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Sample records for mineral measurements caused

  1. BET Measurements: Outgassing of Minerals.

    PubMed

    Clausen; Fabricius

    2000-07-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, alpha-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100 degrees C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study, stable BET values can be obtained by increasing the outgassing time without heating iron oxides. For quartz, calcite, alpha-alumina, and kaolinite, stable BET values were obtained after outgassing the minerals at 100 to 250 degrees C for 2 h. However, outgassing these minerals at room temperature (20 degrees C) only resulted in minor errors, implying that aquifer sediments containing poorly crystalline materials can be outgassed at low temperatures if the outgassing time is increased. Scanning electron microscopy of the studied minerals demonstrated that the particle size as calculated from BET data compares well with particle size observed by scanning electron microscopy images. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  3. Mineral oil lubricants cause rapid deterioration of latex condoms.

    PubMed

    Voeller, B; Coulson, A H; Bernstein, G S; Nakamura, R M

    1989-01-01

    As little as sixty seconds' exposure of commercial latex condoms to mineral oil, a common component of hand lotions and other lubricants used during sexual intercourse, caused approximately 90% decrease in the strength of the condoms, as measured by their burst volumes in the standard ISO (International Standards Organization) Air Burst Test. Burst pressures were also reduced, although less dramatically. Lubricants such as Vaseline Intensive Care and Johnson's Baby Oil, each containing mineral oil, also affected condom integrity. Five min. exposure of condoms to glycerol, a frequent component of hand lotions and 'personal lubricants', did not significantly affect burst volume or pressure. Aqueous nonoxynol-9 spermicide did not affect either burst index. The implications of these results for contraception and protection from sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, are discussed.

  4. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  5. Wettability shifts caused by CO2 aging on mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Clarens, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Interfacial forces at the CO2/brine/mineral ternary interface have a well-established impact on multiphase flow properties through porous media. In the context of geologic carbon sequestration, this wettability will impact capillary pressure, residual trapping, and a variety of other key parameters of interest. While the wettability of CO2 on pure mineral and real rock sample have been studied a great deal over the past few year, very little is known about how the wettability of these rocks could change over long time horizons as CO2 interacts with species in the brine and on the mineral surface. In this work we sought to explore the role that dilute inorganic and organic species that are likely to exist in connate brines might have on a suite of mineral species. High-pressure contact angle experiments were carried out on a suite of polished mineral surfaces. Both static captive bubble and advancing/receding contact angle measurements were carried out. The effect of ionic strength, and in particular the valence of the dominant ions in the brine are found to have an important impact on the wettability which cannot be explained solely based on the shifts in the interfacial tension between the CO2 and brine. More significantly, three organic species, formate, acetate, and oxalate, all three of which are representative species commonly encountered in the saline aquifers that are considered target repositories for carbon sequestration. All three organic species show impacts on wettability, with the organics generally increasing the CO2 wetting of the mineral surface. Not all pure minerals respond the same to the presence of organics, with micas showing a more pronounced influence than quartz. Sandstone and limestone samples aged with different kinds of hydrocarbons, a surrogate for oil-bearing rocks, are generally more CO2-wet, with larger contact angles in the CO2/brine system. Over multiple days, the contact angle decreases, which could be attributed to partitioning

  6. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  7. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  8. Man-made mineral fibre boards in buildings--health risks caused by quality deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Thriene, B; Sobottka, A; Willer, H; Weidhase, J

    1996-11-01

    The Institute of Hygiene was requested to determine causes and scope of health complaints made by the employees of Haldensleben district administration after sound absorbing mineral fibre boards had been installed as suspended ceilings. The boards were coated with a lean water-carried paint; however, the edges, which were partially frayed, were not coated. The air inside the rooms was measured on all four storeys of the building, followed by scanning electron microscopy in compliance with VDI Code 3492. In addition, measurements showed fibres with diameters of > 3 microns which are not subject to the regulations for carcinogenic substances, but, in contrast to the thinner fibres, they may cause irritations of skin and mucosa. The employees were questioned about their health problems. At the beginning of 1994, a total of 79 of the 133 employees complained about itching, reddening and burning of their eyes as well as irritations of the upper respiratory tract. More than 50% had consulted a doctor. Late in 1994, another questionnaire survey was completed. The fibre content of the office air was determined to vary from 1000 to 3500 fibres/m3 and, in addition, 100-200 fibres with diameters of > 3 microns. Our investigations showed that there is an interrelationship between the degree of dust accumulation in the offices and health complaints. Independently of the current discussion of the cancer causing potential of thin man-made mineral fibres, the very long and thick mineral fibres (> 3 microns in diameter) are of topical importance to health. PMID:8920752

  9. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  10. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  11. Determining Mineral Types and Abundances from Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Mineral types and their abundances were quantitatively determined from laboratory reflectance spectra using principal components analysis (PCA). PCA reduced the measured spectral dimensionality and allowed testing the uniqueness and validity of spectral mixing models. In addition to interpreting absorption bands, in this new approach we interpreted variations in the overall spectral curves in terms of physical processes, namely changes in mixtures of minerals, in particle size and in illumination geometry. Application of this approach to reflectances of planetary surfaces allows interpretation to be extended to quantitative determinations of mineral types and abundances.

  12. Mineral impurities in coal combustion - behaviour, problems and remedial measures

    SciTech Connect

    Raask, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chapters cover the following topics: influence of coal mineral matter on boiler design; mineral impurities in coal; quality of coal utilized in power stations; coal grinding, abrasive fuel minerals and plant wear; particulate silicate minerals in boiler flame; reactions of nonsilicate impurities in coal flames; creation, capture and coalescence of particulate ash in boiler flame; slag viscosity; sintering, fusion and slagging propensities of coal ashes; adhesion of ash deposit on boiler tubes and refractory materials; deposition mechanisms, rate measurements and the mode of formation of boiler deposits; thermal radiation and heat transfer properties of boiler deposits; measures to combat boiler fouling and slagging; some specific ash-related problems with U.S. coals; use of additives in coal-fired boilers; high temperature corrosion in coal-fired plants; ash impaction erosion wear; low temperature fouling and corrosion; and comparison of ash-related problems in pulverized fuel fired and other coal- fired systems.

  13. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  14. Measurement of the dielectric constant of lunar minerals and regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigwell, S.; Starnes, J.; Brown, C.; White, C.; White, T.; Su, M.; Mahdi, H. H.; Al-Shukri, H. J.; Biris, A.; Non Invasive ProspectingLunar Ores; Minerals

    2010-12-01

    For long-term lunar exploration, the priorities are excavation and beneficiation of lunar regolith for water, oxygen, energy production, and structural and shielding fabrication. This work is part of a project focusing on the utilization of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identify the presence of enriched areas of sub-surface minerals for excavation and ore processing. GPR detection of sub-surface minerals depends significantly on the differences in dielectric constant of the various minerals. One of the minerals in lunar regolith of interest is ilmenite for its use in oxygen production and a supply of titanium and iron. Several pure minerals (feldspar, spodumene, olivine, and ilmenite) and lunar simulant JSC-1A were sieved into several size fractions (<25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 µm). A test cell with an attached shaker was constructed in a vacuum chamber and measurements of the dielectric constant of the minerals and simulant were taken as a function of particle size and packing density. The results showed that there was a direct correlation between the measured dielectric constant and packing density and that ilmenite had a much higher dielectric constant than the other minerals. Measurements were also taken on Apollo 14 lunar regolith as a comparison and compared to the literature to validate the results. Mixtures of pure silica powder and ilmenite in various concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 15%) were measured and it was determined that approximately 2-4% ilmenite in the mixtures could be distinguished. Core samples taken on the moon for all Apollo missions showed ilmenite concentrations ranging from 0.3-12%, depending upon whether it was in the mare or highlands regions, and so this data may significantly contribute to the use of GPR for mineral prospecting on the moon.

  15. Estrogen withdrawal from osteoblasts and osteocytes causes increased mineralization and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M Á; Haugh, M G; O'Brien, F J; McNamara, L M

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increased bone mineral heterogeneity following estrogen withdrawal in vivo. Such changes likely contribute to fracture risk during post-menopausal osteoporosis since tissue mineralization is correlated with bone strength and stiffness. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for increased mineral variability have not yet been distinguished. The objective of this study is to elucidate how alterations in mineral distribution are initiated during estrogen depletion. Specifically, we tested two separate hypotheses; (1) estrogen deficiency directly alters osteoblast mineralization and (2) estrogen deficiency increases bone cell apoptosis. Osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) and osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4) were pretreated with or without estrogen (17β-estradiol) for 14 days. Estrogen deficiency was subsequently induced by either withdrawing estrogen from cells or blocking estrogen receptors using an estrogen antagonist, fulvestrant (ICI 182,780). Cell number (Hoechst DNA), alkaline phosphatase activity (p-NPP), mineralization (alizarin red) and apoptosis (Caspase 3/7) were evaluated. Whether estrogen withdrawal altered apoptosis rates in the presence of an apoptosis promoting agent (etoposide) was also determined. Interestingly, estrogen withdrawal from cells accustomed to estrogen exposure caused significantly increased osteoblast mineralization and osteocyte apoptosis compared with continued estrogen treatment. In contrast, blocking estrogen receptors with fulvestrant abrogated the mineralization induced by estrogen treatment. When apoptosis was induced using etoposide, cells undergoing estrogen withdrawal increased apoptosis compared to cells with continued estrogen treatment. Recognizing the underlying mechanisms regulating bone cell mineralization and apoptosis during estrogen deficiency and their consequences is necessary to further our knowledge of osteoporosis.

  16. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  17. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  18. Non-invasive techniques for the measurement of bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Seeman, E; Martin, T J

    1989-05-01

    Non-invasive, safe and precise techniques for measuring bone mineral density are available and have an important role in the detection, prevention and treatment of bone loss associated with aging, menopause and many illnesses affecting women and men. The three most widely accessible and established techniques for measuring regional bone mineral density are single and dual photon absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography. A technique of greater accuracy, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, has only recently become available. These techniques have made it possible to measure the magnitude, time course and regional specificity of the skeleton's response to ageing, menopause and illness. A better understanding of the clinical epidemiology of fractures and the mechanisms responsible for bone loss has been obtained. Practical information has been obtained about the dose, duration and efficacy of oestrogen replacement therapy in preventing perimenopausal bone loss and the benefits and limitations of different forms of exercise on bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. The beneficial effect of dietary calcium on peak bone mineral density and in decreasing bone loss in cortical bone has been documented. Information regarding the prevention and treatment of bone loss in exogenous hypercortisolism and the magnitude and reversibility of bone loss associated with many diseases which affect bone has been obtained. One of the most important clinical applications of these techniques is the assessment of the efficacy of treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. As antifracture efficacy is not readily measurable, considerable information is being obtained about many potentially useful forms of therapy that may prevent bone loss and increase bone mineral density. The role of these non-invasive methods in the assessment of fracture risk and the need for oestrogen or other therapy in an individual who has attained a low peak bone mass or has risk

  19. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Lunar Soils and Terrestrial Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Buehler, M. G.; Seshardri, S.; Schaap, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using in situ methods. An examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that only a few minerals (silicates and oxides) need be considered for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). This simplifies the measurement requirements and allows a detailed analysis using simple methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils is difficult because of many complex parameters such as soil temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. In this presentation, we will show that the dielectric constant measurement can provide simple detection for oxides such as TiO2, FeO, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  20. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  1. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  2. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  3. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  4. SINISTER CAUSE OF HIGH BONE MINERAL DENSITY ON DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY.

    PubMed

    Razi, Mairah; Hassan, Aamna

    2016-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has an established, well standardized role in the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). In routine clinical practice, the main focus of bone densitometry is to identify low bone mass for the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis particularly in postmenopausal females and in high risk individuals. Less commonly, elevated BMD can also be seen on routine DXA scanning usually due to degenerative disease. However, a range of other skeletal disorders can also lead to high BMD. Careful recognition of various artefacts and pathologic processes that can falsely elevate the BMD is essential for accurate DXA scan analysis and reporting. We present a case of high BMD in a patient of prostate carcinoma with widespread sclerotic metastases. PMID:27323594

  5. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  6. Study of Different Involutive Changes in Bone Mineral Density Measured in Ward's Triangle and Trabecular Volume Measured in Iliac Crest in Relation to Age

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, RF; Gallegos, RF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The ageing process causes changes in the bone structure, in bone mineral density, and musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare involutive changes in bone structure that occur in relation to age in men and women through the study of bone mineral density at the Ward's triangle and trabecular volume. Subjects and Methods: In this study, we analysed bone mineral density at Ward's triangle in 70 people (38 men and 32 women) and did a histomorphometric study of trabecular volume at the right iliac crest in 66 samples (42 males and 24 females) obtained from autopsies of court cases, aged between 13 and 83 years. Results: The results show significant correlations between measurements of bone mineral density, trabecular volume values and anthropometric measures of age, gender and body mass index. Conclusions: This study shows involutional changes that occur in the bone mineral density and Ward's triangle in the bone structure during the process of ageing. In addition, both weight and height have a great influence on bone mineral density and changes in bone that occur; and body mass index is a very important determinant of bone mineral density. PMID:26360671

  7. Effect of leg rotation on hip bone mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, Sarath; Lenora, Robolge Sumith Janaka

    2003-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in the management of patients with osteoporosis. Factors, which are specific to machine or to operator, can influence the accuracy and precision of BMD estimations. We studied the effect of leg rotation by 10 degrees either internally or externally from the standard position in a group of 50 women (average age 54.9, SD = 11.1 yr) who were free of bone active diseases or medications. External rotation of leg by 10 degrees from the customary position increased the average BMD by 0.005, 0.003, and 0.036 g/cm2 in the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's area (p = 0.119, 0.309, and <0.001), respectively. Internal rotation of leg by 10 degrees from the customary position decreased the average BMD by 0.009, 0.005, and 0.006 g/cm2 in the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's area (p = <0.001, 0.008, and <0.001), respectively. The number of subjects qualified for the diagnosis of osteoporosis based on the T-scores (equal to or below -2.5) of the femoral neck and trochanter did not change significantly in three different positions (18% in the customary position and after the external rotation and 14% after the internal rotation). A significant change in the femoral neck BMD (defined as 2.77 x precision error) was seen in 12% of subjects after the internal rotation and 8% after the external rotation. Our data emphasize the need for proper positioning of the hip during DXA scanning. Malrotation of the hip can be an important confounding factor when interpreting serial BMD values.

  8. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  9. Swimming and cycling do not cause positive effects on bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Marçal, Anderson Carlos; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Figueiredo, Rosa Costa; de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is considered a common metabolic bone disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In this context, physical activity has been used as a non-pharmacological tool for prevention and auxiliary treatment of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of cycling and swimming practice on bone mineral density (BMD). This research was conducted in accordance with the recommendations outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The studies were consulted in the period from 2004 to 2014, through major electronic databases: PubMed(®), SciELO(®) and LILACS(®). Ten studies evaluated the effects of cycling on BMD, and the results showed that nine studies have linked the practice of professional cycling with low levels of BMD. Another 18 studies have reported that swimming has no positive effects on bone mass. We conclude that cycling and swimming do not cause positive effects on BMD; thus, these are not the most suitable exercises for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27476628

  10. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  11. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  12. Cometabolic mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene caused by hydrocarbon additions to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaly, R.A.; Bartha, R.

    1999-10-01

    The mineralization of [7-{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil was investigated in response to additions of individual hydrocarbons, defined hydrocarbon mixtures, crude oil, and crude oil fractions. Neither substantial BaP mineralization nor enrichment of BaP degraders occurred in BaP-spiked soil in the absence of a suitable hydrocarbon supplement. Crude oil, the saturated and aromatic class components of crude oil, the distillates heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel supported up to 60% mineralization of 80 {micro}g [7-{sup 14}C]BaP per gram of soil in 40 d. Neither single hydrocarbons nor defined hydrocarbon mixtures containing normal and branched alkanes, alicyclics, and aromatics supported comparable BaP mineralization. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} occurred after lag periods characteristic to specific petroleum products and their concentrations. Time required for microbial proliferation, hydrocarbon toxicity, and competitive inhibition might have contributed to these lag periods, but the complete inhibition of BaP mineralization by diesel-fuel vapors pointed to a dominant role of competitive inhibition. A lack of radiocarbon incorporation into soil biomass from [7-{sup 14}C]BaP indicated that at least the initial steps of BaP biodegradation in soil were cometabolic in nature. Suitable hydrocarbon mixtures not only supported BaP mineralization by serving as primary substrates, but also enhanced BaP bioavailability by dissolving this hydrophobic solid.

  13. Understanding Depth Variation of Deep Seismicity from in situ Measurements of Mineral Strengths at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strengths of major minerals of Earth's mantle have been measured using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths is used to derive the yield strengths. Systematic analysis of the experimental result for olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite and perovskite indicates that minerals in the upper mantle, the transition zone and the lower mantle have very distinct strength character. Increasing temperature weakens the upper mantle mineral, olivine, significantly. At high temperature and high pressure, the transition zone minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, have higher strengths than the upper mantle mineral. Among all the minerals studied, the lower mantle mineral, perovskite, has the highest strength. While both the upper mantle and the transition zone minerals show a notable strength drop, the strength of the lower mantle mineral shows just an increase of relaxation rate (no strength drop) when the temperature is increased stepwise by 200 K. The strength characteristics of these major mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures indicate that yield strength may play a crucial role in defining the profile of deep earthquake occurrence with depth.

  14. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. ); Kehayias, J. . USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univ.); Kamen, Y.; Dilmanian, F.A. ); Lindsay, R. . Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons)

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Effects of trace mineral injections on measures of performance and trace mineral status of pre- and postweaned beef calves.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Moriel, P; Martins, P G M A; Lamb, G C; Havenga, L J

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on measures of trace mineral status and performance in pre- and postweaned Brangus-crossbred beef calves. In Exp. 1, calves were assigned to treatments in alternating birth order (n = 150; 75/treatment), consisting of a 1-mL subcutaneous injection of ITM (MultiMin 90; MultiMin USA, Inc., Fort Collins, CO) or sterile saline. The ITM formulation consisted of 60, 10, 15, and 5 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se. Treatments were readministered at 100 and 200 d of age. Calf BW was recorded at birth and on d 100, 150, 200, and 250 (weaning). Trace mineral status was assessed in liver biopsy samples (n = 12/treatment) collected on d 150, 200, and 250. Administration of ITM had no impact on BW gain (P ≥ 0.55) but did result in greater (P ≤ 0.02) concentrations of liver Cu and Se and lesser (P = 0.05) liver Fe concentrations compared to saline-injected calves. In Exp. 2, 24 heifers were selected from the weaned calves of Exp. 1 (n = 12/treatment) and transported 1,600 km. Remaining on their original treatments, heifers were administered 5 mL of ITM or saline following transport (d 0). Blood samples, for acute phase protein (APP) analysis, were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 and liver biopsy samples for assessment of trace mineral status on d 13. Plasma APP concentrations increased in all calves following weaning and transport but concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in ITM- vs. saline-injected heifers on d 6 and 9. Liver concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn were greater (P ≤ 0.04) but ADG lesser (P = 0.05) for heifers receiving ITM vs. saline. In Exp. 3, 34 heifers, without previous exposure to ITM, were enrolled in a 177-d development study (n = 17/treatment). Treatments consisted of 2.5-mL injections of ITM or sterile saline on d 0, 51, and 127. Humoral immune response to an injection of porcine red blood cells (PRBC) was evaluated on d 51. Trace mineral status was evaluated in

  16. Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines.

    PubMed

    Domański, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems were described and characterized as the Air Sampling System (ASS), the Environmental Control System (ECS), the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), the Stream Monitoring System (SMS) and the Exhaust Monitoring System (EMS). The indices for evaluation of miners' working environments, or for assessment of individual or collective miners' exposure, were selected and determined. These are: average expected concentration (CAE), average observed concentration (CAO), average expected rate of exposure cumulation rate (EEXP), average observed exposure cumulation rate (EOBS), average effective exposure cumulation rate (EEFF). Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, according to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed. PMID:2134320

  17. Measuring, managing and maximizing performance of mineral processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of continuous quality improvement is the confluence of Total Quality Management, People Empowerment, Performance Indicators and Information Engineering. The supporting information technologies allow a mineral processor to narrow the gap between management business objectives and the process control level. One of the most important contributors is the user friendliness and flexibility of the personal computer in a client/server environment. This synergistic combination when used for real time performance monitoring translates into production cost savings, improved communications and enhanced decision support. Other savings come from reduced time to collect data and perform tedious calculations, act quickly with fresh new data, generate and validate data to be used by others. This paper presents an integrated view of plant management. The selection of the proper tools for continuous quality improvement are described. The process of selecting critical performance monitoring indices for improved plant performance are discussed. The importance of a well balanced technological improvement, personnel empowerment, total quality management and organizational assets are stressed.

  18. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  19. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  20. Physical deposit measures and commercial potential: The case of titanium-bearing heavy-mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Physical measures of mineral deposit characteristics, such as grade and tonnage, long have been used in both subjective and analytic models to predict favorability of areas for the occurrence of mineral deposits of particular types. After a deposit has been identified, however, the explorationist must decide whether to continue data collection, begin an economic feasibility study, or abandon the prospect. The decision maker can estimate the probability that a deposit will be commercial by examining physical measures. The amount of sampling data required before such a probability estimate can be considered reliable can be determined. A logit probability model estimated from onshore titanium-bearing heavy-mineral deposit data identifies and quantifies the relative influence of a deposit's physical measures on the chances of the deposit becoming commercial. A principal conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis is that, along with a measure of deposit size, the characteristics most important in predicting commercial potential are grades of the constituent minerals. Total heavy-mineral-bearing sand grade or even total titanium grade (without data on constituent mineral grades) are poor predictors of the deposit's commercial potential. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  2. Complications in Surgery: Root Cause Analysis and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Kotsis, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Patients expect to receive quality medical care by relying on the concepts of evidence-based medicine. This quality care is expected to be provided at decreased costs for payors, some of whom have stopped reimbursement for cases involving “reasonably preventable” surgical complications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce root cause analysis as a tool for identifying the causes of surgical complications. We also discuss preventive measures such as improved communication, checklists, reporting systems, and the use of evidence-based medicine that have been implemented to decrease surgical complications. These preventive measures can be used alone or together to decrease complications and improve overall patient care. PMID:22634659

  3. Complications in surgery: root cause analysis and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C; Kotsis, Sandra V

    2012-06-01

    Patients expect to receive quality medical care by relying on the concepts of evidence-based medicine. This quality care is expected to be provided at decreased costs for payors, some of whom have stopped reimbursement for cases involving "reasonably preventable" surgical complications. The purpose of this article is to introduce root cause analysis as a tool for identifying the causes of surgical complications. The authors also discuss preventive measures, such as improved communication, checklists, reporting systems, and the use of evidence-based medicine, that have been implemented to decrease surgical complications. These preventive measures can be used alone or together to decrease complications and improve overall patient care. PMID:22634659

  4. Complex mineral zoning patterns caused by ultra-local equilibrium at reaction interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Mark; Liu, Weihua; Borg, Stacey; Cleverley, James

    2014-05-01

    Chemical compositions of zoned minerals record a time-series of conditions experienced by the rock. They are a function of the prevailing pressure, temperature and effective bulk chemical composition as well as any post-growth modification processes e.g. volume diffusion and deformation. In fluid-buffered systems, zoned mineral compositions should be expected to reflect directly the evolution of fluid composition. Here we show that during rapid fluid-rock reactions, ultra-local equilibrium can form complex mineral zoning patterns, even when the overall system is highly fluid buffered. We reacted calcite single crystals with arsenate-phosphate solutions with molar ratios of As/(As+P) between 0.011 - 0.145 at 250°C and water-saturated pressure with fluid-rock mass ratios in excess of 2500%. Porous, fine-grained apatite polycrystals with varying arsenic contents replaced the calcite by an interface-coupled dissolution reprecipitation mechanism. During the first few hours of the reaction, complex zoning patterns of arsenic content within the apatite formed. The scale of the arsenic variations corresponds with the scale of corrugations of the reaction interface. The variations in arsenic content of the apatite result from spatially and temporally varying increases in the arsenic content of the reaction interface fluid. Since phosphate diffusion cannot keep pace with the reaction rate arsenic becomes enriched in the reaction interface fluid as phosphate is preferentially used in the reaction. The most arsenic rich parts of the apatite crystal show an 8-fold enrichment in arsenic with respect to the bulk fluid composition but only at an ultra-local scale. Once the calcite is completely consumed, the porous crystal equilibrates with the bulk fluid over a few days because the grain size is much finer and diffusion can keep pace with the equilibration reaction. This study highlights the complexity that can arise from ultra-local fluid composition variations due to rapid

  5. Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

    2007-12-01

    Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy

  6. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.

    PubMed

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    Iron (Fe(0) ) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H(2) S, and scavenge of 'cathodic' H(2) from chemical reaction of Fe(0) with H(2) O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe(0) year(-1) ), while conventional H(2) -scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO(3) , Mg/CaCO(3) ) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m(-1) ). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe(0)  → 4Fe(2+)  + 8e(-) ) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e(-)  + SO(4) (2-)  + 9H(+)  → HS(-)  + 4H(2) O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H(2) rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments.

  7. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year−1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m−1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 → 4Fe2+ + 8e−) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e− + SO42− + 9H+ → HS− + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  8. Compensation for occupational disease with multiple causes: the case of coal miners respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.; Wagner, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Many diseases associated with occupational exposures are clinically indistinguishable from diseases with non-occupational causes. Given this, how are fair decisions made about eligibility for compensation. This problem is discussed in relation to the federal black lung program. Conflicting definitions of terms--coal workers pneumoconiosis as defined by the medical profession, pneumoconiosis as defined by the United States Congress, and the popular term, black lung--are important considerations in this discussion. Each is embedded in different logical interpretations of the causes of occupational disease and of disability. Alternative views are presented and critically discussed.

  9. Compensation for occupational disease with multiple causes: the case of coal miners' respiratory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, J L; Wagner, G R

    1986-01-01

    Many diseases associated with occupational exposures are clinically indistinguishable from diseases with non-occupational causes. Given this, how are fair decisions made about eligibility for compensation? This problem is discussed in relation to the federal black lung program. Conflicting definitions of terms--coal workers' pneumoconiosis as defined by the medical profession, pneumoconiosis as defined by the United States Congress, and the popular term, black lung--are important considerations in this discussion. Each is embedded in different logical interpretations of the causes of occupational disease and of disability. Alternative views are presented and critically discussed. PMID:2933965

  10. Measurement and analysis of chemically changed mineral fibers after experiments in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, K R

    1983-01-01

    Asbestos, as well as other natural and man-made mineral fibers used for in vitro and in vivo experiments, must be described and defined physically and chemically as exactly as possible before any application. The interactions of fibers with the physical, chemical (air, water, etc.) and biological (cells, tissues, etc.) environments cause important changes in fiber chemistry and crystalline structure. Also, these should be detected as precisely as possible after each experiment. Our recent investigations dealt with the development of a complex analytical system for such measurements and with some applications of these analytical procedures for fibrous material sampled in the environment and from biological materials. Chemical and physical microanalyses of asbestos and glass fibers obtained by environmental sampling (air, water) and from human and animal tissue have shown chemical and crystalline changes in these particles. Scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and mass spectrometry analysis were used in these investigations. A partial or total leakage of elements could be observed. The leakage of elements in fibers is of a statistical nature. Some fibers remained chemically unchanged; in some fibers some elements were partially leached; and in some fibers the majority of metallic elements were leached. The potential meaning of this effect is also discussed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 12. PMID:6315377

  11. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Angular Measurements on Digital Orthopantomogram with Calcaneus Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling is a continuous and complex process which occurs throughout life. Radiomorphometric and radioangular indices on the orthopantomogram are the predictors of bone remodeling associated with mandible. Bone mineral density is the amount of calcified tissue in a certain volume of the bone. Materials and Methods Fifty normal healthy individuals within the age range of 25-55 years were included in the study. Linear measurements including mandibular cortical width (MCW) and panoramic mandibular index (PMI); and angular measurements including mandibular angle (MA) and antegonial angle (AGA) were recorded. Quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density (BMD) scan of the heel bone (calcaneus) of the same patient were also performed. Results In our study, for both males and females, antegonial angle (AGA) had highest correlation with calcaneus bone mineral density. In the age group of less than 35 years, PMI in males, and AGA in females had highest correlation. In the age range of more than 35 years, MA in males and AGA in females had highest correlation. Conclusion There is a correlation between the mandibular bone remodelling changes and calcaneal bone mineral density in case of elder subjects and thus these parameters may be used as an inexpensive alternative screening method to assess the bone mineral density and identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and fractures and also for dental treatment planning. PMID:26393197

  12. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  13. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  14. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition of children with well-controlled homocystinuria caused by CBS deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, J S; Lee, D H

    2013-09-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of methionine. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, dislocation of the optic lens, vascular lesions, arterial and venous thromboembolism, skeletal abnormalities, and osteoporosis. Most homocystinuria patients diagnosed in adulthood have severe osteoporosis, and homocystinuria is frequently mentioned as a cause of osteoporosis. Good control of plasma homocysteine may prevent or delay some of these complications. However, the effectiveness of bone mineral density (BMD) gain or fracture prevention has not been addressed. Here, we describe changes in BMD and body composition in 5 CBS deficiency patients who were diagnosed at young age and were managed with good metabolic control. We found that the BMD of each region was within the normal range. BMD gain was adequate and the patients had no significant change in skeletal morphology.

  15. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  16. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength.

  17. Measurement of mixed biomass burning and mineral dust aerosol in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, C. H.; Trautmann, T.; Lindermeir, E.

    2009-03-01

    From January 19th to February 7th, 2008, we installed a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Praia Airport on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Our goal was to measure the combined radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol and mineral dust usually observed there during that time of the year, when mineral dust emerging from the Sahara mixes with biomass burning aerosol transported north-westwards from the Sahelian region. Our measurements were part of the Saharan Mineral Dwst Experiment 2 (SAMUM 2) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as continuation of the SAMUM field experiment in Morocco in 2006. SAMUM 2 is a joint venture of several German research institutes and universities and included both ground based as well as airborne measurements with the DLR Falcon research aircraft. The ground based instrumentation included spectrometers for visible and thermal infrared downwelling radiation, sun photometers, LIDAR and particle impactors while the Falcon was equipped with LIDAR and several instruments for aerosol analysis and sample return. A comparison of the FTIR measurements with radiative transfer simulations yields the expected aerosol forcing in the atmospheric window region after application of a suitable calibration method.

  18. Surface measurements of global warming causing atmospheric constituents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, S N; Youn, Y H; Park, K J; Min, H K; Schnell, R C

    2001-07-01

    The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interest in climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of global warming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and are not being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda, since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to monitor functions of global warming, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has set up a Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station on the western coast of Korea (Anmyun-do) and has been actively monitoring global warming over Northeast Asia. In addition, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured for a similar KMA global warming program at Kosan, Cheju Island since 1990. Aerosol and radiation have also been measured at both sites as well as in Seoul. The observations have been analyzed using diagnostics of climate change in Northeast Asia and also have been internationally compared. Results indicate that greenhouse gases are in good statistic agreement with the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) long-term trends of monthly mean concentrations and seasonal cycles. Atmospheric particulate matter has also been analyzed for particular Asian types in terms of optical depth, number concentration and size distribution.

  19. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  20. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    PubMed

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  1. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    PubMed

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion. PMID:9470499

  2. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  3. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  4. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity.

  5. Measurement of contact angles of aqueous solutions on some rock forming minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, M.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.

