, and nitrates. The rapid-response humidity sensors also achieve quantitative analysis of total water. After conclusion of soil-analysis operations, the humidity sensors become available for meteorology. The baseline design fits within a circular-cylindrical volume less than 1000 cm(sup 3), occupies 1.2 kg mass, and consumes about 2 Whr of power per analysis. Enhanced designs would acquire and analyze multiple samples and employ additional microchemical sensors for analysis of CO2, SO2, NO(x), and other gaseous species. Atmospheric pumps are also being considered as alternatives to pressurized purge gas.

  14. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, J.; Hakulinen, M.; Rikkonen, T.; Kröger, H.; Tuppurainen, M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Honkanen, R.; Hujo, M.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962–0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  15. Differences in Computed Individual-Tree Volumes Caused by Differences in Field Measurements

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall

    2008-01-01

    Individual-tree volumes are primarily predicted using volume equations that rely on measured tree attributes. In the northeastern United States, the Forest Inventory and Analysis program determines tree volume using dbh, bole height, proportion of cull, and species information. These measurements are subject to variability due to a host of factors. The sensitivity of...

  16. A field calibration method to eliminate the error caused by relative tilt on roll angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jingya; Wang, Zhao; Huang, Junhui; Yu, Bao; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The roll angle measurement method based on a heterodyne interferometer is an efficient technique for its high precision and environmental noise immunity. The optical layout bases on a polarization-assisted conversion of the roll angle into an optical phase shift, read by a beam passing through the objective plate actuated by the roll rotation. The measurement sensitivity or the gain coefficient G is calibrated before. However, a relative tilt between the laser and objective plate always exist due to the tilt of the laser and the roll of the guide in the field long rail measurement. The relative tilt affect the value of G, thus result in the roll angle measurement error. In this paper, a method for field calibration of G is presented to eliminate the measurement error above. The field calibration layout turns the roll angle into an optical path change (OPC) by a rotary table. Thus, the roll angle can be obtained from the OPC read by a two-frequency interferometer. Together with the phase shift, an accurate G in field measurement can be obtained and the measurement error can be corrected. The optical system of the field calibration method is set up and the experiment results are given. Contrasted with the Renishaw XL-80 for calibration, the proposed field calibration method can obtain the accurate G in the field rail roll angle measurement.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  19. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references.

  20. Root-Specific Reduction of Cytokinin Causes Enhanced Root Growth, Drought Tolerance, and Leaf Mineral Enrichment in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tomáš; Nehnevajova, Erika; Köllmer, Ireen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Krämer, Ute; Schmülling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing root system architecture can overcome yield limitations in crop plants caused by water or nutrient shortages. Classic breeding approaches are difficult because the trait is governed by many genes and is difficult to score. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with enhanced root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, a negative regulator of root growth. These transgenic plants form a larger root system, whereas growth and development of the shoot are similar. Elongation of the primary root, root branching, and root biomass formation were increased by up to 60% in transgenic lines, increasing the root-to-shoot ratio. We thus demonstrated that a single dominant gene could regulate a complex trait, root growth. Moreover, we showed that cytokinin regulates root growth in a largely organ-autonomous fashion that is consistent with its dual role as a hormone with both paracrine and long-distance activities. Transgenic plants had a higher survival rate after severe drought treatment. The accumulation of several elements, including S, P, Mn, Mg, Zn, as well as Cd from a contaminated soil, was significantly increased in shoots. Under conditions of sulfur or magnesium deficiency, leaf chlorophyll content was less affected in transgenic plants, demonstrating the physiological relevance of shoot element accumulation. Our approach might contribute to improve drought tolerance, nutrient efficiency, and nutrient content of crop plants. PMID:21148816

  1. Assessment of eye fatigue caused by 3D displays based on multimodal measurements.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-09-04

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of laser ablation double-focusing SC-ICPMS for “common” lead isotopic measurements in silicate glasses and mineral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Neymark, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for the in situ measurement of “common” Pb isotope ratios in silicate glasses and minerals using a 193-nm excimer laser ablation (LA) system with a double-focusing single-collector (SC)-ICPMS is presented and evaluated as a possible alternative to multiple-collector (MC)-ICPMS. This LA-SC-ICPMS technique employs fast-scanning ion deflectors to sequentially place a series of flat-topped isotope peaks into a single ion-counting detector at a fixed accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength. Reference materials (including NIST, MPI-DING, and USGS glasses) are used to identify two analytical artifacts on the Pb isotope ratios (expressed here as heavier/lighter isotopes) when corrected for mass bias relative to NIST SRM610. The first artifact is characterized by anomalously low Pb isotope ratios (~0.1%/AMU) when SRM610 is analyzed in raster mode as an unknown at small spot sizes (<25 µm), which may indicate that (1) SRM610 is isotopically heterogeneous on a small length scale and/or (2) there is a non-spectral matrix effect on the Pb isotope ratios related to differences in spot size. The second artifact is characterized by anomalously high Pb isotope ratios (<0.1%/AMU) for NIST SRM612 (in raster mode) and some Fe-rich glass reference materials (BCR-2G, GOR132-G, and T1-G). These offsets are thought to be caused by one or more non-spectral matrix effects related to differences in the ablation behavior, composition, or physical properties of these reference materials compared to the bracketing SRM610 standard. The precision (±2SD) of our LA-SC-ICPMS Pb isotopic measurements is similar to (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb, or 20XPb/206Pb) or better than (206Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, or 20XPb/204Pb) a series of published studies that used a different type of SC-ICPMS and obtained a factor of ~3-4 higher sensitivity for Pb. An increase in the sensitivity of our LA-SC-ICPMS would likely improve the precision of the 20XPb/206Pb and 20

  3. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  4. Association and relative importance of multiple obesity measures with bone mineral density: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Shen, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    All obesity measures were positively associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), but not with lumbar spine BMD. Hip circumference was the most important obesity measure in relation to BMD. Multiple measures are used to quantify obesity; different obesity measures have diverse relationship with BMD. Which obesity measure has the most important value in relation to BMD is still poorly understood. We examined the association between multiple obesity measures and BMD and determined the relative importance (RI, percentage of variation) of multiple obesity measures associated with BMD. Data from 5287 men and women aged between 8 and 69 years (mean age = 29 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat mass (FM) index, total body FM, abdominal FM, and appendicular FM were considered the exposures and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD the outcomes. In the multivariable analysis, greater BMI and hip circumference were associated with increased BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (all P < 0.001). The remaining obesity variables were positively associated with increased femoral neck BMD only (all P < 0.001). RI of all obesity measures associated with femoral neck BMD was much greater than that associated with lumbar spine BMD. Moreover, hip circumference had higher RI (19.8 for femoral neck BMD; 7.0 for lumbar spine BMD) than other obesity measures (all RIs ≤14.1 for femoral neck BMD; all RIs ≤3.5 for lumbar spine BMD) in relation to BMD. All obesity measures were positively associated with femoral neck BMD, but not with lumbar spine BMD. Hip circumference was the most important obesity measure in relation to BMD.

  5. Measurement of lattice damage caused by ion-implantation doping of semiconductors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsperger, R. G.; Wolf, E. D.; Shifrin, G. A.; Marsh, O. J.; Jamba, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of two new techniques used to measure the lattice damage produced in GaAs by the implantation of 60 keV cadmium ions. In the first method, optical reflection spectra of the ion-implanted samples were measured in the wavelength range from 2000 to 4600 A. The decrease in reflectivity resulting from ion-implantation was used to determine the relative amount of lattice damage as a function of ion dose. The second technique employed the scanning electron microscope. Patterns very similar in appearance to Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns are obtained when the secondary and/or backscattered electron intensity is displayed as a function of the angle of incidence of the electron beam on a single crystal surface. The results of measurements made by both methods are compared with each other and with data obtained by the method of measuring lattice damage by Rutherford scattering of 1 MeV helium ions.

  6. Investigation of the causes for the measurement differences between the natural gas measurement systems of a gas distribution company and of a consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Kazuto; Silva Telles, Rubens

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the methodology used, the checked items and the results obtained in an investigation carried out to identify the causes that generated substantial differences between the natural gas volumes measured by two measuring systems, one from a gas distribution company and another from its industrial consumer, both installed in series in a gas pipeline. The investigation showed that the measurement of the volume of gas performed by the gas distributor metering system was influenced by an erroneous measurement of the gas temperature since it was affected by a complex thermodynamic process involving cooling by the Joule-Thomson effect caused by a pressure reducing valve and heating by heat exchange through the pipe walls.

  7. Measurement and Simulation of Signal Fluctuations Caused by Propagation through Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    We present measured magnitude and phase fluctuations of UHF, L band, and C band signals that were transmitted from the ground through a forest canopy to an airborne radar. We find that the measured fluctuations are similar to those calculated by a simple Monte Carlo simulation. Both observed and calculated RMS fluctuations are typically several decibels in magnitude and tens of degrees in phase at all three frequencies.

  8. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  9. Compositional variability and geographic provenance of atmospheric mineral dust (EPICA- Dome C ice core) from geochemical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, F.; Maggi, V.; Ceccato, D.; Delmonte, B.; de Deckker, P.; Revel-Rolland, M.; Ghermandi, G.; Petit, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present here the geochemical characterization (major and minor elements: Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg, K and Ti) of polar dust found in the first 2200 m of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dome C ice core (corresponding to about the last 220 kyr) obtained by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) technique, applied to the investigation of dust content in Antarctic ice samples. Compositional differences among the three main cold stages of the Late Quaternary (LGM, MIS 4 and MIS 6), and differences in the compositional variability among interglacial (Holocene and MIS 5.5) and glacial periods, emerge through the comparison between polar dust and Southern Hemisphere PSAs (Possible Source Areas) sediments together with parental materials data (from literature). Although glacial dust is claimed to be transported from the Southern South America regions, with a predominant role of the Pampa area at least during LGM - Interglacial dust shows a higher compositional variability that can be an evidence of climatic and environmental changes occurred between glacial and interglacial stages, deeply modifying the conditions in continental areas; alternatively, significant compositional differences for the Holocene and Stage 5.5 dust, point to a possible different source mixing in which a second source could have a large role (i.e. Australia). Continental surfaces change in response to climatic and environmental conditions (i.e. changes on the type and extent of vegetation cover and/or the prevailing of erosion, deposition or pedogenetic processes acting on land surfaces), and these variations are likely reflected in modifications of the mineral assemblages and geochemistry of the windblown dust. Therefore, the characterization of the polar dust chemical composition and its variability in the past allows to investigate their link with paleo-environmental modifications occurred at the source areas under different climatic regimes, providing information toward a

  10. Resolving the cause of large differences between deglacial benthic foraminifera radiocarbon measurements in Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, A. L.; Southon, J. R.; Kennett, J.; Roark, E.; Sarnthein, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    To better understand the deglacial upwelling pattern in the East Pacific, we have made radiocarbon (14C) measurements on benthic foraminifera and macrofauna from a 3.5 meter long interval in ODP Core 893A from Santa Barbara Basin, California representing early deglaciation. This work serves to investigate the source of apparent disagreement between radiocarbon datasets from Leibnitz Laboratory, Kiel University (Kiel) and Carbon Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These datasets are based on measurements of mixed benthic and mixed planktonic foraminifera. Inter-laboratory 14C results are similar for the planktonic foraminiferal analyses, however Kiel measurements on mixed benthic foraminifera are much older than mixed benthic measurements from equivalent depths measured at LLNL. Our new results show distinct 14C differences between taxa, with Pyrgo sp. giving ages consistently older than Kiel measurements on mixed benthic taxa; while ages for Nonionellina sp., Buliminella sp., Uvigerina sp. and benthic macrofauna were much younger- even younger than the LLNL mixed benthic data. The new data supports benthic-planktonic age offsets of no more than 300 years, indicating that bottom waters within the basin remained significantly younger during early deglaciation than some previous results have suggested and thus consistent with sedimentary and faunal evidence for well oxygenated conditions.

  11. Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

  12. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area. PMID:24958430

  13. Mammographic density measured as changes in tissue structure caused by HRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Nielsen, Mads

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relation between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. These studies indicate that women with high breast density have a four to six fold risk increase. An investigation of whether or not this relation is causal is important for, e.g., hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which has been shown to actually increase the density. No gold standard for automatic assessment of mammographic density exists. Manual methods such as Wolfe patterns and BI-RADS are helpful for communication of diagnostic sensitivity, but they are both time consuming and crude. They may be sufficient in certain cases and for single measurements, but for serial, temporal analysis it is necessary to be able to detect more subtle changes and, in addition, to be more reproducible. In this work an automated method for measuring the effect of HRT w.r.t. changes in biological density in the breast is presented. This measure is a novel measure, which provides structural information orthogonal to intensity-based methods. Hessian eigenvalues at different scales are used as features and a clustering of these is employed to divide a mammogram into four structurally different areas. Subsequently, based on the relative size of the areas, a density score is determined. In the experiments, two sets of mammograms of 50 patients from a double blind, placebo controlled HRT experiment were used. The change in density for the HRT group, measured with the new method, was significantly higher (p = 0.0002) than the change in the control group.