    2007-12-01

    Wetting properties of fluids on earth's materials are controlling fluid flows and dynamics of the geological systems. Although the wetting behavior of industrial materials have been widely examined often by contact angle measurements, contact angles of rock-forming materials have not been commonly measured. Therefore, we have been measuring contact angles of some representative rock-forming minerals. The surfaces of solid samples were polished successively by emery papers then by grinding powders (alumina: up to \\sharp3000: grain size about 5 micrometers). Water droplet from a micro-syringe needle are placed on solid surfaces by moving up the sample stage. Images of water drops on the solid surfaces are captured from the horizontal direction with a CCD camera. Contact angles can be determined from the height and the length of the images by assuming them to be parts of circles. Over 60 measurements of contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces plates cut from a natural quartz single crystal were repeated. The average contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces of quartz were 48 ± 5 degrees and 52 ± 3 degrees, respectively. Contact angles of pure water on a natural calcite single crystal was also measured in the same way to be 37 ± 8 degrees. Contact angles of various aqueous solutions such as NaCl and NaHCO3 on these minerals will also be measured in order to evaluate wetting properties of natural rock-water systems.

  6. Potential linkages between mineral magnetic measurements and urban roadside soil pollution (part 2).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Fullen, M A; Booth, C A

    2014-03-01

    Use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual geochemical classes (i.e. Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd), are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.001 n = 60), strong (r = 0.632-0.797), associations with Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. Inter-geochemical correlations suggest anthropogenic influences, which is supported by low χFD% measurements that infer an influence of multi-domain mineralogy are indicative of anthropogenic combustion processes. Results indicate mineral magnetic measurements could potentially be used as a geochemical indicator for soils in certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for monitoring techniques. The mineral magnetic technique offers a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable pollution proxy for soil contamination studies.

  7. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  8. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  9. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  10. CKD-induced wingless/integration1 inhibitors and phosphorus cause the CKD-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yifu; Ginsberg, Charles; Seifert, Michael; Agapova, Olga; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Register, Thomas C; Freedman, Barry I; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut; Hruska, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder. PMID:24578135

  11. Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  12. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  13. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  14. Measuring Fluxes of Mineral Nutrients and Toxicants in Plants with Radioactive Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Hamam, Ahmed M.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Unidirectional influx and efflux of nutrients and toxicants, and their resultant net fluxes, are central to the nutrition and toxicology of plants. Radioisotope tracing is a major technique used to measure such fluxes, both within plants, and between plants and their environments. Flux data obtained with radiotracer protocols can help elucidate the capacity, mechanism, regulation, and energetics of transport systems for specific mineral nutrients or toxicants, and can provide insight into compartmentation and turnover rates of subcellular mineral and metabolite pools. Here, we describe two major radioisotope protocols used in plant biology: direct influx (DI) and compartmental analysis by tracer efflux (CATE). We focus on flux measurement of potassium (K+) as a nutrient, and ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+) as a toxicant, in intact seedlings of the model species barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These protocols can be readily adapted to other experimental systems (e.g., different species, excised plant material, and other nutrients/toxicants). Advantages and limitations of these protocols are discussed. PMID:25177829

  15. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  16. Singularity analysis based on wavelet transform of fractal measures for identifying geochemical anomaly in mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming

    2016-02-01

    Multi-resolution and scale-invariance have been increasingly recognized as two closely related intrinsic properties endowed in geofields such as geochemical and geophysical anomalies, and they are commonly investigated by using multiscale- and scaling-analysis methods. In this paper, the wavelet-based multiscale decomposition (WMD) method was proposed to investigate the multiscale natures of geochemical pattern from large scale to small scale. In the light of the wavelet transformation of fractal measures, we demonstrated that the wavelet approximation operator provides a generalization of box-counting method for scaling analysis of geochemical patterns. Specifically, the approximation coefficient acts as the generalized density-value in density-area fractal modeling of singular geochemical distributions. Accordingly, we presented a novel local singularity analysis (LSA) using the WMD algorithm which extends the conventional moving averaging to a kernel-based operator for implementing LSA. Finally, the novel LSA was validated using a case study dealing with geochemical data (Fe2O3) in stream sediments for mineral exploration in Inner Mongolia, China. In comparison with the LSA implemented using the moving averaging method the novel LSA using WMD identified improved weak geochemical anomalies associated with mineralization in covered area.

  17. Can Mineral Fibers Cause Asbestos Related Diseases? The Long Path from the Reserve Mining Case to Today.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos related diseases occur long after exposure and are related to a much broader range of elongated durable particles than expected. Find out why achieving and using a much needed health risk prediction and prevention model for mineral fibers in NE Minnesota has yet to be a...

  18. Methods for measuring surface recessions caused by erosion: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides a catalog of currently-available and promising technologies for evaluating erosion damage in power-generating systems. Included, for example, are the criteria for methods that can be used for measuring erosion of in-bed tubes in fluidized-bed combustors. Material loss by erosion is a common occurrence in many fossil fuel and hydroelectric power plants. Costly forced outages can be avoided by determining the condition of components subject to erosion. The ideal diagnostic technique would be nondestructive, field-ready, rugged, reproducible, accurate, quick, and simple to use and interpret. In addition, methods that can make periodic, extremely sensitive measurements of damage could help qualify new designs in an economical and timely way.

  19. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, D; Dharmshaktu, P; Aggarwal, A; Gaurav, K; Bansal, R; Devru, N; Garga, UC; Kulshreshtha, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) loss in endocrinopathies [Graves’ disease (GD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH), hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126) were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (79.59%) compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (59.26%) compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT) was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67%) and HypoH (54.55%) compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting. PMID:27241810

  20. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  1. Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-07-29

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures using a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.

  2. Laser-beam-induced current microscopy of electric fields in natural minerals caused by impurity zonation and structural defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Johnson, Brett C.; Ryan, Chris G.

    2012-08-01

    Regions of band-bending in semiconducting sulfide minerals are thought to drive both electrochemical reactions with passing fluids resulting in precious metal ore genesis in undersaturated solutions, and bacterial oxidation by ferro-oxidans. Better understanding the role of these regions and their surface texturing on likely seeding spots and growth/dissolution rates requires large scale imaging of regions sustaining these fields. In this paper, we describe a system and methodology based on a scanning laser microscope technique called laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) for imaging fields in natural sulfides. The technique is illustrated on a synthetic junction fabricated using Au and Pt Schottky barriers on natural cubic pyrite, followed by an initial scope on a natural chalcopyrite assemblage. Different modes of LBIC imaging are discussed in light of complexity within real mineral assemblages. The remote contact mode is found to be ideal for natural samples and reasons for this conclusion are detailed.

  3. MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Punyanitya, M.; Shapses, S.; Heshka, S.; Heymsfield, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Previous research using regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods to measure BMAT has reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between BMAT and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA)-measured bone mineral density (BMD). Methods In the present study, total body and pelvic BMAT were evaluated in 56 healthy women (age 18–88 yrs, mean±SD, 47.4±17.6 yrs; BMI, 24.3±4.2 kg/m2) with T1-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BMD was measured using the whole-body DXA mode (GE Lunar DPX, software version 4.7). Results A strong negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and BMD (total-body BMD, R=− 0.743, P<0.001; pelvic BMD, R=− 0.646, P<0.001), and between total-body BMAT and BMD (total-body BMD, R=− 0.443, P<0.001; pelvic BMD, R=− 0.308, P < 0.001). The inverse association between pelvic BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for age, weight, total body fat, and menopausal status (partial correlation: total-body BMD, R=− 0.553, P< 0.001; pelvic BMD, R=− 0.513, P<0.001). BMAT was also highly correlated with age (pelvic BMAT, R=0.715, P< 0.001; total-body BMAT, R=0.519, P<0.001). Conclusion MRI-measured BMAT is thus strongly inversely correlated with DXA-measured BMD independent of other predictor variables. These observations, in the context of DXA technical concerns, support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density. PMID:17139464

  4. Evaluation of Lunar small animal software for measuring bone mineral content in excised rat bones.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Meyer, M H; Meyer, R A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate software from Lunar Corporation (Madison, WI) designed for the measurement of bone mineral content ([BMC],g) in excised rat femurs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femurs were harvested from intact 2- to 12-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, stripped of soft tissues, wrapped in saline-soaked gauze, and frozen at -20 degrees F. Thawed bones were scanned in air on a 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate that was laid on the manufacturer's supplied Delrin platform. Bones were in an anteroposterior position and scanned in a proximal-to-distal manner. Small animal software version 1.0d was used with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the middle one-third of the diaphysis, a small central area of the distal metaphysis, and the total bone. Precision (n = 6 femurs) was calculated for each region of interest. After DXA scanning, one group of bones (n = 10 femurs) was dried and incinerated in a muffle furnace to obtain bone ash. The ash was then digested in acid and aliquots assayed for calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This group of bones was used to correlate BMC with ash weight and areal bone mineral density (BMD) with calcium concentration. A second group of bones (n = 14 femurs) was used to correlate BMC with maximal load to failure (N), a biomechanical variable that provides information about bone strength. Precision of repetitive measurements for the three ROIs was 1.2, 3.0, and 0.65%, respectively. Total femur BMC and total femur ash weights were significantly correlated (r = 0.974, p <0.0001). Total femur area BMD (g/cm2) was significantly correlated with calcium concentration (microM) of the bone hydrolysate (r = 0.686, p = 0.029). Total femur BMC and maximum load to midshaft fracture were also significantly correlated (r = 0.914, p<0.0001). The greatest problem with the software was with edge detection: operator intervention was necessary to place edges manually during scan

  5. Determination of a standard site for the measurement of bone mineral density of the human calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    BURSTON, B.; McNALLY, D. S.; NICHOLSON, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasound of the calcaneus may be used as a cheap, ionising radiation-free and easy to use indicator of skeletal status, and hence of osteoporotic fracture risk. At present ultrasound is not widely used as it suffers from high precision errors. As ultrasound parameters are determined in part by bone mineral density (BMD), an increase in the accuracy and precision of BMD measurements should reduce the precision error associated with ultrasound measurements. The aim of this study was to define an anatomical site on the calcaneus at which accurate and precise measurements of BMD can be made. Ten dry calcanei and 10 cadaveric feet were scanned using a DXA scanner; 9 anatomically defined regions (1 cm2) were selected in the posterior part of the calcaneus for analysis. The centre of region 1 was positioned halfway along the line joining the anterior border of the calcaneal tubercle and the peak of the posterior superior tubercle, and the remaining 8 regions were placed around this central area. The BMD in these 9 regions was compared with the whole bone BMD and the variability of BMD within each of the 9 regions was measured. The reproducibility of the technique was assessed by taking 10 repeated measurements of 2 bone and 2 cadaveric specimens, each specimen being removed and repositioned between measurements. Region 1 was found to be the most representative of total BMD in cadaveric feet. This region also showed the least variability of BMD and consistently gave the lowest coefficients of variation in the reproducibility study both in the bone and the cadaveric specimens. This region is hence the most suitable site on the calcaneus for measuring absolute values of and changes in BMD. The surface position of region 1 was found to be consistently 5/9 along the line at 45° to the vertical, from the lateral malleolus to the heel. The identification of the surface location of region 1 relative to anatomical landmarks of the foot has enabled the same anatomical site to be

  6. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra.

  7. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  8. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  10. Mineral magnetic measurements as a particle size proxy for urban roadside soil pollution (part 1).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Booth, C A; Fullen, M A

    2014-03-01

    The use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored as an alternative means of normalizing particle size effects. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay), more discrete intervals within classes (e.g. fine sand or medium silt) and cumulative size fractions (e.g. clay + fine silt) are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 n = 60), moderate negative (rs = -0.3 to -0.557) associations with clay, silt and sand content. Contrary to earlier research findings which found positive relationships, this indicates that magnetic measurements cannot always provide a predictable particle size proxy and it is only certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for granulometric normalization by this technique. However, if future researchers working in other soil settings can identify a formal predictable relationship, the technique is known to offer a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable proxy for normalizing particle size effects in soil contamination studies.

  11. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  12. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  13. Global trends in mineral dust aerosol: determining causes and attributing uncertainty with the GEOS-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Prospero, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol constitutes a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, which presents health risks, alters atmospheric chemistry, and strongly perturbs the radiative balance over large regions. Therefore, it is imperative that we understand what controls the observed trends and changes in variability of dust emissions. Recently, we have shown that the observed reduction in African dust loading over the Atlantic in recent decades is likely driven by large-scale wind changes over source regions rather than changes in vegetation cover. Using an updated dust emission scheme and information from high resolution (0.25 degree) simulations from the NASA GEOS model, we attribute the uncertainty in modeled dust AOD and expand the analysis to other regions of the world, including Asia and the Middle East.

  14. Alternative assessment of exposure of uranium miners to radon and progeny using {sup 210}Pb in vivo measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Hoover, M.D.

    1997-12-01

    Significant uncertainties exist in estimating uranium miners` exposure to radon and its radioactive progeny during their mining careers. These uncertainties are due in part to the limited number and poor quality of measurements of radon and radon progeny concentrations made in various uranium mines, particularly during the 1945 to 1960 time period during which radon levels were the highest because of ineffective ventilation in the mines. We hypothesize that a major contributor to the 30-fold variability noted in lung cancer risk factors for the 12 epidemiological studies done on uranium miners worldwide is due to exposure estimate bias among the different populations.

  15. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale. PMID:25233849

  16. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  17. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosols from Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hansell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne dust aerosols worldwide contribute a significant part to air quality problems and, to some extent, regional climatic issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in oceans). Evaluating the direct solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large SIN ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impact, on the other hand, is rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (approx.10 W/sq m) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Although the magnitude of the LW impact is much smaller than that of the shortwave (SW), it can still have a noticeable influence on the energy distribution of Earth-atmosphere system, particularly due to the strong light-absorptive properties commonly found in many terrestrial minerals. The current effort is part of an ongoing research study to perform a global assessment of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) during major field deployments of key dust source regions worldwide. In this work we present results stemming from two previous field deployments: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years, both utilizing NASA Goddard's mobile ground-based facility. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal (16.73degN, 22.93degW), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE), China near the source between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. Due to the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of dust properties during field experiments, a deterministic I-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements (i.e., spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for physical/microphysical, mineralogy, and single-scattering properties) is employed to evaluate dust's local instantaneous SW/LW DARE both at the surface and at the top of

  18. Disruption of OsEXO70A1 Causes Irregular Vascular Bundles and Perturbs Mineral Nutrient Assimilation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Bin; Hu, Li; Chen, Weilan; Li, Tao; Hu, Binhua; Zheng, Ling; Lv, Zheng; You, Shuju; Wang, Yuping; Ma, Bingtian; Chen, Xuewei; Qin, Peng; Li, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Normal uptake, transportation, and assimilation of primary nutrients are essential to plant growth. Tracheary elements (TEs) are tissues responsible for the transport of water and minerals and characterized by patterned secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening. Exocysts are involved in the regulation of SCW deposition by mediating the targeted transport of materials and enzymes to specific membrane areas. EXO70s are highly duplicated in plants and provide exocysts with functional specificity. In this study, we report the isolation of a rice mutant rapid leaf senescence2 (rls2) that exhibits dwarfism, ferruginous spotted necrotic leaves, decreased hydraulic transport, and disordered primary nutrient assimilation. Histological analysis of rls2-1 mutants has indicated impaired cell expansion, collapsed vascular tissues, and irregular SCW deposition. Map-based cloning has revealed that RLS2 encodes OsEXO70A1, which is one of the 47 members of EXO70s in rice. RLS2 was widely expressed and spatially restricted in vascular bundles. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that RLS2 was present on both membrane and nuclear regions. Expression analysis revealed that mutations in rls2 triggers transcriptional fluctuation of orthologous EXO70 genes and affects genes involved in primary nutrient absorption and transport. In brief, our study revealed that RLS2 is required for normal vascular bundle differentiation and primary nutrient assimilation. PMID:26691393

  19. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

  20. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  1. White-light interferometry on rough surfaces--measurement uncertainty caused by noise.

    PubMed

    Pavliček, Pavel; Hýbl, Ondřej

    2012-02-01

    White-light interferometry on rough surfaces is an optical method for the measurement of the geometrical form of objects. The longitudinal coordinate of the measured surface is obtained from the measured interferogram by means of an evaluation method. However, the longitudinal coordinate cannot be determined completely accurately because the interferogram is affected by noise. We calculate the lower limit of the longitudinal measurement uncertainty caused by noise by use of the Cramer-Rao inequality. Additionally, we calculate the lower limit of the longitudinal measurement uncertainty caused by shot noise only.

  2. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  3. Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Cooper, Cyrus; Tobias, Jonathan H.

    2013-01-01

    A finding of high BMD on routine DXA scanning is not infrequent and most commonly reflects degenerative disease. However, BMD increases may also arise secondary to a range of underlying disorders affecting the skeleton. Although low BMD increases fracture risk, the converse may not hold for high BMD, since elevated BMD may occur in conditions where fracture risk is increased, unaffected or reduced. Here we outline a classification for the causes of raised BMD, based on identification of focal or generalized BMD changes, and discuss an approach to guide appropriate investigation by clinicians after careful interpretation of DXA scan findings within the context of the clinical history. We will also review the mild skeletal dysplasia associated with the currently unexplained high bone mass phenotype and discuss recent advances in osteoporosis therapies arising from improved understanding of rare inherited high BMD disorders. PMID:23445662

  4. The measurement of radon working levels at a mineral separation pilot plant in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hamid Khan, M A; Chowdhury, M S

    2003-10-01

    Beach Sand Exploitation Centre at Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, produces commercial grade concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, etc., from the high-grade accumulations available along the beach and foredune of Cox's Bazar. Solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39 foils) were used to determine indoor radon concentration of radioactive mineral sands and the technologically enhanced radiation level inside the pilot plant of the Centre. It is found that the concentrations at processed mineral stock areas are high, and the maximum concentration was found to be 2,103 +/- 331 Bq m(-3) (0.23 +/- 0.03 WL). The indoor concentration of radon and its decay products in the raw sand stock area and at other locations was in the range of 116 +/- 27 Bq m(-3) (0.03 +/- 0.003 WL) to 2,042 +/- 233 Bq m(-3) (0.22 +/- 0.03 WL).

  5. Age measurements of potassium-bearing sulfide minerals by the 40Ar/39Ar technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Lanphere, M.A.; Erd, Richard C.; Blake, M.C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined for sulfide minerals for the first time. The occurrence of adequate amounts of potassium-bearing sulfides with ideal compositions K3Fe10S14 (???10 wt.% K) and KFe2S3 (???16 wt.% K) in samples from a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak, California, prompted an attempt to date these materials. K3Fe10S14, a massive mineral with conchoidal fracture, gives an age of 29.4 ?? 0.5 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar), indistinguishable from the 28.3 ?? 0.4 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar) and 30.2 ?? 1.0 m.y.8 (conventional K-Ar) ages obtained for associated phlogopite (8.7 wt.% K). KFe2S3, a bladed, fibrous sulfide, gives a younger age, 26.5 ?? 0.5 m.y. (40Ar/39Ar), presumably owing to Ar loss. ?? 1978.

  6. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Jun; Gantz, Madeleine; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Engelson, Ellen; Kotler, Donald; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM) (age 18.0-39.9 yrs) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL) (age 40.0-88 yrs). Subjects/Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total, and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, P<0.001) and in the older PoBL group (r=-0.405 to -0.500, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, menopausal status, total body fat, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, neither subject group (younger PBM vs. older PoBL) nor its interaction with pelvic BMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434 to 0.928). Conclusion Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes. PMID:22491495

  7. Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust - Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Nikolic, Jugoslav

    2016-09-01

    Dust aerosols are very efficient ice nuclei, important for heterogeneous cloud glaciation even in regions distant from desert sources. A new generation of ice nucleation parameterizations, including dust as an ice nucleation agent, opens the way towards a more accurate treatment of cold cloud formation in atmospheric models. Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation. We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively. The model results were compared against satellite and ground-based cloud-ice-related measurements, provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) in Potenza, southern Italy. The predicted ice nuclei concentration showed a reasonable level of agreement when compared against the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cloud ice water. The developed methodology permits the use of ice nuclei as input into the cloud microphysics schemes of atmospheric models, assuming that this approach could improve the predictions of cloud formation and associated precipitation.

  8. Laboratory Measurements of Oxygen Gas Release from Basaltic Minerals Exposed to UV- Radiation: Implications for the Viking Gas Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The biology experiments onboard the Viking Landers determined that the Martian soils at Chryse and Utopia Planitia contain an unknown chemical compound of a highly oxidizing nature. The Gas Exchange Experiments (GEx) demonstrated that the humidification of a 1-cc Martian soil sample resulted in the production of as much as 790 nanomoles of oxygen gas. Yen et al. (2000) have provided experimental evidence that superoxide radicals can be generated on plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) grain surfaces by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of oxygen gas. Adsorbed superoxide radicals are thought to react readily with water vapor, and produce oxygen gas in quantities sufficient to explain the Viking GEx results. Direct evidence for the formation of oxygen gas, however, was not provided in the experiments of Yen et al (2000). Accordingly, the motivation of this study is to determine whether superoxide radicals adsorbed on labradorite surfaces are capable of producing oxygen gas upon exposure to water vapor. We have constructed an experimental apparatus that is capable of monitoring oxygen gas release from basaltic mineral powders that have been exposed to UV-radiation under Martian atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus consists of a stainless-steel vacuum chamber with a UV- transparent window where sample radiation exposures are performed. The vacuum chamber has multiple valved ports for injection of gases and water vapor. The vacuum chamber is connected via a precision leak valve to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which measures changes in the composition of the headspace gases over our mineral samples. We will report on the results of our experiments, which are aimed at detecting and quantifying oxygen gas release from UV-exposed basaltic mineral samples using this new experimental facility. These results will further constrain whether superoxide ions adsorbed on mineral surfaces provide a viable explanation for the Viking GEx results, which have

  9. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses. PMID:26206525

  10. Bone Mineral Density Measurements, Bone Markers and Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Men with Chronic Non-Cirrhotic Untreated Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Luciana G. S.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.; Castro, Charlles H. M.; Silva, Antônio E. B.; Szejnfeld, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its consequent cirrhosis has been associated with bone fragility. Whether CHC may cause bone and mineral abnormalities in the absence of hepatocellular dysfunction is still unknown. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and low BMD measurements in men with non-cirrhotic CHC. Risk factors for low BMD and fractures were also investigated. Methods Morphometric vertebral fractures and BMD measurements were performed in 60 non-cirrhotic untreated men with CHC and 59 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, weight and current smoking. Serum CTx, calcium, phosphate, intact PTH, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured in all participants. Clinical risk factors for low BMD and fractures were evaluated by a structured questionnaire as well as details regarding HCV infection. Results Trochanter and total femur BMD were significantly lower in CHC patients as compared to healthy men (p = 0.04). In men 50 years and older, the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher among CHC patients (p = 0.01). Lower levels of physical activities and more often report of prolonged immobilization were observed among CHC patients (p<0.05). Liver inflammation and fibrosis, viral load and genotype did not correlate with BMD measurements. Bone markers and 25OHD concentrations were similar in both groups. Only a few vertebral fractures were observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that non-cirrhotic untreated CHC patients have lower BMD at the femur as compared to healthy men in spite of the absence of significant bone and mineral abnormalities. PMID:24312334

  11. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  12. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  13. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  14. Heterogeneous freezing of droplets with immersed mineral dust particles - measurements and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Shaw, R. A.; Covert, D.; Mentel, T. F.; Schneider, J.; Poulain, L.; Reitz, P.; Spindler, C.; Clauss, T.; Kiselev, A.; Hallbauer, E.; Wex, H.; Mildenberger, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2010-04-01

    During the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of duST), LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) was used to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of size selected, coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. Particles were coated with succinic acid (C4H6O4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Ice fractions at mixed-phase cloud temperatures ranging from 233.15 K to 239.15 K (±0.60 K) were determined for all types of particles. In this temperature range, pure ATD particles and those coated with C4H6O4 or small amounts of H2SO4 were found to be the most efficient ice nuclei (IN). ATD particles coated with (NH4)2SO4 were the most inefficient IN. Since the supercooled droplets were highly diluted before freezing occurred, a freezing point suppression due to the soluble material on the particles (and therefore in the droplets) cannot explain this observation. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the coatings lead to particle surface alterations which cause the differences in the IN abilities. Two different theoretical approaches based on the stochastic and the singular hypotheses were applied to clarify and parameterize the freezing behavior of the particles investigated. Both approaches describe the experimentally determined results, yielding parameters that can subsequently be used to compare our results to those from other studies. However, we cannot clarify at the current state which of the two approaches correctly describes the investigated immersion freezing process. But both approaches confirm the assumption that the coatings lead to particle surface modifications lowering the nucleation efficiency. The stochastic approach interprets the reduction in nucleation rate from coating as primarily due to an increase in the thermodynamic barrier for ice formation (i.e., changes in interfacial free energies). The singular approach interprets the reduction as resulting from a

  15. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  16. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moure, Alessandro; Reichmann, Peter; Remigio Gamba, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s-1, in steps of 1 mm s-1, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  17. Doppler shift and ambiguity velocity caused by relative motion in quantum-enhanced measurement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanghe; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Peng

    2015-07-13

    We study the effect of relative motion on a frequency-entangled-based ranging scheme. Two major puzzles arise, i.e., Doppler shift and ambiguity velocity. During condition of rapid relative motion, Doppler shift invalidates the measurement result of this scheme; while during condition of slow relative motion, the ambiguity velocity turns into a major limitation. If relative speed between targets and measurement platform exceeds the ambiguity velocity, an accumulated profile obtained by the coincidence measurement will be distorted, which causes a lower ranging accuracy. Theoretical analysis shows a time-varying delay can be introduced to solve the two major puzzles. PMID:26191903

  18. High-pressure and high-temperature mineral-fluid interface cell for high-resolution x-ray reflectivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis

    2013-06-01

    Ordering of water at the mineral-fluid interface is a fundamental process governing mineral hydration, ion-adsorption, dissolution, growth, and charge transfers across the mineral surface. However, the influence of pressure and temperature on this fundamental process is still largely unknown. The experimental determination is limited due to the lack of a sample cell which can properly handle the pressure and temperature of the fluidic component and simultaneously allow measurement of the interfacial structure, e.g., by high-resolution x-ray reflectivity. We recently developed a new high-pressure and high-temperature mineral-fluid interface cell to achieve the high-resolution x-ray reflectivity measurement from single crystalline mineral surfaces under the PT conditions of fluid up to ~750 K and ~40 MPa. The interfacial structures at single crystal mineral surfaces interacting with various hydrothermal fluids will promote our understanding of the molecular aspects of hydrous alteration processes of rocks in deep Earth environments. The application can be extended to mineral surface sciences, geological carbon sequestration, and nuclear engineering. Instrumental development under auspices of Deep Carbon Observatory Deep Energy Directorate and HPCAT (CDAC, GL, LLNL, UNLV).

  19. Evaluation of the uncertainties caused by the forward scattering in turbidity measurement of the coagulation rate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shenghua; Sun, Zhiwei

    2010-05-18

    The forward scattering light (FSL) received by the detector can cause uncertainties in turbidity measurement of the coagulation rate of colloidal dispersion, and this effect becomes more significant for large particles. In this study, the effect of FSL is investigated on the basis of calculations using the T-matrix method, an exact technique for the computation of nonspherical scattering. The theoretical formulation and relevant numerical implementation for predicting the contribution of FSL in the turbidity measurement is presented. To quantitatively estimate the degree of the influence of FSL, an influence ratio comparing the contribution of FSL to the pure transmitted light in the turbidity measurement is introduced. The influence ratios evaluated under various parametric conditions and the relevant analyses provide a guideline for properly choosing particle size, measuring wavelength to minimize the effect of FSL in turbidity measurement of coagulation rate.

  20. A fast experimental beam hardening correction method for accurate bone mineral measurements in 3D μCT imaging system.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Khodor; Bekaert, Virgile; Brasse, David; Laquerriere, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Bone mineral density plays an important role in the determination of bone strength and fracture risks. Consequently, it is very important to obtain accurate bone mineral density measurements. The microcomputerized tomography system provides 3D information about the architectural properties of bone. Quantitative analysis accuracy is decreased by the presence of artefacts in the reconstructed images, mainly due to beam hardening artefacts (such as cupping artefacts). In this paper, we introduced a new beam hardening correction method based on a postreconstruction technique performed with the use of off-line water and bone linearization curves experimentally calculated aiming to take into account the nonhomogeneity in the scanned animal. In order to evaluate the mass correction rate, calibration line has been carried out to convert the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficient into bone masses. The presented correction method was then applied on a multimaterial cylindrical phantom and on mouse skeleton images. Mass correction rate up to 18% between uncorrected and corrected images were obtained as well as a remarkable improvement of a calculated mouse femur mass has been noticed. Results were also compared to those obtained when using the simple water linearization technique which does not take into account the nonhomogeneity in the object.

  1. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  2. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density in rabbit vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Norris, S A; Pettifor, J M; Gray, D A; Biscardi, A; Buffenstein, R

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit could be a superior animal model to use in bone physiology studies, for the rabbit does attain true skeletal maturity. However, there are neither normative bone mineral density (BMD) data on the rabbit nor are there any validation studies on the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure spinal BMD in the rabbit. Therefore, our aim was twofold: first, to investigate whether DXA could be used precisely and accurately to determine the bone mineral content (BMC). bone area (BA). and BMD of the rabbit lumbar spine: Second. to evaluate the new generation fan-beam DXA (Hologic QDR-4500) with small animal software by comparing two DXA methodologies QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 with each other, as well as against volumetric bone density (VBMD) derived from Archimedes principle. As expected. there was a magnification error in the QDR-4500 (BMC, BA. and BMD increased by 52%. 38%. and 10%, respectively, when the vertebrae were positioned flat against the scanning table). With the magnification error kept constant (vertebrae positioned 10 cm above the scanning table to match the height in vivo). there were no differences among the mean BMC. BA. and BMD of the rabbit vertebrae (Ll-L7) in vivo and in vitro using the QDR-4500 (p > 0.05). BMC, BA, and BMD differed between QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 in vitro because of a magnification error when the vertebrae were flat on the table (p <0.0001). and, consequently. the machines did not correlate with one another (p > 0.05). However, the BMC, BA, and BMD of the two DXAs did significantly correlate with each other in vivo and in vitro when the magnification error was compensated for (r = 0.44 and 0.52. i2 = 0.45 and 0.63. and 12 = 0.41 and 0.60. respectively. p < 0.05-0.008). The BMC and BMD (in vivo and in vitro) of the rabbit vertebrae measured by QDR-4500 was significantly correlated with VMBD, ash weight, and mineral content (,2 = 0.67-0.90,j <0.01-0.0001). Therefore, the QDR-4500 can be used to yield precise and

  3. [Health as utopia. Grounds and causes of lack of demand for early diagnostic measures (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Buser, K; Oeter, K

    1981-11-27

    The quite obvious neglect of prophylactic measures cannot be attributed to a single cause only. Ground are rather to be found both in the psychic disposition and in the social stratum of the population as well as in the nature of the prophylaxis available. A synopsis leads to the conclusion that effective prevention requires not only changing the attitude of the patient or the population but also that of the supplier of the health promoting services.