  14. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  15. A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ΔAEI vs ΔVHN (r2 = 0.997), ΔAEI vs ΔKHN (r2 =0.964), ΔII (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.875) and ΔLEI vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

  16. Some aspects of sound discomfort caused by streetcar traffic. [noise intensity measurements and health aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursoniu, C.; Puca, N.; Dankner, A.; Moise, G.; Sirbu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.

  17. Some aspects of sound discomfort caused by streetcar traffic. [noise intensity measurements and health aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursoniu, C.; Puca, N.; Dankner, A.; Moise, G.; Sirbu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.

  18. Experimental Measurement of Water Bands in Anhydrous Minerals to Improve Modeling of Adsorbed and Bound Water on the Regoliths of Inner Solar System Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating the characteristics of H2O/OH-absorption bands is critical for understanding their abundance and adherence to remotely observed surfaces. Our goal is to experimentally measure the spectra of anhydrous minerals in thin section and as powders to distinguish between internal H2O, surface adsorbed H2O, adsorbed OH, and OH that was formed as a result of irradiation. From these spectra, we are developing a model that will allow us to better deconvolve the abundance of adsorbed H2O and internally bound OH-/H2O in these materials. With this model, we aim to be able to remove the effects of terrestrial adsorbed H2O, thus enabling us to use the dry spectra to model these materials in the regoliths of airless bodies found in the inner solar system. To complete this task, we created un-mounted thin sections of two ordinary chondrite meteorites (Kilabo - LL6 and Gao-Guenie - H5) and eight ultramafic and banded rocks collected at the Stillwater Intrusion to serve as analogs for the Earth's moon. These rocks host an abundance of three key mineral series of interest: olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase. We conducted EDS scans of each rock to create an elemental map and assess the specific mineral composition of phases in each sample. Transmittance spectra of each thin section were also collected from the visible through mid-IR range using the FTIR microscope to characterize bound water in each sample. These thin sections will be heated up to ~1000°C in a vacuum to remove any internal water and will be measured in transmission for a second time to determine their true anhydrous spectral baseline. Subsets of the samples have been powdered and will be measured under ultra-high vacuum conditions at temperatures ranging from ~293K to 650K to examine the spectral parameters for adsorbed terrestrial water on each sample. Ultimately, these powdered samples will be used for space weathering experiments to examine the nature of the OH- bands induced by irradiation.

  19. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  20. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  1. Radar measurement of L-band signal fluctuations caused by propagation through trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of an L-band, horizontally polarized signal that was transmitted from the ground through a coniferous forest canopy to an airborne radar are examined. The azimuth synthetic aperture radar (SAR) impulse response in the presence of the measured magnitude fluctuations shows increased sidelobes over the case with no trees. Statistics of the observed fluctuations are similar to other observations.

  2. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  3. Radar measurement of L-band signal fluctuations caused by propagation through trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of an L-band, horizontally polarized signal that was transmitted from the ground through a coniferous forest canopy to an airborne radar are examined. The azimuth synthetic aperture radar (SAR) impulse response in the presence of the measured magnitude fluctuations shows increased sidelobes over the case with no trees. Statistics of the observed fluctuations are similar to other observations.

  4. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  5. Measurement Directiveness as a Cause of Response Bias: Evidence From Two Survey Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Philip S.; DeLamater, John

    2016-01-01

    Extant research comparing survey self-reports of normative behavior to direct observations and time diary data have yielded evidence of extensive measurement bias. However, most of this research program has relied on observational data, comparing independent samples from the same target population, rather than comparing survey self-reports to a…

  6. Simulation and measurement of melting effects on metal sheets caused by direct lightning strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    Direct lightning strikes melt metal parts of various systems, like fuel and propellant tanks of rockets and airplanes, at the point of strike. Responsible for this melting are the impulse current and, if occurring, the long duration current, both carrying a remarkable charge Q. For studying these meltings the simulation in the laboratory has to be based on the parameters of natural lightnings. International standards exist defining certain threat levels of natural lightnings and giving possible generator circuits for the simulation. The melting caused by both types of lightning currents show different appearance. Their characteristics, their differences in melting and heating of metal sheets are investigated. Nevertheless the simulation of lightning in the laboratory is imperfect. While natural lightning is a discharge without a counter electrode, the simulation always demands a close counter electrode. The influence of this counter electrode is studied.

  7. Measurements and analysis of surface damage on oil-impregnated insulation paper caused by partial discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaming; Liao, Ruijin; Yang, Lijun; Zhu, Mengzhao

    2011-05-01

    Surface topography, surface roughness, and surface conductivity of oil-impregnated insulation paper were studied during the damage process caused by partial discharge within the cavity of the paper. Products generated on the surface during this process were studied, as well. According to phase-resolved partial discharge patterns, the damage process can be divided into five stages. At each of the stages, surface conditions of insulation were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and high-resistance meter. 'Ablating', 'peeling', 'cracking in silk', 'pitting' and 'electrical treeing' appear on insulation surfaces one after another during the five stages of the damage process, along with sequential generation of droplets and crystalline solids. Surface roughness initially decreases, then increases. Finally, surface conductivity exhibits a general increasing trend, before it eventually stabilizes. However, its growth rate varies in different stages of damage.

  8. Mifepristone causing complete remission of rapidly advancing leukemia with measurement of progesterone-induced blocking factor.

    PubMed

    Check, Jerome H; Check, Diane; Cohen, Rachael; Sarumi, Mojirayo

    2014-05-01

    Mifepristone has been demonstrated to cause palliation from murine and human cancer, even in cancers not known to be positive for expression of progesterone receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine if rapidly advancing chronic lymphocytic leukemia responds to mifepristone therapy, and if so, is this effect related to increased expression of the progesterone-induced blocking factor? An 81-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia whose condition progressed to the acute rapidly progressing stage agreed to be exclusively treated orally with 200 mg mifepristone daily. The patient showed a dramatic improvement after a short exposure time to mifepristone. Complete remission has persisted so far for 12 months on exclusive mifepristone therapy. Her PIBF levels were normal before mifepristone therapy and did not change after treatment. Mifepristone can provide marked improvement of human leukemia even in the absence of increased serum PIBF levels.

  9. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  10. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio hole perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James H; Wilson, D C; Kyrala, George A; Blue, Brent E; Edwards, J; Elliott, James B; Robey, H F; Spears, B

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule, current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials overpredict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (<1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  11. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  12. Traceable measurement and imaging of the complex permittivity of a multiphase mineral specimen at micron scales using a microwave microscope.

    PubMed

    Gregory, A P; Blackburn, J F; Hodgetts, T E; Clarke, R N; Lees, K; Plint, S; Dimitrakis, G A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes traceable measurements of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of a multiphase material (particulate rock set in epoxy) at micron scales using a resonant Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) at 1.2GHz. Calibration and extraction of the permittivity and loss tangent is via an image charge analysis which has been modified by the use of the complex frequency to make it applicable for high loss materials. The results presented are obtained using a spherical probe tip, 0.1mm in diameter, and also a conical probe tip with a rounded end 0.01mm in diameter, which allows imaging with higher resolution (≈10µm). The microscope is calibrated using approach-curve data over a restricted range of gaps (typically between 1% and 10% of tip diameter) as this is found to give the best measurement accuracy. For both tips the uncertainty of scanned measurements of permittivity is estimated to be±10% (at coverage factor k=2) for permittivity ⪝10. Loss tangent can be resolved to approximately 0.001. Subject to this limit, the uncertainty of loss tangent measurements is estimated to be±20% (at k=2). The reported measurements inform studies of how microwave energy interacts with multiphase materials containing microwave absorbent phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A. )

    1990-11-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage.

  14. Information measuring systems with mobile devices for identification of air pollution parameters caused by transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokin, Vitalii B.; Goriachev, Georgii V.; Dziuniak, Dmytro Y.; Bondaletov, Konstantin O.; Zhukov, Serhii O.; Duk, Mariusz; Sailarbek, Saltanat

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of modern information measuring systems (IMS) for identification model parameters of the air pollution is carried out. That allows to increase the accuracy of this identification due to their complex application. The known model based on the fuzzy knowledge base was adapted to this task. It is specified how the offered IMS can increase the accuracy of the parameters identification. The results of the experiment with the use of the offered IMS in Vinnytsia city presented in the paper.

  15. Experimental investigations of phase error caused by electrode impedance in laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Seleznev, N. V.

    2016-12-01

    High frequency phase errors that plague spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements are partly due to the effects of electrode impedance. Others have recently proposed an experimental correction procedure based on a simplified electrical model of the system under test. The application of the method is limited due to the dependence of the correction on the input capacitance (Ci) of SIP instruments. With this study, we evaluated the correction procedure with a new experimental set up, confirming the improved phase accuracy at high frequency. In addition, we propose an experimental method to calculate Ci based on the experimental set up used for each measurement. The method utilizes well characterized fluids, with known electrical properties, for the accurate estimation of Ci. Following this new procedure, Ci of the used set up was determined to be 6.30 ± 0.29 pF. High frequency errors were further suppressed when the calculated, versus the estimated, Ci was used. Correction results suggest that Ci is weakly dependent on sample properties. The correction procedure with the experimental determination of Ci significantly improves the quality of SIP measurements on unconsolidated sediments and rock cores.

  16. Comments on 'Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans' Aeolian Research 22, 85-92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiswell, Robert; Hawkings, Jon R.; Benning, Liane G.; Albani, Samuel; Mahowald, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Meskhidze et al. (Aeolian Research, 22, 85-92) provide a timely reminder of uncertainties in measuring the fractional solubility of iron in mineral dust, which are a major source of uncertainty in modelling the delivery of iron to the oceans (Tagliabue et al., 2016). The main focus of their paper is the errors that occur during the determination of fractional solubility (using distilled water or DI leaches) due to the dissolution of <0.45 μm particles during storage of the leaches. We agree that such dissolution errors are important, but go further here in choosing to emphasise the fundamental role of mineralogy, which lies at the heart of the errors in this methodology. Our view is that DI leach errors need to be considered in relation to the forms of iron in dust samples and their mineralogical associations.

  17. Assessment of BoneTtissue Mineralization by Conventional X-ray Microcomputed tomography: Comparison with Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography and Ash Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakia,G.; Burghardt, A.; Cheung, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of bone tissue mineral density (TMD) may provide information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes and bone biomechanics. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of TMD has recently been demonstrated using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SR{mu}CT); however, this imaging modality is relatively inaccessible due to the scarcity of SR facilities. Conventional desktop {mu}CT systems are widely available and have been used extensively to assess bone microarchitecture. However, the polychromatic source and cone-shaped beam geometry complicate assessment of TMD by conventional {mu}CT. The goal of this study was to evaluate {mu}CT-based measurement of degree and distribution of tissue mineralization in a quantitative, spatially resolved manner. Specifically, {mu}CT measures of bone mineral content (BMC) and TMD were compared to those obtained by SR{mu}CT and gravimetric methods. Cylinders of trabecular bone were machined from human femoral heads (n=5), vertebrae (n=5), and proximal tibiae (n=4). Cylinders were imaged in saline on a polychromatic {mu}CT system at an isotropic voxel size of 8 {mu}m. Volumes were reconstructed using beam hardening correction algorithms based on hydroxyapatite (HA)-resin wedge phantoms of 200 and 1200 mgHA/cm3. SR{mu}CT imaging was performed at an isotropic voxel size of 7.50 {mu}m at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Attenuation values were converted to HA concentration using a linear regression derived by imaging a calibration phantom. Architecture and mineralization parameters were calculated from the image data. Specimens were processed using gravimetric methods to determine ash mass and density. {mu}CT-based BMC values were not affected by altering the beam hardening correction. Volume-averaged TMD values calculated by the two corrections were significantly different (p=0.008) in high volume fraction specimens only, with the 1200 mgHA/cm3 correction resulting in a 4.7% higher TMD

  18. Quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and (1)H MRI measurements of bone mineral and matrix density differentiate metabolic bone diseases in rat models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haihui; Nazarian, Ara; Ackerman, Jerome L; Snyder, Brian D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Hrovat, Mirko I; Dai, Guangping; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Wu, Yaotang

    2010-06-01

    In this study, bone mineral density (BMD) of normal (CON), ovariectomized (OVX), and partially nephrectomized (NFR) rats was measured by (31)P NMR spectroscopy; bone matrix density was measured by (1)H water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI); and the extent of bone mineralization (EBM) was obtained by the ratio of BMD/bone matrix density. The capability of these MR methods to distinguish the bone composition of the CON, OVX, and NFR groups was evaluated against chemical analysis (gravimetry). For cortical bone specimens, BMD of the CON and OVX groups was not significantly different; BMD of the NFR group was 22.1% (by (31)P NMR) and 17.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. For trabecular bone specimens, BMD of the OVX group was 40.5% (by (31)P NMR) and 24.6% (by gravimetry) lower than CON; BMD of the NFR group was 26.8% (by (31)P NMR) and 21.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. No significant change of cortical bone matrix density between CON and OVX was observed by WASPI or gravimetry; NFR cortical bone matrix density was 10.3% (by WASPI) and 13.9% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. OVX trabecular bone matrix density was 38.0% (by WASPI) and 30.8% (by gravimetry) lower than CON, while no significant change in NFR trabecular bone matrix density was observed by either method. The EBMs of OVX cortical and trabecular specimens were slightly higher than CON but not significantly different from CON. Importantly, EBMs of NFR cortical and trabecular specimens were 12.4% and 26.3% lower than CON by (31)P NMR/WASPI, respectively, and 4.0% and 11.9% lower by gravimetry. Histopathology showed evidence of osteoporosis in the OVX group and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (renal osteodystrophy) in the NFR group. These results demonstrate that the combined (31)P NMR/WASPI method is capable of discerning the difference in EBM between animals with osteoporosis and those with impaired bone mineralization.