  4. Aging of mineral dust during transport from the Sahara into the Cape Verde area - results from airborne measurements during SAMUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D.; Esselborn, M.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Rose, M.; Mund, S.; Wirth, M.; Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was conducted to better understand the properties of fresh and aged mineral dust. Within SAMUM, two field missions were performed: SAMUM-1 (summer 2006, Morocco) focused on the chemical, microphysical, optical and radiative properties of fresh dust aerosol in the vertical column over the Sahara, while SAMUM-2 (winter 2008, Cape Verde) concentrated on the properties of aged dust and the mixing of mineral dust with biomass burning aerosol. During both field experiments, the DLR Falcon research aircraft was equipped with an extensive set of aerosol instruments for size, volatility, and absorption measurements, impactor sampling for chemical analyses and with a nadir-looking High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). In the Cape Verde area, we found a complex stratification with dust covering the altitude range below 2 km and tropical biomass burning layers aloft. We show that the aerosol type of individual aerosol layers can be classified based on depolarization and lidar ratios and, in addition, on in situ measured Ångström exponents of absorption åap. The dust layers had a geometrical depth of 1.3 ± 0.4 km and showed a median åap of 3.95. The median effective diameter Deff was 2.5 μm and the dust layers over Cape Verde yielded clear signals of aging: large particles were depleted due to gravitational settling and the accumulation mode diameter was shifted towards larger sizes as a result of coagulation. The tropical biomass layers had a depth of 2.0 ± 1.1 km and were characterized by a median åap of 1.34. They always contained a certain amount of large dust particles and showed a median Deff of 1.1 μm and a fine mode Deff,fine of 0.33. The dust and biomass burning layers had a median aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.23 and 0.09, respectively. The median contributions of the dust and biomass burning layers to the AOD of the total atmospheric column below 10 km were 75 and 37%, respectively. We present the properties of

  5. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  6. Depth-related changes in community structure of culturable mineral weathering bacteria and in weathering patterns caused by them along two contrasting soil profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xia-Fang; Xi, Jun; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.

  7. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing

  8. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing

  9. Analysis of In-Situ of Ozone Measurements in Saharan Mineral Dust during AEROSE Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, E. D.; Morris, V. R.; Nalli, N. R.; Joseph, E.

    2012-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic Aerosol and Oceanographic Science Expeditions (AEROSE) are a series of experiments that began in 2004 and take place in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. AEROSE collects a unique set of critical measurements to characterize the microphysical and chemical evolution of the Saharan dust aerosols during long-range transport. Continuous in-situ surface level measurements over the tropical Atlantic allows for accurate determination of lower tropospheric ozone concentrations, and its effects on the regional environment and climate that may be used to validate satellite observations. Ozone is instrumental in regulating the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity and can influence background levels of trace chemical species which affect the composition of the atmosphere and create climatic variations. Several studies have shown that ozone concentrations diminish with increased loading of dust particles from the Sahara. Current theories indicate that decomposition of ozone may be due to NOx titrations, decreased radiation, photocatalysis, interactions with organics, or heterogeneous reactions. In effort to understand the response of marine boundary layer ozone with coarse aerosols, analyses of ozone concentrations and aerosol correlations found in dusty Saharan air masses from various cruises will be presented.

  10. Transport of mineral dust derived from airborne wind lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Groß, Silke; Rahm, Stephan; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment conducted between the 10 of June and the 15 of July 2013, the transport and properties of Saharan dust were characterized by a 2-µm Doppler wind lidar (DWL) deployed on the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. Unlike aerosol lidars, the DLW is able to simultaneously measure wind fields and -by means of an adequate calibration- aerosol optical properties, which is more adequate for aerosol transport studies. The retrieved horizontal and vertical wind speed provide a direct observation of dust long range transport mechanisms across the Atlantic (e.g. by the African easterly jet) from Western Africa to the Caribbean. Vertical wind observations revealed the structure of island induced lee waves in the Cape Verde and Barbados regions. A novel method for the calibration of DWLs based on simultaneous measurements with a ground-based aerosol lidar and sun photometer was developed. After being calibrated, the system is able to retrieve quantitative aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients, which is usually not obtained from coherent lidars. Results from the validation with a ground-based aerosol lidar in Barbados and the CALIPSO satellite instrument will be discussed.

  11. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  12. Dual-photon absorptiometry: Comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue mass measurements in vivo with established methods

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Heshka, S.; Kehayias, J.J.; Pierson, R.N.

    1989-06-01

    This study extended initial observations that indicated the potential of dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM) and fat in vivo. DPA-derived TBBM and fat were compared with established methods in 13 subjects (aged 24-94 y) who underwent measurement of body density (Db), total-body water (TBW), potassium (TBK), calcium (TBCa, delayed-gamma neutron activation), and nitrogen (prompt-gamma neutron activation). TBBM was highly correlated with TBCa (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001) and the slope of TBCa vs TBBM (0.34) was similar to Ca content of ashed skeleton (0.34-0.38). DPA-measured fat (means +/- SD, 16.7 +/- 4.9 kg) correlated significantly (r = 0.79-0.94; p less than 0.01-0.001) with fat established by Db (16.3 +/- 5.4 kg), TBW (16.0 +/- 4.3 kg), TBK (17.7 +/- 4.6 kg), combined TBW-neutron activation (17.6 +/- 5.9 kg), and means of all four methods (16.9 +/- 4.8 kg). DPA thus offers a new opportunity to study human skeleton in vivo and to quantify fat by a method independent from the classical assumption that bone represents a fixed fraction of fat-free body mass.

  13. Modeling of the mineral contribution of dust to PM10 directly from the measurements of VIIRS Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albina, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Africa is well known as the largest producing region of dust, which is transported across the Atlantic to the Caribbean, under specific weather conditions. Saharan dust was observed, over the Caribbean Basin, to try to determine the roles they may play in human health, and in the fertilization of Amazon Forest. Scientists have not only used the satellite sensors MODIS and VIIRS to measure the volume of dust that makes this trans-Atlantic journey, but also the AERONET network of photometers, and PM10 Suspended Particulate Matter. We have successfully compared and shown a high correlation between the measurements from VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and PM10 so that to be able to determine an accurate modeling of the mineral contribution of dust to PM10 directly from the measurements of VIIRS. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to accurately forecast the daily mean concentration of PM10 using linear regression models. In this way, countries of the Caribbean region which cannot afford Particle Sensor for Pm10 will be able to have a precise idea of the PM10 daily forecast upon there region.

  14. Diagnosing causes of cloud parameterization deficiencies using ARM measurements over SGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Betts, A. K.

    2010-03-15

    Decade-long continuous surface-based measurements at Great Southern Plains (SGP) collected by the US Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are first used to evaluate the three major reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I and NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II) to identify model biases in simulating surface shortwave cloud forcing and total cloud fraction. The results show large systematic lower biases in the modeled surface shortwave cloud forcing and cloud fraction from all the three reanalysis datasets. Then we focus on diagnosing the causes of these model biases using the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) products (e.g., vertical distribution of cloud fraction, cloud-base and cloud-top heights, and cloud optical depth) and meteorological measurements (temperature, humidity and stability). Efforts are made to couple cloud properties with boundary processes in the diagnosis.

  15. Laboratory measurements of contact nucleation by mineral dusts, bacteria, and soluble salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaus, Joseph

    We present results from experiments that emulate atmospheric ice nucleation by aerosols. We have refined experimental techniques to improve measurements of ice forming nuclei in the contact mode. Our results show that atmospherically relevant dusts such as kaolinite, feldspar, rhyolitic ash, and Arizona Test Dust have efficiencies in the contact mode that are higher than the immersion mode. Experiments with bacteria show that biological material has the potential to contribute significantly to ice concentrations, but has large variability. By choosing a soluble compound as an ice nucleus, we are able to place bounds on the timescale for contact freezing and estimate the nucleation time from impact to be 10--9 seconds. Finally, we conclude that the contact mode can increase nucleation rates in two ways: by the creation of a triple-phase line with an insoluble nucleus, or by the collision event.

  16. A study of the deep mineralization evaluation based on field measured spectra in Wushan-copper deposit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Haifeng; Lin, Qinzhong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qinjun; Jing, Linhai

    2014-11-01

    With the development of Hyperspectra and the method of rock-mineral information extraction, several cores were analyzed based on analytical spectral devices (ASD) and rock-mineral information extraction in Wushan-cooper deposit area. Aiming at the low accuracy of mineral identification with hyperspectral data, the present study established regional spectra library on the basis of the study area geological background, section noise filtering and fast Fourier transform processing methods. Using the rapid quantificational identification model, the rock-mineral alternation information was extracted to build core profile and 3D model to discuss the deep mineralization evaluation. Combing with the regional metallogenic background, the alteration information indicated that the ore mineral was related with multiple alteration assemblages and there may be rock mass in deep space. The Cu element contents and ore mineral were closely related with the skarnization, silicification and chloritization. It also suggested that the deposit was skarn type in less than 1000 m depth, which was affected by the sandstone. Meanwhile, in more than 1000 m depth, the deposit was controlled by composite minerallzation types, which was associated with the previous geology and mineral deposits studies. In summary - this study supported a two stage mineralization model for the Wushan-copper deposit area - namely - the first stage of synsedimentary hydrothermal exhalative stage and the second stage of magmatichydrothermal ore-forming stage.

  17. Proxies and measurement techniques for mineral dust in Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Urs; Barbante, Carlo; Bigler, Matthias; Delmonte, Barbara; Fischer, Hubertus; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gaspari, Vania; Kaufmann, Patrik; Lambert, Fabrice; Maggi, Valter; Marino, Federica; Petit, Jean-Robert; Udisti, Roberto; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Wegner, Anna; Wolff, Eric W

    2008-08-01

    To improve quantitative interpretation of ice core aeolian dust records, a systematic methodological comparison was made. This involved methods for water-insoluble particle counting (Coulter counter and laser-sensing particle detector), soluble ion analysis (ion chromatography and continuous flow analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) cores were used. All methods correlate very well among each other, but the ratios of glacial age to Holocene concentrations, which are typically a factor approximately 100, differ between the methods by up to a factor of 2 with insoluble particles showing the largest variability. The recovery of ICP-MS measurements depends on the digestion method and is differentfor different elements and during different climatic periods. EDC and EDML samples have similar dust composition, which suggests a common dust source or a common mixture of sources for the two sites. The analyzed samples further reveal a change of dust composition during the last deglaciation.

  18. A non-invasive measure of minerals and electrolytes in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Silver, Burton

    1991-01-01

    A system for collecting epithelial cells from the oral mucosa for the determination of ion concentration is discussed with application to the study of man's adaptation to microgravity. A number of characteristics of these cells influenced the choice for clinical testing. They are non-cornified epithelial cells located on the inferior aspect of the tongue; therefore, they are well protected from trauma. They have the capability of reflecting relatively recent physiologic changes since they are renewed every three days and have aerobic metabolism. Most importantly, they are easily accessible and can be removed by a wooden applicator stick with minimum discomfort. Smears of cells removed in this manner show predominantly individual cells rather than sheets of contiuous cells. This facilitates the visual isolation of single cells with the electron microscope for analysis. NASA's principle effort in the development of a test to measure the ion concentration in sublingual cells has been research by the biomedical program carried out by scientists with expertise in skeletal metabolism. These efforts were directed toward determining the biological meaning and deviations in interacellular ions in nonhuman primates and in male volunteers for experiments in a model for weightlessness. A brief one page summary of the experiments and results are presented.

  19. Method for qualitative determination of measurement errors caused by sample fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, David L.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the papers and inks used to produce color hard copy products contain fluorescent materials. Most density and/or color instruments use the ratio of value of the light returned by the sample at each wavelength relative to that returned by a white calibration standard to derive the measurement value. Generally, no effort is made to differentiate between light reflected by the sample and light emitted by the sample due to fluorescence. The blue emitted light resulting from the inclusion of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) in graphic arts materials is excited by violet and ultraviolet (UV) light in the instrument illumination source. Differences in instrument source UV intensity can cause significant differences in the blue reflectance values of FWA containing samples reported by the instrument measurement system. Standard reference materials (SRM) which contain known amounts of FWA are commercially available. These SRMs allow a semiquantitative assessment of the UV content of an instrument's illuminating source. A further refinement, using thin UV cutoff filters, allows the qualitative determination of the presence or absence of FWA in paper samples. We anticipate that with the use of other thin filters, measurement errors caused by visible light excited fluorescence of inks, particular yellows, will be possible.

  20. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ULLAH, Sana; RAHMAN, Khaista; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. Methods: The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were “newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia”, “newborns’ jaundice”, “Physiological Jaundice” and “Patholigical Jaundice”. The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Results: Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Conclusion: Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations. PMID:27398328

  1. Chronic low back pain is associated with reduced vertebral bone mineral measures in community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) experienced in middle-age may have important implications for vertebral bone health, although this issue has not been investigated as a primary aim previously. This study investigated the associations between CLBP and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived vertebral bone mineral measures acquired from postero-anterior and lateral-projections, among community-dwelling, middle-aged adults. Methods Twenty-nine adults with CLBP (11 male, 18 female) and 42 adults with no history of LBP in the preceding year (17 male, 25 female) were evaluated. Self-reported demographic and clinical data were collected via questionnaires. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured in the lumbar spine by DXA. Apparent volumetric (ap.v) BMD in the lumbar spine was also calculated. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between study group (CLBP and control) and vertebral DXA variables by gender, adjusting for height, mass and age. Results There was no difference between groups by gender in anthropometrics or clinical characteristics. In the CLBP group, the mean (SD) duration of CLBP was 13.3 (10.4) years in males and 11.6 (9.9) years in females, with Oswestry Disability Index scores of 16.2 (8.7)% and 15.4 (9.1)%, respectively. Males with CLBP had significantly lower adjusted lateral-projection aBMD and lateral-projection ap.vBMD than controls at L3 with mean differences (standard error) of 0.09 (0.04) g/cm2 (p = 0.03) and 0.02 (0.01) g/cm3 (p = 0.04). These multivariate models accounted for 55% and 53% of the variance in lateral-projection L3 aBMD and lateral-projection L3 ap.vBMD. Conclusions CLBP in males is associated with some lumbar vertebral BMD measures, raising important questions about the mechanism and potential clinical impact of this association. PMID:22458361

  2. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  3. Measurement of temperature decrease caused by blood flow in focused ultrasound irradiation by thermal imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Hatano, Yuichi; Mori, Yashunori; Shen, Rakushin; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to estimate the local temperature changes caused by a thick blood vessel, the temperature distribution in a tissue phantom with a thick blood vessel during focused ultrasound irradiation was measured by a thermal imaging method. The blood flow rate in the simulated blood vessel was varied and the relationship between flow rate and temperature decrease was examined. The phantom using the thermal imaging method is divided into two parts, and the increases in temperature distribution as a function of blood flow rate are measured using a thermocamera under constant ultrasound irradiation. The irradiation conditions of ultrasound waves were a central frequency of 1 MHz, a wave number length of 200 cycles, and a duty ratio of 0.2. The irradiation duration was 5 min, and the ultrasound intensity I SPTA was 36 W/cm2. The amount of temperature decrease caused by the cooling effect of blood flow increased with the blood flow rate and it became constant at a certain threshold of blood flow rate. The threshold of blood flow rate is about 250 ml/min.

  4. Bone mineral (31)P and matrix-bound water densities measured by solid-state (31)P and (1)H MRI.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alan C; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Bashoor-Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A; Wright, Alexander C; Zemel, Babette S; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W

    2014-07-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging because of extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors' age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, aged 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31-phosphorus ((31)P) and 1-hydrogen ((1)H) MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-computed tomography (μCT), and apparent mineral density by peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). MRI-derived densities were compared to X-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral (31)P density was 6.74 ± 1.22 mol/l (corresponding to 1129 ± 204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water (1)H density was 31.3 ± 4.2 mol/l (corresponding to 28.3 ± 3.7 %v/v). Both (31)P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity ((31)P: R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R(2) = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age ((31)P: R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density ((31)P: R(2) = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of (31)P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound

  5. [In vivo measurement of the mineral content of renal calculi by dual-photon absorptiometry. Correlation with its fragility to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, J R; Bogado, C E; Sánchez, T V; Gigler, C; Ghirlanda, J

    1995-01-01

    After a few years of experience with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and other fragmentation techniques, it has become apparent that stone fragility is a significant clinical distinction that should be taken into consideration when selecting a treatment program. In 30 unselected patients, stone mineral content, density and area were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry prior to perform ESWL treatment. Stone area determinations showed a median of 4.21 with a range of 0.46 to 49.7 cm2. Stone mineral content (g) and stone density (g/cm2) values were 2.47 and 0.46 with ranges of 0.37 to 13.7 and 0.167 to 1.203 respectively. The number of shocks needed for total fragmentation were 2375 with a range of 1200 to 7800. No correlation could be found between the number of shocks needed for fragmentation and the stone area or density. On the other hand, a strong linear correlation (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) (Fig. 1) could be demonstrated between stone mineral content and the number of shocks needed for fragmentation. Our results support the concept that size alone is not always a suitable criterion for selecting a stone as appropiate for ESWL, since no correlation could be found between stone area and the number of shocks needed for total fragmentation. We were also unable to find any correlation between in vivo stone density measured by dual-photon absorptiometry and the number of shocks required for stone fragmentation. Instead, a strong linear correlation between stone mineral content and its resistance to shock wave fragmentation was found. Therefore, calculation of mineral content appears to be the determinant of the amount of energy required for total fragmentation. Our results strongly suggest that in vivo stone mineral content measurement provides helpful information for predicting the fragmentation prospect of a stone.

  6. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  7. Measurements of television interference caused by a vertical-axis wind machine. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the 17 m Darreius at Albuquerque, NM, has been studied by carrying out measurements at a number of sites in the vicinity of the VAWT. The rf sources used were the commercial vhf and uhf TV signals available in the area. Ambient field-strength measurements showed that the signals on all TV channels except one were strong, and provided good reception at all test sites. With the antenna (properly) oriented for maximum direct signal, unacceptable interference was observed on some channels at sites out to 33 m from the WT in the forward and backward regions. With the antenna beam directed at the WT, interference varying from slight to violent were observed at all sites on some or all TV channels. A simple theoretical model has been developed for analyzing the TVI produced by a VAWT like the Darrieus. Using the model in conjunction with measured data, an approximate expression for the equivalent scattering area A of the Darrieus has been developed. It is found that A is wavelength (lambda) dependent and varies as lambda/sup 1/2/.

  8. Measurement and understanding of single-molecule break junction rectification caused by asymmetric contacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hamill, Joseph M; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-08-01

    The contact effects of single-molecule break junctions on rectification behaviors were experimentally explored by a systematic control of anchoring groups of 1,4-disubstituted benzene molecular junctions. Single-molecule conductance and I-V characteristic measurements reveal a strong correlation between rectifying effects and the asymmetry in contacts. Analysis using energy band models and I-V calculations suggested that the rectification behavior is mainly caused by asymmetric coupling strengths at the two contact interfaces. Fitting of the rectification ratio by a modified Simmons model we developed suggests asymmetry in potential drop across the asymmetric anchoring groups as the mechanism of rectifying I-V behavior. This study provides direct experimental evidence and sheds light on the mechanisms of rectification behavior induced simply by contact asymmetry, which serves as an aid to interpret future single-molecule electronic behavior involved with asymmetric contact conformation.

  9. Measurement and understanding of single-molecule break junction rectification caused by asymmetric contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hamill, Joseph M.; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-08-07

    The contact effects of single-molecule break junctions on rectification behaviors were experimentally explored by a systematic control of anchoring groups of 1,4-disubstituted benzene molecular junctions. Single-molecule conductance and I-V characteristic measurements reveal a strong correlation between rectifying effects and the asymmetry in contacts. Analysis using energy band models and I-V calculations suggested that the rectification behavior is mainly caused by asymmetric coupling strengths at the two contact interfaces. Fitting of the rectification ratio by a modified Simmons model we developed suggests asymmetry in potential drop across the asymmetric anchoring groups as the mechanism of rectifying I-V behavior. This study provides direct experimental evidence and sheds light on the mechanisms of rectification behavior induced simply by contact asymmetry, which serves as an aid to interpret future single-molecule electronic behavior involved with asymmetric contact conformation.

  10. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  11. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

  12. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  13. Empirical versus modelling approaches to the estimation of measurement uncertainty caused by primary sampling.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Jennifer A; Ramsey, Michael H; Damant, Andrew P; Wood, Roger

    2007-12-01

    Measurement uncertainty is a vital issue within analytical science. There are strong arguments that primary sampling should be considered the first and perhaps the most influential step in the measurement process. Increasingly, analytical laboratories are required to report measurement results to clients together with estimates of the uncertainty. Furthermore, these estimates can be used when pursuing regulation enforcement to decide whether a measured analyte concentration is above a threshold value. With its recognised importance in analytical measurement, the question arises of 'what is the most appropriate method to estimate the measurement uncertainty?'. Two broad methods for uncertainty estimation are identified, the modelling method and the empirical method. In modelling, the estimation of uncertainty involves the identification, quantification and summation (as variances) of each potential source of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to purely analytical systems, but becomes increasingly problematic in identifying all of such sources when it is applied to primary sampling. Applications of this methodology to sampling often utilise long-established theoretical models of sampling and adopt the assumption that a 'correct' sampling protocol will ensure a representative sample. The empirical approach to uncertainty estimation involves replicated measurements from either inter-organisational trials and/or internal method validation and quality control. A more simple method involves duplicating sampling and analysis, by one organisation, for a small proportion of the total number of samples. This has proven to be a suitable alternative to these often expensive and time-consuming trials, in routine surveillance and one-off surveys, especially where heterogeneity is the main source of uncertainty. A case study of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts is used to broadly demonstrate the strengths and weakness of the two methods of uncertainty estimation. The estimate

  14. Empirical versus modelling approaches to the estimation of measurement uncertainty caused by primary sampling.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Jennifer A; Ramsey, Michael H; Damant, Andrew P; Wood, Roger

    2007-12-01

    Measurement uncertainty is a vital issue within analytical science. There are strong arguments that primary sampling should be considered the first and perhaps the most influential step in the measurement process. Increasingly, analytical laboratories are required to report measurement results to clients together with estimates of the uncertainty. Furthermore, these estimates can be used when pursuing regulation enforcement to decide whether a measured analyte concentration is above a threshold value. With its recognised importance in analytical measurement, the question arises of 'what is the most appropriate method to estimate the measurement uncertainty?'. Two broad methods for uncertainty estimation are identified, the modelling method and the empirical method. In modelling, the estimation of uncertainty involves the identification, quantification and summation (as variances) of each potential source of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to purely analytical systems, but becomes increasingly problematic in identifying all of such sources when it is applied to primary sampling. Applications of this methodology to sampling often utilise long-established theoretical models of sampling and adopt the assumption that a 'correct' sampling protocol will ensure a representative sample. The empirical approach to uncertainty estimation involves replicated measurements from either inter-organisational trials and/or internal method validation and quality control. A more simple method involves duplicating sampling and analysis, by one organisation, for a small proportion of the total number of samples. This has proven to be a suitable alternative to these often expensive and time-consuming trials, in routine surveillance and one-off surveys, especially where heterogeneity is the main source of uncertainty. A case study of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts is used to broadly demonstrate the strengths and weakness of the two methods of uncertainty estimation. The estimate

  15. Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of the 48 million annual deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) occur without medical attention at the time of death so that the causes of death (COD) are largely unknown. A review of low-cost methods of obtaining nationally representative COD data is timely. Discussion Despite clear historic evidence of their usefulness, most LMICs lack reliable nationally representative COD data. Indirect methods to estimate COD for most countries are inadequate, mainly because they currently rely on an average ratio of 1 nationally representative COD to every 850 estimated deaths in order to measure the cause of 25 million deaths across 110 LMICs. Direct measurement of COD is far more reliable and relevant for country priorities. Five feasible methods to expand COD data are: sample registration systems (which form the basis for the ongoing Million Death Study in India; MDS); strengthening the INDEPTH network of 42 demographic surveillance sites; adding retrospective COD surveys to the demographic household and health surveys in 90 countries; post-census retrospective mortality surveys; and for smaller countries, systematic assembly of health records. Lessons learned from the MDS, especially on low-cost, high-quality methods of verbal autopsy, paired with emerging use of electronic data capture and other innovations, can make COD systems low-cost and relevant for a wide range of childhood and adult conditions. Summary Low-cost systems to obtain and report CODs are possible. If implemented widely, COD systems could identify disease control priorities, help detect emerging epidemics, enable evaluation of disease control programs, advance indirect methods, and improve the accountability for expenditures of disease control programs. PMID:24495839

  16. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  17. Dynamic Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Respirations Caused by Changing Oxygen Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, D.; Saad, N.

    2015-12-01

    The necessity for constant monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is clearly evident now more than ever. Moreover, interpreting and understanding the processes that dictate the production and consumption of these gases will allow for proper management of GHGs in order to mitigate its detrimental climate effects. Presence of oxygen, or lack of it, is the driving force for determining pathways within biochemical redox reactions. Experiments to find correlations between oxygen and greenhouse gases have helped us understand photosynthesis, denitrification and beyond. Within the past few years measurements of O2 and nitrous oxide have been used over a wide ranging array of disciplines; from studying avenues for redox chemistry to characterizing gas profiles in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. We present a full analysis solution, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, for simultaneous measurements of N2O, CO2, CH4, H2O, NH3, and O2 concentrations in soil flux, in order to better understand dynamics of ecological and biogeochemical processes. The stability and high temporal resolution of the five-species CRDS analyzer, coupled with a continuous high-precision O2 measurement (1-σ <200ppm) produces a complete picture of biogeochemical processes, for which a multitude of additional research experiments can be conceived. Adding another dimension to explore to help determine the rate at which these greenhouse gases are produced or consumed, allows scientists to further address fundamental scientific questions. Data is presented showing precision, drift and limitations of the O2 sensor measurement as well as the validity of spectroscopic corrections with the CRDS analyzer caused by changing O2. Experimental data is also presented to explore correlations of soil respiration rates of N2O, CO2 and CH4 due to differing soil O2 contents at varying timescales from minutes to days.

  18. Bone mineral density assessment: comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements at the calcaneus, spine, and hip.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Ann T; Malabanan, Alan O; Blake, Michael A; Weinberg, Janice; Turner, Adrian; Ray, Patricia; Holick, Michael F

    2002-01-01

    It is widely accepted that bone mineral density (BMD) measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the spine, hip, and calcaneus predict fracture risk. Few published studies to date have examined the relationship between pDXA measurements at the calcaneus to those at the hip and spine. It has been demonstrated that T-score-based criteria cannot be universally applied to all skeletal sites and measurement technologies. Our goal was to define the calcaneal T-score threshold equivalent to low bone mass at the hip or spine. A total of 119 female patients between the ages of 33 and 76 yr of age were recruited at Boston University Medical Center for bone densitometry screening. Bone density measurements were obtained at the calcaneus using the portable Norland Apollo Densitometer (Norland Medical Systems, Fort Atkinson, WI) and at the hip and spine using the Norland Eclipse densitometer. By defining a pDXA T-score < or =-1 as a positive test and DXA scores < or =-1 as the presence of low bone mass, we obtained a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 73% (positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 80%) in detecting low bone mass at the femoral neck in women over age 65 yr. In women between 40 and 65 yr of age, we obtained a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 93% (positive predictive value 93% and negative predictive value 50%) in detecting low bone mass at the femoral neck. In women less than 40 yr of age, we obtained a sensitivity of 13% and a specificity of 100% (positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 75%) in detecting low bone mass at the femoral neck. From receiver operating characteristic curves, a calcaneal T-score < or =0.0 detects those with a T-score < or =-1 at the femoral neck and lumbar spine with 100% and 85% sensitivity, respectively. Peripheral DXA of the calcaneus is a sensitive and specific test to diagnose low bone mass in women over 65 yr of age. In women under 65 yr of age, this

  19. Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation.

  20. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  1. Comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with dual-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the measurement of thoracic vertebral bone mineral density: compressive force versus bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Myers, T J; Battocletti, J H; Mahesh, M; Gulati, M; Wilson, C R; Pintar, F; Reinartz, J

    1994-05-01

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) measurements were made on human T2 and T3 vertebral bodies. The bone mineral content (BMC) of isolated vertebral bodies minus the posterior elements and disks was measured using (1) NMRS on a 3.5 T, 85 mm bore GE Medical Systems NT-150 superconducting spectrometer, (2) a Lunar Corporation DPX-L dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner in an anterior-posterior (AP) orientation, (3) a Norland Corporation XR26 DXA scanner, also in an AP direction, and (4) a Norland Corporation model 2600 dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) densitometer in both the AP and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Vertebral body volumes were measured using a water displacement technique to determine volume bone mineral densities (VBMD). They were then compressed to failure using an electrohydraulic testing device, followed by ashing in a muffle furnace at 700 degrees C for 18 h. Correlations of BMC between NMRS and DPA, DXA and ashing were excellent (0.96 < or = r < or = 0.99); in a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, means were not statistically different at a p level of 0.757. The correlations of VBMD between NMRS and the other methods were not as good (0.83 < or = r < or = 0.95); in a one-way ANOVA test, means were not statistically different at a p level of 0.089. BMC was a better predictor of ultimate compressive failure than VBMD for all six methods. For NMRS, the regression coefficient for BMC was r2 = 0.806, compared with r2 = 0.505 for VBMD. NMRS may prove an alternative to present methods of determining bone mineral. PMID:8069051

  2. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    PRODAN, CAMELIA; SLATER, LEE; NTARLAGIANNIS, DIMITRIOS

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  3. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Camelia

    2013-06-14

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  4. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 1. Mineral abundances inferred from spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weidong; Lucey, Paul G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Di, Kaichang; Wan, Wenhui; Xu, Bin; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei; Xue, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer on board the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission measured the lunar surface reflectance at a close distance (~1 m) and collected four spectra at four different sites. These in situ lunar spectra have revealed less mature features than that measured remotely by spaceborne sensors such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 mission and the Spectral Profiler on board the Kaguya over the same region. Mineral composition analysis using a spectral lookup table populated with a radiative transfer mixing model has shown that the regolith at the landing site contains high abundance of olivine. The mineral abundance results are consistent with that inferred from the compound measurement made by the on board alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer.

  5. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  6. Bone mineral measurements: a comparison of delayed gamma neutron activation, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and direct chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Economos, C D; Nelson, M E; Fiatarone Singh, M A; Kehayias, J J; Dallal, G E; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Yasumura, S; Ma, R; Pierson, R N

    1999-01-01

    A system in vitro consisting of a femur from a cadaver and soft-tissue equivalent material was used to test the agreement between several techniques for measuring bone mineral. Calcium values measured by delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by Lunar, Hologic and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (DXA) were compared with calcium and ash content determined by direct chemical analysis. To assess the effect of soft-tissue thickness on measurements of bone mineral, we had three phantom configurations ranging from 15.0 to 26.0 cm in thickness, achieved by using soft-tissue equivalent overlays. Chemical analysis of the femur gave calcium and ash content values of 61.83 g +/- 0.51 g and 154.120 +/- 0.004 g, respectively. Calcium measured by DGNA did not differ from the ashed amount of calcium at any of the phantom configurations. The BMC measured by DXA was significantly higher, by 3-5%, than the amount determined by chemical analysis for the Lunar densitometer and significantly lower, by 3-6%, for the Norland densitometer (p<0.001-0.024), but only 1% lower (not significant) for the Hologic densitometer. DXA instruments showed a decreasing trend in BMC as the thickness increased from 20.5 to 26.0 cm (p<0.05). However, within the entire thickness range (15.0-26.0 cm), the overall influence of thickness on BMC by DXA was very small. These findings offer insight into the differences in these currently available methods for bone mineral measurement and challenge the comparability of different methods. PMID:10525711

  7. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  8. Investigation of the Ionospheric Fluctuations Caused by Space Weather Effects Using GNSS TEC Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Cherniak, Iurii; Ephishov, Ivan; Zakharenkova, Irina; Yakimova, Galina

    2013-04-01

    It is known that GPS radio signals passing through the ionosphere suffer varying degrees of rapid variations of their amplitude and phase - signal scintillations. The scintillations are caused by the presence of wide range of scale size irregularities in the ionosphere. It is very important to estimate scintillation and phase fluctuation effects on GNSS navigation system (GPS/GLONASS) performance and consequently on the precession of the obtained position. Effects of the ionospheric irregularities on the GPS signals can be evaluated by measurements of the differential phase time rate of dual frequency GPS signals. GPS observations carried out at the Arctic IGS (International GNSS Service) stations were used to study the development of TEC fluctuations in the high latitude ionosphere. Standard GPS measurements with 30s sampling rate allow the detection of middle- and large-scale ionospheric irregularities. For detection of ionospheric fluctuations the rate of TEC (ROT, in the unit of TECU/min) at 1 min interval was used. The temporal occurrence of TEC fluctuations is clearly observed in time variations in the dual frequency carrier phase along satellite passes. As a measure of the fluctuation activity level the Rate of TEC Index (ROTI) based on standard deviation of ROT was also used. ROTI was estimated in 10-minute interval. These techniques and IGS data were used to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations at the northern latitude ionosphere for selected geomagnetic storms occurred at the end of 23rd and beginning of new 24th solar cycles. Results demonstrate that fluctuation activity of GPS signals in the high latitude ionosphere is depended on geomagnetic conditions. Intensity of fluctuations essentially increases during geomagnetic storms. The strongest TEC fluctuations occurred as short time rate of TEC enhancements of a factor of 2-5 relative to the quiet time. During geomagnetic disturbed conditions strong phase fluctuations can register at latitudes low

  9. Ion microprobe measurements of 18O/ 16O ratios of phosphate minerals in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, James P.; Blake, Ruth E.; Coath, Christopher D.