  19. Analysis of H in Natural and Experimental Nominally Anhydrous Minerals: A Comparison of Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Infrared and SIMS Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, A. C.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments to determine the H storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) can be used to place strong constraints on the degree of hydration required to initiate volatile fluxed melting in the mantle. Moreover, accurate measurements of H in NAMs from mantle xenoliths may be used to constrain the rheological properties of the source region. However, accurate measurements of H concentrations using infrared and ion beam techniques require mineral specific calibrations. Standardless measurements of H using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in some cases have provided valuable verification of calibrations for other techniques, but so far have had limited application to experimental samples owing to sample size and analytical background. Results of recent measurements of H in garnet, pyroxene and feldspar will be used to illustrate the potential of the technique. Some of the results we will present include the following: 1) Forsterites grown at 2 and 3 GPa in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system exhibit low frequency absorption bands in the OH stretching region between 3300 and 3400 cm-1, but very limited absorption at higher frequencies where the strongest absorption bands are usually seen for Al-free olivine. Analyses of H in these samples by ERDA will be used to develop a tentative site-specific molar absorption coefficient for the low frequency OH absorption band. 2) ERDA measurements of H in silicate glass standards verify previous determinations by Karl Fischer titration and FTIR spectroscopy, validating the ERDA technique. Samples of these rhyolitic glasses are available on request for use as analytical standards, and come with a compendium of analyses that have been used to characterize major and minor elemental composition and H content. 3) ERDA measurements of three homogeneous grossular garnets from East Africa show an excellent correlation (r2 = 1) with absorbance in the O-H stretching region and indicate an integral molar absorption coefficient

  20. Internally consistent elasticity measurements of mantle minerals at high-pressure and high-temperature by Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, H.; Kurnosov, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Marquardt, K.; Frost, D. J.; Buchen, J.; Schulze, K.

    2015-12-01

    Elasticity is a material property that reflects the atomic structure and interatomic forces in crystalline materials. As a result, elastic properties are strongly affected by changes in pressure and temperature. In Earth Sciences, knowledge of the elastic behavior of geomaterials at pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's interior is key to constrain our planet's inner structure and dynamics through forward modelling of seismic observables. Here, we will discuss internally consistent single-crystal elasticity measurements that combine the opportunities emerging from the recent development of combined Brillouin scattering (to derive acoustic wave velocities) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) systems (for structure and unit-cell parameter determination) with the advantages of sophisticated sample preparation using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique [1]. We will show results of experiments on mantle minerals that were performed using the combined Brillouin scattering and rotating anode XRD system at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut BGI. Multiple single-crystals, FIB-tailored in size and shape, were loaded in the single sample chambers of resistively-heated diamond-anvil cells (DAC). Such a multi-sample approach allows for internally consistent determinations of all independent elastic constants from low-symmetry crystals by Brillouin spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, the multi-sample approach facilitates direct quantification of the effects of chemical substitution on the structure and elasticity of high-symmetry crystals at non-ambient conditions. Our experimental approach eliminates uncertainties arising from the combination of data collected under (potentially) different conditions in several DAC runs, in different laboratories and/or from using different pressure-temperature sensors. We will also discuss the possibility to derive pressure independent from a secondary pressure scale. [1] H. Marquardt, K. Marquardt, Am. Mineral. 97, 299

  1. Continued investigation of kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism. [determining body calcium by measuring argon after neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The total body calcium in humans was determined by measuring expired Ar-37 after neutron irradiation. The excretion of Ar-37 from humans was found to be much slower than the excretion from rats and dogs, and to be related to the age of a person. A study of the uniformity of the Ar-37 production throughout the thickness of the body was studied using phantoms. The results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a uniformity within plus or minus 3% for the production of Ar-37 per unit of calcium by using a bilateral irradiation. New low background, large volume proportional counters were developed and constructed, for more sensitive measurement of Ar-37 in the expired air from patients. A new irradiation enclosure was developed for measuring total body calcium in rats by the Ar-37 method. With this enclosure the Ar-37 production per gram of calcium is constant with a standard deviation of plus or minus 2.8% for any size rat between 100 and 500 grams. The use of Na-22 as measure of bone replacement in the fractured femur of a dog was not successful.

  2. Some physical and clinical factors influencing the measurement of precision error, least significant change, and bone mineral density in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Frimeth, Jeffrey; Galiano, Eduardo; Webster, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the standard method of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) at highly trabecular bone, which can be statistically linked to the risk of fracture. For DXA, precision error (PE) and phantom-based accuracy studies are among the most important routine quality control procedures. A precision study was performed at our institution using International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. Comparing our results with those reported by other investigators, we draw the following general conclusions: the PE was higher for the spine than the hip, which we attribute to the better geometric reproducibility at the hip. The hypothesis that the DXA calculates BMD relative to water was validated. Whether follow-up measurements are performed by the same technologist on the same day-or different technologists on subsequent days-does not appear to have a clinically significant impact on PE or least significant change (LSC). Mixing beam types (i.e., fan and pencil) may affect lumbar PE and LSC measurements more significantly than those of the hip. The use of a single technologist may reduce the PE for the lumbar spine but appears to increase it for the hip. Restricting the patient population to the female gender has the apparent effect of narrowing the gap between lumbar and hip PEs. Finally, the degree of BMD measurement accuracy can be affected by the type of phantom being used (e.g., European Spine Phantom vs Lunar phantom) and the faults in specific DXA edge detection algorithms.

  3. Thorium in mineral products.

    PubMed

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  4. Modelling the disturbance caused by a dc-electrified railway to geomagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Newitt, L.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.; Fernberg, P.; McKee, L.; Danskin, D.; Jansen van Beek, G.

    2007-08-01

    Magnetic fields created by a dc-electrified railway are a nuisance to the operation of a geomagnetic observatory and also disturb other electromagnetic studies. Theoretical formulas that enable quantitative estimates of the magnetic effect of a dc railway including leakage currents in the ground are presented in this paper. They are illustrated by numerical examples. The validity of the theoretical model was verified by measurements carried out in the vicinity of a nearly north-south railway in Calgary, Canada. The earth structure in that area is approximately layered, which is an assumption included in the theoretical model. The agreement between the measured magnetic fields due to trains and the theoretical values is good. Numerical computations indicate that magnetic fields larger than the maximum allowable noise level (assumed to be about 10 pT) at today's magnetic observatories may extend to distances of tens of kilometres from a railway. We have prepared computer programs based on the theoretical formulas in the MatLab, Octave, FORTRAN and IDL languages, in which the locations (i.e. the latitudes and the longitudes) of the point of observation, of the feeding substations and of the trains, together with the feeding and leakage currents and the heights of the feeding lines, can be given as inputs.

  5. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  6. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ely, Matthew R; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Chinevere, Troy D; Lacher, Craig P; Lukaski, Henry C; Montain, Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Several sweat mineral element concentrations decline with serial sampling. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (TDF), sweat, and serum during extended exercise-heat stress to determine if these compartments show the same serial changes during repeat sampling. Sixteen heat-acclimated individuals walked on a treadmill (1.56 m/s, 3.0% grade) in a 35°C, 20% relative humidity (RH), 1 m/s wind environment 50 min each hour for 3 h. Mineral concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn were measured each hour from serum, sweat from upper back (sweat pouch) and arm (bag), and TDF from the upper back. Sites were meticulously cleaned to minimize surface contamination. Mineral concentrations were determined by spectrometry. TDF remained stable over time, with exception of a modest increase in TDF [Fe] (15%) and decrease in TDF [Zn] (-18%). Likewise, serum and pouch sweat samples were stable over time. In contrast, the initial arm bag sweat mineral concentrations were greater than those in the sweat pouch, and [Ca], [Cu], [Mg], and [Zn] declined 26-76% from initial to the subsequent samples, becoming similar to sweat pouch. Nominal TDF mineral shifts do not affect sweat mineral concentrations. Arm bag sweat mineral concentrations are initially elevated due to skin surface contaminants that are not removed despite meticulous cleaning (e.g., under fingernails, on arm hair), then decrease with extended sweating and approach those measured from the scapular region.

  7. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  8. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Braich, Puneet S; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David Rp

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread.

  9. Emission, transport, and radiative effects of mineral dust from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts: comparison of measurements and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Kang, Litai; Wang, Hao; Ma, Xiaojun; He, Yongli; Yuan, Tiangang; Yang, Ben; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model) was used to investigate a typical dust storm event that occurred from 18 to 23 March 2010 and swept across almost all of China, Japan, and Korea. The spatial and temporal variations in dust aerosols and the meteorological conditions over East Asia were well reproduced by the WRF-Chem model. The simulation results were used to further investigate the details of processes related to dust emission, long-range transport, and radiative effects of dust aerosols over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD). The results indicated that weather conditions, topography, and surface types in dust source regions may influence dust emission, uplift height, and transport at the regional scale. The GD was located in the warm zone in advance of the cold front in this case. Rapidly warming surface temperatures and cold air advection at high levels caused strong instability in the atmosphere, which strengthened the downward momentum transported from the middle and low troposphere and caused strong surface winds. Moreover, the GD is located in a relatively flat, high-altitude region influenced by the confluence of the northern and southern westerly jets. Therefore, the GD dust particles were easily lofted to 4 km and were the primary contributor to the dust concentration over East Asia. In the dust budget analysis, the dust emission flux over the TD was 27.2 ± 4.1 µg m-2 s-1, which was similar to that over the GD (29 ± 3.6 µg m-2 s-1). However, the transport contribution of the TD dust (up to 0.8 ton d-1) to the dust sink was much smaller than that of the GD dust (up to 3.7 ton d-1) because of the complex terrain and the prevailing wind in the TD. Notably, a small amount of the TD dust (PM2.5 dust concentration of approximately 8.7 µg m-3) was lofted to above 5 km and transported over greater distances under the influence of the westerly jets. Moreover, the direct radiative forcing induced by dust

  10. Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

    2013-05-01

    More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g., antenna beam width and receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the Earth and vertical gradient of refractive index) on scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases. These biases are estimated using differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are less important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable at these frequencies. The biases caused by omitting the antenna beam width in measurement simulations are larger than those caused by omitting the receiver bandwidth, except for V-band where the bandwidth may be more important in the vicinity of absorption peaks. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapour, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapour are associated with the beam width errors.

  11. Time-dependent Measurements of Dissolution-precipitation Reactions Caused by Caustic Waste Solutions At the Hanford Site Using Synchrotron Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Jones, K. W.; Um, W.; Rockhold, M. L.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Leaking of caustic (hyper-alkaline) radioactive wastes, generated from plutonium production during the Cold War and stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford Site (Richland, WA), has been detected in the subsurface. The caustic wastes leachate induces primary mineral dissolution (releasing Si) and subsequent secondary precipitation (feldspathoids, such as sodalite and cancrinite) in the sediments. The dissolution-precipitation reactions affect the transport of radioactive elements (90Sr and 137Cs) in the sub-surface through changing the morphology of the sediments. We studied here the changes of the morphology of the sediments caused by exposure of quartz sand or Hanford sediments to simulated tank waste leachates (2 M Na+, 1 M OH-, 1.053 M NO3-, 0.05 M Al3+ and 10-5 M Sr2+) using a series of steady-state-flow saturated column experiments. The 3D structures were determined using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Sequential measurements were made at intervals over an exposure time of up to ~620 days with a pixel size of 4 μm in mini columns (ID2.1 mm) packed with quartz sand, or with a pixel size of 11 μm in intermediate size columns (ID19 mm) packed with Hanford sediments. Values for porosity as a function of treatment time were obtained showing major changes. Good agreement was found between the microstructure porosity determinations with results obtained from measurements on the composition of the treatment fluids. The results also show the changes in the three dimensional morphology of the sediment structures as a function of the treatment time. Good agreement was also found between observed and simulated porosity and aqueous chemistry obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP. A comparison of the CMT results with complementary high-resolution scanning electron microscopy scans will also be presented.

  12. Correlation Between Central and Peripheral Bone Mineral Density Around the Elbow Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jaebong; Chung, Myung Ki; Cho, Byung Chae; Moon, Seung Jun; Park, Moon Seok

    This pilot study was performed to evaluate the correlation between central bone mineral density (BMD) and peripheral BMD around the elbow in children and adolescents and to compare BMD values across skeletal sites. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers between 5 and 18 yr of age were recruited for the study. Anthropometric measurements including height and weight were performed. Central BMD at the lumbar spine and left femur and peripheral BMD at the supracondylar area, medial condyle, lateral condyle, and olecranon were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher BMD levels were found in the central skeleton (lumbar spine and femur) than in peripheral sites around the elbow (p < 0.001). BMD values around the elbow ranged from 44.4% to 63.2% compared to the BMD values of the central skeleton. Among the peripheral sites around the elbow, the highest BMD was observed at the supracondylar area and olecranon, and the lowest BMD was found at the lateral condyle. Peripheral DXA measurements around the elbow were significantly correlated with central DXA measurements at the lumbar spine and femur. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the measurements of BMD around the elbow were correlated with BMD at central sites. Given the small sample size in this pilot study, further study with a large cohort is required to use the BMD measurements around the elbow as a valid clinical tool for fracture risk assessment and population-based epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of 99mTc on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement of body composition and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of 99mTc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40 mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving the administration of a tracer marked with 99mTc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2 h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient measurements, we found a significant dose-related decrease in fat mass and BMD and a corresponding increase in fat-free mass (p < 0.001). Based on the linear regression analysis, we suggest upper dose limits for the measurement of BMD at 0.77 μSv/h and body composition at 0.21 μSv/h (dose rate measured at a distance of 1m from the patient). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results of DXA scans performed in close temporal proximity to procedures involving the administration of 99mTc.

  14. Misalignment of the Desired and Measured Center of Pressure Describes Falls Caused by Slip during Turning

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hironari; Onodera, Hiroshi; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo; Masani, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, desired center of pressure (dCOP) was introduced to evaluate dynamic postural stability. The dCOP is defined as a virtual point on the ground, where the moment around the body center of mass (COM) becomes zero when dCOP and the measured COP (mCOP) coincide. We hypothesized that, when the misalignment of the dCOP and mCOP (dCOP-mCOP) increases up to a certain value due to a large perturbation during walking, it becomes difficult to make a compensatory step and to recover balance of COM and to continue gait. Here we tested this hypothesis in slipping during turning. The study involved twelve healthy young adult males with an average age of 21.5±1.9 yrs. The subjects were asked to (1) walk straight and turn 60 degrees to the right with the right foot (spin turn) on a dry floor surface, and (2) walk straight and 60 degrees spin turn to the right on a slippery lubricated surface. The dCOP-mCOP during turning in the slip trial with fall were significantly larger, particularly in x-direction (i.e., the medial-lateral direction during straight walk), than that in no-slip trial and slip trial without fall. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction is good indicator of falling (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93) and the threshold in the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction to distinguish for fall or no-fall was 0.55 m. These results support our hypothesis in slipping during turning. PMID:27166954

  15. Decision making for urban drainage systems under uncertainty caused by weather radar rainfall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiang; Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    With the rapidly growth of urbanization and population, the decision making for managing urban flood risk has been a significant issue for most large cities in China. A high-quality measurement of rainfall at small temporal but large spatial scales is of great importance to urban flood risk management. Weather radar rainfall, with its advantage of short-term predictability and high spatial and temporal resolutions, has been widely applied in the urban drainage system modeling. It is recognized that weather radar is subjected to many uncertainties and many studies have been carried out to quantify these uncertainties in order to improve the quality of the rainfall and the corresponding outlet flow. However, considering the final action in urban flood risk management is the decision making such as flood warning and whether to build or how to operate a hydraulics structure, some uncertainties of weather radar may have little or significant influence to the final results. For this reason, in this study, we aim to investigate which characteristics of the radar rainfall are the significant ones for decision making in urban flood risk management. A radar probabilistic quantitative rainfall estimated scheme is integrated with an urban flood model (Storm Water Management Model, SWMM) to make a decision on whether to warn or not according to the decision criterions. A number of scenarios with different storm types, synoptic regime and spatial and temporal correlation are designed to analyze the relationship between these affected factors and the final decision. Based on this, parameterized radar probabilistic rainfall estimation model is established which reflects the most important elements in the decision making for urban flood risk management.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  17. Measurement error causes scale-dependent threshold erosion of biological signals in animal movement data.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on

  18. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  19. Techniques for Elastic Properties Measurements of Partial Molten Rocks, Hydrous Minerals and Melts in Gas Pressure Vessels and Multi-Anvil Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Roetzler, K.; Schilling, F. R.; Wehber, M.; Lathe, C.

    2008-12-01

    The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earth's deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. For deep crustal to uppermost mantle conditions high performance gas pressure vessels enable a virtually unrestricted optimization of the measuring configurations for high p-T-conditions [1]. Exhumed high pressure rocks can be used as representative samples. The paper presents transient measurements of elastic wave velocities for granulite facies rocks under partial melting conditions. Despite the compact natural rock samples as a result of long-term experiments exceeding pressures of 1.5 GPa and temperatures of 1,000°C newly-formed garnets, orthopyroxenes and potash feldspars could be found in the samples after the experiments. Discovering the huge water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) under high pressure conditions dramatically changed our image of state and dynamics of Earth's deep interior [2]. The simulation of these in situ conditions require using of diamond anvil cells (DAC) and multi-anvil devices (MAD) as well as mostly synthetical samples. MADs are more limited in pressure, but provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger. They offer small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample. The bigger samples make anisotropy and structural effects in complex systems accessible for measurements in principle. Using ultrasonic interferometry the measurement of both elastic wave velocities have no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. Using the 6 to 8 anvils of a MAD as buffers allow the simultaneous recording of acoustic emissions from different directions of space and consequently the localization of the spikes during ongoing phase transitions and dehydration. The recent development of deformation-DIA MADs (D-DIA) make not only deformation measurements under simulated mantle conditions possible, but also the

  20. Correlation of signal attenuation-based quantitative magnetic resonance imaging with quantitative computed tomographic measurements of subchondral bone mineral density in metacarpophalangeal joints of horses.

    PubMed

    Olive, Julien; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Beauchamp, Guy; Theoret, Christine L

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of signal attenuation-based quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) to estimate subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) as assessed via quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in osteoarthritic joints of horses. 20 metacarpophalangeal joints from 10 horse cadavers. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (dorsal and transverse T1-weighted gradient recalled echo [GRE] and dorsal T2*-weighted GRE fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition [T2*-FIESTA]) and transverse single-slice computed tomographic (CT) images of the joints were acquired. Magnetic resonance signal intensity (SI) and CT attenuation were quantified in 6 regions of interest (ROIs) in the subchondral bone of third metacarpal condyles. Separate ROIs were established in the air close to the joint and used to generate corrected ratios and SIs. Computed tomographic attenuation was corrected by use of a calibration phantom to obtain a K(2)HPO(4)-equivalent density of bone. Correlations between QMRI performed with different MR imaging sequences and QCT measurements were evaluated. The intraobserver repeatability of ROI measurements was tested for each modality. Measurement repeatability was excellent for QCT (R(2) = 98.3%) and QMRI (R(2) = 98.8%). Transverse (R(2) = 77%) or dorsal (R(2) = 77%) T1-weighted GRE and QCT BMD measurements were negatively correlated, as were dorsal T2*-FIESTA and QCT (R(2) = 80%) measurements. Decreased bone SI during MR imaging linearly reflected increased BMD. Results of this ex vivo study suggested that signal attenuation-based QMRI was a reliable, clinically applicable method for indirect estimation of subchondral BMD in osteoarthritic metacarpophalangeal joints of horses.

  1. CT Measures of Bone Mineral Density and Muscle Mass Can Be Used to Predict Noncancer Death in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrew M; Swain, Thomas A; Mayhew, David L; Cardan, Rex A; Baker, Christopher B; Harris, David M; Yang, Eddy S; Fiveash, John B

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To determine if computed tomographic (CT) metrics of bone mineral density and muscle mass can improve the prediction of noncancer death in men with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. All patients who underwent radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer between 2001 and 2012 with height, weight, and past medical history documented and who underwent CT that included the L4-5 vertebral interspace were included. On a single axial CT section obtained at the mid-L5 level, the mean CT attenuation of the trabecular bone of the L5 vertebral body (L5HU) was measured. The height-normalized psoas cross-sectional area (PsoasL4-5) was measured on a single CT section obtained at the L4-5 vertebral interface. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess effects on noncancer death. By using parameter estimates from an adjusted model, a prognostic index for prediction of noncancer death was generated and compared with age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) by using the Harrell c statistic. Results Six hundred fifty-three men met the inclusion criteria. Prostate cancer risk grouping, androgen deprivation, race, age-adjusted CCI, L5HU, and PsoasL4-5 were included in a multivariable model. Age-adjusted CCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.36, P < .001), L5HU (HR = 2.88 for L5HU < 105 HU, HR = 1.42 for 105 HU ≤ L5HU ≤ 150 HU, P < .001), PsoasL4-5 (HR = 1.95 for PsoasL4-5 < 7.5 cm(2)/m(2), P = .003), and race (HR = 1.68 for African American race, HR = 1.77 for other nonwhite race, P = .019) were independent predictors of noncancer death. The prognostic index yielded a c value of 0.747 for the prediction of noncancer death versus 0.718 for age-adjusted CCI alone. Conclusion L5HU and PsoasL4-5, which are surrogates for bone mineral density and muscle mass, respectively, were independent predictors of noncancer death. The prognostic index that incorporated

  2. Flow variability and its physical causes in infusion technology: a systematic review of in vitro measurement and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Roland A; Konings, Maurits K; Lucas, Peter; Egberts, Toine C; Timmerman, Annemoon D

    2015-08-01

    Infusion therapy is medically and technically challenging and frequently associated with medical errors. When administering pharmaceuticals by means of infusion, dosing errors can occur due to flow rate variability. These dosing errors may lead to adverse effects. We aimed to systematically review the available biomedical literature for in vitro measurement and modeling studies that investigated the physical causes of flow rate variability. Special focus was given to syringe pump setups, which are typically used if very accurate drug delivery is required. We aimed to extract from literature the component with the highest mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups. We included 53 studies, six of which were theoretical models, two articles were earlier reviews of infusion literature, and 45 were in vitro measurement studies. Mechanical compliance, flow resistance, and dead volume of infusion systems were stated as the most important and frequently identified physical causes of flow rate variability. The syringe was indicated as the most important source of mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups (9.0×10-9 to 2.1×10-8 l/Pa). Mechanical compliance caused longer flow rate start-up times (from several minutes up to approximately 70 min) and delayed occlusion alarm times (up to 117 min).

  3. In-line gas chromatographic apparatus for measuring the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) and contaminant transformation in mineral micropores.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from micropores is characteristically slow compared to surface adsorption and partitioning. The slow-desorbing mass of a hydrophobic probe molecule can be used to calculate the hydrophobic micropore volume (HMV) of microporous solids. A gas chromatographic apparatus is described that allows characterization of the sorbed mass with respect to the desorption rate. The method is demonstrated using a dealuminated zeolite and an aquifer sand as the model and reference sorbents, respectively, and trichloroethylene (TCE) as the probe molecule. A glass column packed with the microporous sorbent is coupled directly to a gas chromatograph that is equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Sorption and desorption of TCE on the sorbent was measured by sampling the influent and effluent of the column using a combination of switching and injection valves. For geosorbents, the HMV is quantified based on Gurvitsch's rule from the mass of TCE desorbed at a rate that is characteristic for micropores. Instrumental requirements, design considerations, hardware details, detector calibration, performance, and data analysis are discussed along with applications. The method is novel and complements traditional vacuum gravimetric and piezometric techniques, which quantify the total pore volume under vacuum conditions. The HMV is more relevant than the total micropore volume for predicting the fate and transport of organic contaminants in the subsurface. Sorption in hydrophobic micropores strongly impacts the mobility of organic contaminants, and their chemical and biological transformations. The apparatus can serve as a tool for characterizing microporous solids and investigating contaminant-solid interactions. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk of lung cancer death in a simulated study based on the French Uranium Miners' Cohort.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Measurement error (ME) can lead to bias in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. Here a simulation study is described that is based on data from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort and that was conducted to assess the effect of ME on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. Starting from a scenario without any ME, data were generated containing successively Berkson or classical ME depending on time periods, to reflect changes in the measurement of exposure to radon ((222)Rn) and its decay products over time in this cohort. Results indicate that ME attenuated the level of association with radon exposure, with a negative bias percentage on the order of 60% on the ERR estimate. Sensitivity analyses showed the consequences of specific ME characteristics (type, size, structure, and distribution) on the ERR estimates. In the future, it appears important to correct for ME upon analyzing cohorts such as this one to decrease bias in estimates of the ERR of adverse events associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

  5. A Study of the Repeatability of Ventilatory Tests, Anthropometric Measurements, and Answers to a Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaire in Working Coal-miners

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, J. R.; Forwell, G. D.; Routledge, R.