    2003-06-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of merrillite and chlorapatite in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Los Angeles have been measured by ion microprobe in multicollector mode. δ 18O values of phosphate minerals measured in situ range from ˜3 to 6‰, and are similar to Martian meteorite whole-rock values, as well as the δ 18O of igneous phosphate on Earth. These results suggest that the primary, abiotic, igneous phosphate reservoir on Mars is similar in oxygen isotopic composition to the basaltic phosphate reservoir on Earth. This is an important first step in the characterization of Martian phosphate reservoirs for the use of δ 18O of phosphate minerals as a biomarker for life on Mars. Cumulative textural, major-element, and isotopic evidence presented here suggest a primary, igneous origin for the phosphates in Los Angeles and ALH84001; textural and chemical evidence suggests that phosphates in ALH84001 were subsequently shock-melted in a later event.

  10. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  11. Study of asthenopia caused by the viewing of stereoscopic images: measurement by MEG and other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagura, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Masayuki

    2006-02-01

    Three-Dimensional (hereafter, 3D) imaging is one of the very powerful tools to help the people to understand the spatial relationship of objects. Various glassless 3D imaging technologies for 3D TV, personal computers, PDA and cellular phones have been developed. These devices are often viewed for long periods. Most of the people who watch 3D images for a long time, experience asthenopia or eye fatigue. This concerns a preliminary study that attempted to find the basic cause of the problem by using MEG and the other devices. Plans call for further neurophysiological study on this subject. The purpose of my study is to design a standard or guidelines for shooting, image processing, and displaying 3D images to create the suitable images with higher quality and less or no asthenopia. Although it is difficult to completely avoid asthenopia when viewing 3D images, it would be useful if guidelines for the production of such images could be established that reduced its severity. The final goal of my research is to formulate such guidelines with an objective basis derived from measurement results from MEG and other devices. In addition to the study I was in charge of the work to install the world largest glasses-free 3D display to Japan Pavilion Nagakute in the 2005 World Exposition, Aichi, Japan during March, 25th to September 25th, 2005. And several types of large screen for 3D movies were available for testing, the result of the test to this report are added.

  12. Measurements of gas/oil free surface deformation caused by parallel gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Mialdun, A.; Nishino, K.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-06-01

    Flow-induced dynamic free-surface deformations are experimentally studied in a confined liquid volume of 5cSt silicone oil (Prandtl number Pr = 68). The geometry of the problem is a liquid column concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel. A gas stream entering the duct from the top or bottom entrains the motionless liquid. The dynamic deformation of the gas-liquid interface is caused by a steady axisymmetric shear-driven flow. The experiments are performed in normal gravity conditions and the static deformation of a liquid bridge interface is unavoidable. The magnitude and shape of the dynamic surface deformation are analyzed using optical measurements with a comprehensive treatment of the images. The deviation of the free surface shape from the corresponding equilibrium profile is determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 μm. The order of magnitude of the interface deformation is proportional to the capillary number, which is defined as the ratio of the viscous force per unit area to the capillary pressure. The study is performed for a large range of volumes and aspect ratios as well as for different gas velocities. As a general trend, the dynamic deformation grows with the gas velocity, which plays the role of a driving force, but a linear dependence is not observed for all volume ratios, despite the small Reynolds numbers, 280 < Reg < 560. The dynamic deformation displays a strong dependence on the liquid volume ratio and the direction of the gas stream parallel to the interface. When the gas flow is directed against gravity, the largest interface deformations are observed at the smallest volumes among the analyzed ones. In contrast, when the gas stream is aligned with gravity, then the deformations decrease with a decrease in the volume ratio, at a certain value attaining zero (vanishing) and then changing sign.

  13. Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Beaudette, Lee A.; Davies, Stephen; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Ward, Owen P.; Pickard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were used to compare the biodegradation of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by 12 white rot fungi. Four fungi were found to be more active than Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. Biodegradation of the following congeners was monitored by gas chromatography: 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4′,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4′,5-TCB), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4′,5-[U-14C]TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725, a strain frequently used in studies of PCB degradation, gave the lowest mineralization and biodegradation activities of the 12 fungi reported here. Low but detectable levels of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity were present in culture supernatants, but no correlation was observed among any combination of PCB congener biodegradation, mineralization, and lignin peroxidase or manganese peroxidase activity. With the exception of P. chrysosporium, congener loss ranged from 40 to 96%; however, these values varied due to nonspecific congener binding to fungal biomass and glassware. Mineralization was much lower, ≤11%, because it measures a complete oxidation of at least part of the congener molecule but the results were more consistent and therefore more reliable in assessment of PCB biodegradation. PMID:9603809

  14. A metrological approach to measuring 40Ar* concentrations in K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Postma, Onno; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Mark, Darren F.; van der Plas, Wim; Davidson, Stuart; Perkin, Michael; Villa, Igor M.; Wijbrans, Jan R.

    2011-10-01

    In geochronology, isotopic ages are determined from the ratio of parent and daughter nuclide concentrations in minerals. For dating of geological material using the K-Ar system, the simultaneous determination of 40Ar and 40K concentrations on the same aliquot is not possible. Therefore, a widely used variant, the 40Ar/39Ar technique, involves the production of 39Ar from 39K by neutron bombardment and the reliance on indirect natural calibrators of the neutron flux, referred to as "mineral standards." Many mineral standards still in use rely on decades-old determinations of 40Ar concentrations; resulting uncertainties, both systematic and analytical, impede the determination of higher accuracy ages using the K-Ar decay system. We discuss the theoretical approach and technical design of a gas delivery system which emits metrologically traceable amounts of 40Ar and will allow for the sensitivity calibration of noble gas mass spectrometers. The design of this system is based on a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty budget and detailed tests of a prototype system. A number of obstacles and proposed resolutions are discussed along with the selection of components and their integration into a pipette system.

  15. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  16. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  17. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. Methods We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Results Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Conclusions Physician review of verbal

  18. Pulse thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of sound, de-mineralized and re-mineralized enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Sharp, Nathan; Adams, Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Current limitations for diagnosing mineralization state of tooth enamel can lead to improper surgical treatments. A method is investigated by which the tooth health state is characterized according to its thermal response, which is hypothesized to be sensitive to increased porosity in enamel that is caused by demineralization. Several specimens consisting of previously extracted human teeth a re prepared by exposure to Streptococcus mutans A32-2 in trypticase-soy-borth supplemented with 5% sucrose at 37°C for 3 or 6 days to de-mineralize two 1×1mm2-windows on each tooth. One of these windows is then re-mineralized with 250 or 1,100ppm-F as NaF for 10 days by pH-cyclic-model. Pulse thermography is used to measure the thermal response of these sections as well as the sound (healthy) portions of the specimen. A spatial profile of the thermal parameters of the specimens is then extracted from the thermography data and are used to compare the sound, de-mineralized, and re-mineralized areas. Results show that the thermal parameters are sensitive to the mineralization state of the tooth and that this method has the potential to accurately and quickly characterize the mineralization state of teeth, thereby allowing future dentists to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment for teeth that have experienced demineralization.

  19. Systematic errors in the measurement of emissivity caused by directional effects.

    PubMed

    Kribus, Abraham; Vishnevetsky, Irna; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2003-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface emissivity is essential for applications in remote sensing (remote temperature measurement), radiative transport, and modeling of environmental energy balances. Direct measurements of surface emissivity are difficult when there is considerable background radiation at the same wavelength as the emitted radiation. This occurs, for example, when objects at temperatures near room temperature are measured in a terrestrial environment by use ofthe infrared 8-14-microm band.This problem is usually treated by assumption of a perfectly diffuse surface or of diffuse background radiation. However, real surfaces and actual background radiation are not diffuse; therefore there will be a systematic measurement error. It is demonstrated that, in some cases, the deviations from a diffuse behavior lead to large errors in the measured emissivity. Past measurements made with simplifying assumptions should therefore be reevaluated and corrected. Recommendations are presented for improving experimental procedures in emissivity measurement.

  20. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. Methods We studied 367,932 adults (20–93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996–2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24–1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54–2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73m2 when eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10–2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66–2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32–1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96–2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Conclusion Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention

  1. Enabling the measurement of in-situ, atomic scale mineral transformation rates in supercritical CO2 through development of a high pressure AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, S.; Higgins, S. R.; Knauss, K. G.; Rosso, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations represents one promising scenario for minimizing the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming. The ability to demonstrate that CO2 will remain stored in the geological formation over the long-term is needed in support of widespread implementation decisions, and knowledge of mineral-fluid chemical transformation rates is an essential aspect. The majority of previous research on mineral-fluid interactions has focused primarily on the reactivity of minerals in aqueous solutions containing various amounts of dissolved CO2. Long-term caprock integrity, however, could also be dictated by mineral transformations occurring in low-water environments dominated by the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluid phase, which is expected to slowly displace or dessicate residual aqueous solution at the caprock-fluid interface. Many of the mechanisms of mineral interfacial reactions with hydrated or water-saturated scCO2 are unknown and there are unique challenges to obtain kinetic and thermodynamic data for mineral transformation reactions in these fluids. We are developing a high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that will enable in-situ, atomic scale measurements of metal carbonate nucleation and growth rates on mineral surfaces in contact with hydrated scCO2 fluids. This apparatus is based on the hydrothermal AFM that was developed by Higgins et al.1, but includes some enhancements and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 bar. The noise in our optically-based cantilever deflection detection scheme is subject to perturbations in the density (due to index of refraction dependence) of the compressible supercritical fluid. Consequently, variations in temperature and pressure within the fluid cell are a primary technical challenge with possible significant impact in imaging resolution. We demonstrate with our test fluid cell that the equivalent rms noise in the deflection signal is similar to (and in some cases

  2. Estimation of measurement uncertainty caused by surface gradient for a white light interferometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyu; Cheung, Chi Fai; Ren, Mingjun; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang

    2015-10-10

    Although the scanning white light interferometer can provide measurement results with subnanometer resolution, the measurement accuracy is far from perfect. The surface roughness and surface gradient have significant influence on the measurement uncertainty since the corresponding height differences within a single CCD pixel cannot be resolved. This paper presents an uncertainty estimation method for estimating the measurement uncertainty due to the surface gradient of the workpiece. The method is developed based on the mathematical expression of an uncertainty estimation model which is derived and verified through a series of experiments. The results show that there is a notable similarity between the predicted uncertainty from the uncertainty estimation model and the experimental measurement uncertainty, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. With the establishment of the proposed uncertainty estimation method, the uncertainty associated with the measurement result can be determined conveniently.

  3. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised. PMID:27775250

  4. A Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Metal Adsorption at the Biofilm/Mineral Interface: Comparison Between Thermodynamic Model Results and In-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Ha, J.; Wang, Y.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Cordova-Ardy, C.; Gescher, J.; Bargar, J. R.; Rogers, J.; Eng, P. J.; Ghose, S. K.; Farges, F.; Spormann, A. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces in water-rock systems. Bacteria are effective adsorbents of metal ions and can form colonies on the surfaces of minerals. The resulting biofilm coatings may create local microenvironments that could change significantly trace metal ion sorption compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify the different types of metal binding sites in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 (wild type) as well as the nature of the functional groups involved in metal complexation. Adsorption affinities of these sites for Pb(II) and Zn(II) as well as site densities were determined by fitting metal adsorption data as a function of pH and ionic strength using a constant capacitance model in the FITEQL computer code. Electrokinetic techniques were used to determine the biofilm influence on the overall mineral surface charge. This influence was quantified by determining the in-situ partitioning of Pb(II) between S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms and highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-alumina (1-102) and hematite (0001) using the long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) method. ATR-FTIR spectra of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 revealed the presence of carboxyl, amide, and phosphate groups, as well as carbohydrate moieties. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of S. oneidensis MR-1 cell surfaces indicate that the bacterial surfaces become negatively charged at pH ~ 3.5, suggesting a high Pb(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of the biofilm. Changes in ionic strengths from 1M to 0.01M NaNO3 had no effect on the interactions of the metal ions with the bacteria, suggesting that the physical structure of the cell wall does not change over this range of electrolyte concentrations. The thermodynamic stability of metal complexes on S. oneidensis and the binding sites concentrations for these metal complexes have been determined by FITEQL

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    International Strategic Minerals Inventory) are the basis for some reserves estimates. The USGS collects information about the quantity and quality of mineral resources but does not directly measure reserves, and companies or governments do not directly report reserves to the USGS. Reassessment of reserves is a continuing process, and the intensity of this process differs for mineral commodities, countries, and time period. Throughout the history of Mineral Commodity Summaries and its predecessor prior to 1978, Commodity Data Summaries, the presentation of resource data has evolved. Although world resources have been discussed each year, presentation of reserves and reserve base data varied. From 1957 through 1979, only reserves information was published in the reports, but from 1980 through 1987, only estimates of reserve base, a concept introduced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and the USGS in 1980, were published. Beginning in 1988, both reserves and reserve base information were listed for each mineral commodity where applicable and available. Prior to 1996, the minerals availability studies conducted by the USBM and work with international collaborators were the basis for reserve base data reported in Mineral Commodity Summaries. When the USBM was closed in 1996, this function was discontinued. Since that time, reserve base estimates have been updated to be consistent with changes in reserves, but the nonreserves component of the information upon which the reserve base data were estimated is not current enough to support defensible reserve base estimates. For that reason, publication of reserve base estimates was discontinued for Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. A resource/reserve classification for minerals, based on USGS Circular 831 (published with the U.S. Bureau of Mines) is Appendix C, and a directory of USGS minerals

  6. Centimeter-scale surface deformation caused by the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake sequence at the Carter farm site—Subsidiary structures with a quaternary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.; Horton, J. Wright; Carter, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Centimeter-scale ground-surface deformation was produced by the August 23, 2011, magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake that occurred in Mineral, Virginia. Ground-surface deformation also resulted from the earthquake aftershock sequence. This deformation occurred along a linear northeast-trend near Pendleton, Virginia. It is approximately 10 kilometers (km) northeast of the M5.8 epicenter and near the northeastern periphery of the epicentral area as defined by aftershocks. The ground-surface deformation extends over a distance of approximately 1.4 km and consists of parallel, small-scale (a few centimeters (cm) in amplitude) linear ridges and swales. Individual ridge and swale features are discontinuous and vary in length across a zone that ranges from about 20 meters (m) to less than 5 m in width. At one location, three fence posts and adjoining rails were vertically misaligned. Approximately 5 cm of uplift on one post provides a maximum estimate of vertical change from pre-earthquake conditions along the ridge and swale features. There was no change in the alignment of fence posts, indicating that deformation was entirely vertical. A broad monoclinal flexure with approximately 1 m of relief was identified by transit survey across surface deformation at the Carter farm site. There, surface deformation overlies the Carter farm fault, which is a zone of brittle faulting and fracturing along quartz veins, striking N40°E and dipping approximately 75°SE. Brecciation and shearing along this fault is interpreted as Quaternary in age because it disrupts the modern B-soil horizon. However, deformation is confined to saprolitized schist of the Ordovician Quantico Formation and the lowermost portion of overlying residuum, and is absent in the uppermost residuum and colluvial layer at the ground surface. Because there is a lack of surface shearing and very low relief, landslide processes were not a causative mechanism for the surface deformation. Two possible tectonic models and one

  7. Centimeter-scale surface deformation caused by the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake sequence at the Carter farm site—Subsidiary structures with a quaternary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.; Horton, J. Wright; Carter, Mark W.

    2016-08-25

    Centimeter-scale ground-surface deformation was produced by the August 23, 2011, magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake that occurred in Mineral, Virginia. Ground-surface deformation also resulted from the earthquake aftershock sequence. This deformation occurred along a linear northeast-trend near Pendleton, Virginia. It is approximately 10 kilometers (km) northeast of the M5.8 epicenter and near the northeastern periphery of the epicentral area as defined by aftershocks. The ground-surface deformation extends over a distance of approximately 1.4 km and consists of parallel, small-scale (a few centimeters (cm) in amplitude) linear ridges and swales. Individual ridge and swale features are discontinuous and vary in length across a zone that ranges from about 20 meters (m) to less than 5 m in width. At one location, three fence posts and adjoining rails were vertically misaligned. Approximately 5 cm of uplift on one post provides a maximum estimate of vertical change from pre-earthquake conditions along the ridge and swale features. There was no change in the alignment of fence posts, indicating that deformation was entirely vertical. A broad monoclinal flexure with approximately 1 m of relief was identified by transit survey across surface deformation at the Carter farm site. There, surface deformation overlies the Carter farm fault, which is a zone of brittle faulting and fracturing along quartz veins, striking N40°E and dipping approximately 75°SE. Brecciation and shearing along this fault is interpreted as Quaternary in age because it disrupts the modern B-soil horizon. However, deformation is confined to saprolitized schist of the Ordovician Quantico Formation and the lowermost portion of overlying residuum, and is absent in the uppermost residuum and colluvial layer at the ground surface. Because there is a lack of surface shearing and very low relief, landslide processes were not a causative mechanism for the surface deformation. Two possible tectonic models and one

  8. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  9. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb.

  10. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  11. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  12. Mass measurement errors caused by 'local" frequency perturbations in FTICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Masselon, Christophe; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Anderson, Gordon A; Harkewicz, Richard; Smith, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    One of the key qualities of mass spectrometric measurements for biomolecules is the mass measurement accuracy (MMA) obtained. FTICR presently provides the highest MMA over a broad m/z range. However, due to space charge effects, the achievable MMA crucially depends on the number of ions trapped in the ICR cell for a measurement. Thus, beyond some point, as the effective sensitivity and dynamic range of a measurement increase, MMA tends to decrease. While analyzing deviations from the commonly used calibration law in FTICR we have found systematic errors which are not accounted for by a "global" space charge correction approach. The analysis of these errors and their dependence on charge population and post-excite radius have led us to conclude that each ion cloud experiences a different interaction with other ion clouds. We propose a novel calibration function which is shown to provide an improvement in MMA for all the spectra studied.

  13. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures.

  14. Air pollution caused by opencast mining and its abatement measures in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K; Majee, S R

    2001-10-01

    Opencast mining dominates coal production in India. A survey was conducted to evaluate its local atmospheric impact. Emissions data were utilised to compute dust generation due to different mining activities. Work zone air quality, ambient air quality and seasonal variations are described revealing high pollution potential due to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and consequent impact on human health. Air pollution control measures involve planning and implementing a series of preventive and suppressive measures in addition to dust extraction systems. Different abatement measures are enumerated. Pollution control by trees, the tolerance of trees to different air pollutants and plant species useful for controlling pollution are also discussed. There is a need for wider application of dust control chemicals on haul roads. Sustainable management of pollution can be achieved by the proper implementation of suggested abatement measures. PMID:11721598

  15. Measurement of lattice damage caused by ion-implantation doping of semiconductors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsperger, R. G.; Wolf, E. D.; Shifrin, G. A.; Marsh, O. J.; Jamba, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of two new techniques used to measure the lattice damage produced in GaAs by the implantation of 60 keV cadmium ions. In the first method, optical reflection spectra of the ion-implanted samples were measured in the wavelength range from 2000 to 4600 A. The decrease in reflectivity resulting from ion-implantation was used to determine the relative amount of lattice damage as a function of ion dose. The second technique employed the scanning electron microscope. Patterns very similar in appearance to Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns are obtained when the secondary and/or backscattered electron intensity is displayed as a function of the angle of incidence of the electron beam on a single crystal surface. The results of measurements made by both methods are compared with each other and with data obtained by the method of measuring lattice damage by Rutherford scattering of 1 MeV helium ions.

  16. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  17. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  18. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  19. Root-Specific Reduction of Cytokinin Causes Enhanced Root Growth, Drought Tolerance, and Leaf Mineral Enrichment in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tomáš; Nehnevajova, Erika; Köllmer, Ireen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Krämer, Ute; Schmülling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing root system architecture can overcome yield limitations in crop plants caused by water or nutrient shortages. Classic breeding approaches are difficult because the trait is governed by many genes and is difficult to score. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with enhanced root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, a negative regulator of root growth. These transgenic plants form a larger root system, whereas growth and development of the shoot are similar. Elongation of the primary root, root branching, and root biomass formation were increased by up to 60% in transgenic lines, increasing the root-to-shoot ratio. We thus demonstrated that a single dominant gene could regulate a complex trait, root growth. Moreover, we showed that cytokinin regulates root growth in a largely organ-autonomous fashion that is consistent with its dual role as a hormone with both paracrine and long-distance activities. Transgenic plants had a higher survival rate after severe drought treatment. The accumulation of several elements, including S, P, Mn, Mg, Zn, as well as Cd from a contaminated soil, was significantly increased in shoots. Under conditions of sulfur or magnesium deficiency, leaf chlorophyll content was less affected in transgenic plants, demonstrating the physiological relevance of shoot element accumulation. Our approach might contribute to improve drought tolerance, nutrient efficiency, and nutrient content of crop plants. PMID:21148816

  20. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area. PMID:24958430

  1. Mammographic density measured as changes in tissue structure caused by HRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Nielsen, Mads

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relation between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. These studies indicate that women with high breast density have a four to six fold risk increase. An investigation of whether or not this relation is causal is important for, e.g., hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which has been shown to actually increase the density. No gold standard for automatic assessment of mammographic density exists. Manual methods such as Wolfe patterns and BI-RADS are helpful for communication of diagnostic sensitivity, but they are both time consuming and crude. They may be sufficient in certain cases and for single measurements, but for serial, temporal analysis it is necessary to be able to detect more subtle changes and, in addition, to be more reproducible. In this work an automated method for measuring the effect of HRT w.r.t. changes in biological density in the breast is presented. This measure is a novel measure, which provides structural information orthogonal to intensity-based methods. Hessian eigenvalues at different scales are used as features and a clustering of these is employed to divide a mammogram into four structurally different areas. Subsequently, based on the relative size of the areas, a density score is determined. In the experiments, two sets of mammograms of 50 patients from a double blind, placebo controlled HRT experiment were used. The change in density for the HRT group, measured with the new method, was significantly higher (p = 0.0002) than the change in the control group.

  2. VOC and VOX in fluid inclusions of quartz: New chemical insights into hydrothermal vein mineralization by GC-MS and GC-IRMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Kirnbauer, Thomas; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Fischer, Jan; Spiekermann, Patrik; Schreiber, Ulrich; Mulder, Ines; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid inclusions (FIs) in minerals are known to contain a variety of different liquids, gases, and solids. The fluids get trapped during mineral growth and can preserve the original mineral-forming fluid or fluids of later events. A new analytical technique developed by Mulder et al. (2013) [1] allows to measure trace gases in FIs. For the measurements, grains of 3-5 mm diameter are ground in an airtight grinding device, releasing the volatiles from FIs into the gas phase, where they can be measured by GC-MS, GC-FID and GC-IRMS. The Taunus covers the southeastern part of the thrust-and-fold-belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The Variscan rock sequences comprise sedimentary and volcanic units ranging from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous. Several types of hydrothermal mineralization can be distinguished, which are - in regard to the Variscan orogeny - pre-orogenic, orogenic, late-orogenic, post-orogenic and recent in age [2]. They include SEDEX, vein, Alpine fissure, disseminated and stockwerk mineralizations. Thus, the Taunus mineralizations enable investigations of different hydrothermal systems at different age in one region. For most of them extensive studies of stable and radiogenic isotopes exist. Quartz crystals of post-orogenic quartz veins and Pb-Zn-Cu bearing veins [3] were selected for our FI investigation. Sulphur containing compounds like COS and CS2 dominate the FIs but there are also volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) like different butenes, benzene, toluene and cyclopentene that were found very often. In some samples volatile halogenated organic carbons (VOX) like chloro- and bromomethane were found. Some FIs even contain iodomethane, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride and -bromide. The non-fossil-fuel subsurface chemistry of VOC and VOX is not fully understood. There are a lot of unknown geogenic sources [4][5]. For a better understanding δ13C- and δ2H-values of CH4 were measured by GC-IRMS to examine if the detected organic compounds are formed biotic

  3. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  4. Differentiating causes for erosion at the catchment scale: do soil conservation measures mitigate weather dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barneveld, Robert; Greipsland, Inga

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of most measures to control soil loss is well established at the field or plot scale. Less well documented are the changes in hydrological behaviour and sediment production at the scale of the (small) catchment. In Norway, incentives to reduce tillage have been in place for over decades. However, even long time (20 years) discharge monitoring of a series of small catchments does not show a clear effect of the application of conservation measures. This research hypothesizes that the effect of weather conditions for a 4.2 km2 catchment in southeastern Norway outweighs the effect of conservation measures in the time series on runoff and sediment load. To test this, it was assumed that trends and changes in soil loss E over time are the product of an agromic index C, precipitation P and rainfall erosivity R. The values of C were calculated based on extensive farm records, covering every tillage operation for every field in the catchment for the period of investigation. Runoff and sediment load records were used to parameterise and test different correlative models. In order to quantify the effect of topography on the degree to which conservations measures reduce soil loss at catchment level, a spatially distributed connectivity index was calculated and multiplied with C. Calculations were carried out for a 10 year period, in monthly time steps. The following statistical models proved the most promising to correlate sediment load to precipitation and agronomic practice. Et=a \\cdot Ptb \\cdot Pt-1c \\cdot Ctd Et=a \\cdot Rtb \\cdot Pt-1c \\cdot Ctd where Pt-1c, the precipition in the prior month, is a proxy indicator for antecedent moisture conditions. The results show that precipitation dynamics outweigh the effect of soil conservation measures for this typical agricultural catchment. It also shows that the inclusion of a hydrological connectivity index improves the quantification of the effect of soil conservation measures on the catchment scale.

  5. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  6. Some aspects of sound discomfort caused by streetcar traffic. [noise intensity measurements and health aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursoniu, C.; Puca, N.; Dankner, A.; Moise, G.; Sirbu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.

  7. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  8. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  9. Portable Radiometer Identifies Minerals in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Machida, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hand-held optical instrument aids in identifying minerals in field. Can be used in exploration for minerals on foot or by aircraft. The radiometer is especially suitable for identifying clay and carbonate minerals. Radiometer measures reflectances of mineral at two wavelengths, computes ratio of reflectances, and displays ratio to user.

  10. Radar measurement of L-band signal fluctuations caused by propagation through trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-10-01

    Fluctuations of an L-band, horizontally polarized signal that was transmitted from the ground through a coniferous forest canopy to an airborne radar are examined. The azimuth synthetic aperture radar (SAR) impulse response in the presence of the measured magnitude fluctuations shows increased sidelobes over the case with no trees. Statistics of the observed fluctuations are similar to other observations.

  11. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  12. Measuring branch deflection of spruce branches caused by intercepted snow load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bründl, Michael; Bartelt, Perry; Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes

    1999-10-01

    Snow interception plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of mountain forests since it determines water supply for discharge in spring. A common way to measure the intercepted snow mass on trees is to put a cut tree on a scale. This method yields accurate results with a high temporal resolution but it destroys the natural system of tree, snowpack and soil. Hence, it does not work when water transport processes between the tree, the snowpack and the soil are investigated. We developed a non-destructive method to continuously observe and measure snow load on spruce branches during winter.Throughout a winter season we continuously observed a spruce with a video camera. To quantify the motion of branches during the snow interception process we suspended small illuminated balls on branches at different distances from the trunk. The position of the balls at a given time were measured by analysis of the video image. The result of this analysis is a time series of branch motion during an interception event.Given the measured deflections the intercepted mass on branches was calculated. The deformation of branches under certain branch temperatures was calibrated with known weights. The calibrations were used to calculate the linear relation between the branch temperature and the Young's modulus of a branch. This relation was used as input into a finite element model which calculated the intercepted mass. For a fully snow-capped 220 cm long spruce branch we found an intercepted snow mass of 4·7 kg. The calculated snow mass was compared with snow storage measurements of different branches and showed that this method allows estimation of snow mass intercepted by a single branch.

  13. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio hole perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James H; Wilson, D C; Kyrala, George A; Blue, Brent E; Edwards, J; Elliott, James B; Robey, H F; Spears, B

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule, current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials overpredict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (<1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  14. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  15. Simulation and measurement of melting effects on metal sheets caused by direct lightning strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    Direct lightning strikes melt metal parts of various systems, like fuel and propellant tanks of rockets and airplanes, at the point of strike. Responsible for this melting are the impulse current and, if occurring, the long duration current, both carrying a remarkable charge Q. For studying these meltings the simulation in the laboratory has to be based on the parameters of natural lightnings. International standards exist defining certain threat levels of natural lightnings and giving possible generator circuits for the simulation. The melting caused by both types of lightning currents show different appearance. Their characteristics, their differences in melting and heating of metal sheets are investigated. Nevertheless the simulation of lightning in the laboratory is imperfect. While natural lightning is a discharge without a counter electrode, the simulation always demands a close counter electrode. The influence of this counter electrode is studied.

  16. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A. )

    1990-11-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage.

  17. Known vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A.; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether or not described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. We previously investigated the Taq I and Apa I VDR alleles for an association with low BMD in women with depression and evidence of endogenous hypercortisolism. Methods In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq I and Apa I VDR allelotypes. Results The data showed lack of association between BMD and VDR polymorphisms. Conclusions This study suggests that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD is independent of VDR genotypes. PMID:22570981

  18. Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS): an in Situ Instrument for Mineral and Volatile-element Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Gruener, J. E.; Gibbons, F. L.; Allton, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS) offers a specific implementation for the generic thermal analyzer/evolved-gas analyzer (TA/EGA) function included in the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) strawman payload; applications to asteroids and comets are also possible. The baseline TAPS is a single-sample differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), backed by a capacitive-polymer humidity sensor, with an integrated sampling mechanism. After placement on a planetary surface, TAPS acquires 10-50 mg of soil or sediment and heats the sample from ambient temperature to 1000-1300 K. During heating, DSC data are taken for the solid and evolved gases are swept past the water sensor. Through ground based data analysis, multicomponent DSC data are deconvolved and correlated with the water release profile to quantitatively determine the types and relative proportions of volatile-bearing minerals such as clays and other hydrates, carbonates, and nitrates. The rapid-response humidity sensors also achieve quantitative analysis of total water. After conclusion of soil-analysis operations, the humidity sensors become available for meteorology. The baseline design fits within a circular-cylindrical volume less than 1000 cm(sup 3), occupies 1.2 kg mass, and consumes about 2 Whr of power per analysis. Enhanced designs would acquire and analyze multiple samples and employ additional microchemical sensors for analysis of CO2, SO2, NO(x), and other gaseous species. Atmospheric pumps are also being considered as alternatives to pressurized purge gas.