    1960-01-01

    A study has been made in working coal-miners of the repeatability of ventilatory tests, anthropometric measurements, and the answers to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. On the first visit especially, there was evidence of a continuous increase in both forced expiratory volume (F.E.V.) and forced vital capacity (F.V.C.) from the first to sixth expirations at the same visit but it was minimal after the first expiration. No difference between the beginning and end of a shift was found. The effect on the F.E.V. and F.V.C. readings of the day of the week and time of day at which the examination was made was negligible. The observations recorded in Scotland were 15% higher than those obtained in South Wales. Between the beginning and end of shift there was a small reduction in weight and in standing and sitting height measurements. The repeatability of the answers to the questionnaire was good. No consistent difference was found between doctor and clerk observers. PMID:13794736

  6. Serial bone mineral density ratio measurement for fixator removal in tibia distraction osteogenesis and need of a supportive method using the pixel value ratio.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar; Kim, Tae-Young; Sinha, Shivam; Park, Young-Eun; Kim, Seung-Ju; Hong, Jin-Ho; Song, Sang-Youn; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is one of the common procedures for limb lengthening. However, attempts are being made constantly to establish objective guidelines for early and safe removal of a fixator using a sensitive and quantitative measurement technique. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been evaluated in the past for understanding callus stiffness, and the present study is a step further in this direction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between bone mineral density ratio (BMDR) obtained by a DEXA scan and the pixel value ratio (PVR) on plain digital radiographs at each cortex and various callus pathways and callus shapes as described by Ru-Li's classification. A retrospective analysis of 40 tibial segments in 23 patients operated upon for various indications for limb lengthening was carried out. There were 11 male and 12 female patients with a mean age of 18 years. The Ilizarov method was applied after monofocal osteotomy, and distraction and consolidation were monitored using digital radiographs and DEXA scanning. BMDR was positively correlated with PVR, and the optimal BMDR for removal of the fixator was found to be 0.511. PVR of all cortices, except the anterior cortex, showed significant positive correlation with BMDR of the regenerate. There was good correlation between BMDR and PVR in the homogenous or heterogenous pathway according to callus shape and pathway. Thus, this study shows that BMD measurement can provide an objective and noninvasive method for assessing the rate of new bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis. It can thus function as an effective adjunct to measure callus stiffness, along with PVR, using digital radiographs, especially in cases in which callus maturation and stiffness is doubtful. Further studies especially dealing with callus progression through the lucent pathway as well as those dealing with regenerate fractures may be needed to conclusively prove the efficacy of this method

  7. Self-attenuation artifacts and correction factors of light element measurements by X-ray analysis: Implication for mineral dust composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Klaver, A.; Lafon, S.; Mazzei, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2010-01-01

    On a global scale, mineral dust is one of the major components of atmospheric aerosols and has important effects on the radiative budget of the atmosphere and thus on climate forcing. An accurate measurement of the concentration of crustal elements, namely Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe, is mandatory for the study of desert aerosols. The concentration of light elements, when measured by X-ray emission techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), can be underestimated owing to self-absorption of the emitted soft X-rays inside aerosol particles. In this work, we analyzed dust samples collected in field campaigns and samples produced in the laboratory using dust of known composition. Measurements have been conducted with PIXE and energy-dispersive XRF (ED-XRF), together with an attenuation-free technique such as particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and attenuation corrected wavelength-dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) by internal standard calibration. We focus on the determination of Al and present results of a PIXE versus PIGE intercomparison. Aluminum concentration was measured with both techniques in dust samples collected by aircraft sampling over western Africa during winter 2006 and summer 2007. An underestimation of the Al concentration determined by PIXE was observed (up to 40%), and it was compared with the results of a simple calculation using basic physics and the size distribution of the collected aerosol. Similar attenuation was observed for Mg, Al, and Si in the laboratory samples analyzed by ED-XRF and WD-XRF. In order to use concentration ratios involving light elements as tracers of the region of emission of the sampled dust, these artifacts (i.e., underestimation of the concentration of light elements) induced by self-attenuation should be properly considered and corrected.

  8. Measuring chronic liver disease mortality using an expanded cause of death definition and medical records in Connecticut, 2004.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Speers, Suzanne; Klevens, R Monina; Barry, Vaughn; Vogt, Tara M

    2014-10-16

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a leading cause of death and is defined based on a specific set of underlying cause-of-death codes on death certificates. This conventional approach to measuring CLD mortality underestimates the true mortality burden because it does not consider certain CLD conditions like viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We measured how much the conventional CLD mortality case definition will underestimate CLD mortality and described the distribution of CLD etiologies in Connecticut. We used 2004 Connecticut death certificates to estimate CLD mortality two ways. One way used the conventional definition and the other used an expanded definition that included more conditions suggestive of CLD. We compared the number of deaths identified using this expanded definition with the number identified using the conventional definition. Medical records were reviewed to confirm CLD deaths. Connecticut had 29 314 registered deaths in 2004. Of these, 282 (1.0%) were CLD deaths identified by the conventional CLD definition while 616 (2.1%) were CLD deaths defined by the expanded definition. Medical record review confirmed that most deaths identified by the expanded definition were CLD-related (550/616); this suggested a 15.8 deaths/100 000 population mortality rate. Among deaths for which hepatitis B, hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease were identified during medical record review, only 8.6%, 45.4% and 36.5%, respectively, had that specific cause-of-death code cited on the death certificate. An expanded CLD mortality case definition that incorporates multiple causes of death and additional CLD-related conditions will better estimate CLD mortality. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Wind Tunnel Measured Effects on a Twin-Engine Short-Haul Transport Caused by Simulated Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Potapczuk, Mark; Ratvasky, Thomas; Laflin, Brenda Gile

    1996-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted to assess the effects of leading edge ice contamination upon the performance of a short-haul transport. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot facility. The test article was a 1/8 scale twin-engine short-haul jet transport model. Two separate leading edge ice contamination configurations were tested in addition to the uncontaminated baseline configuration. Several aircraft configurations were examined including various flap and slat deflections, with and without landing gear. Data gathered included force measurements via an internal six-component force balance, pressure measurements through 700 electronically scanned wing pressure ports, and wing surface flow visualization measurements. The artificial ice contamination caused significant performance degradation and caused visible changes demonstrated by the flow visualization. The data presented here is just a portion of the data gathered. A more complete data report is planned for publication as a NASA Technical Memorandum and data supplement.

  10. Regional distinctions in cortical bone mineral density measured by pQCT can predict alterations in material property at the tibial diaphysis of the Cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kiichi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Ohya, Keiichi

    2006-02-01

    We examined whether regional differences in cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD) measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography is related to the heterogeneity of bone tissue and whether regional Ct.BMD is a better indicator of changes in bone material properties. Bilateral tibiae were obtained from 17 female adult Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; mean age 16.8 years). After determining that Ct.BMD was similar between the right and left tibiae, the left tibiae were used for bone histomorphometry and the right for a three-point bending test. The Ct.BMD in the posterior quadrant was significantly higher than that in the anterior quadrant. In the bone histomorphometric analysis, all parameters (i.e., average osteonal area, average osteonal bone area, osteon population density, percent osteonal area [%On.Ar], percent osteonal bone area [%On.B.Ar], percent osteonal area of initial remodeling [%Il.On.Ar], percent osteonal area of secondary remodeling [%Sd.On.Ar], porosity, and percent osteoid area in the posterior region) were significantly lower than those in the anterior region. The results indicated that in the same cross-section, bone tissue structure was heterogeneous. Both total- and posterior-Ct.BMD were positively correlated with breaking stress and negatively correlated with toughness, whereas anterior-Ct.BMD was positively correlated with elastic modulus. Backward stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that posterior-Ct.BMD and total-Ct.BMD were the best variables for predicting breaking stress and toughness, respectively, when age is taken into account. The %On.Ar, %On.B.Ar, and %Il.On.Ar in the posterior region were negatively correlated with elastic modulus. The %On.Ar, %On.B.Ar, and %Sd.On.Ar in the posterior region were positively correlated with toughness. These findings indicated that regional Ct.BMD measurement is useful to assess changes in the material properties of bone associated with the degree of mineralization. In

  11. Repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors changed the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Oude Groeniger, Joost; Kamphuis, Carlijn B; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-08-30

    We examined whether using repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors contributed differently to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality compared to one baseline measurement. Data from the Dutch prospective GLOBE cohort were linked to mortality register data (1991-2013; N = 4,851). Socioeconomic position was measured at baseline by educational level and occupation. Material factors (financial difficulties, housing tenure, health insurance) and behavioral factors (smoking, leisure time physical activity, sports participation, and body mass index) were self-reported in 1991, 1997, and 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression and bootstrap methods were used to examine the contribution of baseline-only and time-varying risk factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Men and women in the lowest educational and occupational groups were at an increased risk of dying compared to the highest groups. The contribution of material factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality was smaller when multiple instead of baseline-only measurements were used (25%-65% vs. 49%-93%). The contribution of behavioral factors was larger when multiple measurements were used (39%-51% vs. 19%-40%). Inclusion of time-dependent risk factors contributes to understanding socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, but careful examination of the underlying mechanisms and suitability of the model is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Usability of a Pressure-Indicating Film to Measure the Teat Load Caused by a Collapsing Liner

    PubMed Central

    Demba, Susanne; Elsholz, Sabrina; Ammon, Christian; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of damage to the teat and mastitis requires determination of the teat load caused by a collapsing liner. The aim of this study was to test a pressure-indicating film designed to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and artificial teats. The Ultra Super Low and the Extreme Low pressure-indicating films were tested on two types of artificial teat. The experiments were performed with a conventional milking cluster equipped with round silicone liners. For each teat and film type, 30 repetitions were performed. Each repetition was performed with a new piece of film. Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to detect differences between the pressure values for the different teats. The area of regions where pressure-indication color developed was calculated to determine the most suitable film type. Both film types measured the pressure applied to both artificial teats by the teat cup liner. Thus, the pressure-indicating films can be used to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and an artificial teat. Based on the results of the present investigation, a pressure-indicating film with the measurement ranges of both film types combined would be an optimal tool to measure the overall pressure between an artificial teat and a collapsing liner. PMID:27690033

  13. The Usability of a Pressure-Indicating Film to Measure the Teat Load Caused by a Collapsing Liner.

    PubMed

    Demba, Susanne; Elsholz, Sabrina; Ammon, Christian; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra

    2016-09-28

    Prevention of damage to the teat and mastitis requires determination of the teat load caused by a collapsing liner. The aim of this study was to test a pressure-indicating film designed to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and artificial teats. The Ultra Super Low and the Extreme Low pressure-indicating films were tested on two types of artificial teat. The experiments were performed with a conventional milking cluster equipped with round silicone liners. For each teat and film type, 30 repetitions were performed. Each repetition was performed with a new piece of film. Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to detect differences between the pressure values for the different teats. The area of regions where pressure-indication color developed was calculated to determine the most suitable film type. Both film types measured the pressure applied to both artificial teats by the teat cup liner. Thus, the pressure-indicating films can be used to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and an artificial teat. Based on the results of the present investigation, a pressure-indicating film with the measurement ranges of both film types combined would be an optimal tool to measure the overall pressure between an artificial teat and a collapsing liner.

  14. Cretaceous Exhumation of the North American Cordillera Measured through Mineral Multi-Dating: Insights into Basin Filling Models and Orogenic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology is an effective thermochronometer to measure source exhumation in the North American Cordillera, western U.S.A. We use a combination of thermochronology and geochronology to measure lag times, i.e., the difference in time between the cooling and depositional ages of a mineral crystal. These lag-time measurements using source exhumation ages, measured with AFT thermochronology, and depositional ages, measured with biostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, indicate constant to decreasing lag times of 0-5 m.y. throughout the Cretaceous. These lag times are consistent with rapid exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. One pitfall of using detrital thermochronology to measure source exhumation is assuring that the apatite crystals are exhumed apatites and not volcanic apatites introduced into the system from the volcanic arc. To do this we use U-Pb geochronology to remove samples contaminated with young arc derived apatites and keep those with old exhumed apatites. Five of the seven detrital AFT samples were significantly contaminated with young volcanic apatites, showing that U-Pb geochronology should be a routine step in measuring lag times. Our findings demonstrate that coarse-grained foreland basin deposits in the Cretaceous Western Interior, in both the proximal and distal settings, were deposited during times of active tectonism and exhumation and that sediments are not stored in wedge-top and proximal foredeep settings for long periods of time, i.e. >5 m.y., and then subsequently reworked distally. Exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. are not sustainable over the entire orogenic belt for the duration of the Sevier orogeny, indicated by the lack of deep-crustal material exhumed in the North American Cordillera. High exhumation rates were likely concentrated over the eastward-propagating Sevier fold-thrust belt, whereas the Nevadaplano and hinterland experienced much slower rates of exhumation. This variation in

  15. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  16. Comparison of Speed of Sound Measures Assessed by Multisite Quantitative Ultrasound to Bone Mineral Density Measures Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in a Large Canadian Cohort: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Olszynski, Wojciech P; Adachi, Jonathon D; Hanley, David A; Davison, Kenneth S; Brown, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important tool for the estimate of fracture risk through the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Similarly, multisite quantitate ultrasound can prospectively predict future fracture through the measurement of speed of sound (SOS). This investigation compared BMD (at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine) and SOS measures (at the distal radius, tibia, and phalanx sites) in a large sample of randomly-selected and community-based individuals from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Furthermore, mass, height, and age were also compared with both measures. There were 4123 patients included with an age range of 30-96.8 yr. Pearson product moment correlations between BMD and SOS measures were low (0.21-0.29; all p<0.001), irrespective of site. Mass was moderately correlated with BMD measures (0.40-0.58; p<0.001), but lowly correlated with SOS measures (0.03-0.13; p<0.05). BMD and SOS were negatively correlated to age (-0.17 to -0.44; p<0.001). When regression analyses were performed to predict SOS measures at the 3 sites, the models predicted 20%-23% of the variance, leaving 77%-80% unaccounted for. The SOS measures in this study were found to be largely independent from BMD measures. In areas with no or limited access to DXA, the multisite quantitative ultrasound may act as a valuable tool to assess fracture risk. In locales with liberal access to DXA, the addition of SOS to BMD and other clinical risk factors may improve the identification of those patients at high risk for future fracture. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The soy isoflavones for reducing bone loss study: 3-yr effects on pQCT bone mineral density and strength measures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shedd-Wise, Kristine M; Alekel, D Lee; Hofmann, Heike; Hanson, Kathy B; Schiferl, Dan J; Hanson, Laura N; Van Loan, Marta D

    2011-01-01

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density-preserving effects, but the bone strength-preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength (by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography) in healthy postmenopausal women (46-63yr). We measured 3-yr changes in cortical BMD (CtBMD), cortical thickness (CtThk), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), and strength-strain index (SSI) at 1/3 midshaft femur (N=171), and trabecular BMD (TbBMD), PC, and SSI at 4% distal tibia (N=162). We found no treatment effect on femur CtThk, PC, or EC, or tibia TbBMD or PC. The strongest predictors (negative) of tibia TbBMD and SSI and femur CtBMD were timepoint and bone resorption; whole-body fat mass was protective of SSI. As time since last menstrual period (TLMP) increased (p=0.012), 120-mg/d dose was protective of CtBMD. The strongest predictors of femur SSI were timepoint, bone resorption, and TLMP (protective). Isoflavone tablets were negative predictors of SSI, but 80-mg/d dose became protective as bone turnover increased (p=0.011). Soy isoflavone treatment for 3yr was modestly beneficial for midshaft femur vBMD as TLMP increased and for midshaft femur SSI as bone turnover increased.

  18. Limited Associations between Keel Bone Damage and Bone Properties Measured with Computer Tomography, Three-Point Bending Test, and Analysis of Minerals in Swiss Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Pfulg, Andreas; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Käppeli, Susanna; Guggisberg, Dominik; Liesegang, Annette; Stoffel, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Keel bone damage is a wide-spread welfare problem in laying hens. It is unclear so far whether bone quality relates to keel bone damage. The goal of the present study was to detect possible associations between keel bone damage and bone properties of intact and damaged keel bones and of tibias in end-of-lay hens raised in loose housing systems. Bones were palpated and examined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (PQCT), a three-point bending test, and analyses of bone ash. Contrary to our expectations, PQCT revealed higher cortical and trabecular contents in fractured than in intact keel bones. This might be due to structural bone repair after fractures. Density measurements of cortical and trabecular tissues of keel bones did not differ between individuals with and without fractures. In the three-point bending test of the tibias, ultimate shear strength was significantly higher in birds with intact vs. fractured keel bones. Likewise, birds with intact or slightly deviated keel bones had higher mineral and calcium contents of the keel bone than birds with fractured keel bones. Calcium content in keel bones was correlated with calcium content in tibias. Although there were some associations between bone traits related to bone strength and keel bone damage, other factors such as stochastic events related to housing such as falls and collisions seem to be at least as important for the prevalence of keel bone damage. PMID:28848740

  19. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ravn, P; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K; Christiansen, C

    1994-12-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year (SEE 0.2-0.9%/year, p < 0.001) and 0.6%/year (SEE 0.4-0.8%/year, p < 0.001), respectively. In the postmenopausal women aged 48-75 years, there was a highly significant exponential decay in BMD with age and years since menopause (YSM) in all regions (-0.58 < r < -0.48, p < 0.001). However, YSM was a better predictor of BMD than age. The decrease in BMD in the first 5 years postmenopause reached values of 9-13%. The estimated bone loss after 20 years was 17-30%, greatest in Ward's triangle and smallest in the intertrochanteric region. BMD correlated highly significantly with BMI (0.26 < r < 0.48, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study indicates a stable premenopausal bone mass of the proximal femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming that low BMI constitutes a potential risk factor for osteoporosis.

  20. Mineral metabolism in heart disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Gunnar H

    2015-07-01

    Strong experimental and clinical evidence points towards a substantial contribution of mineral metabolism disorders to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. Vice versa, recent work suggests that cardiovascular disease may also cause mineral metabolism alterations. Experimental studies suggest that hyperphosphatemia, elevated plasma levels of phosphaturic hormones--parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)--and hypovitaminosis D exert detrimental effects on vascular tissue and on the myocardium. Accordingly, in longitudinal clinical cohort studies, individuals with high plasma levels of phosphate, parathyroid hormone and FGF-23, and with low vitamin D levels, face worst cardiovascular prognosis.Notably, recent evidence suggests that cardiovascular disease may not only follow but also induce mineral metabolism disorders: severe derangements in mineral metabolism were observed in patients with acute heart failure, who face a tremendous increase in plasma FGF-23. Unfortunately, few prospective studies have been completed hitherto that specifically target components of the mineral metabolism for cardiovascular disease prevention or treatment. A bidirectional interaction exists between mineral metabolism disorders and cardiovascular disease. However, clinical evidence for a cardiovascular benefit of therapeutic interventions into mineral metabolism is outstanding.

  1. Endpoint comparison for bone mineral density measurements in North Central Cancer Treatment Group cancer clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Atherton, P.; Liu, H.; Novotny, P.; Hines, S.; Loprinzi, C. L.; Perez, E. A.; Tan, A.; Burger, K.; Zhao, X.; Diekmann, B.; Sloan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement can vary depending upon anatomical site, machine, and normative values used. This analysis compared different BMD endpoints in two clinical trials. Trial results differed across endpoints. Future clinical trials should consider inclusion of multiple endpoints in sensitivity analysis to ensure sound overall study conclusions. Introduction Methodological issues hamper efficacy assessment of osteoporosis prevention agents in cancer survivors. Osteoporosis diagnosis can vary depending upon which bone mineral density (BMD) anatomical site and machine is used and which set of normative values are applied. This analysis compared different endpoints for osteoporosis treatment efficacy assessment in two clinical studies. Methods Data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase III clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance) were employed involving 774 patients each comparing two treatments for osteoporosis prevention. Endpoints for three anatomical sites included raw BMD score (RawBMD); raw machine-based, sample-standardized, and reference population-standardized T scores (RawT, TSamp, TRef); and standard normal percentile corresponding to the reference population-standardized T score (TPerc). For each, treatment arm comparison was carried out using three statistical tests using change and percentage change from baseline (CB, %CB) at 1 year. Results Baseline correlations among endpoints ranged from 0.79 to 1.00. RawBMD and TPerc produced more statistically significant results (14 and 19 each out of 36 tests) compared to RawT (11/36), TSamp (8/36), and TRef (7/36). Spine produced the most statistically significant results (26/60) relative to femoral neck (20/60) and total hip (13/60). Lastly, CB resulted in 44 statistically significant results out of 90 tests, whereas %CB resulted in only 15 significant results. Conclusions Treatment comparisons and interpretations were different across endpoints and anatomical sites

  2. Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the cooking losses of minerals (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper), various food materials were analyzed before and after cooking, and the following results were obtained. (1) The mineral contents of cooked foods in mass cooking were on an average about 60-70 percent of those in raw or uncooked foods. (2) Cooking losses were particularly high in minerals of vegetables. (3) Among various cooking methods, loss of mineral was largest in squeezing after boil and in soaking in water after thin slice, followed by parching, frying and stewing. (4) Cooking losses of minerals in meals cooked in home brought about the similar results as those by the mass cooking procedures. (5) The measures to prevent cooking loss are (a) eating the boiled food with the soup, (b) addition of small amount of salt (about 1% NaCl) in boiling, (c) avoidance of too much boiling, (d) selection of a cooking method causing less mineral loss (stewing, frying or parching).

  3. Ultrasonic Measurement of Transient Change in Stress-Strain Property of Radial Arterial Wall Caused by Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshita, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    The endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of atherosclerosis. Additionally, it was reported that the smooth muscle, which constructs the media of the artery, changes its characteristics owing to atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is essential to develop a method for assessing the regional endothelial function and mechanical property of the arterial wall. There is a conventional technique of measuring the transient change in the diameter of the brachial artery caused by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after the release of avascularization. For more sensitive and regional evaluation, we developed a method of measuring the change in the elasticity of the radial artery due to FMD. In this study, the transient change in the mechanical property of the arterial wall was further revealed by measuring the stress-strain relationship during each heartbeat. The minute change in the thickness (strain) of the radial arterial wall during a cardiac cycle was measured by the phased tracking method, together with the waveform of blood pressure which was continuously measured with a sphygmometer at the radial artery. The transient change in stress-strain relationship during a cardiac cycle was obtained from the measured changes in wall thickness and blood pressure to show the transient change in instantaneous viscoelasticity. From the in vivo experimental results, the stress-strain relationship shows the hysteresis loop. The slope of the loop decreased owing to FMD, which shows that the elastic modulus decreased, and the increasing area of the loop depends on the ratio of the loss modulus (depends on viscosity) to the elastic modulus when the Voigt model is assumed. These results show a potential of the proposed method for the thorough analysis of the transient change in viscoelasticity due to FMD.

  4. Effects of heating on the emanation rates of radon-222 from a suite of natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Garver, E; Baskaran, M

    2004-12-01

    The emanating power of radon provides information on the internal structure of a mineral and the radiation damage caused by the decay of 238U, 235U and 232Th (and their daughters) that are present in the mineral. The concentration of 222Rn in groundwater is primarily controlled by the concentration of U and Th in the underlying rocks, as well as the emanation coefficient for that particular rock. The variations in the emanation coefficient for 222Rn caused when subsurface rocks are subjected to tectonic forces results in changes in 222Rn in groundwater. Increased emanation rates of radon from a mineral grain can potentially alter the 238U-206Pb, 235U-207Pb and 232Th-208Pb chronological clocks. We have measured radon emanation coefficients on a suite of minerals comprised of one oxide (uraninite), three silicates (thorite, zircon, and cerite) and one phosphate (monazite) at room temperature and after heating at 200 degrees C and 600 degrees C. Annealing of some of the nuclear tracks within a mineral significantly reduces the emanation rates of radon in these minerals, suggesting that the tracks created by decay events serve as conduit pathways for the release of 222Rn. Higher emanation rates of 222Rn from mineral grains that are surrounded by liquid as compared to air indicate that a major portion of the escaping 222Rn in air gets embedded into adjacent mineral grains and/or opposite walls of a pore.

  5. Postmenopausal women with colles' fracture have lower values of bone mineral density than controls as measured by quantitative ultrasound and densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, P; del Pino-Montes, J; Alegre, J; Pérez-Cano, R; Guerra, G Martínez Díaz; Díaz-Curiel, M; Valero, C; Muñoz-Torres, M; Torrijos, A; Mosquera, J; Gómez-Alonso, C

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of ultrasonographic parameters provides information concerning not only bone density but also bone architecture. We investigated the usefulness of ultrasonographic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate the probability of Colles' fracture. Two-hundred eighty-nine postmenopausal women (62.3 +/- 8.7 yr) with (n = 76) and without (n = 213) Colles' fracture were studied. BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was evaluated in all women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness in the calcaneus were measured by a Sahara ultrasonometer (Hologic). Patients suffering from Colles' fracture had lower values of BMD adjusted by height at the lumbar spine, L2-L4 (0.797 g/cm2 vs 0.860 g/cm2), femoral neck (0.685 g/cm2 vs 0.712 g/cm2 ), SOS (1518 m/sg vs 1525 m/sg), and stiffness (74.6 vs 77.7) (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, BUA values were similar in both groups. After stepwise logistic regression analysis, the area found under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.60 for L2L4 and 0.63 for a formula combining L2L4 and height. Our data suggest that patients suffering from Colles' fracture have lower values of BMD by DXA, SOS, and stiffness. However, the ability of these techniques to discriminate is low because the values for the area under ROC curve are 0.60 for L2-L4 and 0.63 for a formula derived of the combination of L2-L4 and height.

  6. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  7. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  8. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  10. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  11. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-11-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals.