  19. A Molecular Rotor that Measures Dynamic Changes of Lipid Bilayer Viscosity Caused by Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Vyšniauskas, Aurimas; Qurashi, Maryam; Kuimova, Marina K

    2016-09-01

    Oxidation of cellular structures is typically an undesirable process that can be a hallmark of certain diseases. On the other hand, photooxidation is a necessary step of photodynamic therapy (PDT), a cancer treatment causing cell death upon light irradiation. Here, the effect of photooxidation on the microscopic viscosity of model lipid bilayers constructed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has been studied. A molecular rotor has been employed that displays a viscosity-dependent fluorescence lifetime as a quantitative probe of the bilayer's viscosity. Thus, spatially-resolved viscosity maps of lipid photooxidation in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) were obtained, testing the effect of the positioning of the oxidant relative to the rotor in the bilayer. It was found that PDT has a strong impact on viscoelastic properties of lipid bilayers, which 'travels' through the bilayer to areas that have not been irradiated directly. A dramatic difference in viscoelastic properties of oxidized GUVs by Type I (electron transfer) and Type II (singlet oxygen-based) photosensitisers was also detected. PMID:27487026

  20. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases.

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  2. Modeling Hydrothermal Mineralization: Fractal or Multifrcatal Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization occurs when the natural geo-processes involve the interaction of ore material-carrying hydrothermal fluids with rocks in the earth's crust in a specific geological environment. Mineralization can cause element concentration enrichment or depletion in the country rocks. Local enrichment may form ore body that can be mined for profit at the current economic and technological conditions. To understand the spatial distribution of element concentration enrichment or depletion caused by mineralization in a mineral district is essential for mineral exploration and mineral prediction. Grade-tonnage model and mineral deposits size distribution model are common models used for characterizing mineral deposits. This paper proposes a non-linear mineralization model on the basis of a modified classical igneous differentiation mineralization model to describe the generation of multifractal distribution of element concentration in the country rocks as well as grade-tonnage fractal/multifractal distribution of ore deposits that have been often observed in hydrothermal mineralization. This work may also lead to a singularity model to explain the common properties of mineralization and mineralization-associated geochemical anomaly diversity and the generalized self-similarity of the anomalies. The model has been applied to a case study of mineral deposits prediction and mineral resource assessment in the Abitibi district, northern Ontario, Canada.

  3. Measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2011-03-01

    Using a high-statistics, high-purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged current, charged pion events in mineral oil (CH{sub 2}), MiniBooNE reports a collection of interaction cross sections for this process. This includes measurements of the CC{pi}{sup +} cross section as a function of neutrino energy, as well as flux-averaged single- and double-differential cross sections of the energy and direction of both the final-state muon and pion. In addition, each of the single-differential cross sections are extracted as a function of neutrino energy to decouple the shape of the MiniBooNE energy spectrum from the results. In many cases, these cross sections are the first time such quantities have been measured on a nuclear target and in the 1 GeV energy range.

  4. Modelling the disturbance caused by a dc-electrified railway to geomagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Newitt, L.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.; Fernberg, P.; McKee, L.; Danskin, D.; Jansen van Beek, G.

    2007-08-01

    Magnetic fields created by a dc-electrified railway are a nuisance to the operation of a geomagnetic observatory and also disturb other electromagnetic studies. Theoretical formulas that enable quantitative estimates of the magnetic effect of a dc railway including leakage currents in the ground are presented in this paper. They are illustrated by numerical examples. The validity of the theoretical model was verified by measurements carried out in the vicinity of a nearly north-south railway in Calgary, Canada. The earth structure in that area is approximately layered, which is an assumption included in the theoretical model. The agreement between the measured magnetic fields due to trains and the theoretical values is good. Numerical computations indicate that magnetic fields larger than the maximum allowable noise level (assumed to be about 10 pT) at today's magnetic observatories may extend to distances of tens of kilometres from a railway. We have prepared computer programs based on the theoretical formulas in the MatLab, Octave, FORTRAN and IDL languages, in which the locations (i.e. the latitudes and the longitudes) of the point of observation, of the feeding substations and of the trains, together with the feeding and leakage currents and the heights of the feeding lines, can be given as inputs.

  5. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. PMID:27289526

  6. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  9. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  10. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  11. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. G.; Gussenhoven, M. S.; Lynch, K. A.; Brautigam, D. H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7-satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector that create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear starts and direct energy pulses create single-event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. The properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, are described. The star count maps of the 840-km (altitude) region of space are presented.

  12. DMSP dosimetry data: a space measurement and mapping of upset-causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite-dosimeter star-event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star-event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear-energy-transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy-ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high-energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, the star-count maps of the 840-km region of space, and their relation to upset phenomena are described.

  13. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term ''star event'' is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Here the authors first describe the properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7; then present the star count maps of the 840 km region of space; and finally discuss their relation to upset phenomena.

  14. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  15. Time-dependent Measurements of Dissolution-precipitation Reactions Caused by Caustic Waste Solutions At the Hanford Site Using Synchrotron Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Jones, K. W.; Um, W.; Rockhold, M. L.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Leaking of caustic (hyper-alkaline) radioactive wastes, generated from plutonium production during the Cold War and stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford Site (Richland, WA), has been detected in the subsurface. The caustic wastes leachate induces primary mineral dissolution (releasing Si) and subsequent secondary precipitation (feldspathoids, such as sodalite and cancrinite) in the sediments. The dissolution-precipitation reactions affect the transport of radioactive elements (90Sr and 137Cs) in the sub-surface through changing the morphology of the sediments. We studied here the changes of the morphology of the sediments caused by exposure of quartz sand or Hanford sediments to simulated tank waste leachates (2 M Na+, 1 M OH-, 1.053 M NO3-, 0.05 M Al3+ and 10-5 M Sr2+) using a series of steady-state-flow saturated column experiments. The 3D structures were determined using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Sequential measurements were made at intervals over an exposure time of up to ~620 days with a pixel size of 4 μm in mini columns (ID2.1 mm) packed with quartz sand, or with a pixel size of 11 μm in intermediate size columns (ID19 mm) packed with Hanford sediments. Values for porosity as a function of treatment time were obtained showing major changes. Good agreement was found between the microstructure porosity determinations with results obtained from measurements on the composition of the treatment fluids. The results also show the changes in the three dimensional morphology of the sediment structures as a function of the treatment time. Good agreement was also found between observed and simulated porosity and aqueous chemistry obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP. A comparison of the CMT results with complementary high-resolution scanning electron microscopy scans will also be presented.

  16. A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ΔAEI vs ΔVHN (r2 = 0.997), ΔAEI vs ΔKHN (r2 =0.964), ΔII (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.875) and ΔLEI vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

  17. Misalignment of the Desired and Measured Center of Pressure Describes Falls Caused by Slip during Turning

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hironari; Onodera, Hiroshi; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo; Masani, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, desired center of pressure (dCOP) was introduced to evaluate dynamic postural stability. The dCOP is defined as a virtual point on the ground, where the moment around the body center of mass (COM) becomes zero when dCOP and the measured COP (mCOP) coincide. We hypothesized that, when the misalignment of the dCOP and mCOP (dCOP-mCOP) increases up to a certain value due to a large perturbation during walking, it becomes difficult to make a compensatory step and to recover balance of COM and to continue gait. Here we tested this hypothesis in slipping during turning. The study involved twelve healthy young adult males with an average age of 21.5±1.9 yrs. The subjects were asked to (1) walk straight and turn 60 degrees to the right with the right foot (spin turn) on a dry floor surface, and (2) walk straight and 60 degrees spin turn to the right on a slippery lubricated surface. The dCOP-mCOP during turning in the slip trial with fall were significantly larger, particularly in x-direction (i.e., the medial-lateral direction during straight walk), than that in no-slip trial and slip trial without fall. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction is good indicator of falling (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93) and the threshold in the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction to distinguish for fall or no-fall was 0.55 m. These results support our hypothesis in slipping during turning. PMID:27166954

  18. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. PMID:23562363

  19. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  20. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  1. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  2. Measurement error causes scale-dependent threshold erosion of biological signals in animal movement data.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on

  3. Measurement error causes scale-dependent threshold erosion of biological signals in animal movement data.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on

  4. Flow variability and its physical causes in infusion technology: a systematic review of in vitro measurement and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Roland A; Konings, Maurits K; Lucas, Peter; Egberts, Toine C; Timmerman, Annemoon D

    2015-08-01

    Infusion therapy is medically and technically challenging and frequently associated with medical errors. When administering pharmaceuticals by means of infusion, dosing errors can occur due to flow rate variability. These dosing errors may lead to adverse effects. We aimed to systematically review the available biomedical literature for in vitro measurement and modeling studies that investigated the physical causes of flow rate variability. Special focus was given to syringe pump setups, which are typically used if very accurate drug delivery is required. We aimed to extract from literature the component with the highest mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups. We included 53 studies, six of which were theoretical models, two articles were earlier reviews of infusion literature, and 45 were in vitro measurement studies. Mechanical compliance, flow resistance, and dead volume of infusion systems were stated as the most important and frequently identified physical causes of flow rate variability. The syringe was indicated as the most important source of mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups (9.0×10-9 to 2.1×10-8 l/Pa). Mechanical compliance caused longer flow rate start-up times (from several minutes up to approximately 70 min) and delayed occlusion alarm times (up to 117 min).

  5. Continued investigation of kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism. [determining body calcium by measuring argon after neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The total body calcium in humans was determined by measuring expired Ar-37 after neutron irradiation. The excretion of Ar-37 from humans was found to be much slower than the excretion from rats and dogs, and to be related to the age of a person. A study of the uniformity of the Ar-37 production throughout the thickness of the body was studied using phantoms. The results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a uniformity within plus or minus 3% for the production of Ar-37 per unit of calcium by using a bilateral irradiation. New low background, large volume proportional counters were developed and constructed, for more sensitive measurement of Ar-37 in the expired air from patients. A new irradiation enclosure was developed for measuring total body calcium in rats by the Ar-37 method. With this enclosure the Ar-37 production per gram of calcium is constant with a standard deviation of plus or minus 2.8% for any size rat between 100 and 500 grams. The use of Na-22 as measure of bone replacement in the fractured femur of a dog was not successful.

  6. Analysis of H in Natural and Experimental Nominally Anhydrous Minerals: A Comparison of Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Infrared and SIMS Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, A. C.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments to determine the H storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) can be used to place strong constraints on the degree of hydration required to initiate volatile fluxed melting in the mantle. Moreover, accurate measurements of H in NAMs from mantle xenoliths may be used to constrain the rheological properties of the source region. However, accurate measurements of H concentrations using infrared and ion beam techniques require mineral specific calibrations. Standardless measurements of H using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in some cases have provided valuable verification of calibrations for other techniques, but so far have had limited application to experimental samples owing to sample size and analytical background. Results of recent measurements of H in garnet, pyroxene and feldspar will be used to illustrate the potential of the technique. Some of the results we will present include the following: 1) Forsterites grown at 2 and 3 GPa in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system exhibit low frequency absorption bands in the OH stretching region between 3300 and 3400 cm-1, but very limited absorption at higher frequencies where the strongest absorption bands are usually seen for Al-free olivine. Analyses of H in these samples by ERDA will be used to develop a tentative site-specific molar absorption coefficient for the low frequency OH absorption band. 2) ERDA measurements of H in silicate glass standards verify previous determinations by Karl Fischer titration and FTIR spectroscopy, validating the ERDA technique. Samples of these rhyolitic glasses are available on request for use as analytical standards, and come with a compendium of analyses that have been used to characterize major and minor elemental composition and H content. 3) ERDA measurements of three homogeneous grossular garnets from East Africa show an excellent correlation (r2 = 1) with absorbance in the O-H stretching region and indicate an integral molar absorption coefficient

  7. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  8. Internally consistent elasticity measurements of mantle minerals at high-pressure and high-temperature by Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, H.; Kurnosov, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Marquardt, K.; Frost, D. J.; Buchen, J.; Schulze, K.

    2015-12-01

    Elasticity is a material property that reflects the atomic structure and interatomic forces in crystalline materials. As a result, elastic properties are strongly affected by changes in pressure and temperature. In Earth Sciences, knowledge of the elastic behavior of geomaterials at pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's interior is key to constrain our planet's inner structure and dynamics through forward modelling of seismic observables. Here, we will discuss internally consistent single-crystal elasticity measurements that combine the opportunities emerging from the recent development of combined Brillouin scattering (to derive acoustic wave velocities) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) systems (for structure and unit-cell parameter determination) with the advantages of sophisticated sample preparation using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique [1]. We will show results of experiments on mantle minerals that were performed using the combined Brillouin scattering and rotating anode XRD system at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut BGI. Multiple single-crystals, FIB-tailored in size and shape, were loaded in the single sample chambers of resistively-heated diamond-anvil cells (DAC). Such a multi-sample approach allows for internally consistent determinations of all independent elastic constants from low-symmetry crystals by Brillouin spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, the multi-sample approach facilitates direct quantification of the effects of chemical substitution on the structure and elasticity of high-symmetry crystals at non-ambient conditions. Our experimental approach eliminates uncertainties arising from the combination of data collected under (potentially) different conditions in several DAC runs, in different laboratories and/or from using different pressure-temperature sensors. We will also discuss the possibility to derive pressure independent from a secondary pressure scale. [1] H. Marquardt, K. Marquardt, Am. Mineral. 97, 299

  9. Wind Tunnel Measured Effects on a Twin-Engine Short-Haul Transport Caused by Simulated Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Potapczuk, Mark; Ratvasky, Thomas; Laflin, Brenda Gile

    1996-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted to assess the effects of leading edge ice contamination upon the performance of a short-haul transport. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot facility. The test article was a 1/8 scale twin-engine short-haul jet transport model. Two separate leading edge ice contamination configurations were tested in addition to the uncontaminated baseline configuration. Several aircraft configurations were examined including various flap and slat deflections, with and without landing gear. Data gathered included force measurements via an internal six-component force balance, pressure measurements through 700 electronically scanned wing pressure ports, and wing surface flow visualization measurements. The artificial ice contamination caused significant performance degradation and caused visible changes demonstrated by the flow visualization. The data presented here is just a portion of the data gathered. A more complete data report is planned for publication as a NASA Technical Memorandum and data supplement.

  10. Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Charged Pion Production Cross Sections on Mineral Oil at E$_{\

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Alabama U.

    2010-11-01

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single {pi}{sup 0} production on CH{sub 2} induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC {pi}{sup 0} events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of {pi}{sup 0} momentum and {pi}{sup 0} angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.76{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 808 MeV and (1.48 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.23{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 664 MeV for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} induced production, respectively. In addition, we have included measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total cross sections for incoherent exclusive NC 1{pi}{sup 0} production corrected for the effects of final state interactions to compare to prior results.

  11. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  12. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  13. Measurement of the neutrino neutral-current elastic differential cross section on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}{approx}1} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Cao, J.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.

    2010-11-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, Q{sup 2}. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50 MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass M{sub A} that provides a best fit for M{sub A}=1.39{+-}0.11 GeV. Using the data from the charged-current neutrino interaction sample, a ratio of neutral-current to charged-current quasielastic cross sections as a function of Q{sup 2} has been measured. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at Q{sup 2}=0, {Delta}s, is found to be {Delta}s=0.08{+-}0.26.

  14. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  15. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA densitometer for the measurement of total-body, lumbar spine, and femoral bone mineral density in adults.

    PubMed

    Hind, Karen; Oldroyd, Brian; Truscott, John G

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of precision is integral to the monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) changes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the precision for bone measurements acquired using a GE Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) in self-selected men and women, with mean age of 34.8 yr (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4; range: 20.1-50.5), heterogeneous in terms of body mass index (mean: 25.8 kg/m(2); SD: 5.1; range: 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive iDXA scans (with repositioning) of the total body, lumbar spine, and femur were conducted within 1h, for each subject. The coefficient of variation (CV), the root-mean-square (RMS) averages of SDs of repeated measurements, and the corresponding 95% least significant change were calculated. Linear regression analyses were also undertaken. We found a high level of precision for BMD measurements, particularly for scans of the total body, lumbar spine, and total hip (RMS: 0.007, 0.004, and 0.007 g/cm(2); CV: 0.63%, 0.41%, and 0.53%, respectively). Precision error for the femoral neck was higher but still represented good reproducibility (RMS: 0.014 g/cm(2); CV: 1.36%). There were associations between body size and total-body BMD and total-hip BMD SD precisions (r=0.534-0.806, p<0.05) in male subjects. Regression parameters showed good association between consecutive measurements for all body sites (r(2)=0.98-0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for BMD measurements of the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip.

  16. Oxidants from Pulverized Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2007-06-01

    Joel Hurowitz (previously at State University of New York at Stony Brook and now at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Nick Tosca, Scott McLennan, and Martin Schoonen (SUNY at Stony Brook) studied the production of hydrogen peroxide from freshly pulverized minerals in solution. Their experiments focused on olivine, augite, and labradorite; silicate minerals of basaltic planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, that are exposed to the intense crushing and grinding of impact cratering processes. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the experiments was enough to adequately explain the oxidizing nature of Martian regolith first determined by the Viking Landers and the results suggest, for the first time, that mechanically activated mineral surfaces may be an important part of the overall explanation for the Viking Lander biology experiment results. Hurowitz and coauthors further showed that when the pulverized minerals are heat-treated to high temperature under vacuum (to cause dehydroxylation) there is almost a 20 times increase in hydrogen peroxide production, a result which may be highly relevant to lunar dust. These careful studies demonstrate the importance of and concern about reactive dusts on planetary surfaces from two standpoints: the health of astronauts on surface maneuvers who may inadvertently breath it and the viability of possible Martian organic species to survive in such a corrosive, antiseptic surface environment.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  18. Cross-calibration of Lunar DPX-IQ and DPX dual-energy x-ray densitometers for bone mineral measurements in women: effect of body anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Saarelainen, J; Honkanen, R; Vanninen, E; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Niskanen, L; Jurvelin, J S

    2005-01-01

    When dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments are replaced, it is essential to determine if systematic differences in measurements occur. As a part of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study (N=14,220), a group of women, aged 36 to 69 yr underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2 to L4 (n=89) and proximal femur scans (n=88) by the Lunar DPX and DPX-IQ, respectively, during the same visit. A high linear association (r from 0.944 to 0.989, p<0.001) between the two scanners was established for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The average DPX values for BMD were 1.1% and 2.0% higher than those of DPX-IQ for the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and Ward's triangle (p=0.001), respectively. Femoral neck BMD values by the DPX were 1.4% lower (p<0.001) compared to DPX-IQ. The difference between trochanter BMD results (0.1%) was not significant (p=0.809). In the femoral neck and trochanter, but not in the lumbar spine or Ward's triangle, the differences in BMD values of the two machines were found to depend on body mass index. After linear formulas based on simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were calculated, the differences were negligible, enabling objective comparison of longitudinal measurements.

  19. Relationship between MRI-Measured Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue and Hip and Spine Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian Participants: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Context: An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Objective: In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. Design: T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38–52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = −0.399 to −0.550, P < 0.001). The inverse associations between BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = −0. 296 to −0.549, P < 0.001). Among body composition measures, skeletal muscle was the strongest correlate of BMD after adjusting for BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268–0.614, P < 0.05), with little additional contribution from weight, SAT, VAT, or total adipose tissue. Conclusion: In this middle-aged population, a negative relationship existed between MRI-measured BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density. PMID:22319043

  20. Cretaceous Exhumation of the North American Cordillera Measured through Mineral Multi-Dating: Insights into Basin Filling Models and Orogenic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology is an effective thermochronometer to measure source exhumation in the North American Cordillera, western U.S.A. We use a combination of thermochronology and geochronology to measure lag times, i.e., the difference in time between the cooling and depositional ages of a mineral crystal. These lag-time measurements using source exhumation ages, measured with AFT thermochronology, and depositional ages, measured with biostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, indicate constant to decreasing lag times of 0-5 m.y. throughout the Cretaceous. These lag times are consistent with rapid exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. One pitfall of using detrital thermochronology to measure source exhumation is assuring that the apatite crystals are exhumed apatites and not volcanic apatites introduced into the system from the volcanic arc. To do this we use U-Pb geochronology to remove samples contaminated with young arc derived apatites and keep those with old exhumed apatites. Five of the seven detrital AFT samples were significantly contaminated with young volcanic apatites, showing that U-Pb geochronology should be a routine step in measuring lag times. Our findings demonstrate that coarse-grained foreland basin deposits in the Cretaceous Western Interior, in both the proximal and distal settings, were deposited during times of active tectonism and exhumation and that sediments are not stored in wedge-top and proximal foredeep settings for long periods of time, i.e. >5 m.y., and then subsequently reworked distally. Exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. are not sustainable over the entire orogenic belt for the duration of the Sevier orogeny, indicated by the lack of deep-crustal material exhumed in the North American Cordillera. High exhumation rates were likely concentrated over the eastward-propagating Sevier fold-thrust belt, whereas the Nevadaplano and hinterland experienced much slower rates of exhumation. This variation in

  1. Comparison of Speed of Sound Measures Assessed by Multisite Quantitative Ultrasound to Bone Mineral Density Measures Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in a Large Canadian Cohort: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Olszynski, Wojciech P; Adachi, Jonathon D; Hanley, David A; Davison, Kenneth S; Brown, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important tool for the estimate of fracture risk through the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Similarly, multisite quantitate ultrasound can prospectively predict future fracture through the measurement of speed of sound (SOS). This investigation compared BMD (at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine) and SOS measures (at the distal radius, tibia, and phalanx sites) in a large sample of randomly-selected and community-based individuals from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Furthermore, mass, height, and age were also compared with both measures. There were 4123 patients included with an age range of 30-96.8 yr. Pearson product moment correlations between BMD and SOS measures were low (0.21-0.29; all p<0.001), irrespective of site. Mass was moderately correlated with BMD measures (0.40-0.58; p<0.001), but lowly correlated with SOS measures (0.03-0.13; p<0.05). BMD and SOS were negatively correlated to age (-0.17 to -0.44; p<0.001). When regression analyses were performed to predict SOS measures at the 3 sites, the models predicted 20%-23% of the variance, leaving 77%-80% unaccounted for. The SOS measures in this study were found to be largely independent from BMD measures. In areas with no or limited access to DXA, the multisite quantitative ultrasound may act as a valuable tool to assess fracture risk. In locales with liberal access to DXA, the addition of SOS to BMD and other clinical risk factors may improve the identification of those patients at high risk for future fracture.

  2. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  3. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  4. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  5. Postmenopausal women with colles' fracture have lower values of bone mineral density than controls as measured by quantitative ultrasound and densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, P; del Pino-Montes, J; Alegre, J; Pérez-Cano, R; Guerra, G Martínez Díaz; Díaz-Curiel, M; Valero, C; Muñoz-Torres, M; Torrijos, A; Mosquera, J; Gómez-Alonso, C

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of ultrasonographic parameters provides information concerning not only bone density but also bone architecture. We investigated the usefulness of ultrasonographic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate the probability of Colles' fracture. Two-hundred eighty-nine postmenopausal women (62.3 +/- 8.7 yr) with (n = 76) and without (n = 213) Colles' fracture were studied. BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was evaluated in all women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness in the calcaneus were measured by a Sahara ultrasonometer (Hologic). Patients suffering from Colles' fracture had lower values of BMD adjusted by height at the lumbar spine, L2-L4 (0.797 g/cm2 vs 0.860 g/cm2), femoral neck (0.685 g/cm2 vs 0.712 g/cm2 ), SOS (1518 m/sg vs 1525 m/sg), and stiffness (74.6 vs 77.7) (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, BUA values were similar in both groups. After stepwise logistic regression analysis, the area found under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.60 for L2L4 and 0.63 for a formula combining L2L4 and height. Our data suggest that patients suffering from Colles' fracture have lower values of BMD by DXA, SOS, and stiffness. However, the ability of these techniques to discriminate is low because the values for the area under ROC curve are 0.60 for L2-L4 and 0.63 for a formula derived of the combination of L2-L4 and height.

  6. The mineral disorders in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Linshaw, M; Aigbe, M; Kaskel, F

    1998-05-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role that metals/minerals play in health and disease. Minerals contribute in essential ways to the fundamental biochemical and physiological functions of cells. Deficit of an essential mineral leads to aberrations in cell function. Alternatively, minerals in excess have significant toxicity, and in an era of increasing threat to a safe environment, the potential for toxic tissue injury to contribute to progressive renal insufficiency and ultimately to unexplained renal failure remains a major concern. This review provides information on selected minerals that are attracting growing attention with respect to their influence on renal function in health and disease. Although all minerals have the potential to cause toxicity if consumed in sufficient quantity, most are essential nutrients whose deficiency is associated with significant health problems. Certain minerals, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are considered toxic. Their suggested positive effects on the health of animals has been recently summarized, but in humans they are not currently known to exert any clearly beneficial biological or biochemical effect.

  7. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  8. Kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two techniques were studied for measuring changes in bone mass in rats. One technique measures the Ar-37 produced from calcium during neutron irradiation and the other measures the changes in the Na-22 content which has been incorporated within the rat bone. Both methods are performed in VIVO and cause no significant physiological damage. The Ar-37 leaves the body of a rat within an hour after being produced, and it can be quantitatively collected and measured with a precision of - or + 2% on the same rat. With appropriate irradiation conditions it appears that the absolute quantity of calcuim in any rat can be determined within - or + 3% regardless of animal size. The Na-22 when uniformly distributed in bone, can be used to monitor bone mineral turnover and this has been demonstrated in conditions of calcium deficiency during growth and also pregnancy coupled with calcium deficiency.

  9. Objectively Measured Daily Steps and Subsequent Long Term All-Cause Mortality: The Tasped Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Terence; Pezic, Angela; Sun, Cong; Cochrane, Jenny; Venn, Alison; Srikanth, Velandai; Jones, Graeme; Shook, Robin; Sui, Xuemei; Ortaglia, Andrew; Blair, Steven; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Self–reported physical activity has been inversely associated with mortality but the effect of objectively measured step activity on mortality has never been evaluated. The objective is to determine the prospective association of daily step activity on mortality among free-living adults. Methods and Findings Cohort study of free-living adults residing in Tasmania, Australia between 2000 and 2005 who participated in one of three cohort studies (n = 2 576 total participants). Daily step activity by pedometer at baseline at a mean of 58.8 years of age, and for a subset, repeated monitoring was available 3.7 (SD 1.3) years later (n = 1 679). All-cause mortality (n = 219 deaths) was ascertained by record-linkage to the Australian National Death Index; 90% of participants were followed-up over ten years, until June 2011. Higher daily step count at baseline was linearly associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98 per 1 000 steps; P = 0.004). Risk was altered little by removing deaths occurring in the first two years. Increasing baseline daily steps from sedentary to 10 000 steps a day was associated with a 46% (95% CI, 18% to 65%; P = 0.004) lower risk of mortality in the decade of follow-up. In addition, those who increased their daily steps over the monitoring period had a substantial reduction in mortality risk, after adjusting for baseline daily step count (AHR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.72; P = 0.002), or other factors (AHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21–0.70; P = 0.002). Conclusions Higher daily step count was linearly associated with subsequent long term mortality among free living adults. These data are the first to quantify mortality reductions using an objective measure of physical activity in a free living population. They strongly underscore the importance of physical inactivity as a major public health problem. PMID:26536618

  10. Effects of differences in mineralization on the mechanical properties of bone.

    PubMed

    Currey, J D

    1984-02-13

    There is a considerable variation in the mineralization of bone; normal, non-pathological compact bone has ash masses ranging from 45 to 85% by mass. This range of mineralization results in an even greater range of mechanical properties. The Young modulus of elasticity can range from 4 to 32 GPa, bending strength from 50 to 300 MPa, and the work of fracture from 200 to 7000 Jm-2. It is not possible for any one type of bone to have high values for all three properties. Very high values of mineralization produce high values of Young modulus but low values of work of fracture (which is a measure of fracture toughness). Rather low values of mineralization are associated with high values of work of fracture but low values of Young modulus and intermediate values of bending strength. The reason for the high value for the Young modulus associated with high mineralization is intuitively obvious, but has not yet been rigorously modelled. The low fracture toughness associated with high mineralization may be caused by the failure of various crack-stopping mechanisms that can act when the mineral crystals in bone have not coalesced, but which become ineffective when the volume fraction of mineral becomes too high. The adoption of different degrees of mineralization by different bones, leading to different sets of mechanical properties, is shown to be adaptive in most cases studied, but some puzzles still remain.

  11. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  12. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  13. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  14. Early changes in bone mineral density measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry predict up to 20 years radiological outcome in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the hand as evaluated by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of the second to fourth metacarpal bones has been suggested to predict future joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study's objective was to investigate whether DXR-BMD loss early in the course of the disease predicts the development of joint damage in RA patients followed for up to 20 years. Methods A total of 183 patients (115 women and 68 men) with early RA (mean disease duration, 11 months) included from 1985 to 1989 were followed prospectively (the Lund early RA cohort). Clinical and functional measures were assessed yearly. Joint damage was evaluated according to the Larsen score on radiographs of the hands and feet obtained in years 0 to 5 and years 10, 15 and 20. These radiographs were digitized, and BMD of the second to fourth metacarpal bones was evaluated by DXR. Early DXR-BMD change rate (that is, bone loss) per year calculated from the first two radiographs obtained on average 9 months apart (SD ± 4.8) were available for 135 patients. Mean values of the right and left hand were used. Results Mean early DXR-BMD loss during the first year calculated was -0.023 g/cm2 (SD ± 0.025). Patients with marked bone loss, that is, early DXR-BMD loss above the median for the group, had significantly worse progression of joint damage at all examinations during the 20-year period. Conclusions Early DXR-BMD progression rate predicted the development of joint damage evaluated according to Larsen score at year 1 and for up to 20 years in this cohort of early RA patients. PMID:21345204

  15. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  16. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  17. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ) scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy young college women. Methods Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg) between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck). The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ) were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm), weight (kg), fat free mass (FFM, kg), percent body fat (%), and body mass index (BMI). Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire. Results There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014) and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007), while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05). When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024), while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015). Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025), but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in

  18. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  19. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  20. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  1. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  2. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners: New information from an old source

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.

    1997-03-01

    Over 100 years have passed since Harting and Hesse first described an unusual pattern of thoracic malignancy in the underground metal miners of Schneeberg. It is now known that these miners had primary cancer of the lung, caused by exposure to radon progeny released into the air of the mines from the ore. The early case series of Harting and Hesse, based on the Schneeberg miners, and of Pirchan and Sikl, based on the Joachamisthal mines, have been followed by epidemiologic studies of more formal design of uranium and other underground miners exposed to radon throughout the world. These studies have confirmed the causal association of radon and its progeny with lung cancer and provided quantification of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon progeny. These studies have also provided insights concerning the effect of radon progeny on smokers and on nonsmokers. The findings of the epidemiologic studies have provided a clear imperative for reducing exposures of miners to radon progeny. Consequently, exposures of underground uranium miners to radon progeny have been lowered substantially over the last 50 years in countries reporting exposures of underground miners. The epidemiologic studies have also documented the substantial burden of radon-caused lung cancers among miners of uranium and other ores. While the causal link of radon with lung cancer in underground miners is now established and unquestioned, the risk of radon in indoor air remains a highly controversial issue. During the last few decades, there has been increasing recognition that radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments, in some instances at concentrations as high as measured in underground mines. As a foundation for risk management, the epidemiologic evidence from underground miners has been the primary basis for estimating the risk of indoor radon.

  3. Rice RCN1/OsABCG5 mutation alters accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals and causes a high Na/K ratio, resulting in a salt-sensitive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yamashiro, Nobuhiro; Yasuno, Naoko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Kitazawa, Hideyuki; Takano, Sho; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Tani, Masayuki; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2014-07-01

    Mineral balance and salt stress are major factors affecting plant growth and yield. Here, we characterized the effects of rice (Oryza sativa L.) reduced culm number1 (rcn1), encoding a G subfamily ABC transporter (OsABCG5) involved in accumulation of essential and nonessential minerals, the Na/K ratio, and salt tolerance. Reduced potassium and elevated sodium in field-grown plants were evident in rcn1 compared to original line 'Shiokari' and four independent rcn mutants, rcn2, rcn4, rcn5 and rcn6. A high Na/K ratio was evident in the shoots and roots of rcn1 under K starvation and salt stress in hydroponically cultured plants. Downregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in rcn1 shoots under salt stress demonstrated that normal function of RCN1/OsABCG5 is essential for upregulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 under salt stress. The accumulation of various minerals in shoots and roots was also altered in the rcn1 mutant compared to 'Shiokari' under control conditions, potassium starvation, and salt and d-sorbitol treatments. The rcn1 mutation resulted in a salt-sensitive phenotype. We concluded that RCN1/OsABCG5 is a salt tolerance factor that acts via Na/K homeostasis, at least partly by regulation of SKC1/OsHKT1;5 in shoots.

  4. Measurement of the Ratio of the nu{sub m}u Charged-Current Single-Pion Production to Quasielastic Scattering with a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam on Mineral Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Bugel, L.; Coney, L.; Djurcic, Z.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Monroe, J.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.

    2009-08-21

    Using high statistics samples of charged-current nu{sub m}u interactions, the MiniNooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of the single-charged-pion production to quasielastic cross section ratio on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}), both with and without corrections for hadron reinteractions in the target nucleus. The result is provided as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeVmeasurements and the prediction from historical neutrino calculations.

  5. Using an Atom Interferometer to Measure Changes in Tune-Out Wavelength caused by Rotation and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubko, Raisa; Greenberg, James; St. Germaine, Michael T.; Gregoire, Maxwell D.; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of tune-out wavelengths made with an atom interferometer are shown to change by 150 pm due to inertial displacements. Because tune-out wavelengths can be measured with picometer precision in our laboratory, we explore how to use shifts in tune-out wavelengths to measure rotation rates with respect to an inertial frame. For example, measuring the earth's rotation rate with an uncertainty of 1% appears possible with this technique. The origin of shifts in measured tune-out wavelengths (λzero , lab) as compared to tune-out wavelengths in an inertial frame (λzero) is explained by dispersive inertial phase shifts, the vector dynamic polarizability αv (ω) , and dispersion compensation. An atom beam with a velocity spread and an ensemble of atomic spin states is required. Because accurate measurements of λzero can be used for reporting ratios of dipole matrix elements, we also discuss methods for reducing systematic errors in measurements of λzero.

  6. Causes of Indiscipline and Measures of Improving Discipline in Senior Secondary Schools in Ghana: Case Study of a Senior Secondary School in Sunyani

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyan, Emmanuel; Baah-Korang, Kwame; McCarthy, Paul; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the main causes of students' misbehaviour and measures teachers and students consider to be most appropriate for controlling the unruly behaviour of the students. Purposive, sample, of 50 teachers who held the various positions in the school, and 150 students comprising the Students Representative Council,…

  7. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  8. Determination of short-term error caused by the reference clock in precision time-interval measurement and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisz, Jozef

    1988-06-01

    A simple analysis based on the randomized clock cycle T(o) yields a useful formula on its variance in terms of the Allan variance. The short-term uncertainty of the measured or generated time interval t is expressed by the standard deviation in an approximate form as a function of the Allen variance. The estimates obtained are useful for determining the measurement uncertainty of time intervals within the approximate range of 10 ms-100 s.

  9. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner. PMID:25313948

  10. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  11. OPTIMIZATION ON MATERIAL FLOW OF NON-METALIC MINERAL MATERIALS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kouji; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Ryoji; Osako, Masahiro

    Since non-metarilc mineral waste such as concrete mass, asphalt concrete mass, sand, slag and coal ash occupies 36% of total amount of waste generation and 26% of total amount of final disposal, it has significant influence on material flow of our country. Although the amount of non-metaril mineral wastes produced is expected to increase in the near future, demand of their application for recycled construction materials will decrease due to the reduction of public construction works and less use of materials in construction. The aim is to reduce environmental load caused by recycling and disposal of non metallic mineral materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the measurement for the reduction of environmental load like landfill amount and CO2 emission amount by controlling material flow of non metallic mineral materials in the year 2030 by linear programming.

  12. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  13. [Changes of femur minerals and serum BGP in hindlimb unloaded rats during convalescence].

    PubMed

    Wan, Y M; Zhang, M F; Cui, W; Song, J P

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To observe bone mass changes during convalescence after simulated weightlessness. Method. 7-week-old rats were tail-suspended for 21 d then reloaded for 7 d and 21 d to recover, and measured serum BGP. Result. Tail suspension of rats for 21 d caused significant decrease of serum BGP and phosphorus as well as femur minerals. Serum BGP and femur minerals were still lower than control levels, but serum contents of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increased significantly after reloading for 7 d. Femur minerals and serum BGP, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium returned to control levels after reloading for 21 d. Conclusion. The deficit in femur mineral induced by hindlimb unloading in rats can be restored by return to normal weight bearing, BGP can be used to monitor the case of its recovery.

  14. Dissociation and recombination of positive holes in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois; Freund, Minoru M.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanisms are described of positive holes - electronic defects in the O2 sublattice - with attention given to detecting the positive surface charge of minerals with these holes. Charge distribution analysis (CDA) is presented which measures dielectric polarization in an inhomogeneous field. CDA can be applied to the detection of the peroxide/superoxide functionality caused by positive holes on the surface. It is demonstrated with obsidian that the measurements provide data on O(-) mobility as a function of surface-charge carrier density and on O(-) generation as a function of temperature.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Many phenomena and processes in the earth sciences are a result of the electrochemical properties of rocks and minerals. Examples include formation of mineral deposits and petroleum reservoirs control of drilling muds, and success or failure of toxic waste isolation barriers. Such phenomena can be observed at a distance using geophysical techniques to measure various electrical properties of the earth.

  16. Characteristics, causes and control measures of disasters for the soft-rock tunnels in the Wenchuan seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Tianbin; He, Chuan; Zhou, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The Guang(yuan)-Gan(su) Expressway is located in the core areas where the Wenchuan earthquake occurred. The surrounding soft-rocks of several tunnels in this region, such as the Dujiashan and Yangjiashan tunnels, are mainly broken into phyllites due to the severe action of the earthquake. Through analyzing the effects of large deformations, lining damage and collapses, which happen frequently in the soft-rock tunnels in the Guang-Gan Expressway, the characteristics and causes of such geological disasters are obtained. It is demonstrated that the large deformation and collapse occur near the vault and tunnel face. The poor mechanical properties and weak self-bearing capacity of the surrounding rock and the softening caused by groundwater are important contributing factors to these disasters. The lack of experience in the design and construction of tunnels in the meizoseismal area, as well as the aftershocks are other important factors to consider. Field test results indicate that the three-bench and the reserved core soil construction method should be applied to control the stability of broken phyllite tunnels, and that this key technology should be strictly controlled during its construction. In particular, increasing the stiffness of the supporting structure and enclosing of the lining in time are efficient methods to control large deformations and collapses in soft-rock tunnels in the meizoseismal area.

  17. Characteristics, causes and control measures of disasters for the soft-rock tunnels in the Wenchuan seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Tianbin; He, Chuan; Zhou, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The Guang(yuan)–Gan(su) Expressway is located in the core areas where the Wenchuan earthquake occurred. The surrounding soft-rocks of several tunnels in this region, such as the Dujiashan and Yangjiashan tunnels, are mainly broken into phyllites due to the severe action of the earthquake. Through analyzing the effects of large deformations, lining damage and collapses, which happen frequently in the soft-rock tunnels in the Guang–Gan Expressway, the characteristics and causes of such geological disasters are obtained. It is demonstrated that the large deformation and collapse occur near the vault and tunnel face. The poor mechanical properties and weak self-bearing capacity of the surrounding rock and the softening caused by groundwater are important contributing factors to these disasters. The lack of experience in the design and construction of tunnels in the meizoseismal area, as well as the aftershocks are other important factors to consider. Field test results indicate that the three-bench and the reserved core soil construction method should be applied to control the stability of broken phyllite tunnels, and that this key technology should be strictly controlled during its construction. In particular, increasing the stiffness of the supporting structure and enclosing of the lining in time are efficient methods to control large deformations and collapses in soft-rock tunnels in the meizoseismal area.

  18. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization. PMID:25638580

  19. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  20. Wind Tunnel Measured Effects on a Twin-Engine Short-Haul Transport Caused by Simulated Ice Accretions: Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Potapczuk, Mark; Ratvasky, Thomas; Laflin, Brenda Gile

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release the data from the NASA Langley/Lewis 14 by 22 foot wind tunnel test that examined icing effects on a 1/8 scale twin-engine short-haul jet transport model. Presented in this document are summary data from the major configurations tested. The entire test database in addition to ice shape and model measurements is available as a data supplement in CD-ROM form. Data measured and presented are: wing pressure distributions, model force and moment, and wing surface flow visualization.

  1. Investigations of the March 2006 African dust storm using ground-based column-integrated high spectral resolution infrared (8-13 μm) and visible aerosol optical thickness measurements: 2. Mineral aerosol mixture analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M.; Gautier, C.

    2009-07-01

    The mineral aerosol mixture composition for the March 2006 Saharan dust storm is assessed in this paper on the basis of the analysis of visible to near-infrared (VIS-NIR) and infrared (IR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) spectra obtained during the Portable Infrared Aerosol Transmission Experiment (PIRATE). The AOT spectra from 8 to 13 μm were determined using column-integrated solar transmission measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. To determine the mineralogy and mixture composition of the dust, we determined the expected mineralogy of dust from the Algerian source region in a dust storm environment. Then we computed the modeled VIS-IR AOT spectra using Mie theory for external and internal mixtures. We compared the modeled VIS-NIR AOT spectra and derived index of refraction and single-scattering albedo with the measured values from AERONET and compared the modeled IR AOT spectra with the values from our IR measurements. The fit between the measured and modeled values was best when we used an extinction resonance correction to the Mie theory results to better account for the exact wavelengths and shapes of some of the AOT peaks for mineral particles. The mineralogy and mixture composition of the best dust model includes external mixtures, internal mixtures, and mineralogy dominated by quartz, illite, and calcite. The modeled mean radius was determined, and several modes were computed in agreement with AERONET results.

  2. Research concerning the geophysical causes and measurement accuracies related to the irregularities in the rotation of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort consisted of a detailed study of the history of the motion of the moon. Several analyses were developed which are related to the determination of the effect of various refractive phenomena on the accuracy of measurements made through the earth's atmosphere.

  3. Mineral impurities in coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Raask, E.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the many and varied problems associated with coal combustion and suggests remedial measures to assist in producing electrical energy from coal more efficiently. Contents include: influence of coal mineral matter on boiler design; mineral impurities in coal; quality of coal utilized in power stations; coal grinding, abrasive fuel minerals and plant wear; particulates silicate minerals in boiler flame; reactions of nonsilicate impurities in coal flame; creation, capture and coalescence of particulate ash in boiler flame; slag viscosity; sintering, fusion and slagging propensities of coal ashes, adhesion of ash deposit on boiler tubes and refractory materials; deposition mechanisms, rate measurements and the mode of formation of boiler deposits; thermal radiation and heat transfer properties of boiler deposits; measures to combat boiler fouling and slagging; some specific ash-related problems with US Coals; use of additives in coal fired boilers; high temperature corrosion in coal-fired plants; ash impaction erosion wear; low temeprature fouling and corrosion; comparison of ash-related problems in pulverized fuel and other coal-fired systems.

  4. Measurement and suppression of secondary waves caused by high-order modes in a photonic bandgap fiber-optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Gao, Fuyu; Song, Ningfang; Jin, Jing

    2016-05-16

    Air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) is a good choice for fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) owing to the fact that it can be adapted to a wide variety of environments. However, its multimode properties are disadvantageous for the application to FOGs. An interference-based method is proposed to precisely determine the secondary waves caused by the high-order modes and their coupling. Based on the method, two groups of secondary waves have been found, having optical path differences (OPDs) of ~1.859 m and ~0.85 m, respectively, relative to the primary waves in a PBFOG that consists of a 7-cell PBF coil, approximately 180 m in length. Multi-turn bends of the PBF at both ends of the PBF coil after the fusion splicing points are shown to suppress the intensity of these secondary waves by approximately 10 dB.

  5. Measurement and suppression of secondary waves caused by high-order modes in a photonic bandgap fiber-optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Gao, Fuyu; Song, Ningfang; Jin, Jing

    2016-05-16

    Air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) is a good choice for fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) owing to the fact that it can be adapted to a wide variety of environments. However, its multimode properties are disadvantageous for the application to FOGs. An interference-based method is proposed to precisely determine the secondary waves caused by the high-order modes and their coupling. Based on the method, two groups of secondary waves have been found, having optical path differences (OPDs) of ~1.859 m and ~0.85 m, respectively, relative to the primary waves in a PBFOG that consists of a 7-cell PBF coil, approximately 180 m in length. Multi-turn bends of the PBF at both ends of the PBF coil after the fusion splicing points are shown to suppress the intensity of these secondary waves by approximately 10 dB. PMID:27409849

  6. Cause and solution for false upstream boat velocities measured with a StreamPro acoustic doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Rehmel, Mike S.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler which does not include an internal compass. During stationary moving-bed tests the StreamPro often tends to swim or kite from the end of the tether (the instrument rotates then moves laterally in the direction of the rotation). Because the StreamPro does not have an internal compass, it cannot account for the rotation. This rotation and lateral movement of the StreamPro on the end of the tether generates a false upstream velocity, which cannot be easily distinguished from a moving-bed bias velocity. A field test was completed to demonstrate that this rotation and lateral movement causes a false upstream boat velocity. The vector dot product of the boat velocity and the unit vector of the depth-averaged water velocity is shown to be an effective method to account for the effect of the rotation and lateral movement.

  7. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    PubMed

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  8. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    PubMed

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying. PMID:18574165

  9. On-line measurements in pig carcass classification: Repeatability and variation caused by the operator and the copy of instrument.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Eli V; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta; Oksama, Marjatta; Kien, Stefan; Lisiak, Dariusz; Busk, Hans

    2007-01-01

    For nearly all pigs slaughtered in the EU, the lean meat content is assessed on-line at the slaughter line. The assessment is made indirectly by an instrument performing a number of informative measurements including the thickness of back fat as one of the most important and common measurements. Several types of instruments are used for making the measurements. The quality of the calibration (the prediction ability) has to be approved by the EU Commission. However, the maintenance of instruments, training of operators, working conditions and other factors influencing the routine are quite as important for the accuracy as the calibration. As a part of an EU funded project, partners representing thirteen European countries have investigated the instruments used in their countries focusing on the precision of indirect measurements. The preconditions have differed considerably between the countries resulting in a wide range of estimates of the repeatability and the reproducibility (precision) of fat and muscle thickness. Totally, there have been three different types of manual instruments - invasive probe instruments from three manufacturers, non-invasive ultrasound and callipers. Furthermore, the precision of two automatic instruments with respect to lean meat content has partly been estimated. Even though neither the aim nor the design of the experiments was set for a direct comparison between different instruments, none of them seemed to deviate notably from the others with respect to the precision of fat thickness. In this study, the only investigated influencing factors were the variations in operators and copies of instruments. Generally, the variations between operators were more important than the variation between copies of the same type of instrument. PMID:22063408

  10. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-11-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

  11. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  12. [Performance limiting causes in single use unit systems for the measurement of PO2 and PCO2 in blood].

    PubMed

    Sachs, C; Finetti, P; Abdoulaye, F; Mollard, J F

    2002-01-01

    Having had the opportunity of testing two of the three commercially available single use unit systems (i-STAT and OPTI-1), we have listed a series of performance limiting factors which they share, even though, their detectors being based on different methodologies, they have specific causes of dysfunction. PO2 detectors face the worse problems for different reasons. Temperature control is critical: the cassette or at last the detectors, the internal solution and the specimen have to be heated to 37 C, thermostabilisation to one tenth of degree centigrade is a must. Gas equilibration between liquid phases, the outside ambiance and the plastic material can raise problems: a decrease of the external barometric pressure alters the result, an absence of oxygen buffer capacity can induce modifications of the PO2 in the solutions. The transition of the detectors from a dry to a wet stage can provoke changes of the final result in case of accidental pre-humidication of the cassette. The presence of a single internal solution generates problems linked to a single point calibrage procedure which is a source of variability. The general quality of the cassette can only be evaluated by numerous internal electronic checks: increasing the severity of the controls improves quality but increases the number of rejected cassettes. External quality control through classical procedures are not applicable and finally the quality of the cassettes depends primarily on rigorous manufacturing conditions. PMID:12147442

  13. Monitoring and Modeling of Ionosphere Irregularities Caused By Space Weather Activity on the Base of GNSS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, I.; Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.; Shagimuratov, I.

    2014-12-01

    The ionosphere plays an important role in GNSS applications because it influences on the radio wave propagation through out. The ionosphere delay is the biggest error source for satellite navigation systems, but it can be directly measured and mitigated with using dual frequency GNSS receivers. However GNSS signal fading due to electron density gradients and irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease the operational availability of navigation system. The intensity of such irregularities on high and mid latitudes essentially rises during space weather events. For monitoring of the ionospheric irregularities data collected from all available permanent GNSS stations in the Northern Hemisphere are processed and analyzed. Here we used parameters ROT (rate of GPS TEC change) and ROTI (index of ROT) to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations. ROTI maps are constructed with the grid of 2 deg x 2 deg resolution as a function of the magnetic local time and corrected magnetic latitude. The ROTI maps allow to estimate the overall fluctuation activity and auroral oval evolutions, in general the ROTI values are corresponded to the probability of GPS signals phase fluctuations. There were developed several models in order to represent ionospheric fluctuations and scintillation activity under different geophysical conditions, but they were calibrated with data sets, that did not include GNSS derived data. It is very actual to develop empirical model based on GNSS derived measurements which can represent strong fluctuations of the ionosphere plasma density at high latitudes. The measurements provided by the existing permanent GNSS networks accumulated in order to develop the empirical model of ionospheric irregularities over the Northern hemisphere. As initial data the daily dependences of the ROTI index are used as a function of geomagnetic Local Time on the specific grid. With ROTI index maps it was determined the irregularities oval border and averaging parameter - semi

  14. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    PubMed

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  15. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    PubMed

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-30

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  16. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  17. Extent and causes of 3D spatial variations in potential N mineralization and the risk of ammonium and nitrate leaching from an N-impacted permanent grassland near York, UK.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mian, Ishaq A; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the dynamics of inorganic N species transformations with depth have been investigated for seven soil profiles from a nitrogen-impacted ancient grassland on a nature reserve outside York in the UK, using incubation experiments. In five of the profiles, both ammonification and nitrification are occurring below the rooting zone, probably partly in response to the low C:N ratio in the soils. This contributes to elevated nitrate concentrations found in an adjacent stream. Accumulation of ammonium during incubation in the sub-soils of these five profiles suggests a high probability of ammonium leaching down the profiles as ammonium inputs and outputs at a given depth approach equilibrium. This ammonium may also be nitrified at depth. However, in the two profiles with the most acidic surface horizons, net mineralization was negligible or negative; some initial ammonium-N and ammonium-N produced during incubation were nitrified, so the loss in ammonium-N was closely balanced by nitrate-N production.

  18. Microbial diversity in bioaerosol samples causing ODTS compared to reference bioaerosol samples as measured using Illumina sequencing and MALDI-TOF.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Zervas, Athanasios; Tendal, Kira; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2015-07-01

    The importance of the microbial diversity of bioaerosols in relation to occupational exposure and work related health symptoms is not known. The aim of this paper is to gain knowledge on the bacterial and fungal communities in dust causing organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and in reference dust not causing ODTS. Bacterial and fungal communities were described in personal exposure samples from grass seed workers developing ODTS, in dust generated from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust generated from reference seeds not causing ODTS. Amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS region, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) were used for identification of fungi and bacteria in personal exposure samples and in dust samples from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust from reference grass seeds. Furthermore, activities of enzymes were measured in the same samples. The sequencing data revealed more than 150 bacterial and 25 fungal genera present in each sample. Streptomyces spp., Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus microsporus were dominating in the dust causing ODTS but not in the reference dust. The dustiness in terms of Mucor sp. and R. microsporus were 100-1000 times higher for problematic seeds compared to reference seeds. The bacterial species in the dust causing ODTS included pathogenic species such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptomyces pneumonia, and it contained increased concentrations of total protein, serine protease, chitinase, and β-glucosidase. Twenty-three bacterial genera covered more than 50% of the total reads in the personal and problematic seed dust. These 23 genera accounted for less than 7% of the total reads in the reference seed dust. The microbial community of the dust from the problematic seeds showed great similarities to that from the personal air samples from the workers. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time a shift in the microbial community in aerosol

  19. Spaced sensor measurements of artificial airglow emission at 630 nm of ionosphere caused by ``Sura'' facility radiation in November 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Gumerov, Rustam; Shindin, Alexey; Kogogin, Denis; Dementiev, Vladislav

    Some first results on simultaneous observation artificial airglow emission at 630 nm during HF pumping of the ionosphere by “Sura” facility from two spatial situated experimental sites are reported. The measurements of artificial airglow are usually conducted in red and green lines of atomic oxygen (the radiation of levels O((1) D) and O((1) S) under their excitation by electronic impact) with wave lengths of 630 and 557.7 nm and excitation energy of 1.96 and 4.17 eV accordingly. An enhancement of airglow intensity in the red line is related at present to the electron heating by powerful radio waves. The idea of the experiment was to estimate the heated volume three-dimensional structure and drift motion one. The experiment was carried out in November 2013 at the “Sura” radio facility, situated near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (geographical coordinates 56.13(o) N, 46.10(o) E, geomagnetic field declination and inclination are ˜ 10.0(o) east and ˜ 71.5(o) , respectively). Conditions of ionosphere were checked by means of "Cady" ionosonde during “Sura” runs. According to the ionospheric conditions, on the 7(th) of November the “Sura” facility operated at frequency 4.540 MHz. At this frequency the effective radiated power was about 120MW. The HF beam width at the “Sura” facility is ˜ 12(o) . A square wave pump modulation of 5 min on, 5 min off, was used. Measurements were carried out in the period from 14:40 to 17:30 UTC. Optical imaging was performed on two spatial experimental sites: “Vasilsursk” (situated about 500 m from antenna system of “Sura” facility); “Raifa” (situated about 170 km from “Sura” facility at the Magnetic Observatory of Kazan Federal University, geographical coordinates 55.93(o) N, 48.75(o) E). They both were fitted out Peltier-cooled front-illuminated bare CCD cameras with 16-bit slow-scan read-out (S1C3). On “Vasilsursk” site the images were binned down to 256× 256 pixels in addition to cooling, in order

  20. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small, the data suggest that for miners under the age of 60, exposure to chromium is associated with the development of the intestinal rather than the diffuse type of gastric cancer. PMID:8435344

  1. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  2. Adsorption of surfactants on mineral oxide surfaces from aqueous solutions. Part 1. Isomerically pure anionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, J.F.; Schechter, R.S.; Wade, W.H.

    1982-02-01

    The adsorption of surfactants on minerals is detrimental to surfactant-enhanced oil recovery. To minimize adsorption, the forces tending to cause it must be understood. This requires the study of relatively simple, well-defined systems. The majority of surfactant adsorption studies on mineral oxides has been made with surfactant mixtures and not with monoisomerically pure species. Some of the observed results may be due to complex surfactant intercomponent interactions. In this study, the adsorption of 3 isomerically pure alkylbenzene sulfonates was measured on alumina and kaolinite from very low concentrations to well above the critical micelle concentration and a thermodynamic model was developed, which describes the observed isotherms. 59 references.

  3. PERMEABILITY CHANGES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The change in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a temperature gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These changes are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high temperatures, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower temperatures. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.

  4. Identification of Opaque Minerals Using Automated Photomicrographic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, James Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Describes a technique for making reflectance measurements of opaque minerals in polished thin sections. Provides a calibration procedure, reflectance values for common opaque minerals, and a graph showing an example calibration curve of minimum shutter speed of opaque minerals versus published reflectance data. (RT)

  5. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; et al

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  6. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  7. Measurement of {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at E{sub {nu}} is an element of 0.5-2.0 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B. T.; Linden, S. K.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Bazarko, A. O.; Laird, E. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Patterson, R. B.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Tanaka, H. A.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Kasper, P.; Kobilarcik, T.

    2011-03-01

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for {nu}{sub {mu}-}induced charged-current single {pi}{sup 0} production on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5-2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q{sup 2}, {mu}{sup -} kinematics, and {pi}{sup 0} kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2{+-}0.3{sub stat}{+-}1.5{sub syst})x10{sup -39} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  8. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  9. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  10. Measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in patients with the Wisconsin hip, an uncemented femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, B J; Checovich, M M; McBeath, A A; Wilson, M A; Heiner, J P

    1996-02-01

    Although qualitative evidence of femoral bone remodeling, secondary to total hip arthroplasty (THA), is apparent on radiographs, quantification of change in bone mass from radiographs is limited. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry overcomes many of the limitations and yields accurate and precise bone mineral density (BMD) data. In this study, regional changes in femoral BMD were examined in 89 THA patients with a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty-two patients were evaluated initially before surgery and followed through the first 2 postoperative years. A second group was comprised of 57 patients whose surgery had been performed 1 to 6 years prior to entry into the study; they were also followed for 2 years hence. Thus, both immediate and later bone responses were evaluated prospectively. Maximal bone remodeling was seen in the first 6 months after THA and with a near plateau by the end of the first year. A slow yearly decline in BMD appeared to occur as long as 8 years after THA, thus demonstrating the long-term effects of the introduction of a femoral stem. Variance in preoperative BMD was explained by disease only; no other factors (age, weight, sex) showed significant associations, and body weight was the only variable that affected rate of remodeling after THA (not age, weight, sex, prosthesis size, nor disease). All patients were healthy, relatively young individuals who were good candidates for uncemented implantation, and none showed evidence of clinical complications or surgical failure. It is therefore suggested that the patterns and results reported here be viewed as normative data, that is, the typical skeletal adaptation to THA. In future application, observation of disparate BMD results as compared with these "normal" data may be predictive of abnormal response to surgery and potential for later problems.

  11. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  12. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  13. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  16. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  17. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  18. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  1. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  7. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  8. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  9. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  10. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  11. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  12. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  13. On a possible bias in elemental carbon measurements with the Sunset thermal/optical carbon analyser caused by unstable laser signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammerlaan, B. A. J.; Jedynska, A. D.; Henzing, J. S.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present results that demonstrate a possible bias in the fractioning of total carbon (TC) into elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) for measurements with the Sunset Laboratory Inc. Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyser. The bias is caused by an unstable laser transmission signal. The transmission signal during the analysis of an instrument blank filter can give an indication of the possible bias. If the transmission signal around the OC/EC split point deviates from its initial value, the EC attribution is altered. In a sensitivity study, we show that for a deviation of 10% the EC content is substantially biased.

  14. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  15. Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Evans, R. D.

    1980-02-01

    Total ozone measurements made with Dobson spectrophotometers in polluted air are subject to errors caused by interfering trace gas species that absorb solar ultraviolet radiation. While such interference is probably non-existent or small at the majority of Dobson instrument stations throughout the world, errors of up to 25% and 5%, resulting from absorption by SO2 and NO2 respectively, may occur occasionally at a few stations located in extremely polluted atmospheres. Interference by other absorbers, including N2O5, H2O2, HNO3, acetyldehyde, acetone, and acrolein has been found to be negligible. Ozone produced photochemically in polluted near-surface air may occasionally constitute from 5% to 10% of the atmospheric total ozone column. Such ozone interferes with measurements of atmospheric background total ozone.

  16. Indiction of Work Function in Mineral Electrostatic Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Gan, H.; Mo, B.; Wang, S. J.; Tang, H.; Wei, G. F.; Zhao, Y.-Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    Our preliminary experiments measured WFs of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, ilmenite using the SPM. These mineral grains can be charged to several thousand positive electrons under solar UV irrdations.

  17. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  19. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  20. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  1. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  2. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. The measurement of the ionospheric total content variations caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the perturbations of total electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.

  4. DIET of alkali atoms from mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms for the origin of alkalis in the atmosphere of the Moon, we are studying the electron- and photon-stimulated desorption (ESD and PSD) of K atoms from model mineral surfaces (SiO 2 films), and ESD and PSD of Na atoms from a lunar basalt sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the existence of traces of Na in the lunar sample. To obtain an increased signal for detailed measurements of desorption parameters (appearance thresholds, yields), a fractional monolayer of Na is deposited onto the lunar sample surface. An alkali atom detector based on surface ionization and a time-of-flight technique are used for DIET measurements, together with a pulsed electron gun, and a mechanically chopped and filtered mercury arc light source. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by UV photons or by electrons with energies E>4 eV causes desorption of "hot" alkali atoms. The results are consistent with the model based on charge transfer from the substrate to adsorbate which was developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and desorption of K atoms from water ice. The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  5. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  6. Effects of Long-Term Mineral Block Supplementation on Antioxidants, Immunity, and Health of Tibetan Sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhiqi; Huang, Meizhou; Wang, Shengyi; Cui, Dongan; Dong, Shuwei; Li, Shengkun; Qi, Zhiming; Liu, Yongming

    2016-08-01

    Tibetan sheep have been observed with mineral deficiencies and marginal deficiencies in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Adequate amounts of essential minerals are critical to maximize the productivity and health of livestock. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 6 months of mineral block supplementation on the antioxidants, immunity, and health of Tibetan sheep. The study was conducted in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The consumed values of mineral blocks were measured. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to evaluate the trace elements, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) activities, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), triiodothyronine (T3), tyroxine (T4), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined. The toxic effects of the mineral block were also monitored. For Tibetan sheep, the average consumed value of mineral block was 13.09 g per day per sheep. Mineral block supplementation significantly increased the serum levels of Mn, Fe, and Se (P < 0.01), decreased the level of MDA (P < 0.05), and increased GSH activity (P < 0.05). Additionally, the mineral block-treated sheep blood had greater total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) than control sheep. Moreover, the mineral block supplementation improved the levels IgA, IgM, and IGF-1 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Additionally, there were no significant histopathological changes in the organs of Tibetan sheep after long-term treatment with the mineral block. The results demonstrated that the mineral block was non-toxic and safe; the protective effects of the mineral block might be caused by an increase in the antioxidant defense system, as well as an increase in the benefits from immunity-related parameters. PMID:26689930

  7. Geostatistical Analysis of Spatial Variability of Mineral Abundance and Kd in Frenchman Flat, NTS, Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A

    2002-11-01

    LLNL hydrologic source term modeling at the Cambric site (Pawloski et al., 2000) showed that retardation of radionuclide transport is sensitive to the distribution and amount of radionuclide sorbing minerals. While all mineralogic information available near the Cambric site was used in these early simulations (11 mineral abundance analyses from UE-5n and 9 from RNM-l), these older data sets were qualitative in nature, with detection limits too high to accurately measure many of the important radionuclide sorbing minerals (e.g. iron oxide). Also, the sparse nature of the mineral abundance data permitted only a hypothetical description of the spatial distribution of radionuclide sorbing minerals. Yet, the modeling results predicted that the spatial distribution of sorbing minerals would strongly affect radionuclide transport. Clearly, additional data are needed to improve understanding of mineral abundances and their spatial distributions if model predictions in Frenchman Flat are to be defensible. This report evaluates new high-resolution quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data on mineral distributions and their abundances from core samples recently collected from drill hole ER-5-4. The total of 94 samples from ER-5-4 were collected at various spacings to enable evaluation of spatial variability at a variety of spatial scales as small as 0.3 meters and up to hundreds of meters. Additional XRD analyses obtained from drillholes UE-Sn, ER-5-3, and U-11g-1 are used to augment evaluation of vertical spatial variability and permit some evaluation of lateral spatial variability. A total of 163 samples are evaluated. The overall goal of this study is to understand and characterize the spatial variation of sorbing minerals in Frenchman Flat alluvium using geostatistical techniques, with consideration for the potential impact on reactive transport of radionuclides. To achieve this goal requires an effort to ensure that plausible geostatistical models are used to

  8. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading.

  9. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  10. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  11. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  12. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, many nutrients interact with each other. Most nutritionists believe in designing an overall program of supplements. ... SUPPLEMENTS? In addition to vitamins and minerals, some nutritionists suggest that people with HIV take supplements of ...

  14. Dissolution Rates and Mineral Lifetimes of Phosphate Containing Minerals and Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E.

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of NASA's Mars Exploration Program include exploring the planet's habitability and the possibility of past, present, or future life. This includes investigating "possible supplies of bioessential elements" [1]. Phosphate is one such bioessential element for life as we understand it. Phosphate is also abundant on Mars [2], and the phosphate rich minerals chlorapatite, fluorapatite, and merrillite have been observed in Martian meteorites [3]. Surface rock analyses from the MER Spirit also show the loss of a phosphate rich mineral from the rocks Wishstone and Watchtower at Gusev Crater [4,5], implying mineral dissolution. Dissolution rates of phosphate containing minerals are therefore important for characterizing phosphate mobility and bioavailability on Mars. Previous studies have measured dissolution rates of fluorapatite [6-8]. However, chlorapatite and merrillite (a non-terrestrial mineral similar to whitlockite) are more common phosphate minerals found in Martian meteorites [3], and few dissolution data exist for these minerals. We have begun batch dissolution experiments on chlorapatite, synthesized using methods of [9], and whitlockite, synthesized using a method modified from [10]. Additionally, we are dissolving Durango fluorapatite to compare to dissolution rates in literature, and natural Palermo whitlockite to compare to dissolution rates of our synthesized whitlockite. Batch dissolution experiments were performed after [8], using a 0.01 molar KNO3 solution with 0.1500g-0.3000g mineral powders and starting solution volumes of 180ml in LDPE reaction vessels. HNO3 or KOH were used to adjust initial pH as required. Dissolution rates are calculated from the rate of change of elemental concentration in solution as a function of time, and normalized to the mineral surface area as measured by BET. Resulting rates will be used to calculate mineral lifetimes for the different phosphate minerals under potential Mars-like aqueous conditions, and in

  15. Examining Non-Linear Associations between Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and All-Cause Mortality Using Segmented Cox Regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952-5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from this

  16. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  17. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  18. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features.

  19. Bone mineral density in developing children with osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Sakkers, Ralph J B; Pruijs, Hans E H; Joosse, Pieter; Castelein, René M

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose — Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by a defect in collagen type I synthesis. For bone, this includes fragility, low bone mass, and progressive skeletal deformities, which can result in various degrees of short stature. The purpose of this study was to investigate development of bone mineral density in children with OI. Patients and methods — Development of lumbar bone mineral density was studied retrospectively in a cohort of 74 children with OI. Mean age was 16.3 years (SD 4.3). In 52 children, repeated measurements were available. Mean age at the start of measurement was 8.8 years (SD 4.1), and mean follow-up was 9 years (SD 2.7). A longitudinal data analysis was performed. In the total cohort (74 children), a cross-sectional analysis was performed with the latest-measured BMD. Age at the latest BMD measurement was almost equal for girls and boys: 17.4 and 17.7 years respectively. Result — Mean annual increase in BMD in the 52 children was 0.038 g/cm2/year (SD 0.024). Annual increase in BMD was statistically significantly higher in girls, in both the unadjusted and adjusted analysis. In cross-sectional analysis, in the whole cohort the latest-measured lumbar BMD was significantly higher in girls, in the children with OI of type I, in walkers, and in those who were older, in both unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Interpretation — During 9 years of follow-up, there appeared to be an increase in bone mineral density, which was most pronounced in girls. One possible explanation might be a later growth spurt and older age at peak bone mass in boys. PMID:23992144

  20. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  1. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor. PMID:26333294

  2. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly.

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  4. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  5. [Individual characteristics of water-mineral metabolism during 120-day head-down tilt hypokinesia and the effectiveness of prophylactic measures].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, T M; Kozyrevskaia, G I; Lobachik, V I; Zhidkov, V V; Abrosimov, S V

    1986-01-01

    Sodium balance and circulating plasma, intracellular, extracellular and interstitial fluid volumes were measured in the test subjects exposed for 120 days to head-down tilt at -5 degrees. The large scatter of the above parameters was associated with individual variations and with the use of different countermeasures against demineralization (exercise and drugs-xydiphone and glucamak). The effect of the countermeasures was different both in qualitative and quantitative terms. It appears that the target of their action was different. The best prophylactic effect was seen when exercise and drugs were used in combination. These findings suggest that individual variations of fluid-electrolyte metabolism during prolonged hypokinesia are related to the different capacity of tissues for water and electrolytes.

  6. Sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Rozas, Oscar; Vergara, Carola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-03-01

    Norflurazon (4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridazin-3(2H)-one; C12H9ClF3N3O) is an excellent weed controlling agent being practiced in the agricultural lands. The excessive addition or the undissolved Norflurazon (maximum solubility 28 mg/L at 25 °C) enters into the aquatic environment and causes the adverse effects associated with its high concentration. To avoid the perilous effects, visible light assisted photocatalysis set-up coupled with the 42 kHz ultrasound producing bath type sonicator is used to completely mineralize the Norflurazon. TiO2, ZnO and gold loaded zinc oxide nanocatalysts were utilized to study the mineralization of Norflurazon. Au-ZnO shows the greater efficiency for the sonophotocatalytic removal of Norflurazon among the various nanocatalysts employed to study the mineralization. The order of Norflurazon mineralization was sonophotocatalysis > sonocatalysis > photocatalysis. The additive effect was achieved for the sonophotocatalytic degradation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LCMS) analyses were employed to identify the various intermediates produced during the mineralization. The identification of four pseudo molecular ions and various intermediates using the LCMS analysis evidently suggests the sonophotocatalytic degradation was preceded in various decay pathways. A suitable mechanism has been proposed for the sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon.

  7. Sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Rozas, Oscar; Vergara, Carola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-03-01

    Norflurazon (4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridazin-3(2H)-one; C12H9ClF3N3O) is an excellent weed controlling agent being practiced in the agricultural lands. The excessive addition or the undissolved Norflurazon (maximum solubility 28 mg/L at 25 °C) enters into the aquatic environment and causes the adverse effects associated with its high concentration. To avoid the perilous effects, visible light assisted photocatalysis set-up coupled with the 42 kHz ultrasound producing bath type sonicator is used to completely mineralize the Norflurazon. TiO2, ZnO and gold loaded zinc oxide nanocatalysts were utilized to study the mineralization of Norflurazon. Au-ZnO shows the greater efficiency for the sonophotocatalytic removal of Norflurazon among the various nanocatalysts employed to study the mineralization. The order of Norflurazon mineralization was sonophotocatalysis > sonocatalysis > photocatalysis. The additive effect was achieved for the sonophotocatalytic degradation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LCMS) analyses were employed to identify the various intermediates produced during the mineralization. The identification of four pseudo molecular ions and various intermediates using the LCMS analysis evidently suggests the sonophotocatalytic degradation was preceded in various decay pathways. A suitable mechanism has been proposed for the sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon. PMID:26735720

  8. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  9. Assessing mineral metabolism in children using stable isotopes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral metabolism may be altered in children with acute or chronic illnesses. The effects may be short term, such as hypomagnesemia associated with chemotherapy, or long-term, such as loss of bone mineral mass after steroid use. Understanding the causes, consequences, and potential therapies for mi...

  10. A dozen miners perish in W.Va. mine explosion

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    A report is given of the mine explosion which occurred at the Sago mine in Upshur County, WV, leaving 13 coal miners trapped underground. Only one of the 13 was found alive. The cause of the explosion might have been the miners' equipment igniting trapped methane. Early reports blamed a lightning strike. 2 photos.

  11. Water erosion as a cause for agricultural soil loss: modeling of dynamic processes using high-resolution ground based LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Filin, Sagi; Assouline, Shmuel; Shtain, Zachi; Furman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by rainfall and water flow is a frequent natural geomorphic process shaping the earth's surface at various scales. Conventional agrotechnical methods enhance soil erosion at the field scale and are at the origin of the reduction of the upper soil layer depth. This reduction is expressed in two aspects: decrease of soil depth, mainly due to erosion, and the diminution of soil quality, mainly due to the loss of fine material, nutrients and organic matter. Rain events, not even the most extremes, cause detachment and transport of fertile soil rich in organic matter and nutrients away from the fields, filling and plugging drainage channels, blocking infrastructure and contaminating water sources. Empirical, semi-empirical and mechanistic models are available to estimate soil erosion by water flow and sediment transport (e.g. WEPP, KINEROSS, EUROSEM). Calibration of these models requires data measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Development of high-resolution measurement tools (for both spatial and temporal aspects) should improve the calibration of functions related to particles detachment and transport from the soil surface. In addition, despite the great impact of different tillage systems on the soil erosion process, the vast majority of the models ignore this fundamental factor. The objective of this study is to apply high-resolution ground-based LiDAR measurements to different tillage schemes and scales to improve the ability of models to accurately describe the process of soil erosion induced by rainfall and overland flow. Ground-based laser scans provide high resolution accurate and subtle geomorphic changes, as well as larger-scale deformations. As such, it allows frequent monitoring, so that even the effect of a single storm can be measured, thus improving the calibration of the erosion models. Preliminary results for scans made in the field show the potential and limitations of ground-based LiDAR, and at this point qualitatively can

  12. Rheological Characterization of Bioinspired Mineralization in Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regitsky, Abigail; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    With increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere linked to potentially catastrophic climate change, it is critical that we find methods to permanently sequester and store CO2. Inspired by the natural biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), one future goal of this project is to understand the mechanisms of CaCO3 mineralization in order to ultimately optimize a bioinspired hydrogel system, which produces high value industrial powders that consume CO2 as a feedstock. Along the way, we are developing a rheological technique to study mineral nucleation and growth events by measuring the modulations in mechanical properties of a hydrogel system during mineralization. Our initial system consists of a gelatin hydrogel matrix, which is preloaded with calcium ions, and an aqueous solution of carbonate ions, which are allowed to diffuse through the gel to initiate the mineralization process. In order to monitor how the growth of minerals affects the mechanical properties of the gel network, we measure the storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli of the system in situ. Future work will focus on modifying the properties of the minerals formed by changing the polymer used in the hydrogel network and adding other organic molecules into the system.

  13. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  14. Magnetic composites from minerals: study of the iron phases in clay and diatomite using Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M.; Maciel, J. C.; Quispe-Marcatoma, J.; Pandey, B.; Neri, D. F. M.; Soria, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; de Carvalho, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic particles as matrix for enzyme immobilization have been used and due to the enzymatic derivative can be easily removed from the reaction mixture by a magnetic field. This work presents a study about the synthesis and characterization of iron phases into magnetic montmorillonite clay (mMMT) and magnetic diatomaceous earth (mDE) by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also these magnetic materials were assessed as matrices for the immobilization of invertase via covalent binding. Mössbauer spectra of the magnetic composites performed at 4.2 K showed a mixture of magnetite and maghemite about equal proportion in the mMMT, and a pure magnetite phase in the sample mDE. These results were verified using XRD. The residual specific activity of the immobilized invertase on mMMT and mDE were 83 % and 92.5 %, respectively. Thus, both magnetic composites showed to be promising matrices for covalent immobilization of invertase.

  15. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  16. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  17. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  18. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  19. The life cycle of a mineral deposit: a teacher's guide for hands-on mineral education activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Dave; Galloway, John; Assmus, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide defines what a mineral deposit is and how a mineral deposit is identified and measured, how the mineral resources are extracted, and how the mining site is reclaimed; how minerals and mineral resources are processed; and how we use mineral resources in our every day lives. Included are 10 activitybased learning exercises that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals. The guide is intended for K through 12 Earth science teachers and students and is designed to meet the National Science Content Standards as defined by the National Research Council (1996). To assist in the understanding of some of the geology and mineral terms, see the Glossary (appendix 1) and Minerals and Their Uses (appendix 2). The process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering the resource, also known as beneficiation, and reclaiming the land mined can be described as the “life cycle” of a mineral deposit. The complete process is time consuming and expensive, requiring the use of modern technology and equipment, and may take many years to complete. Sometimes one entity or company completes the entire process from discovery to reclamation, but often it requires multiple groups with specialized experience working together. Mineral deposits are the source of many important commodities, such as copper and gold, used by our society, but it is important to realize that mineral deposits are a nonrenewable resource. Once mined, they are exhausted, and another source must be found. New mineral deposits are being continuously created by the Earth but may take millions of years to form. Mineral deposits differ from renewable resources, such as agricultural and timber products, which may be replenished within a few months to several years.

  20. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone: Column Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Dever, S.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.; Michael, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    While it is well known that organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from degradation, its impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Strong evidence has shown that the adsorption of OM to mineral surface accelerates the dissolution of some minerals, but these observations are limited to bench-scale experiments that focus on specific OM and minerals. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing OM sorption on minerals. Soil samples from two depths, 0-6cm and 84-100cm, were chosen to represent different soil OM content and soil mineralogy. Soil OM was removed stepwise by heating samples to 350℃ for different durations (0-6cm: 100% removed, ~50% removed, and no removal; 84-100cm: 100% removed and no removal). Pretreated soil samples were subjected to flow-through, saturated column experiments using 0.01M LiCl and 5%CO2/95%air gas saturated (pH = 4.5) influent solution. Each column treatment was run in duplicate under a constant flow rate (Darcy velocity ≈ 8cm/hr). All columns reached a steady state after 600~700 pore volumes at which effluent pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and element concentrations were constant. At the 95% significance level, the DOC from OM-present columns was significantly higher, as expected. Correspondingly, effluent pH was lower in higher OM content columns. The chemical denudation rates were calculated from the effluent concentrations of the elements of interest. For the soil columns from both depths, silicon (Si) leaching rate showed that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-3 times higher in OM-removed columns, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes suppress mineral dissolution. The N2-BET specific surface area (SSA) measurement also showed that the removal of OM increased SSA, which supported the idea that OM adsorption had decreased mineral exposure and thus decreased mineral dissolution. The leaching rates of some

  1. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments

  2. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  3. Government Quality Measures: First Do No Harm.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B

    2015-01-01

    A technical expert panel (TEP) was convened to evaluate all available literature in the area of bone and mineral metabolism and advise the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services on the creation and collection of quality measures. The proposed quality measures were evaluated for importance, usability, feasibility, and scientific acceptability. All are important parameters to avoid unintended harmful consequences of a quality measure causing harm to patients or to the delivery of their health care.

  4. Treatment with growth hormone and IGF-I in growing rats increases bone mineral content but not bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Rosen, H N; Chen, V; Cittadini, A; Greenspan, S L; Douglas, P S; Moses, A C; Beamer, W G

    1995-09-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) both stimulate bone formation and have been proposed as therapeutic agents for osteoporosis. We examined the effect of hGH and IGF-I alone and in combination on bone size, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 10- to 12-week old growing female Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats were assigned to treatment with either placebo, hGH, IGF-I, or both for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the right femurs and tibias were excised, and ex vivo BMC and the area of the tibia and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); volume of these bones was measured by Archimedes' principle. In addition, proximal tibial bone density was measured directly by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). Bone length, area, and volume in all treated groups was greater than controls. Areal bone density by DXA (BMC/area) was higher in IGF-treated rats and lower in GH-treated rats than in controls. Volumetric bone density (BMC/volume) was lower in treated groups than in controls. Measurements by pQCT confirmed that true bone density was lower in all treated groups than in controls. We conclude that treatment with hGH or IGF-I increased bone size and mineral content but decreased bone density in growing rats. Because areal correction of BMC did not adequately correct for the increased bone volume in IGF-treated rats, results of areal bone density by DXA should be interpreted with caution when treatment causes a disparity in bone size between groups. PMID:7502707

  5. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  6. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  7. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term.

  8. Near-neutral surface charge and hydrophilicity prevent mineral encrustation of Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Saini, G; Chan, C S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial survival in mineralizing environments depends on the ability to evade surface encrustation by minerals, which could obstruct nutrient uptake and waste output. Some organisms localize mineral precipitation away from the cell; however, cell surface properties - charge and hydrophobicity - must also play a role in preventing surface mineralization. This is especially relevant for iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), which face an encrustation threat from both biotic and abiotic mineralization. We used electron microscopy and surface characterization techniques to study the surfaces of two stalk-forming neutrophilic FeOB: the marine Zetaproteobacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 and the recently isolated freshwater Betaproteobacterium Gallionellales strain R-1. Both organisms lack detectable iron on cell surfaces. Live and azide-inhibited M. ferrooxydans PV-1 cells had small negative zeta potentials (-0.34 to -2.73 mV), over the pH range 4.2-9.4; Gallionellales strain R-1 cells exhibited an even smaller zeta potential (-0.10 to -0.19 mV) over pH 4.2-8.8. Cells have hydrophilic surfaces, according to water contact angle measurements and microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons tests. Thermodynamic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) calculations showed that as low charge causes low electrostatic attraction, hydrophilic repulsion dominates cell-mineral interactions. Therefore, we conclude that surface properties help enable these FeOB to survive in highly mineralizing environments. Given both mineral-repelling surface properties and the ability to sequester Fe(III) biominerals in an organomineral stalk, these two FeOB have a well-coordinated system to localize both biotic and abiotic mineral distribution.

  9. Near-neutral surface charge and hydrophilicity prevent mineral encrustation of Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Saini, G; Chan, C S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial survival in mineralizing environments depends on the ability to evade surface encrustation by minerals, which could obstruct nutrient uptake and waste output. Some organisms localize mineral precipitation away from the cell; however, cell surface properties - charge and hydrophobicity - must also play a role in preventing surface mineralization. This is especially relevant for iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), which face an encrustation threat from both biotic and abiotic mineralization. We used electron microscopy and surface characterization techniques to study the surfaces of two stalk-forming neutrophilic FeOB: the marine Zetaproteobacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 and the recently isolated freshwater Betaproteobacterium Gallionellales strain R-1. Both organisms lack detectable iron on cell surfaces. Live and azide-inhibited M. ferrooxydans PV-1 cells had small negative zeta potentials (-0.34 to -2.73 mV), over the pH range 4.2-9.4; Gallionellales strain R-1 cells exhibited an even smaller zeta potential (-0.10 to -0.19 mV) over pH 4.2-8.8. Cells have hydrophilic surfaces, according to water contact angle measurements and microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons tests. Thermodynamic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) calculations showed that as low charge causes low electrostatic attraction, hydrophilic repulsion dominates cell-mineral interactions. Therefore, we conclude that surface properties help enable these FeOB to survive in highly mineralizing environments. Given both mineral-repelling surface properties and the ability to sequester Fe(III) biominerals in an organomineral stalk, these two FeOB have a well-coordinated system to localize both biotic and abiotic mineral distribution. PMID:23279435

  10. Mapping playa evaporite minerals with AVIRIS data: A first report from death valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts in Death Valley, California, were mapped by using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and a recently developed least-squares spectral band-fitting algorithm. Eight different saline minerals were remotely identified, including three borates, hydroboracite, pinnoite, and rivadavite, that have not been previously reported from the Death Valley efflorescent crusts. The three borates are locally important phases in the crusts, and at least one of the minerals, rivadavite, appears to be forming directly from brine. Borates and other evaporite minerals provide a basis for making remote chemical measurements of desert hydrologic systems. For example, in the Eagle Borax Spring area, the AVIRIS mineral maps pointed to elevated magnesium and boron levels in the ground waters, and to the action of chemical divides causing subsurface fractionation of calcium. Many other chemical aspects of playa brines should have an expression in the associated evaporite assemblages. Certain anhydrous evaporites, including anhydrite, glauberite, and thenardite, lack absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range, and crusts composed of these minerals could not be characterized by using AVIRIS. In these situations, thermal-infrared remote sensing data may complement visible and near-infrared data for mapping evaporites. Another problem occurred in wet areas of Death Valley, where water absorption caused low signal levels in the 2.0-2.5 ??m wavelength region that obscured any spectral features of evaporite minerals. Despite these difficulties, the results of this study demonstrate the potential for using AVIRIS and other imaging spectrometer data to study playa chemistry. Such data can be useful for understanding chemical linkages between evaporites and ground waters, and will facilitate studies of how desert ground-water regimes change through time in response to climatic and other variables. ?? 1993.

  11. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Injuries among Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kyeremateng-Amoah, E.; Clarke, Edith E.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold miners are confronted with numerous hazards often resulting in varying degrees of injuries and fatalities. In Ghana, like many developing countries, there is paucity of information on the causes and nature of the accidents that result in the injuries. The study was a retrospective, cross sectional type that examined the records of injuries of artisanal and small-scale gold miners presented to the emergency department of a district hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana from 2006 to 2013. The causes, types, and outcomes of reported injuries were analyzed for 72 cases. Occurrences of mining accidents reported in selected Ghanaian media during the year 2007–2012 were also analyzed to corroborate the causes of the accidents. Fractures and contusions constituted the most frequently occurring injuries, with collapse of the mine pits and falls being the most frequent cause of accidents reported both by the hospital and media records. This study shows that though varied degrees of injuries occur among the miners, the potential for serious injuries is substantial. Measures to reduce the incidence of injuries and fatalities should include education and training on the use of safe working tools and means of creating a safe working environment. PMID:26404345

  13. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P < 0.05). Water consumption decreased 5.9 times while total fluid consumption increased 1.6-1.9 times in the group consuming cola drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). While we did not detect any pathological oesophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors. PMID:17448120

  15. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  16. Marine mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Fillmore, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book includes the following topics: law of the sea; minerals of the deep seabed; placers and subseabed metallics; industrial chemical materials and coal; the United State exclusive economic zone: the management challenge; and the United Kingdom and Norway: offshore petroleum development policies.

  17. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  18. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  19. Determining the parameters of ionospheric perturbation caused by earthquakes using the quasi-optimum algorithm of spatiotemporal processing of TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryushkin, V. V.; Afraimovich, E. L.

    2007-04-01

    We present the quasi-optimum algorithm of localization of a source of coseismic ionospheric perturbation based on GPS receivers' network data processing. The initial data of the algorithm are the series of variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), reconstructed using the measurements of the phase delays of GPS signals. In order to select the TEC increments caused by ionospheric perturbation due to the earthquake, the TEC series are filtered using a special procedure. The algorithm realizes coherent summation of all TEC series of GPS array reasoning from the maximization of the energy of the total signal of the ionospheric response to earthquake. The quasi-optimum algorithm allows determination of the perturbation propagation velocity as well as of the coordinates, height and "switch-on" time of a source of coseismic ionospheric disturbance without prior information about the perturbation form and the site and time of the main shock of earthquake. We used the algorithm for measuring the parameters of ionospheric perturbations which accompanied the earthquake in the vicinity of Hokkaido Island on September 25, 2003 and the earthquake near the south coast of Honshu Island on September 5, 2004. The results of these experiments show the high accuracy of the perturbation source coordinates estimation (33 km and 27 km respectively with reference of the earthquakes epicenters). The estimations of perturbations propagation velocity (820 ± 60 m/s and 460 ± 40 m/s), heights (340 ± 80 km and 370 ± 130 km) and "switch-on" delay (346 s and 507 s) of a source of the perturbation obtained in both experiments are in agreement with a theory according to which coseismic atmospheric disturbance propagates within a narrow cone of zenith angles up to ionospheric heights and then diverges in the form of a spherical wave with the radial velocity close to the speed of sound at these heights. It is also in agreement with the results of earlier researches.

  20. Detection of respiratory allergies caused by environmental chemical allergen via measures of hyper-activation and degranulation of mast cells in lungs of NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Risako; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Watanabe, Yuko; Kurosawa, Yoshimi; Koasaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory allergy triggered by exposure to environmental chemical allergen is a serious problem in many Asian countries and has the potential to cause severe health problems. Here, we aimed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of this disease and develop an in vivo detection method for respiratory allergy induced by environmental chemical allergen. Both BALB/c and NC/Nga mice were sensitized topically for 3 weeks and were then subjected to inhalation challenge with pulverized trimellitic anhydride into particles measuring 2-μm in diameter. On the day after the final challenge, all mice were sacrificed, and IgE levels, immunocyte counts, and cytokine levels in the serum, hilar lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. We also monitored the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. We found that all endpoints were significantly increased in mice of both strains subjected to trimellitic anhydride inhalation as compared with the respective control groups. However, worsening of respiratory status was noted only in NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, type 2 helper T-cell reactions were significantly increased in BALB/c mice compared with that in NC/Nga mice. In contrast, the number of mast cells, levels of mast cell-related cytokine/chemokines, and production of histamine in NC/Nga mice were significantly higher than those in BALB/c mice. Thus, environmental chemical allergen induced respiratory allergy in NC/Nga mice in terms of functional and inflammatory symptoms. Furthermore, mast cells may be involved in the aggravation of airway allergic symptoms induced by environmental chemical allergens. PMID:27404449

  1. Measurement of extracellular vesicles as biomarkers of consequences or cause complications of pathological states, and prognosis of both evolution and therapeutic safety/efficacy.

    PubMed

    Amiral, Jean; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-08-01

    Utility of EVs, as biomarkers of cause or consequence of various pathological complications, and prognosis of blood components' therapy in terms of safety/efficacy and their potential associated hazards, primed by EVs involvements in pro-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and activations of both pro/anti-coagulatory and others associated pathways, as well as various cellular cross talks, are highlighted as the fundamental. Today EVs are becoming the "buzz" words of the current diagnosis, development and research [DDR] strategies, with the aim of ensuring safer therapeutic approaches in the current clinical practices, also incorporating their potential in long term cost effectiveness in health care systems. The main focus of this manuscript is to review the current opinions in some fundamental areas of EVs involvements in health and diseases. Firstly, our goal is highlighting what are EVs/MVs/MPs and how are they generated in physiology, pathology or blood products; classification and significance of EVs generated in vivo; followed by consequences and physiological/pathological induced effects of EVs generation in vivo. Secondly, specific cell origin EVs and association with malignancy; focus on EVs carrying TF and annexin V as a protective protein for harmful effects of EVs, and associations with LA; and incidence of anti-annexin V antibodies are also discussed. Thirdly, utility of EVs is presented: as diagnostic tools of disease markers; prognosis and follow-up of clinical states; evaluation of therapy efficacy; quality and risk assessment of blood products; followed by the laboratory tools for exploring, characterizing and measuring EVs, and/or their associated activity, using our own experiences of capture based assays. Finally, in perspective, the upcoming low volume sampling, fast, reliable and reproducibility and friendly use laboratory tools and the standardization of measurement methods are highlighted with the beneficial effects that we are witnessing in both

  2. Erionite series minerals: mineralogical and carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Dogan, A Umran; Dogan, Meral; Hoskins, John A

    2008-08-01

    Erionite is a human and animal carcinogen and one of the most toxic minerals known. Erionite deposits have been reported in many countries; however, it is only in the area of three villages of Cappadocia, Turkey, that environmental exposure to erionite has been demonstrated to be the cause of an epidemic of the disease mesothelioma. In the USA, no cases of mesothelioma have been reliably proven to be the result of erionite exposure, though the possibility exists. Erionite samples from three villages of the Cappadocia region were characterized mineralogically and compared with three different standards from the USA. Micro morphological details of erionite minerals using a high-resolution field-emission SEM showed that microstructures of "bundles", "fibers", and "fibrils" are important physical properties of fibrous erionite minerals. Typical lung burden of erionite and asbestos fibers were compared in terms of number of fibers. Assuming the lung burden of fibers in a human mesothelioma victim is about 1 mg, and the hazardous fibers are approximately 1 mum in diameter and 10 mum long, that milligram contains approximately 40 million asbestos and 50 million erionite fibers. These microstructures of erionite minerals draw attention to the concepts of surface area or surface-area-to-volume ratio and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of the mineral. The larger surface area creates a wider platform for mineral-cell interaction and thus more possibilities of proliferative transformation of mesothelial cells. Consequently, understanding the exact mineralogical properties will help determination of the true carcinogenic mechanism(s) of the mineral for prevention and possibly treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

  3. Low-dose paroxetine exposure causes lifetime declines in male mouse body weight, reproduction and competitive ability as measured by the novel organismal performance assay

    PubMed Central

    Gaukler, Shannon M.; Ruff, James S.; Galland, Tessa; Kandaris, Kirstie A.; Underwood, Tristan K.; Liu, Nicole M.; Young, Elizabeth L.; Morrison, Linda C.; Yost, Garold S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2014-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is currently available on the market and is suspected of causing congenital malformations in babies born to mothers who take the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy. We utilized organismal performance assays (OPAs), a novel toxicity assessment method, to assess the safety of paroxetine during pregnancy in a rodent model. OPAs utilize genetically diverse wild mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate competitive performance between experimental and control animals as they compete amongst each other for limited resources in semi-natural enclosures. Performance measures included reproductive success, male competitive ability and survivorship. Paroxetine-exposed males weighed 13% less, had 44% fewer offspring, dominated 53% fewer territories and experienced a 2.5-fold increased trend in mortality, when compared with controls. Paroxetine-exposed females had 65% fewer offspring early in the study, but rebounded at later time points. In cages, paroxetine-exposed breeders took 2.3 times longer to produce their first litter and pups of both sexes experienced reduced weight when compared with controls. Low-dose paroxetine-induced health declines detected in this study were undetected in preclinical trials with dose 2.5-8 times higher than human therapeutic doses. These data indicate that OPAs detect phenotypic adversity and provide unique information that could useful towards safety testing during pharmaceutical development. PMID:25446017

  4. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  5. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  6. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  7. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  10. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  11. Combined aerosol in-situ measurements during the SALTRACE field experiment for the investigation of Saharan mineral dust microphysical and CCN properties and their spatial-temporal evolution during trans-Atlantic long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walser, Adrian; Dollner, Maximilian; Sauer, Daniel; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) was a field experiment conducted in June/July 2013, which aimed to investigate the transport and modification of Saharan mineral dust from the Sahara across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. In addition to ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing, the DLR Falcon research aircraft was equipped with a number of aerosol in-situ instruments to gain direct information on the properties of airborne aerosol such as size distributions, microphysical, optical and cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) properties. For the first time, several outbreaks of Saharan dust were probed with the same airborne instrumentation on both sides of the Atlantic. During transport, various processes may take place that modify the aerosol composition. Dry and wet deposition lead to a size-dependent aerosol removal. In case of wet deposition, the removal additionally depends on the particle's ability to act as CCN. Processes in the aqueous phase in subsequently re-evaporating cloud droplets can further alter microphysical and CCN properties of re-released particles. All resulting changes in the size distribution and particle properties impact the radiative feedback and CCN activity of the aged aerosol. This study aims to use combined airborne in-situ measurements to retrieve and compare vertically resolved aerosol size distributions, microphysical and CCN properties for both, short-range transported Saharan dust in the Cape Verde region and long-range transported dust in the Caribbean. We use this data to investigate the influence of long-range transport and associated processes on those properties. We will present vertical profiles of size-resolved aerosol concentrations and volatile fractions as well as CCN activated fractions and draw conclusions for aerosol mixing state, CCN activation diameters and particle hygroscopicities. We will discuss differences in vertical profiles and

  12. Microscopy and Spectroscopy Techniques to Guide Parameters for Modeling Mineral Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghte, D. P.; Moore, J. E.; Jensen, L.; Freedman, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol particles are the second largest emission by mass into the atmosphere and contribute to the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing. Due to the variation in size, composition, and shape, caused by physical and chemical processing, uncertainty exists as to whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect. We have used Cavity Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectroscopy (CRD-AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to measure extinction cross sections and morphologies of size-selected, non-absorbing and absorbing mineral dust aerosol particles. We have found that microscopy is essential for characterizing the polydispersity of the size selection of non-spherical particles. Through the combined use of CRD-AES, microscopy, and computation (Mie theory and Discreet Dipole Approximation), we have determined the effect of shape on the optical properties of additional species including clay minerals, quartz, and hematite in the sub-micron regime. Our results have shown that calcite can be treated as polydisperse spheres while quartz and hematite need additional modeling parameters to account for their irregularity. Size selection of clay minerals cannot be performed due to their irregular shape, but microscopy techniques can be used to better quantify the particle aspect ratio. Our results demonstrate a new method that can be used to extend cavity ring-down spectroscopy for the measurement of the optical properties of non-spherical particles. This characterization will lead to better aerosol extinction parameters for modeling aerosol optical properties in climate models and satellite retrieval algorithms.

  13. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  14. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  15. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  16. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  17. Mineral bridges in nacre.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2011-12-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (>100nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (<60nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  18. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  19. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  20. Salton sea minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The long-held notion that precious metals, minerals, and other useful substances can be extracted from natural waters is starting to become realized at several locations of geothermal brines. In a recent study by A. Maimoni of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory it was determined that there is a high potential for minerals recovery from the hot brines of a 1000-MWe geothermal power station at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California. The study estimated that the revenue from the minerals could substantially exceed that from the power station (Geothermics, 11, 239-258, 1982).According to the study, ‘A 1000-MWe power plant could recover 14-31% of the U.S. demand for manganese.’ In the example of lithium production, such a geothermal plant could produce 5-10 times the annual world output of lithium. Large quantities of lead and zinc could be extracted, as well as significant amounts of gold, platinum, and silver. The chemical composition of the brines is incredibly complex, however, for reasons not currently understood.

  1. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  2. Mineral maturity and crystallinity index are distinct characteristics of bone mineral

    PubMed Central

    Farlay, Delphine; Panczer, Gérard; Rey, Christian; Delmas, Pierre; Boivin, Georges

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mineral maturity and crystallinity index are two different characteristics of bone mineral. To this end, Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy (FTIRM) was used. To test our hypothesis, synthetic apatites and human bone samples were used for the validation of the two parameters using FTIRM. Iliac crest samples from seven human controls and two with skeletal fluorosis were analyzed at the bone structural unit (BSU) level by FTIRM on 2–4 μm-thick sections. Mineral maturity and crystallinity index were highly correlated in synthetic apatites, but poorly correlated in normal human bone. In skeletal fluorosis, crystallinity index was increased and maturity decreased, supporting the fact of separate measurement of these two parameters. Moreover, results obtained in fluorosis suggested that mineral characteristics can be modified independently of bone remodeling. In conclusion, mineral maturity and crystallinity index are two different parameters measured separately by FTIRM and offering new perspectives to assess bone mineral traits in osteoporosis. PMID:20091325

  3. Bone mineral computation with a rectilinear scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, J.; Brown, S.; Silverstein, A.; Vogel, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A portable rectilinear transmission scanner and associated computerized data reduction techniques for estimating bone mineral content are described. This unit can be easily disassembled for transport to various measurement sites and has been used to estimate the bone mineral content of the os calcis, radius, and ulna in the Apollo and Skylab astronauts. The scanner is used to obtain multiple rows of data from which a bone profile is derived. Bone edges are determined with the aid of a digital computer program which employs an algorithm that determines the greatest rate of change of the counting rate.

  4. Magnetic minerals of the chelyabinsk meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, G. P.; Pecherskii, D. M.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Eight samples of the Chelyabinsk meteorite were studied using thermomagnetic and electron microprobe analyses; the hysteresis loop characteristics were also measured. The main magnetic minerals of the meteorite are represented by two groups of Fe-Ni alloys (native Fe minerals) with various concentrations of nickel and iron sulfides. A small number of magnetite balls were found. They are probably formed due to oxidation of troilite and other Fe sulfides as a result of melting of the meteorite due to passage through the Earth's atmosphere. The observed effect of the primary hysteresis loop constriction is probably connected with prolonged annealing of a celestial body before its transition into the meteoroid state.

  5. Changes in mineral soil biogeochemical cycling and environmental conditions following tree harvest in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern United States, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions have been attempted by using local wood as a renewable alternative to oil. Although woody biomass products are readily available, recent findings suggest that forest disturbance may cause release of carbon from the deeper mineral soil. Worldwide, deep soils sequester more than half of soil carbon, making it critical in the global carbon cycle; however, most studies on the effect of harvesting have focused on the organic soil horizon. Our research aimed to uncover changes in biogeochemistry and environmental conditions in deeper, mineral soil after clear cutting forests. We quantified post-harvest mineral soil carbon pools through a regional study. We utilized stands of different ages to measure the recovery of soil carbon over time since harvest. Stands included in this study were cut approximately 5, 12, 25, 50, or 120 ybp, in order to identify changes in soil carbon over time since harvest. We sampled harvested stands in six research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the surface of the mineral soil using a gas-powered augur and 9.5 cm diameter drill bit. Soil samples were analyzed at Dartmouth College. In order to understand specific changes in mineral soil carbon dynamics following harvest, measurements of carbon fluxes, such as soil respiration and DOC transport were conducted at five different-aged stands at Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. While parameters that may influence carbon storage—such as pH, clay content, tree cover and elevation— did not vary across the different-aged stands in each forest, carbon pools did vary over time. We found changes in carbon pools in at least three experimental forests across the northeast. At Bartlett Experimental Forest, we found a gradual decline in mineral soil carbon storage from between 85-87 Mg ha-1 in 120 year old and primary forest stands

  6. Remote Pulsed-Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Angel, S. M.; Ghosh, M.; Hubble, H. W.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectra of carbonate, silicate, and hydrous silicate and sulfate minerals, our new remote-pulsed Raman system, indicating that it can be used to analyze the minerals on planetary surfaces to a distance of 10 to 66 meters. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration minerals in Aluto Langano geothermal wells, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Gebregzabher, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Aluto Langano geothermal field is characterized by alteration mineral assemblages of calcite, quartz, chlorite, undifferentiated clays, hematite, biotite and epidote. The presence of garnet and sphene is also reported for one of the wells. The measured temperature for the reservoir is above 300/sup 0/C. Permeability of the reservoir is highly influenced by the deposition of hydrothermal minerals.

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  10. Rare gases in cyclosilicates and cogenetic minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Dragon, J. C.; Zashu, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclosilicate minerals, beryl, tourmaline, and cordierite, typically contain large amounts of He-4 and Ar-40 which are not in situ radiogenic products. In the study of excess rare gases in cyclosilicates, one of the most enigmatic observations is the age effect, a qualitative tendency for geologically older samples to contain more excess He-4 and Ar-40 than younger samples. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the abundance and isotopic composition of all five rare gases in a number of cyclosilicates as well as in their cogenetic minerals. The significance of the obtained data is discussed. The data indicate that cyclosilicates sample the rare gases present in the environment in which they crystallize. This 'sampling' involves major elemental fractionations which are variable but mineral specific. Cyclosilicates can, therefore, be used to probe the isotopic ratios and elemental compositions.

  11. Electrospray Charging of Minerals: Surface Chemistry and Applications to High-Velocity Microparticle Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, T.; Call, S.; Austin, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Electrospray is a soft ionization technique commonly used to charge large biomolecules; it has, however, also been applied to inorganic compounds. We are extending this technique to mineral microparticles. Electrospray-charged mineral microparticles are interesting in the context of surface science because surface chemistry dictates where and how charge carriers can bond to mineral surfaces. In addition, using electrospray to charge mineral particles allows these particles to be electrostatically accelerated as projectiles in high- and hyper-velocity impacts. Since current techniques for producing high- and hyper-velocity microparticle impacts are largely limited to metal or metal-coated projectiles, using minerals as projectiles is a significant innovation. Electrospray involves three steps: creation of charged droplets containing solute/particles, evaporation and bifurcation of droplets, and desolvation of the solute/particles. An acidified solution is slowly pumped through a needle in a strong DC field, which causes the solution to break into tiny, charged droplets laden with protons. Solvent evaporates from the electrosprayed droplets as they move through the electric field toward a grounded plate, causing the charge on the droplet to increase relative to its mass. When the electrosprayed droplet’s charge becomes such that the droplet is no longer stable, it bifurcates, and each of the resulting droplets carries some of the original droplet’s charge. Evaporation and bifurcation continues until the solute particle is completely desolvated. The result is a protonated solute molecule or particle. We built an instrument that electrosprays particles into vacuum and measures them using an image charge detector. Mineral microparticles were prepared by grinding natural mineral samples to ~2 µm diameter. These microparticles are then added to a 4:1 methanol:water solution to create a 0.005% w/v suspension. The suspension is electrosprayed into vacuum, where the

  12. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  13. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  14. Fractionation of mineral species by electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. D.; Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The fractionation of fine-grained aggregates into their major components is a problem in many scientific areas including earth and planetary science. Electrophoresis, the transport of electrically charged particles, immersed in a suspension medium, by a direct current field (Bier, 1959), was employed in this study as a means of separating simulated lunar soil into its constituent minerals. In these tests, conducted in a static analytical cylindrical microelectrophoresis apparatus, samples of simulated lunar soil and samples of pure mineral constituents were placed in the chamber; the electrophoretic mobilities of the lunar soil and the individual mineral constituents were measured. In most of the suspension buffers employed separability was indicated, on the basis of differences in mobility, for all the constituent mineral species except ilmenite and pyroxene, which were not efficiently separable in any of the buffers. Although only a few suspension media were employed, the success of this initial study suggests that electrophoresis may be an important mineral fractionation option in fine-grained aggregate processing.

  15. Monitoring iron mineralization processes using nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Kristina

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements can be used to probe the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of water in the pore space of geological materials. In geophysics, NMR relaxation measurements are used in to measure water content and estimate permeability in the top 100 m of Earth's surface. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to determine if NMR can also be used in geophysical applications to monitor iron mineralization processes associated with contaminant remediation. The first part of the research presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effect of iron mineral form and redox state on the NMR relaxation response of water in geologic material. Laboratory NMR measurements were made on Fe(III)-bearing minerals (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, and hematite), Fe(II)-bearing minerals (siderite, pyrite, and troilite), and a mixed valence iron-bearing mineral (magnetite). The results of these measurements show that the relaxation rate of water is strongly dependent on the mineral form of iron. Shown in the final section of this thesis are results from an experiment exploring temporal changes in the measured NMR relaxation rates during the reaction of ferrihydrite with aqueous Fe(II). These results show that NMR can be used to monitor temporal chemical changes in iron minerals. I conclude that this research shows that NMR indeed has the potential to be used as a tool for monitoring geochemical reactions associated with contaminant remediation.

  16. Enzymatic mineralization of silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Declercq, Heidi A; Gheysens, Tom; Dendooven, Jolien; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Cornelissen, Ria; Dubruel, Peter; Kaplan, David L

    2014-07-01

    The present study focuses on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals on porous silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds. Porous SFP scaffolds impregnated with different concentrations of ALP are homogeneously mineralized under physiological conditions. The mineral structure is apatite while the structures differ as a function of the ALP concentration. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, and colonization of osteogenic MC3T3 cells improve on the mineralized SFP scaffolds. These findings suggest a simple process to generate mineralized scaffolds that can be used to enhanced bone tissue engineering-related utility. PMID:24610728

  17. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Regulation of mineral metabolism and mineralization by FGF23].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) decreases serum phosphate by inhibiting proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption and intestinal phosphate absorption through the reduction of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25 (OH) (2)D] levels. Excessive actions of FGF23 cause hypophosphatemic diseases with impaired mineralization of bone. On the other hand, impaired actions of FGF23 result in hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis characterized by hyperphosphatemia and high 1,25 (OH) (2)D levels. Ectopic calcification around large joints and in blood vessels can be observed in patients with this disease. Therefore, FGF23 plays essential roles in the regulation of bone mineralization and prevention of ectopic calcification.

  18. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  1. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  2. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  3. Coal miners' mortality in relaton to radiological category, lung function and exposure to airborne dust. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Jacobsen, M.; Steele, R.C.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes mortality among 29,553 British coal miners. They represent 93.5% of 31,611 men who were surveyed radiologically at 24 coal mines in the period 1953 through 1958. The main aim of the work was to consider risks of death attributed to various underlying causes, as recorded on death certificates, in relation to radiological signs of pneumoconiosis, measures of lung function, and exposure to respirable coal mine dust.

  4. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  5. Intermittent Suckling Causes a Transient Increase in Cortisol That Does Not Appear to Compromise Selected Measures of Piglet Welfare and Stress †

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Diana L.; Langendijk, Pieter; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Lines, David; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This study assessed the effects intermittent suckling (IS) had on physiological and behavioral indices of piglets before and after weaning. Piglets were allocated to either a control treatment (conventional weaning) or an IS treatment (separation from the sow for 8 h per day starting the week before weaning). Apart from an initial peak in cortisol at the start of IS, piglets subjected to IS did not show physiological changes suggestive of a chronic stress response before and after weaning. The event of weaning still caused a decrease in growth rate and an increase in white blood cell parameters in both treatment groups. However, the IS piglets tended to gain more weight in the second half of the week after weaning. The results of this study suggest that short periods of separation (e.g., 8 h/day) do not appear to compromise piglet welfare over the peri-weaning period. Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that piglets subjected to intermittent suckling (IS) would show changes in physiological and behavioral indices indicative of compromised welfare in the peri-weaning period. A total of 21 primiparous sows and their litters were allocated to either a control treatment (n = 10) where piglets were weaned conventionally, or an IS treatment (n = 11) where piglets were separated daily from their sows for 8 h starting the week before weaning. Performance, physiological and behavioral measures were taken at various time points during the week before and after weaning. Plasma cortisol levels were higher (p = 0.01) in IS piglets 7 d before weaning. Regardless of treatment, the N:L ratio at 3 d and 7 d after weaning was higher (p < 0.05) than that at 1 d before weaning. The IS piglets ate more creep feed during lactation (p < 0.05), and there was a tendency for the IS piglets to gain more weight between 3 d and 7 d after weaning (p < 0.1). This study showed that, aside from an increase in cortisol at the start of IS, piglets subjected to IS did not display

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of mineral-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.; Raymond, R.; Saffiotti, U.; Aust, A.; Mossman, B.

    1996-04-01

    Many minerals are known to cause disease following inhalation, including asbestos, silica, zeolites, and clays. The mineralogical properties that determine toxicity are not known, hindering effective risk assessment. Consequently, many minerals that do not pose risks are controlled excessively and many minerals that do pose risk remain uncontrolled. The authors are integrating mineralogy and biology in an interdisciplinary scientific investigation of the mechanisms of mineral-induced disease. The biological endpoints include the formation of ferruginous bodies and chemical signaling (e.g., production of cytokines or active oxygen species) by cells; the mineralogical variables include structure, composition, and surface properties. The authors are also determining what information about the biological reaction is preserved in the mineral surface.

  7. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez, C.; Miller, R. L.; Rodriguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Models of the soil (''mineral'') dust aerosol cycle, embedded in climate and Earth system models, are essential tools for understanding the causal relationships and feedbacks between dust and climate. Many soil dust schemes in Earth system models use a simplified representation of soil dust aerosols, where the soil dust is distinguished by size bins or size distribution modes, with a globally uniform representation of the mineralogical composition of the particles. Although models with such a simplified assumption about the properties of soil dust particles have already significantly contributed to the understanding of the role of soil dust aerosols in climate, this is a limitation for a number of reasons: 1. The response of clouds and the large-scale circulation depends on the radiative properties like the single scattering albedo, which should vary with the mineral composition of the source region; 2. Chemical processes at the surface of the soil dust particles that form sulfate and nitrate coatings depend on the dust mineral composition; 3. The availability of soil dust minerals as cloud condensation nuclei depends on their hygroscopicity, which in turn depends on the mineral composition; 4. Fertilization of phytoplankton with soluble iron, a process that influences ocean carbon uptake, depends upon mineral types. We present a new version of the soil dust scheme in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account the mineral composition of the soil dust particles. Soil dust aerosols are represented as a mixture of externally and internally mixed minerals, such as Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Iron(hydr)oxide, Quartz, Feldspar, and Gypsum, as well as aggregates between Iron(hydr)oxide and each of the minerals. We test two approaches to constrain the mineral composition of the soil dust particles against data from measurements published in literature as well as measurements from Izaña (Tenerife). The comparison between modeled and measured data

  8. Raising groundwater differentially affects mineralization and plant species abundance in dune slacks.

    PubMed

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Oosthoek, Annelies; Broekman, Rob; Bakker, Chris; Aerts, Rien

    2006-10-01

    The experience with restoring high water levels (i.e., rewetting) within restoration ecology is limited, and information on changes in soil nutrient supply is scarce. A reduction in nutrient supply is needed to restore the desired oligotrophic vegetation. We determined the effects of restoration of high water levels on decomposition and net carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) mineralization rates in wet dune slacks and its consequences for the relative abundance of eutrophic vs. oligotrophic species in the vegetation. This was done by analyzing these variables for valleys that experienced a large groundwater rise vs. valleys that had a small groundwater rise but the same current water level. In addition, the influences of underlying factors (waterlogging, vegetation dieback, and soil dynamics prior to groundwater rise) were separated in a transplantation experiment. Short-term effects of large groundwater rise were a massive dieback of vegetation, increased thickness of the fermentation layer, increased microbial decomposition activity, increased C mineralization, and decreased net N mineralization. Net P mineralization was not affected. The relative abundance of oligotrophic vs. eutrophic species was greater at large groundwater rise. Changes in decomposition and mineralization by large groundwater rise were, however, not caused by the vegetation dieback, but due to previous soil conditions. Soils experiencing waterlogged conditions for 3-4 years or more prior to large groundwater rise had lower C and higher net N mineralization rates at waterlogged conditions than soils that had experienced aerobic conditions, presumably due to differences in labile soil C contents. Contrary to expectations induced by previously determined nutrient pulses and measured vegetation dieback, large groundwater rise resulted in lower soil nutrient supply rates and more oligotrophic vegetation. If these trends continue on the longer term, restoration of high water levels may be

  9. Functional changes appropriate for determining mineral element requirements.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Penland, J G

    1996-09-01

    One factor limiting efforts to determine human requirements for dietary intakes of mineral elements has been the unavailability of acceptable standards for evaluating the effects of marginal and mild deficiencies. Traditional approaches, such as growth, longevity, chemical balance and measurement of concentrations of minerals in plasma or serum and cellular components of the blood, have not been sensitive indicators of mineral nutriture. One alternative that has been shown to be responsive to graded dietary mineral intake is the evaluation of functional responses to specific challenges or stressors. Aberrant responses, either exaggerated or attenuated, to controlled stressors have been observed in a variety of physiological, psychological and immunological parameters when mineral intakes have been suboptimal by conventional standards, compared with adequate responses. In comparison to static biochemical approaches for assessment of mineral nutritional status, functional tests may be sensitive and responsive to alterations in mineral intake in adult humans. Dynamic functional measures complement static biochemical measures and reflect the net effect of deficiencies on integrated biological systems. The application of some of these types of dynamic evaluations of function may be a useful and productive approach for proposing mineral element intakes to optimize human health and biological function and performance.

  10. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  11. Mineral industries of the USSR - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report discusses mainly the mineral industries in the USSR, with a small section included concerning the mineral industries of Poland. Topics discussed include labor, foreign trade, metals, non-metallic minerals, and mineral fuels.

  12. 30 CFR 48.27 - Training of miners assigned to a task in which they have had no previous experience; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Miners Working at Surface Mines and Surface Areas of... hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner can take against these..., including information about the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area,...

  13. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  14. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Nico, Peter S.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Kleber, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Multiple lines of existing evidence suggest that climate change enhances root exudation of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased exudate inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon. This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization (`priming’) is commonly rationalized by the assumption that exudates provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon (co-metabolism). Here we show that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude. We find that a common root exudate, oxalic acid, promotes carbon loss by liberating organic compounds from protective associations with minerals. By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, this indirect mechanism accelerated carbon loss more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favourable substrates. Our results provide insights into the coupled biotic-abiotic mechanisms underlying the `priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales.

  15. Mineral homeostasis and regulation of mineralization processes in the skeletons of sharks, rays and relatives (Elasmobranchii).

    PubMed

    Dean, Mason N; Ekstrom, Laura; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Ballantyne, Jim; Witten, P Eckhard; Riley, Cyrena; Habraken, Wouter; Omelon, Sidney

    2015-10-01

    Sharks, rays and other elasmobranch fishes are characterized by a skeletal type that is unique among living vertebrates, comprised predominantly of an unmineralized cartilage, covered by a thin outer layer of sub-millimeter, mineralized tiles called tesserae. The mineralized portion of the skeleton appears to grow only by apposition, adding material at the edges of each tessera; maintenance of non-mineralized joints between tesserae is therefore vital, with precise control of mineral deposition and inhibition at the many thousands of growth fronts in the skeleton. Yet, we have only scattered evidence as to how the elasmobranchs mineralize and grow their skeletons. In this review, we take an "environment to skeleton" approach, drawing together research from a vast range of perspectives to track calcium and phosphate from the typical elasmobranch habitats into and through the body, to their deposition at tesseral growth fronts. In the process, we discuss the available evidence for skeletal resorption capability, mineral homeostasis hormones, and nucleation inhibition mechanisms. We also outline relevant theories in crystal nucleation and typical errors in measurements of serum calcium and phosphate in the study of vertebrate biology. We assemble research that suggests consensus in some concepts in elasmobranch skeletal development, but also highlight the very large gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regards to endocrine functional networks and biomineralization mechanisms. In this way, we lay out frameworks for future directions in the study of elasmobranch skeletal biology with stronger and more comparative links to research in other disciplines and into other taxa.

  16. Probing Selenium-Ion Distributions and Changes in Redox-State at Biofilm/Mineral Interfaces by Coupling Long-period X-ray Standing Wave and XANES Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, A. S.; Trainor, T. P.; Spormann, A. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    Metal sorption and precipitation reactions at biological as well as mineral surfaces are important controls on metal speciation and bioavailability in natural environments. When highly hydrated biofilms form on mineral surfaces, numerous competitive and synergistic effects are predicted to occur. Experimentally, it is challenging to determine where the sorbed metal ions are localized, the relative affinity of the biological vs. mineral surface sites, or to monitor biomineralization reactions or changes in metal speciation that may also occur. A large part of the difficulty is due to the low concentrations of sorbed ions, the small length-scale of the biofilm-mineral interface, and the complex interplay between microbially-catalayzed redox transformations vs. sorption and/or transport processes. Long-period x-ray standing wave (XSW) techniques are well-suited to determining the vertical distribution of metal(oid) species within biofilms overlying mineral surfaces. We will discuss experiments where Se fluorescence yield profiles are used to compare the affinity of Burkholderia cepacia biofilms for binding Se(IV) and Se(VI) species relative to underlying alpha-Al2O3 substrates over three orders of magnitude in [Se]. In addition, we will discuss how coupling the XSW experiments to grazing-incidence, spatially-resolved Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy can be used to differentiate between the oxidation state of the Se complexes localized within the biofilm vs. the mineral surface. This approach is used to monitor changes in the relative distributions of Se(VI), Se(IV) and Se(0) species as a function of time and proximity to the mineral surface. The long-period XSW data show that selenite preferentially binds to the oxide surfaces, particularly at low [Se]. When B. cepacia is metabolically active, B. cepacia rapidly reduces a fraction of the Se(IV) to the red elemental Se form. In contrast, selenate is preferentially partitioned into the B. cepacia biofilms at all [Se] tested

  17. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  18. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  19. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  20. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity. PMID:27344855

  1. The role of phosphatases in the initiation of skeletal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Millán, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    Endochondral ossification is a carefully orchestrated process mediated by promoters and inhibitors of mineralization. Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene cause hypophosphatasia, a heritable form of rickets and osteomalacia, caused by an arrest in the propagation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals onto the collagenous extracellular matrix due to accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological TNAP substrate and a potent calcification inhibitor. However, TNAP knockout (Alpl(-/-)) mice are born with a mineralized skeleton and have HA crystals in their chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived matrix vesicles (MVs). We have shown that PHOSPHO1, a soluble phosphatase with specificity for two molecules present in MVs, phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine, is responsible for initiating HA crystal formation inside MVs and that PHOSPHO1 and TNAP have nonredundant functional roles during endochondral ossification. Double ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function leads to the complete absence of skeletal mineralization and perinatal lethality, despite normal systemic phosphate and calcium levels. This strongly suggests that the Pi needed for initiation of MV-mediated mineralization is produced locally in the perivesicular space. As both TNAP and nucleoside pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) behave as potent ATPases and pyrophosphatases in the MV compartment, our current model of the mechanisms of skeletal mineralization implicate intravesicular PHOSPHO1 function and Pi influx into MVs in the initiation of mineralization and the functions of TNAP and NPP1 in the extravesicular progression of mineralization.

  2. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  3. Mineral-Biochar Composites: Molecular Structure and Porosity.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Aditya; Joseph, Stephen D; Hook, James M; Chia, Chee H; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Lin, Yun; Phelan, David; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Horvat, Joseph; Webber, J Beau W

    2016-07-19

    Dramatic changes in molecular structure, degradation pathway, and porosity of biochar are observed at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 250 to 550 °C when bamboo biomass is pretreated by iron-sulfate-clay slurries (iron-clay biochar), as compared to untreated bamboo biochar. Electron microscopy analysis of the biochar reveals the infusion of mineral species into the pores of the biochar and the formation of mineral nanostructures. Quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy shows that the presence of the iron clay prevents degradation of the cellulosic fraction at pyrolysis temperatures of 250 °C, whereas at higher temperatures (350-550 °C), the clay promotes biomass degradation, resulting in an increase in both the concentrations of condensed aromatic, acidic, and phenolic carbon species. The porosity of the biochar, as measured by NMR cryoporosimetry, is altered by the iron-clay pretreatment. In the presence of the clay, at lower pyrolysis temperatures, the biochar develops a higher pore volume, while at higher temperature, the presence of clay causes a reduction in the biochar pore volume. The most dramatic reduction in pore volume is observed in the kaolinite-infiltrated biochar at 550 °C, which is attributed to the blocking of the mesopores (2-50 nm pore) by the nonporous metakaolinite formed from kaolinite. PMID:27284608

  4. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  5. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  6. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed.

  7. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition

  8. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  11. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  12. [Preventing cardiovascular risk in miners].

    PubMed

    Lipatova, L V; Izmailova, O A

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results concerning usage of intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners with cardiovascular diseases. After cardiovascular state assessment, the miners at high cardiovascular risk were subjected to prophylactic procedures with traditional medical treatment added by intravenous laser therapy. Findings are anti-arrhythmic, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic and anti-aggregation effects of complex treatment with intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners at high cardiovascular risk and its subsequent decrease due to treatment. PMID:27265943

  13. Fracture sealing by mineral precipitation: The role of small-scale mineral heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Trevor A.; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2016-07-01

    Fractures are often leakage pathways for fluid in low-permeability rocks that otherwise act as geologic barriers in the subsurface. Flow of fluids in chemical disequilibrium with fracture surfaces can lead to mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. To directly evaluate the role of small-scale mineral heterogeneity on mineral precipitation, we measured CaCO3 precipitation in a transparent analog fracture that included randomly distributed small-scale regions of CaCO3 on one of the borosilicate surfaces. Steady flow of a well-mixed CaCl2-NaHCO3 solution (log(ΩCaCO3) = 1.44) resulted in significant mineral precipitation during the 82 day experiment. Localized mineral precipitation reduced flow within regions of the fracture, but small-scale reaction-site heterogeneity allowed preferential flow to persist through pathways that contained 82% less area of CaCO3 regions than the fracture-scale average. This resulted in a significant reduction in measured precipitation rate; excluding these effects results in more than an order-of-magnitude underestimation of fracture sealing timescales.

  14. Boiling Temperature and Reversed Deliquescence Relative Humidity Measurements for Mineral Assemblages in the NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O System

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A; Staggs, K J; Day, S D; Carroll, S A

    2005-12-01

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made at ambient pressure for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range, along with those of the single salt systems. Boiling temperatures were also measured for the four component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures, where the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 134.9 C; for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 165.1 C at x(NaNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.46 and x(KNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.54; and for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C at x(NaCl) {approx} 0.25 and x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.75. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms molten salts below their maximum boiling temperatures, and the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. Mutual deliquescence/efflorescence relative humidity (MDRH/MERH) measurements were also made for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture from 120 to 180 C at ambient pressure. The NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. This salt mixture also absorbs water at 180 C, which is higher than expected from the boiling temperature experiments. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture was found to have a MDRH of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.5% at 180 C. The investigated mixture

  15. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  16. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  17. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  18. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Eggenstein, F.; Plester, K.

    1980-10-14

    A mineral mining installation comprises a longwall structure, such as a conveyor or a winning installation, and a roof support assembly constituted by a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side. At least some of the roof support units are provided with hydraulic bracing rams for bracing the longwall structure longitudinally. Each bracing ram is pivotally connected between the longwall structure and the floor sill of a respective roof support unit. Each ram is connected to its floor sill by connection means constituted by a bracket slidably mounted on that floor sill for movement towards, and away from, the longwall structure. Means are provided for securing each of the brackets to its floor sill in any one of a plurality of positions.

  19. Pneumoconiosis of shale miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Lamb, D; Brown, W R; Sclare, G; Middleton, W G

    1981-01-01

    Four patients are described in whom pneumoconiosis was diagnosed towards the end of a lifetime's work in shale mines. All developed complicated pneumoconiosis, diagnosed in two cases at necropsy, in one by lobectomy, and in one radiologically. Two of the patients were found at necropsy also to have peripheral squamous lung cancer.The clinical and histological features of the disease resembled the pneumoconioses of coalminers and kaolin workers and the lungs of three of the patients were shown to contain dust composed predominantly of kaolinite, mica, and silica. Shale miners' complicated pneumoconiosis has not previously been described. Although the British shale industry is now defunct, oil production from shale is expanding in other countries, notably the USA. It is suggested that control should be exercised over dust exposure levels in this industry and that epidemiological studies should be carried out to quantify the risks of both pneumoconiosis and bronchial carcinoma. Images PMID:7314011

  20. Marine Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Fren N.

    This book is the forty-first in the Elsevier Oceanography Series, and with it the series has come full circle. Its first title, published in 1964, was John Mero's landmark study The Mineral Resources of the Sea [Mero, 1964]. Looking back at that first major treatise and comparing it with this and other recent books on the topic [e.g., Teleki et al., 1987] one cannot help but be impressed with how well Mero used the sparse data and studies that had been put together by his time. Twenty-two years and many millions of dollars later a substantial mining-oriented base of knowledge has been built — we know much more about the economics and the engineering — yet the basic premises and conclusions that Mero assembled are still intact, and answers to the fundamental questions (e.g., formation processes for manganese nodules) are not in much better condition than they were then.