  12. Sodium-bicarbonated mineral water decreases aldosterone levels without affecting urinary excretion of bone minerals.

    PubMed

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2008-06-01

    AIM To assess in healthy postmenopausal women the influence of consuming sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on postprandial evolution of serum aldosterone and urinary electrolyte excretion. Eighteen postmenopausal women consumed 500 ml of two sodium-bicarbonated mineral waters (sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low-mineral water with a standard meal. Postprandial blood samples were taken at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min and aldosterone concentrations were measured. Postprandial urinary minerals were determined. Urinary and total mineral excretion and urinary mineral concentrations did not differ except for sodium concentration, which was significantly higher with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 than with low-mineral water (P = 0.005). There was a time effect (P = 0.003) on the aldosterone concentration. At 120 min, aldosterone concentrations were lower with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 (P = 0.021) and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2 (P = 0.030) compared with low-mineral water. Drinking a sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral water with a meal increases urinary sodium concentration excretion without changes in the excretion of potassium and bone minerals.

  13. Kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two techniques were studied for measuring changes in bone mass in rats. One technique measures the Ar-37 produced from calcium during neutron irradiation and the other measures the changes in the Na-22 content which has been incorporated within the rat bone. Both methods are performed in VIVO and cause no significant physiological damage. The Ar-37 leaves the body of a rat within an hour after being produced, and it can be quantitatively collected and measured with a precision of - or + 2% on the same rat. With appropriate irradiation conditions it appears that the absolute quantity of calcuim in any rat can be determined within - or + 3% regardless of animal size. The Na-22 when uniformly distributed in bone, can be used to monitor bone mineral turnover and this has been demonstrated in conditions of calcium deficiency during growth and also pregnancy coupled with calcium deficiency.

  14. Minerals Yearbook Volume 1, Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy.  Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.

  15. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  16. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  17. Bone mineral loss in young women with amenorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M C; Hall, M L; Jacobs, H S

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact of amenorrhoea on bone mineral density in women of reproductive age. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 200 amenorrhoeic women compared with normally menstruating controls. SETTING--Teaching hospital outpatient clinic specialising in reproductive medicine. SUBJECTS--200 Women aged 16-40 with a past or current history of amenorrhoea from various causes and of a median duration of three years, and a control group of 57 age matched normal volunteers with no history of menstrual disorder. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) as measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--The amenorrhoeic group showed a mean reduction in bone mineral density of 15% (95% confidence interval 12% to 18%) as compared with controls (mean bone mineral density 0.89 (SD 0.12) g/cm2 v 1.05 (0.09) g/cm2 in controls). Bone loss was related to the duration of amenorrhoea and the severity of oestrogen deficiency rather than to the underlying diagnosis. Patients with a history of fracture had significantly lower bone density than those without a history of fracture. Ten patients had suffered an apparently atraumatic fracture. CONCLUSIONS--Amenorrhoea in young women should be investigated and treated to prevent bone mineral loss. Menopausal women with a past history of amenorrhoea should be considered to be at high risk of osteoporosis. PMID:2224267

  18. Measurement of hand bone mineral content by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: development of the method, and its application in normal volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, A A; Brabyn, J; Jones, P W; Davis, M J; Woolf, A D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop a method of measuring hand bone mineral content (BMC) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA); to apply this method of measuring hand BMC to normal volunteers to ascertain causes of variability; and to measure hand BMC in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of varying duration and severity. METHODS--The x ray beam of the Hologic QDR 1000 dual energy x ray absorptiometer was hardened by introducing a perspex-aluminium plate and the analysis software altered to allow for the small tissue bulk of the hand compared with the torso. Ninety five volunteers (46 men age 24-81 and 49 women age 20-83) had scans of both hands. Eight volunteers were assessed repeatedly to establish reproducibility and effect of hand position. Fifty six patients (22 men, 34 women, age range 25-86 years) with RA of differing duration and severity, had hand BMC measurement by DXA. RESULTS--The precision of BMC measurement was 2.3% with no additional variation due to hand position. Hand dominance had no significant effect on BMC. In men, hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), forearm span (r = 0.5, p = 0.0006) and hand volume (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In women hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.003), forearm span (r = 0.3, p = 0.03) and hand volume (r = 0.49, p = 0.0008). After correcting for all these variables, male volunteers had significantly higher hand BMC than female volunteers (p = 0.01) and patients with RA had lower hand BMC than normal volunteers (total hand BMC in male volunteers 90.9 gms, 95% CI 86.9-95, in male patients 81.7 gms, 95% CI 73.7-89.6, p < 0.004, total hand BMC in female volunteers 62.2 gms 95% CI 59.8-64.5, female patients 52.3 gms, 95% CI 48.1-56.5, p < 0.005). In patients with RA, the hand BMC showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.44, p = 0.01), disease duration (r = -0.62, p = 0.0003), Larsen's grades (r = -0.62, p = 0.0002) and modified Sharp

  19. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  20. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  1. Accounting for Berkson and Classical Measurement Error in Radon Exposure Using a Bayesian Structural Approach in the Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality in the French Cohort of Uranium Miners.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Rage, Estelle; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Ancelet, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure. To address the challenge of accounting for multiplicative and heteroscedastic measurement error that may be of Berkson or classical nature, depending on the year of exposure, we opted for a Bayesian structural approach, which is arguably the most flexible method to account for uncertainty in exposure assessment. We assessed the association between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality in the French cohort of uranium miners and found the impact of uncorrelated multiplicative measurement error to be of marginal importance. However, our findings indicate that the retrospective nature of exposure assessment that occurred in the earliest years of mining of this cohort as well as many other cohorts of underground miners might lead to an attenuation of the exposure-risk relationship. More research is needed to address further uncertainties in the calculation of lung dose, since this step will likely introduce important sources of shared uncertainty.

  2. Mineral fiber problems and their management: UK 1890-1935.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Morris

    2004-09-01

    The first intimation that mineral fibers other than asbestos were biologically active, is generally identified with reports of experimental studies by Stanton and Wrench, and Pott and Friedrichs, in the early 1970s. In 1890 however, man-made mineral fiber was recognized to present human health hazards; in 1912 experimental study confirmed asbestos to be fibrogenic, and by 1935 other mineral fibers came to notice as potential lung hazards. Published and archival sources have been reviewed to trace the emergence between 1890 and 1935 of the awareness of the health hazards of various fibrous minerals, and the development of strategies for their control. By the early 1900s there was evidence that the asbestos substituted for the man-made mineral fiber insulation material employed to improve the thermal efficiency of steam powered engines, presented a serious health problem. In the early 1930s, other mineral fibers came to be suspected of causing pneumoconiosis. Containment, local exhaust ventilation and personal respiratory protection were instituted for the amelioration of asbestosis, but because of the limitations of what was perceived to be reasonably practicable on economic grounds, and what was feasible technologically, their benefits were severely limited. Initial and periodic medical examination were introduced as precautionary measures, based on hope rather than on experience. When in the early 1930s, the investigation of coal mine dust and siliceous dust, threw up the hypothesis that fibrous natural mineral dusts other than asbestos might be fibrogenic, this was ignored and no further investigations were pursued and no precautionary measures were set in train.

  3. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  4. Ectopic mineralization of connective tissue in Abcc6-/- mice: effects of dietary modifications and a phosphate binder--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    LaRusso, Jennifer; Jiang, Qiujie; Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2008-03-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable multisystem disorder, is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. We have developed a murine model for PXE by targeted inactivation of the corresponding mouse gene. A feature of this mouse model is ectopic mineralization of connective tissue capsule surrounding the bulb of vibrissae. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel), a phosphate binder, and specific mineral modifications on ectopic mineralization of connective tissue in Abcc6-/- mice. Three groups were fed a specific diet: (i) a standard rodent diet, (ii) a standard rodent diet supplemented with sevelamer hydrochloride, and (iii) a custom experimental diet with specific mineral modifications (high phosphorus, low calcium and low magnesium). The degree of mineralization was determined in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections using computerized morphometric analysis and by chemical assays to measure the calcium and phosphorus content of the vibrissae. The results indicated increased mineralization in the Abcc6-/- mice fed a standard diet or a diet with mineral modifications as compared with control mice fed a standard diet. However, feeding Abcc6-/- mice with diet supplemented with sevelamer hydrochloride did not improve mineralization, in comparison to mice fed with normal diet. Collectively, these results suggest that the mineralization process in PXE may be exacerbated by changes in mineral intake. The role of dietary minerals, and phosphorus in particular, as well as that of phosphate binders, in ectopic mineralization of PXE, merits further investigation.

  5. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ) scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy young college women. Methods Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg) between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck). The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ) were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm), weight (kg), fat free mass (FFM, kg), percent body fat (%), and body mass index (BMI). Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire. Results There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014) and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007), while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05). When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024), while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015). Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025), but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in

  6. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  7. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  8. Minerals in our environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weathers, Judy; Galloway, John; Frank, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Minerals are found everywhere in our daily lives. This poster depicts numerous items found throughout a home, and the mineral(s) or mineral resources used in the ingredients of, or construction/manufacturing of those items. Designed for K-8 Teachers this poster can be scaled and is printable at 36" x 60" and legible at 11" x 17" in size.

  9. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Perrie E.; Dunn, Winston; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether NAFLD influences bone health is unknown. AIM To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. METHODS Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and total percent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analyzed in children with NAFLD. RESULTS Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (p<0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (−1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five percent of children with NAFLD had low bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (p < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (p< 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (−2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (−1.58). CONCLUSIONS NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralization in children with NAFLD. PMID:22111971

  11. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  12. External validation and comparison of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures for all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Crispo, James A. G.; Cohen, Deborah; McNair, Douglas S.; Mattison, Donald R.; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Assessing prevalent comorbidities is a common approach in health research for identifying clinical differences between individuals. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the predictive performance of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures (ECM) for inhospital mortality at index and at 1-year in the Cerner Health Facts® (HF) U.S. database. We estimated the prevalence of select comorbidities for individuals 18 to 89 years of age who received care at Cerner contributing health facilities between 2002 and 2011 using the AHRQ (version 3.7) and the Quan Enhanced ICD-9-CM ECMs. External validation of the ECMs was assessed with measures of discrimination [c-statistics], calibration [Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, Brier Score, calibration curves], added predictive ability [Net Reclassification Improvement], and overall model performance [R2]. Of 3,273,298 patients with a mean age of 43.9 years and a female composition of 53.8%, 1.0% died during their index encounter and 1.5% were deceased at 1-year. Calibration measures were equivalent between the two ECMs. Calibration performance was acceptable when predicting inhospital mortality at index, although recalibration is recommended for predicting inhospital mortality at 1 year. Discrimination was marginally better with the Quan ECM compared the AHRQ ECM when predicting inhospital mortality at index (cQuan = 0.887, 95% CI: 0.885–0.889 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878–0.882; p < .0001) and at 1-year (cQuan = 0.884, 95% CI: 0.883–0.886 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878–0.881, p < .0001). Both the Quan and the AHRQ ECMs demonstrated excellent discrimination for inhospital mortality of all-causes in Cerner Health Facts®, a HIPAA compliant observational research and privacy-protected data warehouse. While differences in discrimination performance between the ECMs were statistically significant, they are not likely clinically meaningful. PMID:28350807

  13. Predicting the Alpha Comae Berenices Time of Eclipse: How 3 Ambiguous Measurements Out of 609 Caused a 26 Year Binary’s Eclipse to be Missed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    PREDICTING THE α COMAE BERENICES TIME OF ECLIPSE: HOW 3 AMBIGUOUS MEASUREMENTS OUT OF 609 CAUSED A 26 YEAR BINARY’S ECLIPSE TO BE MISSED Matthew W...been realized recently that the position angle measurements for three of the observations from ∼100 years ago were in error by 180°, which warped the...rected through this method). The final orbital solution was similarly skewed, which caused errors in the timing of the eclipse. 2. CATCHING THE

  14. Grazing-induced vegetation patchiness controls net N mineralization rate in a semi-natural grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Bonis, Anne; Bouzillé, Jan-Bernard

    2011-05-01

    Herbivores influence nutrient cycling either through direct effects (e.g. excreta) or through indirect effects such as a modification of plant-soil feedbacks. This work investigated if grazing-enhanced net N mineralization rates were related to (1) enhanced quality of plant litter and/or (2) reduced plant litter inputs. Rates of net N mineralization in soil and both the quantity and quality of litters were characterized in various plant patches occurring within a grazed grassland. Soil incubations were performed in controlled conditions to assess the respective role of litter quantity and quality on N mineralization. In laboratory incubations, the effect of litter quantity on net N mineralization rates was found to depend on litter quality. High inputs of litter produced by grazing-promoted species ( C/ N 11) stimulated net N mineralization rates, while high inputs of litter produced by grazing-reduced species ( C/ N 46) decreased rates of net N mineralization. The intensity of either the negative or positive effects of litter was then regulated by litter quantity. In the field, litter quality only varied within a limited range. Litter with the highest quality in the field ( C/ N 22) increased N mineralization minimally compared to the lowest quality litter ( C/ N 46). Grazing-induced variations in litter quality monitored in the field thus appeared unlikely to cause measured variations in net N mineralization rates. Litter with C/ N ratios of 46 and 22 stimulated N immobilization and reduction of their inputs increased the rate of N mineralization due to decreased microbial N immobilization. Within-grassland variations of litter quantity were large and negatively correlated with net N mineralization rates. Our results support the hypothesis that grazing-induced patchiness modifies net N mineralization rates by controlling microbial N immobilization mainly through changes in the quantity of litter-C supplied to the soil.

  15. Associations between objectively-measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity with bone mineral density in adults and older adults, the NHANES study.

    PubMed

    Chastin, S F M; Mandrichenko, O; Helbostadt, J L; Skelton, D A

    2014-07-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for bone mineral density (BMD). Time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB), or time spent in non-exercising seated and reclining postures, has recently emerged as a new public health risk, independent of the amount of time someone spends being active. As national surveys report that adults spend on average 8h per day being sedentary, rising to 10h a day in older age, it has been hypothesised that a repeated exposure to sitting in modern daily life, whether it is for travelling, working or leisure, might have a deleterious effect on bone health in a way that mirrors the results of studies into the effect of lengthy periods of bed-rest. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time a) how time spent in SB is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), b) whether this association changes depending on the amount of time spent engaging in different intensity levels of PA, and c) if the pattern of accumulation of SB and long uninterrupted periods of SB are associated with BMD. The 2005/2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), is a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the US population that is conducted biannually by the National Centers for Disease Control. PA and SB were assessed objectively over 7 days using an Actigraph accelerometer and BMD was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In this study, data are presented on four regions of the femur (femoral neck, trochanter, inter trochanter and total femur) and total spine (L1-L4). The associations between BMD, SB and PA levels were examined using multiple linear regressions stratified by gender. In addition, the association between the pattern of accumulation of SB (quantified as frequency and duration of SB) and BMD was also investigated. All models were adjusted for known risk factors associated with BMD. In total, data for 2117 individuals, aged 23-90+years (males N=1158), were available to

  16. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-12-01

    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  17. Aqua regia extractable selenium concentrations of some Scottish topsoils measured by ICP-MS and the relationship with mineral and organic soil components.

    PubMed

    Shand, Charles A; Balsam, Matthias; Hillier, Stephen J; Hudson, Gordon; Newman, Gareth; Arthur, John R; Nicol, Fergus

    2010-04-30

    To provide information concerning the geographical distribution of selenium (Se) in the soils of Scotland, we analysed 47 arable soils selected on the basis of their parent rock, which were expected to have relatively high, low or unclassified Se concentrations. To investigate relationships between the actual minerals in the soils and the aqua regia extractable Se concentration of the soil, soil minerals were quantified by X-ray diffraction. The aqua regia extractable Se concentrations of the soils were between 0.19 and 1.46 mg kg(-1). No simple correlation between the aqua regia extractable Se concentrations of the soil and the parent rock classification estimated by soil survey was evident. Partial least squares analysis revealed that the aqua regia extractable Se concentration of the soils was positively related to loss on ignition (LOI) or C concentration and negatively related to the K-feldspar concentration, with other minerals being less important. The Se concentration of arable topsoils from Scotland is more related to LOI or carbon concentration, with parent material being less important.

  18. Mineral Abundance and Particle Size Distribution Derived from In-Situ Spectra Measurements of Yutu Rover of CHANG'E-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X.; Guo, D.

    2017-07-01

    From geologic perspective, understanding the types, abundance, and size distributions of minerals allows us to address what geologic processes have been active on the lunar and planetary surface. The imaging spectrometer which was carried by the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission collected the reflectance at four different sites at the height of  1 m, providing a new insight to understand the lunar surface. The mineral composition and Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of these four sites were derived in this study using a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and Sparse Unmixing (SU) algorithm. The endmembers used were clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and agglutinate collected from the lunar sample spectral dataset in RELAB. The results show that the agglutinate, clinopyroxene and olivine are the dominant minerals around the landing site. In location Node E, the abundance of agglutinate can reach up to 70 %, and the abundances of clinopyroxene and olivine are around 10 %. The mean particle sizes and the deviations of these endmembers were retrieved. PSDs of all these endmembers are close to normal distribution, and differences exist in the mean particle sizes, indicating the difference of space weathering rate of these endmembers.

  19. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  20. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  1. Mineral oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral oil is not very poisonous, and recovery is likely. How well someone does depends on the amount of mineral oil swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. The faster medical help is given, the ...

  2. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  3. Mineral Spirits Purification Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2- propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous decomposition produces, and then distill the mineral spirits from the remaining contaminants.

  4. [Family caregiver burden caused by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: measurement with a new original scale].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keiko; Ito, Mikiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the caregiver burden caused by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (CBBD) using an originally developed scale and to estimate the CBBD scores in a large sample of family caregivers of elderly people. The subjects were 1,818 users of the public Long-term Care Insurance, randomly stratified and sampled in Higashi-osaka city, Osaka prefecture. Data were collected through mailed, anonymous self-report questionnaires. The survey was conducted in October 2003. We created a 10-item CBBD scale based on previous studies on caregivers of dementia. The CBBD scale was applied to all caregivers regardless of dementia symptoms, and we also collected the following information: demographic data of the care-recipients and caregivers, the level of cognitive disorders of the care-recipient and the overall subjective caregiver burden. All items of the CBBD scale were selected at higher percentages by caregivers of care-recipients with cognitive disorders than caregivers of care-recipients without cognitive disorders. In particular, the relative risk and odds ratio of caregivers of care-recipients with cognitive disorder was higher in items such as 'the caregiver feels fear and anxiety about the care-recipient's unpredictable behavior', 'the care-recipient doesn't understand what the caregiver says', 'the caregiver feels irritated with incomprehensible care-recipient's behavior' which pose psychological stress or pressure on caregivers. On the other hand, the relative risk and odds ratio of the overall subjective caregiver burden was lower than that of any item of the CBBD scale. Furthermore, all CBBD items were related to symptoms of dementia (aroused/paranoid behavior, memory disorder, cognitive dysfunction, pica behavior). The CBBD scale had sensitivity for the care-recipient's cognitive disorder. In addition, it can detect more precisely the caregiver burden such as psychological stress or pressure due to the care

  5. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  6. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  7. [Changes of femur minerals and serum BGP in hindlimb unloaded rats during convalescence].

    PubMed

    Wan, Y M; Zhang, M F; Cui, W; Song, J P

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To observe bone mass changes during convalescence after simulated weightlessness. Method. 7-week-old rats were tail-suspended for 21 d then reloaded for 7 d and 21 d to recover, and measured serum BGP. Result. Tail suspension of rats for 21 d caused significant decrease of serum BGP and phosphorus as well as femur minerals. Serum BGP and femur minerals were still lower than control levels, but serum contents of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increased significantly after reloading for 7 d. Femur minerals and serum BGP, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium returned to control levels after reloading for 21 d. Conclusion. The deficit in femur mineral induced by hindlimb unloading in rats can be restored by return to normal weight bearing, BGP can be used to monitor the case of its recovery.

  8. Minerals leasing for landowners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Many phenomena and processes in the earth sciences are a result of the electrochemical properties of rocks and minerals. Examples include formation of mineral deposits and petroleum reservoirs control of drilling muds, and success or failure of toxic waste isolation barriers. Such phenomena can be observed at a distance using geophysical techniques to measure various electrical properties of the earth.

  10. Copper isotope variations of copper-rich minerals in seafloor hydrothermal deposits and igneous rocks, measured by a femtosecond LA-MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hirata, T.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the copper isotope systematics has seen an increased interest as a potential tool for understanding copper sources and geochemical processes of copper transport and deposition in ore-forming systems. The copper isotope variations of primary and secondary copper-rich minerals from modern (Mariana Trough) and ancient (Besshi-type and Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Japan) seafloor hydrothermal deposits have been analyzed by a femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS). The δ65Cu (where δ65Cu = [(65Cu/63Cu)sample/ (65Cu/63Cu)NIST-SRM976-1] × 1000) values of copper-rich sulfide minerals of chimney samples from active seafloor hydrothermal deposits are significantly large (δ65Cu = -0.7 to 4.0‰) compared to those of copper-rich minerals in ancient submarine hydrothermal deposits (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.4‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2011) and in igneous rocks (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.3‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2012). These large copper isotopic variations in the chimney samples are most likely explained in terms of a redox-controlled isotope fractionation during hydrothermal reworking of copper sulfides below sea floor or alteration of primary hydrothermal copper sulfides by seawater, involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions. These results also suggest that sub-seafloor recrystallization and metamorphic reequilibration may have reduced the original range of copper isotopes. Secondary malachite (δ65Cu = 2.6 to 3.0‰) and native copper (δ65Cu = 1.4 to 1.7‰) in the Besshi-type deposits have heavier copper isotopic values compared to precursor copper-rich minerals. These variations are mainly due to isotope fractionations during redox reactions (weathering) at low temperatures involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions.

  11. Mineral Distributions at the Developing Tendon Enthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrea G.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Genin, Guy M.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, “the enthesis”. A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  12. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  13. The performance of functional methods for correcting non-Gaussian measurement error within Poisson regression: corrected excess risk of lung cancer mortality in relation to radon exposure among French uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-12-30

    A broad variety of methods for measurement error (ME) correction have been developed, but these methods have rarely been applied possibly because their ability to correct ME is poorly understood. We carried out a simulation study to assess the performance of three error-correction methods: two variants of regression calibration (the substitution method and the estimation calibration method) and the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. Features of the simulated cohorts were borrowed from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort in which exposure to radon had been documented from 1946 to 1999. In the absence of ME correction, we observed a severe attenuation of the true effect of radon exposure, with a negative relative bias of the order of 60% on the excess relative risk of lung cancer death. In the main scenario considered, that is, when ME characteristics previously determined as most plausible from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort were used both to generate exposure data and to correct for ME at the analysis stage, all three error-correction methods showed a noticeable but partial reduction of the attenuation bias, with a slight advantage for the SIMEX method. However, the performance of the three correction methods highly depended on the accurate determination of the characteristics of ME. In particular, we encountered severe overestimation in some scenarios with the SIMEX method, and we observed lack of correction with the three methods in some other scenarios. For illustration, we also applied and compared the proposed methods on the real data set from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort study.

  14. Dissociation and recombination of positive holes in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois; Freund, Minoru M.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanisms are described of positive holes - electronic defects in the O2 sublattice - with attention given to detecting the positive surface charge of minerals with these holes. Charge distribution analysis (CDA) is presented which measures dielectric polarization in an inhomogeneous field. CDA can be applied to the detection of the peroxide/superoxide functionality caused by positive holes on the surface. It is demonstrated with obsidian that the measurements provide data on O(-) mobility as a function of surface-charge carrier density and on O(-) generation as a function of temperature.

  15. Dissociation and recombination of positive holes in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois; Freund, Minoru M.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanisms are described of positive holes - electronic defects in the O2 sublattice - with attention given to detecting the positive surface charge of minerals with these holes. Charge distribution analysis (CDA) is presented which measures dielectric polarization in an inhomogeneous field. CDA can be applied to the detection of the peroxide/superoxide functionality caused by positive holes on the surface. It is demonstrated with obsidian that the measurements provide data on O(-) mobility as a function of surface-charge carrier density and on O(-) generation as a function of temperature.

  16. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance properties of common planetary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; McCormack, Kaitlyn A.; Bell, James F.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Bailey, Daniel T.; Craig, Michael A.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Robinson, Mark S.; Riner, Miriam A.

    2008-09-01

    Ultraviolet spectral reflectance properties (200-400 nm) of a large number of minerals known or presumed to exist on the surfaces of Mars, the Moon, and asteroids, and in many meteorites, were investigated. Ultraviolet reflectance spectra (200-400 nm) of these minerals range from slightly blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths) to strongly red-sloped (reflectance increasing toward longer wavelengths). Most exhibit one or two absorption features that are attributable to Fe sbnd O charge transfers involving Fe 3+ or Fe 2+. The UV region is a very sensitive indicator of the presence of even trace amounts (<0.01 wt%) of Fe 3+ and Fe 2+. The major Fe 3+sbnd O absorption band occurs at shorter wavelengths (˜210-230 nm), and is more intense than the major Fe 2+sbnd O absorption band (˜250-270 nm). Ti-bearing minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile and anatase exhibit UV absorption bands attributable to Ti 4+sbnd O charge transfers. While the positions of metal-O charge transfer bands sometimes differ for different minerals, the variation is often not diagnostic enough to permit unique mineral identification. However, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides can generally be distinguished from Fe-bearing silicates in the 200-400 nm region on the basis of absorption band positions. Within a given mineral group (e.g., low-calcium pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase feldspar), changes in Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ abundance do not appear to result in a measurable change in absorption band minima positions. Absorption band positions can vary as a function of grain size, however, and this variation is likely due to band saturation effects. The intensity of metal-O charge transfers means that some minerals will exhibit saturated UV absorption bands even for fine-grained (<45 μm) powders. In cases where absorption bands are not saturated (e.g., Fe 2+sbnd O bands in some plagioclase feldspars and pyroxenes), changes in Fe 2+ content do not appear to cause variations in band position. In

  17. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  18. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  19. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-11-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer