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Sample records for mineral measurements caused

  1. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  2. Causes of coal-miner absenteeism. Information Circular/1987

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Randolph, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines report describes several significant problems associated with absenteeism among underground coal miners. The vast empirical literature on employee absenteeism is reviewed, and a conceptual model of the factors that cause absenteeism among miners is presented. Portions of the model were empirically tested by performing correlational and multiple regression analyses on data collected from a group of 64 underground coal miners. The results of these tests are presented and discussed.

  3. Bone mineral measurement: Experiment M078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Whittle, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray absorptiometric measurements on bone mineral content, in addition to calcium balance studies, were performed on male volunteers during bed rest periods of 24 to 36 weeks duration and compared to Skylab mission data. Results show that mineral losses occur from the bones of the lower extremities during missions of up to 84 days and that in general they follow the loss patterns of the bed rest situation. The level of loss observed in Spacelab crews are not of clinical concern.

  4. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  5. Bone mineral measurement - Skylab experiment M-078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental observations of loss of bone mineral due to prolonged bedrest or weightlessness are reported. A new, precise method was employed that featured an essentially monoergetic photon source (125I) and a scintillation detector operating in a rectilinear scanning mode to measure bone mineral in the radius, ulna, and os calcis by the absorptiometric technique. Variable but small losses were found during 4-6 weeks of bedrest; losses of up to 40% were noted in the os calcis after 9 months. When the technique was used during the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions, only one crewmen showed significant losses in the os calcis and none in the radius or ulna. The variability recorded during bedrest was connected with the initial 24-hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion and the initial os calcis mineral content. The relevance of prediction terms based on bedrest data to Skylab and longer missions is discussed.

  6. Wettability shifts caused by CO2 aging on mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Clarens, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Interfacial forces at the CO2/brine/mineral ternary interface have a well-established impact on multiphase flow properties through porous media. In the context of geologic carbon sequestration, this wettability will impact capillary pressure, residual trapping, and a variety of other key parameters of interest. While the wettability of CO2 on pure mineral and real rock sample have been studied a great deal over the past few year, very little is known about how the wettability of these rocks could change over long time horizons as CO2 interacts with species in the brine and on the mineral surface. In this work we sought to explore the role that dilute inorganic and organic species that are likely to exist in connate brines might have on a suite of mineral species. High-pressure contact angle experiments were carried out on a suite of polished mineral surfaces. Both static captive bubble and advancing/receding contact angle measurements were carried out. The effect of ionic strength, and in particular the valence of the dominant ions in the brine are found to have an important impact on the wettability which cannot be explained solely based on the shifts in the interfacial tension between the CO2 and brine. More significantly, three organic species, formate, acetate, and oxalate, all three of which are representative species commonly encountered in the saline aquifers that are considered target repositories for carbon sequestration. All three organic species show impacts on wettability, with the organics generally increasing the CO2 wetting of the mineral surface. Not all pure minerals respond the same to the presence of organics, with micas showing a more pronounced influence than quartz. Sandstone and limestone samples aged with different kinds of hydrocarbons, a surrogate for oil-bearing rocks, are generally more CO2-wet, with larger contact angles in the CO2/brine system. Over multiple days, the contact angle decreases, which could be attributed to partitioning

  7. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  8. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  9. Acute alloxan toxicity causes granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lianshan; Terayama, Yui; Nishimoto, Taiki; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Alloxan had been recognized as having a direct nephrotoxic effect different from its diabetogenic action. We encountered previously unreported granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe luminal and interstitial mineralization in one diabetic rat after one week of alloxan administration. Histopathologically, many dilated and occluded proximal and distal tubules were segmentally observed in the cortex and outer medulla. The tubular lumen contained minerals and cell debris. Tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and piled up, and they protruded into the lumen, where they enveloped minerals. Mineralization was observed mainly in the tubular lumen, and to some extent in the subepithelium and interstitium. The mineralization beneath the tubular epithelium was often continuous from the subepithelium to the interstitium. In these lesions, the tubular basement membrane was disrupted by mineralization, and a granuloma with multinuclear foreign-body giant cells was formed in the interstitial areas. PMID:27821911

  10. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Synthesized Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimow, P. D.; Luo, S.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Liu, W.; Staneff, G. D.; Ahrens, T. J.; Chen, G.

    2002-12-01

    Direct thermal conductivity (k) measurement of mantle minerals is crucial to constrain the thermal profile of the Earth as well as geodynamic studies of the mantle (e.g., to determine the Rayleigh number). We have embarked on systematic multi-anvil syntheses of dense polycrystalline specimens of mantle phases of adequate size and zero porosity for precise thermal conductivity measurements by the 3ω method (\\textit{Cahill and Pohl, Phys. Rev. B, 1987}) under elevated temperatures (T). Coesite and stishovite (see \\textit{Luo et al., GRL, 2002}) as well as majorite and wadsleyite have been synthesized; ringwoodite and perovskite are scheduled. Preliminary thermal conductivity measurements at ambient pressure on coesite (120 - 300 K, 9.53 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) are consistent with prior room temperature data (\\textit{Yukutake & Shimada, PEPI, 1978}), while our stishovite data at 300 K appear to be low (1.96 Wm-1K-1). Efforts are being made to extend the measurement to higher temperatures (e.g., above Debye temperature Θ D), thus allowing determination of k(T) relationship (say, k~ T-n); success will depend on the decomposition kinetics of these metastable phases. The pressure dependence of k of these synthesized samples can also be measured (\\textit{e.g., Osako et al., HPMPS-6, 2002; Xu et al., EOS, 2001}). Recent thermal conductivity measurement on LiF and Al2O_3 from shock wave loading (\\textit{Holland & Ahrens, 1998}) is consistent with the modeling on MgO and Al2O_3 (\\textit{Manga & Jeanloz, JGR, 1997}) with classical theories. Thus, k values at modest pressures and T (say, above Θ D) would allow extrapolation of k to appropriate mantle conditions.

  11. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  12. [Biologic markers for early diagnosis of effects caused by exposure to coal dust in miners].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, N A; Rushkevich, O P

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied changes in several laboratory values of coal miners in Russian Federation, defined information value of these changes and suggested complex of methods for early preclinical diagnosis of negative effects caused by coal dust in the miners. Dust-related respiratory diseases were proved to develop by stages on molecular level.

  13. Determining Mineral Types and Abundances from Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Mineral types and their abundances were quantitatively determined from laboratory reflectance spectra using principal components analysis (PCA). PCA reduced the measured spectral dimensionality and allowed testing the uniqueness and validity of spectral mixing models. In addition to interpreting absorption bands, in this new approach we interpreted variations in the overall spectral curves in terms of physical processes, namely changes in mixtures of minerals, in particle size and in illumination geometry. Application of this approach to reflectances of planetary surfaces allows interpretation to be extended to quantitative determinations of mineral types and abundances.

  14. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  15. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  16. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  17. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    DOE PAGES

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; ...

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methodsmore » for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.« less

  18. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    SciTech Connect

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.

  19. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Lunar Soils and Terrestrial Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Buehler, M. G.; Seshardri, S.; Schaap, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using in situ methods. An examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that only a few minerals (silicates and oxides) need be considered for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). This simplifies the measurement requirements and allows a detailed analysis using simple methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils is difficult because of many complex parameters such as soil temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. In this presentation, we will show that the dielectric constant measurement can provide simple detection for oxides such as TiO2, FeO, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  20. Friction factors and roughness measurements of tubular mineral membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, F.; Leuliet, J. C.; Delplace, F.

    1993-08-01

    No direct measurement of the relative roughness is available for mineral porous media because of the low mechanical resistance of such materials. In this study a method for the experimental determination of the internal diameter and the equivalent roughness is proposed for different commercial membranes used in ultrafiltration and microfiltration processes. The use of classical friction factor correlations is also discussed. The main results are the estimation of the hydraulic diameter of tubular membranes and the use of a quadratic form in order to predict friction factors and the equivalent roughness with an accuracy better than 15%.

  1. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  2. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  3. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  4. Dyslipidemia causes overestimation of plasma mitotane measurements

    PubMed Central

    Paci, Angelo; Hescot, Ségolène; Seck, Atmane; Jublanc, Christel; Mercier, Lionel; Vezzosi, Delphine; Drui, Delphine; Quinkler, Marcus; Fassnacht, Martin; Bruckert, Eric; Lombès, Marc; Leboulleux, Sophie; Broutin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mitotane (o,p′-DDD) is the standard treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Monitoring of plasma mitotane levels is recommended to look for a therapeutic window between 14 and 20mg/L, but its positive predictive value requires optimization. We report the case of an ACC patient with a history of dyslipidemia treated with mitotane in whom several plasma mitotane levels >30mg/L were found together with an excellent neurological tolerance. This observation led us to compare theoretical or measured o,p′-DDD and o,p′-DDE levels in a series of normolipidemic and dyslipidemic plasma samples to explore potential analytical issues responsible for an overestimation of plasma mitotane levels. We demonstrate an overestimation of mitotane measurements in dyslipidemic patients. Mitotane and o,p′-DDE measurements showed a mean 20% overestimation in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, compared with normolipidemic plasma. The internal standard p,p′-DDE measurements showed a parallel decrease in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, suggesting a matrix effect. Finally, diluting plasma samples and/or using phospholipid removal cartridges allowed correcting such interference. Learning points Hypercholesterolemia (HCH) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) induce an overestimation of plasma mitotane measurements. We propose a routine monitoring of lipidemic status. We propose optimized methodology of measurement before interpreting high plasma mitotane levels. PMID:27298727

  5. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  6. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners: ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry, i.e., those with the greatest morbidity, had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain. 7 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Relationship between spinal canal diameter and back pain in coal miners. Ultrasonic measurement as a screening test

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, E.B.; Porter, R.; Hibbert, C.; Hart, J.

    1984-01-01

    Back pain is the commonest cause of absence among coal miners. However, the degree of morbidity is variable. To determine whether the susceptible individual can be identified, ultrasound was used to measure the spinal canal diameters of 204 miners. The results show that those men with the longest histories and the longest times off work and those who had to leave the coalface or who left the industry--i.e., those with the greatest morbidity--had significantly narrower canals. Ultrasonic measurement of the spinal canal diameter is safe and noninvasive. Its use should be further evaluated as part of a preemployment screening procedure for back pain.

  8. How mineralization and stylolitization record fault reactivation caused by stress changes ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marine, Laborde; Catherine, Homberg; Yasin, Makhloufi; Johann, Schnyder

    2015-04-01

    In multi-phased tectonic basins, reactivation of faults is common and mineralization patterns are complex. The aim of this study is to understand how mineralization and stylolitization of rocks observed at microscopic scale record fault activity during basin-scale stress field variations. For this purpose, we analyzed mesoscale faults and small-scale brittle structures on eight sites in the Vocontian Basin in SE France, as an example of a complex multi-phased basin. The southeastern French Basin resulted from a WNW-ESE rifting which began at Liassic time, later followed by the opening of Tethyan Ocean to the East. This basin was affected by later extensional events during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period during which the Vocontian Basin developed with an E-W orientation. Then, it was affected by two major Pyrenean and Alpine compressions, interrupted by the Oligocene extension. Thin-sections were realized on samples collected along 13 normal faults with vertical offsets up to several meters on seven sites. These thin-sections were analyzed in transmitted light and in cathodoluminescence and the observed structures were consistently characterized in 3D. A microtectonic analysis was also conducted, consisting in the measurement of fault-slip data, veins, and stylolitic planes. The results of this analysis showed that during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic times, the Vocontian Basin has been affected by three major strike-slip regimes in relation with the Pyrenean and the Alpine compressional tectonic phases, and a third later event. The basin extension was poorly recorded on the various sites and did not allow the calculation of the stress tensors. Macroscopic and microscopic fault structures show that all analyzed normal faults contain evidences of reactivation. Microstructures analysis indicated that the history of the investigated faults was complex implying two states of stress driving their activity with (1) an opening episode that may be associated with

  9. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  10. Study of Different Involutive Changes in Bone Mineral Density Measured in Ward's Triangle and Trabecular Volume Measured in Iliac Crest in Relation to Age

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, RF; Gallegos, RF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The ageing process causes changes in the bone structure, in bone mineral density, and musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare involutive changes in bone structure that occur in relation to age in men and women through the study of bone mineral density at the Ward's triangle and trabecular volume. Subjects and Methods: In this study, we analysed bone mineral density at Ward's triangle in 70 people (38 men and 32 women) and did a histomorphometric study of trabecular volume at the right iliac crest in 66 samples (42 males and 24 females) obtained from autopsies of court cases, aged between 13 and 83 years. Results: The results show significant correlations between measurements of bone mineral density, trabecular volume values and anthropometric measures of age, gender and body mass index. Conclusions: This study shows involutional changes that occur in the bone mineral density and Ward's triangle in the bone structure during the process of ageing. In addition, both weight and height have a great influence on bone mineral density and changes in bone that occur; and body mass index is a very important determinant of bone mineral density. PMID:26360671

  11. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  12. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  13. Understanding Depth Variation of Deep Seismicity from in situ Measurements of Mineral Strengths at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strengths of major minerals of Earth's mantle have been measured using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths is used to derive the yield strengths. Systematic analysis of the experimental result for olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite and perovskite indicates that minerals in the upper mantle, the transition zone and the lower mantle have very distinct strength character. Increasing temperature weakens the upper mantle mineral, olivine, significantly. At high temperature and high pressure, the transition zone minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, have higher strengths than the upper mantle mineral. Among all the minerals studied, the lower mantle mineral, perovskite, has the highest strength. While both the upper mantle and the transition zone minerals show a notable strength drop, the strength of the lower mantle mineral shows just an increase of relaxation rate (no strength drop) when the temperature is increased stepwise by 200 K. The strength characteristics of these major mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures indicate that yield strength may play a crucial role in defining the profile of deep earthquake occurrence with depth.

  14. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. ); Kehayias, J. . USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univ.); Kamen, Y.; Dilmanian, F.A. ); Lindsay, R. . Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons)

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Cometabolic mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene caused by hydrocarbon additions to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaly, R.A.; Bartha, R.

    1999-10-01

    The mineralization of [7-{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil was investigated in response to additions of individual hydrocarbons, defined hydrocarbon mixtures, crude oil, and crude oil fractions. Neither substantial BaP mineralization nor enrichment of BaP degraders occurred in BaP-spiked soil in the absence of a suitable hydrocarbon supplement. Crude oil, the saturated and aromatic class components of crude oil, the distillates heating oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel supported up to 60% mineralization of 80 {micro}g [7-{sup 14}C]BaP per gram of soil in 40 d. Neither single hydrocarbons nor defined hydrocarbon mixtures containing normal and branched alkanes, alicyclics, and aromatics supported comparable BaP mineralization. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} occurred after lag periods characteristic to specific petroleum products and their concentrations. Time required for microbial proliferation, hydrocarbon toxicity, and competitive inhibition might have contributed to these lag periods, but the complete inhibition of BaP mineralization by diesel-fuel vapors pointed to a dominant role of competitive inhibition. A lack of radiocarbon incorporation into soil biomass from [7-{sup 14}C]BaP indicated that at least the initial steps of BaP biodegradation in soil were cometabolic in nature. Suitable hydrocarbon mixtures not only supported BaP mineralization by serving as primary substrates, but also enhanced BaP bioavailability by dissolving this hydrophobic solid.

  16. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  17. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  18. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  19. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year−1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m−1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 → 4Fe2+ + 8e−) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e− + SO42− + 9H+ → HS− + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  20. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.

    PubMed

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    Iron (Fe(0) ) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H(2) S, and scavenge of 'cathodic' H(2) from chemical reaction of Fe(0) with H(2) O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe(0) year(-1) ), while conventional H(2) -scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO(3) , Mg/CaCO(3) ) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m(-1) ). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe(0)  → 4Fe(2+)  + 8e(-) ) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e(-)  + SO(4) (2-)  + 9H(+)  → HS(-)  + 4H(2) O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H(2) rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments.

  1. Compensation for occupational disease with multiple causes: the case of coal miners respiratory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L.; Wagner, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Many diseases associated with occupational exposures are clinically indistinguishable from diseases with non-occupational causes. Given this, how are fair decisions made about eligibility for compensation. This problem is discussed in relation to the federal black lung program. Conflicting definitions of terms--coal workers pneumoconiosis as defined by the medical profession, pneumoconiosis as defined by the United States Congress, and the popular term, black lung--are important considerations in this discussion. Each is embedded in different logical interpretations of the causes of occupational disease and of disability. Alternative views are presented and critically discussed.

  2. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  3. Mass Density Measurement of Mineralized Tissue with Grating-Based X-Ray Phase Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Regine; Zanette, Irene; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Dierolf, Martin; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the mineral content distribution in highly mineralized tissues, such as bones and teeth, is fundamental in understanding a variety of structural questions ranging from studies of the mechanical properties to improved pathological investigations. However, non-destructive, volumetric and quantitative density measurements of mineralized samples, some of which may extend several mm in size, remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate the potential of grating-based x-ray phase tomography to gain insight into the three-dimensional mass density distribution of tooth tissues in a non-destructive way and with a sensitivity of 85 mg/cm3. Density gradients of 13 − 19% over 1 − 2 mm within typical samples are detected, and local variations in density of 0.4 g/cm3 on a length scale of 0.1 mm are revealed. This method proves to be an excellent quantitative tool for investigations of subtle differences in mineral content of mineralized tissues that can change following treatment or during ageing and healing. PMID:28002416

  4. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  5. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  6. Lidar measurements of Raman scattering at ultraviolet wavelength from mineral dust over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tatarov, Boyan; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho; Shin, Sung Kyun; Mattis, Ina; Seifert, Patric; Noh, Young Min; Kim, Y J; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-17

    We developed a novel measurement channel that utilizes Raman scattering from silicon dioxide (SiO2) quartz at an ultraviolet wavelength (361 nm). The excitation of the Raman signals is done at the primary wavelength of 355 nm emitted from a lidar instrument. In combination with Raman signals from scattering from nitrogen molecules, we may infer the mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient. This technique thus allows us to identify in a comparably direct way the mineral quartz content in mixed pollution plumes that consist, e.g., of a mix of desert dust and urban pollution. We tested the channel for the complex situation of East Asian pollution. We find good agreement of the inferred mineral-quartz-related backscatter coefficient to results obtained with another mineral quartz channel which was operated at 546 nm (primary emission wavelength at 532 nm), the functionality of which has already been shown for a lidar system in Tsukuba (Japan). The advantage of the novel channel is that it provides a better signal-to-noise ratio because of the shorter measurement wavelength.

  7. In vitro quantitative light-induced fluorescence to measure changes in enamel mineralization.

    PubMed

    Gmür, Rudolf; Giertsen, Elin; van der Veen, Monique H; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; ten Cate, Jacob M; Guggenheim, Bernhard

    2006-09-01

    A sensitive, quantitative method for investigating changes in enamel mineralization of specimens subjected to in vitro or in situ experimentation is presented. The fluorescence-detecting instrument integrates a Xenon arc light source and an object positioning stage, which makes it particularly suitable for the nondestructive assessment of demineralized or remineralized enamel. We demonstrate the ability of in vitro quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to quantify changes in mineralization of bovine enamel discs that had been exposed in vitro to a demineralizing gel (n=36) or biofilm-mediated demineralization challenges (n=10), or were carried in situ by three volunteers during a 10-day experiment (n=12). Further experiments show the technique's value for monitoring the extent of remineralization in 36 specimens exposed in vitro to oral multispecies biofilms and document the repeatability of in vitro QLF measurements (n=10) under standardized assay conditions. The validity of the method is illustrated by comparison with transversal microradiography (TMR), the invasive current gold standard for assessing experimental changes in enamel mineralization. Ten discs with 22 measurement areas for comparison demonstrated a positive correlation between TMR and QLF (r=0.82). Filling a technological gap, this QLF system is a promising tool to assay in vitro nondestructively localized changes in mineralization of enamel specimens.

  8. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gotfredsen, A; Pødenphant, J; Nilas, L; Christiansen, C

    1989-04-01

    We investigated the discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDspine) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMCforearm) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMDspine and BMCforearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMDspine or BMCforearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures (not significant in spinal fracture patients). BMCforearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMDspine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMDspine or BMCforearm, whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements.

  9. Measurement of mixed biomass burning and mineral dust aerosol in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, C. H.; Trautmann, T.; Lindermeir, E.

    2009-03-01

    From January 19th to February 7th, 2008, we installed a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Praia Airport on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Our goal was to measure the combined radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol and mineral dust usually observed there during that time of the year, when mineral dust emerging from the Sahara mixes with biomass burning aerosol transported north-westwards from the Sahelian region. Our measurements were part of the Saharan Mineral Dwst Experiment 2 (SAMUM 2) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as continuation of the SAMUM field experiment in Morocco in 2006. SAMUM 2 is a joint venture of several German research institutes and universities and included both ground based as well as airborne measurements with the DLR Falcon research aircraft. The ground based instrumentation included spectrometers for visible and thermal infrared downwelling radiation, sun photometers, LIDAR and particle impactors while the Falcon was equipped with LIDAR and several instruments for aerosol analysis and sample return. A comparison of the FTIR measurements with radiative transfer simulations yields the expected aerosol forcing in the atmospheric window region after application of a suitable calibration method.

  10. Mineral Dust Impact on Short- and Long-Wave Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-wave spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-wave radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative impact. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.

  11. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    PubMed

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  12. Clay minerals in Northern Plains coal overburden as measured by X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Klages, M.G.; Hopper, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    Mathematical models were tested for changing x-ray diffraction data to percentages of clay minerals in coal overburden. Various factors for adjusting peak areas were tested on 50 eastern Montana samples that contained smectite, illite, and daloinite, with lesser amounts of other minerals. Cation exchange capacities (CEC) of the clays were estimated from the calculated mineral percentages and correlated against measured CEC. The best model gave in r/sup 2/ of 0.89. It was used for estimating clay mineralogy at six mine sites in the Northern Great Plains. Average mineral contents in the surface 8 to 38 m of five of seven drill holes in the Montana-Wyoming border area were 40% smectite, with 20% each of illite and kaolinite. Clays from greater depths in the same area had no smectite and an average of 50% each of illite and kaolinite. All samples from a mine in central North Dakota were high in swelling clay, with an average of 60% smectite and 10% vermiculite.Samples from four holes at a mine in eastern Wyoming were all high in kaolinite, having an average of 50% with 30% illite and 10% interstratified smectite-vermiculite.

  13. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  14. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  15. Surface measurements of global warming causing atmospheric constituents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, S N; Youn, Y H; Park, K J; Min, H K; Schnell, R C

    2001-07-01

    The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interest in climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of global warming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and are not being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda, since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), to monitor functions of global warming, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has set up a Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station on the western coast of Korea (Anmyun-do) and has been actively monitoring global warming over Northeast Asia. In addition, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been measured for a similar KMA global warming program at Kosan, Cheju Island since 1990. Aerosol and radiation have also been measured at both sites as well as in Seoul. The observations have been analyzed using diagnostics of climate change in Northeast Asia and also have been internationally compared. Results indicate that greenhouse gases are in good statistic agreement with the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) long-term trends of monthly mean concentrations and seasonal cycles. Atmospheric particulate matter has also been analyzed for particular Asian types in terms of optical depth, number concentration and size distribution.

  16. Potential linkages between mineral magnetic measurements and urban roadside soil pollution (part 2).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Fullen, M A; Booth, C A

    2014-03-01

    Use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual geochemical classes (i.e. Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd), are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.001 n = 60), strong (r = 0.632-0.797), associations with Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. Inter-geochemical correlations suggest anthropogenic influences, which is supported by low χFD% measurements that infer an influence of multi-domain mineralogy are indicative of anthropogenic combustion processes. Results indicate mineral magnetic measurements could potentially be used as a geochemical indicator for soils in certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for monitoring techniques. The mineral magnetic technique offers a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable pollution proxy for soil contamination studies.

  17. [Determination of changes in the mineral content of the bones of diabetics by photon absorption measurements].

    PubMed

    Achkova, P; Diadov, V; Sotirov, G; Diankov, L

    1983-01-01

    The absolute value of mineral content of the bones (MCB), obtained from a single measurement and compared with the so called mean or normal value for a certain age-sex population, cannot be a reliable diagnostic index owing to the great individual discrepancies of MCB, reaching even to +/- 40%. Only the successive, dynamic and compared within each other values of MCB could be of use for the purposes of medical diagnostics and therapy. As a result for periodic measurements in patients with diabetes, the juvenile diabetes was concluded to be characterized by a higher initial MCB value and a faster demineralization, contrary to diabetes that advanced at an older age.

  18. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  19. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  20. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  1. Temperature measurement of mineral melt by means of a high-speed camera.

    PubMed

    Bizjan, Benjamin; Širok, Brane; Drnovšek, Janko; Pušnik, Igor

    2015-09-10

    This paper presents a temperature evaluation method by means of high-speed, visible light digital camera visualization and its application to the mineral wool production process. The proposed method adequately resolves the temperature-related requirements in mineral wool production and significantly improves the spatial and temporal resolution of measured temperature fields. Additionally, it is very cost effective in comparison with other non-contact temperature field measurement methods, such as infrared thermometry. Using the proposed method for temperatures between 800°C and 1500°C, the available temperature measurement range is approximately 300 K with a single temperature calibration point and without the need for camera setting adjustments. In the case of a stationary blackbody, the proposed method is able to produce deviations of less than 5 K from the reference (thermocouple-measured) temperature in a measurement range within 100 K from the calibration temperature. The method was also tested by visualization of rotating melt film in the rock wool production process. The resulting temperature fields are characterized by a very good temporal and spatial resolution (18,700 frames per second at 128  pixels×328  pixels and 8000 frames per second at 416  pixels×298  pixels).

  2. Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  3. Measurement of reactive oxygen metabolites produced by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to mineral dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, P.; Klockars, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop an in-vitro model for studying mineral dust-induced production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human macrophages. Monocytes isolated from human buffy coats were cultured in vitro for 1-6 days. Quartz particles induced both luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) by the adherent cells. However, the luminol response decreased form day to day, obviously due to a decrease in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the cells, whereas the lucigenin response showed no such MPO dependence. The luminol response was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and the MPO-inhibitor azide, while the lucigenin response was inhibited by SOD and catalase but stimulated by azide. There was a positive correlation between the lucigenin responses and the results obtained with the established cytochrome c assay for superoxide, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant. The effects of quartz, titanium dioxide, chrysotile asbestos, and wollastonite particles were investigated with the lucigenin assay. Quartz and chrysotile caused prominent light emission by 6-day-old macrophages, whereas titanium dioxide and wollastonite caused weak responses. We conclude that mineral dusts induce production of reactive oxygen metabolites by human monocyte-derived macrophages, and that the quantitative responses depend on both physical and physicochemical dust properties, the nature of which are still to be defined. PMID:2169299

  4. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  5. CKD-induced wingless/integration1 inhibitors and phosphorus cause the CKD-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yifu; Ginsberg, Charles; Seifert, Michael; Agapova, Olga; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Register, Thomas C; Freedman, Barry I; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut; Hruska, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder.

  6. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  7. Direct measurement of neon production rates by (α,n) reactions in minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Cherniak, Daniele J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of nucleogenic neon from alpha particle capture by 18O and 19F offers a potential chronometer sensitive to temperatures higher than the more widely used (U-Th)/He chronometer. The accuracy depends on the cross sections and the calculated stopping power for alpha particles in the mineral being studied. Published 18O(α,n)21Ne production rates are in poor agreement and were calculated from contradictory cross sections, and therefore demand experimental verification. Similarly, the stopping powers for alpha particles are calculated from SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter software) based on a limited experimental dataset. To address these issues we used a particle accelerator to implant alpha particles at precisely known energies into slabs of synthetic quartz (SiO2) and barium tungstate (BaWO4) to measure 21Ne production from capture by 18O. Within experimental uncertainties the observed 21Ne production rates compare favorably to our predictions using published cross sections and stopping powers, indicating that ages calculated using these quantities are accurate at the ∼3% level. In addition, we measured the 22Ne/21Ne ratio and (U-Th)/He and (U-Th)/Ne ages of Durango fluorapatite, which is an important model system for this work because it contains both oxygen and fluorine. Finally, we present 21Ne/4He production rate ratios for a variety of minerals of geochemical interest along with software for calculating neon production rates and (U-Th)/Ne ages.

  8. Arteriovenous Fistula Affects Bone Mineral Density Measurements in End-Stage Renal Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torregrosa, José-Vicente; Fuster, David; Peris, Pilar; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Solà, Oriol; Domenech, Beatriz; Martín, Gloria; Casellas, Joan; Pons, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hemodialysis needs an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that may influence the structure and growth of nearby bone and affect bone mass measurement. The study analyzed the effect of AVF in the assessment of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examined its influence on the final diagnosis of osteoporosis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Forty patients (52 ± 18 yr) in hemodialysis program (12 ± 8 yr) with permeable AVF in forearm were included. Patients were divided in two groups (over and under 50 yr). BMD of both forearms (three areas), lumbar spine, and femur was measured by DXA. Forearm measurements in each arm were compared. Patients were diagnosed as normal only if all territories were considered nonpathologic and osteoporosis/osteopenia was determined by the lowest score found. Results: Ten patients were excluded and 30 patients were analyzed. BMD in the forearm with AVF was significantly lower than that observed in the contralateral forearm in both groups of patients and in all forearm areas analyzed. When only lumbar spine and femur measurements were considered, 70% of patients were nonpathologic and 30% were osteoporotic. However, inclusion of AVF forearm classified 63% as osteoporotic and a further 27% as osteopenic, leaving only 10% as nonpathologic. Conclusions: Forearm AVF affects BMD measurements by decreasing their values in patients with end-stage renal failure. This may produce an overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, which should be taken into account when evaluating patients of this type. PMID:19713298

  9. Specimen size and porosity can introduce error into microCT-based tissue mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Cory, Esther; Patel, Nipun D; Nazarian, Ara; Laib, Andres; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; DeSilva, Jeremy M; MacLatchy, Laura M; Snyder, Brian D; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2009-01-01

    The accurate measurement of tissue mineral density, rho(m), in specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral using polychromatic microCT systems is important, since studies often compare samples with a range of sizes and bone densities. We assessed the influence of object size on microCT measurements of rho(m) using (1) hydroxyapatite rods (HA), (2) precision-manufactured aluminum foams (AL) simulating trabecular bone structure, and (3) bovine cortical bone cubes (BCt). Two beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithms, determined using a 200 and 1200 mg/cm(3) HA wedge phantom, were used to calculate rho(m) of the HA and BCt. The 200 mg/cm(3) and an aluminum BHC algorithm were used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams. Equivalent rho(m) measurements of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg HA/cm(3) rods decreased (r(2)>0.96, p<0.05 for all) as HA rod diameter increased in the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC data. Errors averaged 8.2% across these samples and reached as high as 29.5%. Regression analyses suggested no size effects in the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC data but differences between successive sizes still reached as high as 13%. The linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams increased up to approximately 6% with increasing volume fractions (r(2)>0.81, p<0.05 for all) but the strength of the size-related error was also BHC dependent. Equivalent rho(m) values were inversely correlated with BCt cube size (r(2)>0.92, p<0.05). Use of the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC ameliorated the size-related artifact compared to the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC but errors with this BHC were still significant and ranged between 5% and 12%. These results demonstrate that object size, structure, and BHC algorithm can influence microCT measurements of rho(m). Measurements of rho(m) of specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral must be interpreted with caution unless appropriate steps are taken to minimize these potential artifacts.

  10. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  11. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  12. Bubbles cause seismic wave attenuation: Laboratory measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Grasselli, Giovanni; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) is a key to uncover the saturation and, in general, to improve the monitoring and surveying of subsurface domains. Nevertheless, how fluids that saturate rocks absorb elastic energy (i.e. cause 1/Q) is still poorly understood, studied and incorporated in geophysical methods. One of the invoked mechanisms, wave induced fluid flow (WIFF), is reputed to cause significant attenuation. This mechanism is governed by the flow of viscous fluids into a porous rock, and causes attenuation as a function of the fluid diffusivity [m2/s] and the pressure gradient [Pa/m], which is generated by the propagation of the elastic wave. However, some published, and newly acquired laboratory data-sets reporting 1/Q in almost fully saturated sandstones are difficult to explain with WIFF theories as they are frequency-dependent and have maximum of attenuation at frequencies

  13. Description and measurement of handicap caused by vision impairment.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, J E; McCarty, C A; Hassell, J B; Gilbert, A G

    1999-01-01

    To develop an instrument to describe and quantify handicap caused by vision impairment an item pool was derived from focus groups and from a review of vision-related quality-of-life questionnaires. Only items related to handicap were included and grouped into five subscales. The 76-item 'Impact of Vision Impairment' was administered to 95 people who were vision impaired. Content validity was established by consultation with professionals and with people with impaired vision. Forty-six items remained after the elimination of those found to be irrelevant and others with inter-item correlation coefficients of > or = 0.7. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed an association between visual acuity and type and degree of handicap on subscales, except emotional reaction to vision loss, which is related to cause of vision impairment. The instrument is responsive to the level of vision loss and discriminates the different performances of people with different causes of vision loss.

  14. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  15. Singularity analysis based on wavelet transform of fractal measures for identifying geochemical anomaly in mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming

    2016-02-01

    Multi-resolution and scale-invariance have been increasingly recognized as two closely related intrinsic properties endowed in geofields such as geochemical and geophysical anomalies, and they are commonly investigated by using multiscale- and scaling-analysis methods. In this paper, the wavelet-based multiscale decomposition (WMD) method was proposed to investigate the multiscale natures of geochemical pattern from large scale to small scale. In the light of the wavelet transformation of fractal measures, we demonstrated that the wavelet approximation operator provides a generalization of box-counting method for scaling analysis of geochemical patterns. Specifically, the approximation coefficient acts as the generalized density-value in density-area fractal modeling of singular geochemical distributions. Accordingly, we presented a novel local singularity analysis (LSA) using the WMD algorithm which extends the conventional moving averaging to a kernel-based operator for implementing LSA. Finally, the novel LSA was validated using a case study dealing with geochemical data (Fe2O3) in stream sediments for mineral exploration in Inner Mongolia, China. In comparison with the LSA implemented using the moving averaging method the novel LSA using WMD identified improved weak geochemical anomalies associated with mineralization in covered area.

  16. Comparison and evaluation of bone measurements for the assessment of mineral phosphorus sources in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shastak, Y; Witzig, M; Hartung, K; Bessei, W; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare different bone measurements in response to supplements of mineral P sources. Comparisons were also made with P retention and digestibility responses determined in a companion study and with blood inorganic phosphate (P(i)) responses. A corn-soybean meal-based basal diet was used (0.35% total P on DM basis). Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSP(a)) or anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP(a)) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.08%, 0.16%, or 0.24%. Each of the 7 diets was fed for 10 d starting 11 d (period 1) or 25 d posthatch (period 2). Bone ash and P were determined, and density criteria were measured using quantitative computed tomography. Responses were evaluated and compared based on linear regression analysis. In general, responses to MSP(a) had a greater slope than DCP(a) for all criteria studied. In period 1, differences between the slopes were significant (P < 0.05) for almost all bone criteria. In period 2, the slopes significantly differed for the amounts of ash and P of all bones studied, for tibia, tarsometatarus, and foot ash percentage, for total and cortical density of tibiae, but not for the other criteria. For the different bones, the ratio of slopes for MSP(a) and DCP(a) was very similar based on the amount of ash in both periods. Foot ash proved to be as sensitive as tibia ash for evaluation of mineral P sources in both periods. Ninety-four percent of the variance of the corticalis content based on quantitative computed tomography measurements could be explained by the amount of tibia ash in period 1. Blood serum P(i) and BW gain were not suitable for P evaluation. We concluded that the ranking of mineral P sources based on bone criteria differed from the ranking that was based on P retention or prececal digestibility. This underlines the need for developing a standard protocol of determination of available P in poultry.

  17. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test.

  18. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  19. Can Mineral Fibers Cause Asbestos Related Diseases? The Long Path from the Reserve Mining Case to Today.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos related diseases occur long after exposure and are related to a much broader range of elongated durable particles than expected. Find out why achieving and using a much needed health risk prediction and prevention model for mineral fibers in NE Minnesota has yet to be a...

  20. Associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female adolescent weightlifters and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Koşar, Şükran Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between swimmers and non-athletes (p > 0.05). Lean and fat mass measures were positively associated with BMC and BMD for the total participants (p < 0.05) while the associations differed when the study groups were analysed separately. In conclusion, both lean and fat mass measures were strongly related to BMC and BMD in female adolescents while these associations differed in swimmers, weightlifters and non-athletes.

  1. Dual energy x-ray laser measurement of calcaneal bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Töyräs, J.; Kröger, H.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2003-06-01

    In dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) the photon attenuation is assumed to be similar in soft tissue overlying, adjacent to and inside the measured bone. In the calcaneal dual energy x-ray laser (DXL) technique, this assumption is not needed as attenuation by soft tissues at the local bone site is determined by combining DXA and heel thickness measurements. In the present study, 38 subjects were measured with DXL Calscan, Lunar PIXI and Lunar DPX-IQ DXA instruments and Hologic Sahara ultrasound instrument, and the performance and agreement of the instruments were analysed. Furthermore, numerical simulations on the effect of non-uniform fat-to-lean tissue ratio within soft tissue in heel were conducted. In vivo short-term precision (CV%, sCV%) of DXL Calscan (1.24%, 1.48%) was similar to that of Lunar PIXI (1.28%, 1.60%). Calcaneal areal bone mineral densities (BMD, g cm-2) measured using DXL Calscan and Lunar PIXI predicted equally well variations in BMD of femoral neck (r2 = 0.63 and 0.52, respectively) or lumbar spine (r2 = 0.61 and 0.64, respectively), determined with Lunar DPX-IQ. BMD values measured with DXL Calscan were, on average, 19% lower (p < 0.01) than those determined with Lunar PIXI. Interestingly, the difference in BMD values between instruments increased as a function of body mass index (BMI) (r2 = 0.17, p < 0.02) or heel thickness (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.01). Numerical simulations suggested that the spatial variation of soft tissue composition in heel can induce incontrollable inaccuracy in BMD when measured with the DXA technique. Theoretically, in contrast to DXA instruments, elimination of the effect of non-uniform soft tissue is possible with DXL Calscan.

  2. Study of the Earth's interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-07-29

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures using a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.

  3. Uncertainty in SMAP Soil Moisture Measurements Caused by Dew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is an important reservoir of the hydrologic cycle that regulates the exchange of moisture and energy between the land surface the atmosphere. Two satellite missions will soon make the first global measurements of soil moisture at the optimal microwave wavelength within L-band: ESA's So...

  4. Measuring and analyzing the causes of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ping; Su, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Since Internet surfing became a daily activity, people have changed their behavior. This research analyzes the causes of problematic Internet use through an online survey, where 1,094 samples were collected. Based on the results of structural equation modeling analysis, the following conclusions are reached: First, novelty, security, and efficiency increase users' online trust. Second, information and efficiency enhance users' sharing and anonymity online. Third, greater trust in Internet environments leads to an increase in a user's cognitive bias toward online behavioral responsibility and Internet addiction. Fourth, a user's attitude toward online sharing further increases the cognitive bias toward online copyright. Fifth, a user's attitude toward anonymity increases cognitive bias toward online copyright, online behavioral responsibility, and deepens Internet addiction.

  5. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, D; Dharmshaktu, P; Aggarwal, A; Gaurav, K; Bansal, R; Devru, N; Garga, UC; Kulshreshtha, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) loss in endocrinopathies [Graves’ disease (GD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH), hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126) were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (79.59%) compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (59.26%) compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT) was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67%) and HypoH (54.55%) compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting. PMID:27241810

  6. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  7. Trace Determination and Pressure Estimation of Fluorine F2 Caused by Irradiation Damage in Minerals and Synthetic Fluorides.

    PubMed

    Celinski, Vinicius R; Ditter, Michael; Kraus, Florian; Fujara, Franz; Schmedt Auf der Günne, Jörn

    2016-12-19

    Irradiated alkali and earth alkali halides can form metal colloids and halogen molecules, which stay trapped inside the crystal. In this paper we provide (19) F NMR spectroscopic evidence of trapped F2 fluids in heavy ion-bombarded synthesized LiF crystals as well as in a variety of the mineral Villiaumite (NaF). This is the 2nd mineral in which F2 is unambiguously detected in nature. The trace quantification of the latter is in the order of magnitude of 10(-6)  mol g(-1) . Pressures and densities of the F2 fluids are estimated based on the theory of nuclear spin relaxation in dilute gases.

  8. Simulated increases in body fat and errors in bone mineral density measurements by DXA and QCT.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elaine W; Thomas, Bijoy J; Brown, J Keenan; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2012-01-01

    Major alterations in body composition, such as with obesity and weight loss, have complex effects on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of altered body fat on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements are unknown. We scanned a spine phantom by DXA and QCT before and after surrounding with sequential fat layers (up to 12 kg). In addition, we measured lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD by DXA and trabecular spine BMD by QCT in 13 adult volunteers before and after a simulated 7.5 kg increase in body fat. With the spine phantom, DXA BMD increased linearly with sequential fat layering at the normal (p < 0.01) and osteopenic (p < 0.01) levels, but QCT BMD did not change significantly. In humans, fat layering significantly reduced DXA spine BMD values (mean ± SD: -2.2 ± 3.7%, p = 0.05) and increased the variability of measurements. In contrast, fat layering increased QCT spine BMD in humans (mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 2.5%, p = 0.05). Fat layering did not change mean DXA BMD of the femoral neck or total hip in humans significantly, but measurements became less precise. Associations between baseline and fat-simulation scans were stronger for QCT of the spine (r(2)= 0.97) than for DXA of the spine (r(2)= 0.87), total hip (r(2) = 0.80), or femoral neck (r(2)= 0.75). Bland-Altman plots revealed that fat-associated errors were greater for DXA spine and hip BMD than for QCT trabecular spine BMD. Fat layering introduces error and decreases the reproducibility of DXA spine and hip BMD measurements in human volunteers. Although overlying fat also affects QCT BMD measurements, the error is smaller and more uniform than with DXA BMD. Caution must be used when interpreting BMD changes in humans whose body composition is changing.

  9. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes: selective measurement of bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Hauffa, B; Möhlmann, C; Jeken, C; Reiners, C

    1995-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in 21 children and adolescents with type I diabetes and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. BMD was selectively measured in trabecular and total bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Cortical bone density was calculated. There was a decrease of trabecular bone density (-18.9%, p < 0.01), total bone density (-9.0%, NS) and cortical bone density (-5.1%, NS) in diabetes. Trabecular bone density was inversely correlated with the duration of diabetes and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) (r = -0.48, p = 0.027 and r = -0.63, p = 0.002, respectively). Total BMD correlated inversely with HbA1 (r = -0.52, p = 0.017). pQCT allows the selective measurement of metabolically active trabecular bone where changes of mineralization first occur. We conclude that pQCT is a useful method for investigating BMD in diabetes.

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Fatty Degeneration of Thigh Muscles Measured by Computed Tomography in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, as an independent fracture factor from Bone mineral density (BMD), muscle weakness due to the fatty degeneration of thigh muscles have been attracting attentions as causes of hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the body composition and BMD and fatty degeneration of thigh muscles of the female patients over 65 years old with osteoporotic hip fracture. Methods This study was conducted with 178 female osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Total hip BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional muscle area (CSmA), muscle attenuation coefficient (MAC), and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of gluteus maximus, hip abductors, quadriceps and hamstring muscle were measured with computed tomography. Normalized IMAT (nIMAT) was calculated by dividing the fat area in the muscle into the size of each muscle. The correlation between each measurement is examined then the differences between the intertrochanteric fracture group and the femoral neck fracture group were analyzed. Results CSmA and MAC of quadriceps were the largest and nIMAT was the lowest. CSA and CSmA of the four muscles showed a statistically significant positive correlation with weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. MAC of 2 gluteal muscles was positively correlated with weight, BMI and BMD. nIMAT of all four muscles was positively correlation with weight and BMI but nIMAT of 2 mid-thigh muscles was positively correlation with BMD. Conclusions Muscle size and fatty degeneration in the thigh muscles were most positively correlated with the body weight. BMD was positively correlation with CSA and CSmA of all thigh muscles, and MAC of 2 gluteal muscles and fatty degeneration of 2 mid-thigh muscles. There was no statistically significant difference in the size of the femoral muscle and the degree of fatty degeneration between the two fracture groups. PMID:27965943

  11. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  13. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  14. Mineral magnetic measurements as a particle size proxy for urban roadside soil pollution (part 1).

    PubMed

    Crosby, C J; Booth, C A; Fullen, M A

    2014-03-01

    The use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored as an alternative means of normalizing particle size effects. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay), more discrete intervals within classes (e.g. fine sand or medium silt) and cumulative size fractions (e.g. clay + fine silt) are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 n = 60), moderate negative (rs = -0.3 to -0.557) associations with clay, silt and sand content. Contrary to earlier research findings which found positive relationships, this indicates that magnetic measurements cannot always provide a predictable particle size proxy and it is only certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for granulometric normalization by this technique. However, if future researchers working in other soil settings can identify a formal predictable relationship, the technique is known to offer a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable proxy for normalizing particle size effects in soil contamination studies.

  15. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  16. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-19

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale.

  17. Elastic anisotropy of uniaxial mineralized collagen fibers measured using two-directional indentation. Effects of hydration state and indentation depth

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Roschger, Paul; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized turkey leg tendon (MTLT) is an attractive model of mineralized collagen fibers, which are also present in bone. Its longitudinal structure is advantageous for the relative simplicity in modeling, yet its anisotropic elastic properties remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of elastic anisotropy of mineralized collagen fibers by using nano- and microindentation to probe a number on MTLT samples in two orthogonal directions. The large dataset allowed the quantification of the extent of anisotropy, depending on the final indentation depth and on the hydration state of the sample. Anisotropy was observed to increase with the sample re-hydration process. Artifacts of indentation in a transverse direction to the main axis of the mineralized tendons in re-hydrated condition were observed. The indentation size effect, that is, the increase of the measured elastic properties with decreasing sampling volume, reported previously on variety of materials, was also observed in MTLT. Indentation work was quantified for both directions of indentation in dried and re-hydrated conditions. As hypothesized, MTLT showed a higher extent of anisotropy compared to cortical and trabecular bone, presumably due to the alignment of mineralized collagen fibers in this tissue. PMID:22664658

  18. Comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dual photon absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements of the lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dunn, W.L.; Brown, M.L.; Morin, R.L.; Riggs, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    A new x-ray-based (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) instrument for measurement of bone mineral in the spine and hips was compared with a commercial dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) instrument that uses a 153Gd source (DP3, Lunar Radiation Corporation). Measurements were made on phantoms and lumbar spines of patients to study accuracy, precision, limitations, and compatibility of results between instruments. Both instruments measure bone mineral of integral bone in terms of area bone density with an entrance exposure of less than 5 mR. For spinal bone mineral measurements, the DEXA instrument had a shorter scanning time and higher resolution images than the DPA system. The DEXA instrument also showed better precision in a spine phantom and reduced influence of thickness for patient measurement. For bone mineral content, accuracy was about equal for both instruments; for measurements of the area of the region of interest, accuracy was better with the DEXA instrument. With both instruments, fat had little effect on bone mineral density in bone phantom studies. Measurements on both instruments were influenced by the location of a bone phantom within the photon beam. Results in patients showed good correlation (r = 0.988) for bone mineral density. Measurements of bone mineral density in patients were consistently lower with the DEXA instrument because of better accuracy in area measurements. The new x-ray-based instrument is a major advance in bone mineral absorptiometry and provides improved, yet less expensive, measurements in research and clinical applications.

  19. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosols from Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hansell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne dust aerosols worldwide contribute a significant part to air quality problems and, to some extent, regional climatic issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in oceans). Evaluating the direct solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large SIN ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impact, on the other hand, is rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (approx.10 W/sq m) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Although the magnitude of the LW impact is much smaller than that of the shortwave (SW), it can still have a noticeable influence on the energy distribution of Earth-atmosphere system, particularly due to the strong light-absorptive properties commonly found in many terrestrial minerals. The current effort is part of an ongoing research study to perform a global assessment of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) during major field deployments of key dust source regions worldwide. In this work we present results stemming from two previous field deployments: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years, both utilizing NASA Goddard's mobile ground-based facility. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal (16.73degN, 22.93degW), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE), China near the source between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. Due to the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of dust properties during field experiments, a deterministic I-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements (i.e., spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for physical/microphysical, mineralogy, and single-scattering properties) is employed to evaluate dust's local instantaneous SW/LW DARE both at the surface and at the top of

  20. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

  1. Disruption of OsEXO70A1 Causes Irregular Vascular Bundles and Perturbs Mineral Nutrient Assimilation in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Bin; Hu, Li; Chen, Weilan; Li, Tao; Hu, Binhua; Zheng, Ling; Lv, Zheng; You, Shuju; Wang, Yuping; Ma, Bingtian; Chen, Xuewei; Qin, Peng; Li, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Normal uptake, transportation, and assimilation of primary nutrients are essential to plant growth. Tracheary elements (TEs) are tissues responsible for the transport of water and minerals and characterized by patterned secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening. Exocysts are involved in the regulation of SCW deposition by mediating the targeted transport of materials and enzymes to specific membrane areas. EXO70s are highly duplicated in plants and provide exocysts with functional specificity. In this study, we report the isolation of a rice mutant rapid leaf senescence2 (rls2) that exhibits dwarfism, ferruginous spotted necrotic leaves, decreased hydraulic transport, and disordered primary nutrient assimilation. Histological analysis of rls2-1 mutants has indicated impaired cell expansion, collapsed vascular tissues, and irregular SCW deposition. Map-based cloning has revealed that RLS2 encodes OsEXO70A1, which is one of the 47 members of EXO70s in rice. RLS2 was widely expressed and spatially restricted in vascular bundles. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that RLS2 was present on both membrane and nuclear regions. Expression analysis revealed that mutations in rls2 triggers transcriptional fluctuation of orthologous EXO70 genes and affects genes involved in primary nutrient absorption and transport. In brief, our study revealed that RLS2 is required for normal vascular bundle differentiation and primary nutrient assimilation. PMID:26691393

  2. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  3. Ultrasound backscatter measurements of intact human proximal femurs--relationships of ultrasound parameters with tissue structure and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Malo, M K H; Töyräs, J; Karjalainen, J P; Isaksson, H; Riekkinen, O; Jurvelin, J S

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound reflection and backscatter parameters are related to the mechanical and structural properties of bone in vitro. However, the potential of ultrasound reflection and backscatter measurements has not been tested with intact human proximal femurs ex vivo. We hypothesize that ultrasound backscatter can be measured from intact femurs and that the measured backscattered signal is associated with cadaver age, bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure. In this study, human femoral bones of 16 male cadavers (47.0±16.1 years, range: 21-77 years) were investigated using pulse-echo ultrasound measurements at the femoral neck in the antero-posterior direction and at the trochanter major in the anteroposterior and lateromedial directions. Recently introduced ultrasound backscatter parameters, independent of cortical thickness, e.g., time slope of apparent integrated backscatter (TSAB) and mean of the backscatter difference technique (MBD) were obtained and compared with the structural properties of trabecular bone samples, extracted from the locations of ultrasound measurements. Moreover, more conventional backscatter parameters, e.g., apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent integrated backscatter (FSAB) were analyzed. Bone mineral density of the intact femurs was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). AIB and MDB measured from the femoral neck correlated significantly (p<0.01) with the neck BMD (R2=0.44 and 0.45), cadaver age (R2=0.61 and 0.41) and several structural parameters, e.g., bone volume fraction (R2=0.33 and 0.39, p<0.05 and p<0.01), respectively. To conclude, ultrasound backscatter parameters, measured from intact proximal femurs, are significantly related (p<0.05) to structural properties and mineral density of trabecular bone.

  4. Complex Apical Intraradicular Infection and Extraradicular Mineralized Biofilms as the Cause of Wet Canals and Treatment Failure: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Candeiro, George T M; Bugea, Calogero; Siqueira, José F

    2016-03-01

    This article describes 2 cases that showed persistent intracanal exudation (wet canal) even after several visits of antimicrobial endodontic treatment. Histologic and histobacteriologic investigation was conducted for determination of the cause. The 2 cases involved teeth with apical periodontitis lesions, which presented persistent exudation refractory to treatment after several visits. In case 1, it was not possible to achieve a dry canal, and surgery had to be performed. In case 2, attempts to dry the canal succeeded and the canal was filled, but follow-up examination showed an enlarged apical periodontitis lesion and extraction was performed. Biopsy specimens consisting of the root apex and apical periodontitis lesion for case 1 and the whole root for case 2 were subjected to histologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Both cases showed complex bacterial infection in the apical root, affecting both the intraradicular space and the outer root surface. Case 1 showed bacterial biofilms in ramifications, on untouched walls, and extending to the external root surface to form a thick and partially mineralized structure with high bacterial density. Different bacterial morphotypes were evidenced. Case 2 had a ledge on the apical canal wall created during instrumentation, which was filled with necrotic debris, filling material, and bacteria. The walls of the apical portion of the canal were covered by a bacterial biofilm, which was continuous with a thick extraradicular biofilm covering the cementum and dentin in resorptive defects. The extraradicular biofilm showed areas of mineralization and was dominated by filamentous bacteria. The 2 cases with wet canals and treatment failure were associated with complex persistent infection in the apical part of the root canal system extending to form thick and partially mineralized biofilm structures (calculus) on the outer apical root surface.

  5. Laboratory Measurements of Oxygen Gas Release from Basaltic Minerals Exposed to UV- Radiation: Implications for the Viking Gas Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The biology experiments onboard the Viking Landers determined that the Martian soils at Chryse and Utopia Planitia contain an unknown chemical compound of a highly oxidizing nature. The Gas Exchange Experiments (GEx) demonstrated that the humidification of a 1-cc Martian soil sample resulted in the production of as much as 790 nanomoles of oxygen gas. Yen et al. (2000) have provided experimental evidence that superoxide radicals can be generated on plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) grain surfaces by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of oxygen gas. Adsorbed superoxide radicals are thought to react readily with water vapor, and produce oxygen gas in quantities sufficient to explain the Viking GEx results. Direct evidence for the formation of oxygen gas, however, was not provided in the experiments of Yen et al (2000). Accordingly, the motivation of this study is to determine whether superoxide radicals adsorbed on labradorite surfaces are capable of producing oxygen gas upon exposure to water vapor. We have constructed an experimental apparatus that is capable of monitoring oxygen gas release from basaltic mineral powders that have been exposed to UV-radiation under Martian atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus consists of a stainless-steel vacuum chamber with a UV- transparent window where sample radiation exposures are performed. The vacuum chamber has multiple valved ports for injection of gases and water vapor. The vacuum chamber is connected via a precision leak valve to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which measures changes in the composition of the headspace gases over our mineral samples. We will report on the results of our experiments, which are aimed at detecting and quantifying oxygen gas release from UV-exposed basaltic mineral samples using this new experimental facility. These results will further constrain whether superoxide ions adsorbed on mineral surfaces provide a viable explanation for the Viking GEx results, which have

  6. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses.

  7. Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust - Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Nikolic, Jugoslav

    2016-09-01

    Dust aerosols are very efficient ice nuclei, important for heterogeneous cloud glaciation even in regions distant from desert sources. A new generation of ice nucleation parameterizations, including dust as an ice nucleation agent, opens the way towards a more accurate treatment of cold cloud formation in atmospheric models. Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation. We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively. The model results were compared against satellite and ground-based cloud-ice-related measurements, provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) and the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) in Potenza, southern Italy. The predicted ice nuclei concentration showed a reasonable level of agreement when compared against the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cloud ice water. The developed methodology permits the use of ice nuclei as input into the cloud microphysics schemes of atmospheric models, assuming that this approach could improve the predictions of cloud formation and associated precipitation.

  8. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  9. Precision and accuracy of in vivo bone mineral measurement in rats using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, S; Vandromme, J; Neve, J; Aguilera, A; Muregancuro, A; Peretz, A; Kinthaert, J; Ham, H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring bone mineral content at different sites of the skeleton in rats. In vitro the reproducibility error was very small (< 1%), but in vivo the intra-observer variability ranged from 0.9% to 6.0%. Several factors have been shown to affect in vivo reproducibility: the reproducibility was better when the results were expressed as bone mineral density (BMD) rather than bone mineral content (BMC), intra-observer variability was better than the inter-observer variability, and a higher error was observed for the tibia compared with that for vertebrae and femur. The accuracy of measurement at the femur and tibia was assessed by comparing the values with ash weight and with biochemically determined calcium content. The correlation coefficients (R) between the in vitro BMC and the dry weight or the calcium content were higher than 0.99 for both the femur and the tibia. SEE ranged between 0.0 g (ash weight) and 2.0 mg (Ca content). Using in vitro BMC, ash weight could be estimated with an accuracy error close to 0 and calcium content with an error ranging between 0.82% and 6.80%. The R values obtained between the in vivo and in vitro BMC were 0.98 and 0.97 respectively for femur and tibia, with SEE of 0.04 and 0.02 g respectively. In conclusion, the in vivo precision of the technique was found to be too low. To be of practical use it is important in the design of experimentation to try to reduce the measurement error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  11. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  12. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  13. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2010-12-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry-generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we find that FHH adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFFH ~ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFFH ~ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  14. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of fresh unprocessed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and droplet activation kinetics of aerosols dry generated from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. Based on the observed dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, with particle dry diameter, Ddry, we found that FHH (Frenkel, Halsey and Hill) adsorption activation theory is a far more suitable framework for describing fresh dust CCN activity than Köhler theory. One set of FHH parameters (AFHH ∼ 2.25 ± 0.75, BFHH ∼ 1.20 ± 0.10) can adequately reproduce the measured CCN activity for all species considered, and also explains the large range of hygroscopicities reported in the literature. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, mineral dust aerosols were found to display retarded activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate. Comprehensive simulations of mineral dust activation and growth in the CCN instrument suggest that this retardation is equivalent to a reduction of the water vapor uptake coefficient (relative to that for calibration ammonium sulfate aerosol) by 30-80%. These results suggest that dust particles do not require deliquescent material to act as CCN in the atmosphere.

  15. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  16. Magnetic Ghosts: Mineral Magnetic Measurements On Roman and Anglo-saxon Graves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, N.

    The location of inhumations, in the absence of ferrous grave goods, often presents a considerable challenge to archaeological geophysics given the small physical size of the features and the slight contrast between the fill of the grave and the surround- ing subsoil. Even during excavation, the identification of graves may be complicated where site conditions do not favour the preservation of human skeletal remains and often only a subtle soil stain is likely to survive. A recent initiative in the United King- dom has seen the formation of the Buried Organic Matter Decomposition Integrated with Elemental Status (BODIES) research group, to examine the decomposition of organic artefacts in ancient graves with respect to localised changes in pH, redox po- tential and nutrient status. This paper presents initial results from a limited mineral magnetic study of two grave sites in an attempt to ascertain whether the decomposi- tion of organic remains may lead to a detectable magnetic signature within the soil. Results from a series of isothermal, hysteresis and magneto-thermal experiments will be presented together with surface magnetometer and topsoil susceptibility surveys.

  17. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moure, Alessandro; Reichmann, Peter; Remigio Gamba, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s-1, in steps of 1 mm s-1, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  18. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols: Insights from elemental composition measured at the Izaña Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Prospero, Joseph M.

    2016-10-01

    Regional variations of dust mineral composition are fundamental to climate impacts but generally neglected in climate models. A challenge for models is that atlases of soil composition are derived from measurements following wet sieving, which destroys the aggregates potentially emitted from the soil. Aggregates are crucial to simulating the observed size distribution of emitted soil particles. We use an extension of brittle fragmentation theory in a global dust model to account for these aggregates. Our method reproduces the size-resolved dust concentration along with the approximately size-invariant fractional abundance of elements like Fe and Al in the decade-long aerosol record from the Izaña Observatory, off the coast of West Africa. By distinguishing between Fe in structural and free forms, we can attribute improved model behavior to aggregation of Fe and Al-rich clay particles. We also demonstrate the importance of size-resolved measurements along with elemental composition analysis to constrain models.

  19. A fast experimental beam hardening correction method for accurate bone mineral measurements in 3D μCT imaging system.

    PubMed

    Koubar, Khodor; Bekaert, Virgile; Brasse, David; Laquerriere, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Bone mineral density plays an important role in the determination of bone strength and fracture risks. Consequently, it is very important to obtain accurate bone mineral density measurements. The microcomputerized tomography system provides 3D information about the architectural properties of bone. Quantitative analysis accuracy is decreased by the presence of artefacts in the reconstructed images, mainly due to beam hardening artefacts (such as cupping artefacts). In this paper, we introduced a new beam hardening correction method based on a postreconstruction technique performed with the use of off-line water and bone linearization curves experimentally calculated aiming to take into account the nonhomogeneity in the scanned animal. In order to evaluate the mass correction rate, calibration line has been carried out to convert the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficient into bone masses. The presented correction method was then applied on a multimaterial cylindrical phantom and on mouse skeleton images. Mass correction rate up to 18% between uncorrected and corrected images were obtained as well as a remarkable improvement of a calculated mouse femur mass has been noticed. Results were also compared to those obtained when using the simple water linearization technique which does not take into account the nonhomogeneity in the object.

  20. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  1. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    PubMed

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  2. Measurement of Charged Current Coherent Pion Production by Neutrinos on Carbon at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Mislivec, Aaron Robert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus coherent pion production is a rare neutrino scattering process where the squared four-momentum transferred to the nucleus is small, a lepton and pion are produced in the forward direction, and the nucleus remains in its initial state. This process is an important background in neutrino oscillation experiments. Measurements of coherent pion production are needed to constrain models which are used to predict coherent pion production in oscillation experiments. This thesis reports measurements of νµ and νµ charged current coherent pion production on carbon for neutrino energies in the range 2 < Eν < 20 GeV. The measurements were made using data from MINERνA, which is a dedicated neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment that uses a fi scintillator tracking detector in the high-intensity NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. Coherent interactions were isolated from the data using only model-independent signatures of the reaction, which are a forward muon and pion, no evidence of nuclear breakup, and small four-momentum transfer to the nucleus. The measurements were compared to the coherent pion production model used by oscillation experiments. The data and model agree in the total interaction rate and are similar in the dependence of the interaction rate on the squared four- momentum transferred from the neutrino. The data and model disagree significantly in the pion kinematics. The measured νµ and νµ interaction rates are consistent, which supports model predictions that the neutrino and antineutrino interaction rates are equal.

  3. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    PubMed

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  4. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  5. Simultaneous Interferometric Measurement of Corrosive or Demineralizing Bacteria and Their Mineral Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Fig. 3A), Streptococcus mutans UA159 on hydroxyapatite (Fig. 3B), FIG. 1. Measurement of the edge of a drop of water and its steel interface. Above...B) S. mutans UA159 on hydroxyapatite . The black arrowhead highlights the peak indicative of the hydroxyapatite surface. (C) Sulfate-reducing...processes, such as the demineralization of tooth enamel by S. mutans lactic acid secretions (6, 9, 20). By directly visualizing real-time height changes in

  6. The impact of osteophytic and vascular calcifications on vertebral mineral density measurements in men.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, E S; Oviatt, S K; Mann, T

    1990-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of extravertebral calcification on spinal bone density determinations, we measured lumbar vertebral density in 71 hospitalized and 58 normal men using dual photon absorptiometry. The extent of vascular and osteophytic calcification was graded from lateral lumbar radiographs. Fifty-five (43%) of the subjects had identifiable osteophytes, and 86 (67%) had vascular calcifications. Despite similar ages and weights in subjects with and without ostephytes, those with osteophytes had greater spinal density (1.34 vs. 1.17 g/cm2; P less than 0.001), and there was a strong correlation between osteophyte severity and spinal density (r = 0.41; P less than 0.00001). Proximal femoral density was not different in those with and without osteophytes. The distribution of osteophytes in this population was not random, and as a result, the presence of osteophytes obscured the the relationship of bone density to age as well as the comparison of hospitalized to normal men. Vascular calcification had a minimal effect on vertebral density. In summary, osteophytic calcification exerted an important influence on the measurement of spinal bone density in men. This effect should be considered in both clinical and research applications of integral vertebral density measures.

  7. Temperature error in radiation thermometry caused by emissivity and reflectance measurement error.

    PubMed

    Corwin, R R; Rodenburghii, A

    1994-04-01

    A general expression for the temperature error caused by emissivity uncertainty is developed, and it is concluded that lower-wavelength systems provide significantly less temperature error. A technique to measure the normal emissivity is proposed that uses a normally incident light beam and an aperture to collect a portion of the energy reflected from the surface and to measure essentially both the specular component and the biangular reflectance at the edge of the aperture. The theoretical results show that the aperture size need not be substantial to provide reasonably low temperature errors for a broad class of materials and surface reflectance conditions.

  8. Study of the Earth’s interior using measurements of sound velocities in minerals by ultrasonic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the progress of the technology of ultrasonic interferometry from the early 1950s to the present day. During this period of more than 60 years, sound wave velocity measurements have been increased from at pressures less than 1 GPa and temperatures less than 800 K to conditions above 25 GPa and temperatures of 1800 K. This is complimentary to other direct methods to measure sound velocities (such as Brillouin and impulsive stimulated scattering) as well as indirect methods (e.g., resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, static or shock compression, inelastic X-ray scattering). Newly-developed pressure calibration methods and data analysis procedures using a finite strain approach are described and applied to data for the major mantle minerals. The implications for the composition of the Earth’s mantle are discussed. The state-of-the-art ultrasonic experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation can provide simultaneous measurements of the elastic bulk and shear moduli and their pressure and temperature derivatives with direct determination of pressure. The current status and outlook/challenges for future experiments are summarized.

  9. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  10. Analysis of In-Situ of Ozone Measurements in Saharan Mineral Dust during AEROSE Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, E. D.; Morris, V. R.; Nalli, N. R.; Joseph, E.

    2012-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic Aerosol and Oceanographic Science Expeditions (AEROSE) are a series of experiments that began in 2004 and take place in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. AEROSE collects a unique set of critical measurements to characterize the microphysical and chemical evolution of the Saharan dust aerosols during long-range transport. Continuous in-situ surface level measurements over the tropical Atlantic allows for accurate determination of lower tropospheric ozone concentrations, and its effects on the regional environment and climate that may be used to validate satellite observations. Ozone is instrumental in regulating the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity and can influence background levels of trace chemical species which affect the composition of the atmosphere and create climatic variations. Several studies have shown that ozone concentrations diminish with increased loading of dust particles from the Sahara. Current theories indicate that decomposition of ozone may be due to NOx titrations, decreased radiation, photocatalysis, interactions with organics, or heterogeneous reactions. In effort to understand the response of marine boundary layer ozone with coarse aerosols, analyses of ozone concentrations and aerosol correlations found in dusty Saharan air masses from various cruises will be presented.

  11. Depth-related changes in community structure of culturable mineral weathering bacteria and in weathering patterns caused by them along two contrasting soil profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xia-Fang; Xi, Jun; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.

  12. Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure. PMID:24077700

  13. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  14. A non-invasive measure of minerals and electrolytes in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Silver, Burton

    1991-01-01

    A system for collecting epithelial cells from the oral mucosa for the determination of ion concentration is discussed with application to the study of man's adaptation to microgravity. A number of characteristics of these cells influenced the choice for clinical testing. They are non-cornified epithelial cells located on the inferior aspect of the tongue; therefore, they are well protected from trauma. They have the capability of reflecting relatively recent physiologic changes since they are renewed every three days and have aerobic metabolism. Most importantly, they are easily accessible and can be removed by a wooden applicator stick with minimum discomfort. Smears of cells removed in this manner show predominantly individual cells rather than sheets of contiuous cells. This facilitates the visual isolation of single cells with the electron microscope for analysis. NASA's principle effort in the development of a test to measure the ion concentration in sublingual cells has been research by the biomedical program carried out by scientists with expertise in skeletal metabolism. These efforts were directed toward determining the biological meaning and deviations in interacellular ions in nonhuman primates and in male volunteers for experiments in a model for weightlessness. A brief one page summary of the experiments and results are presented.

  15. Proxies and measurement techniques for mineral dust in Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Urs; Barbante, Carlo; Bigler, Matthias; Delmonte, Barbara; Fischer, Hubertus; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gaspari, Vania; Kaufmann, Patrik; Lambert, Fabrice; Maggi, Valter; Marino, Federica; Petit, Jean-Robert; Udisti, Roberto; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Wegner, Anna; Wolff, Eric W

    2008-08-01

    To improve quantitative interpretation of ice core aeolian dust records, a systematic methodological comparison was made. This involved methods for water-insoluble particle counting (Coulter counter and laser-sensing particle detector), soluble ion analysis (ion chromatography and continuous flow analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) cores were used. All methods correlate very well among each other, but the ratios of glacial age to Holocene concentrations, which are typically a factor approximately 100, differ between the methods by up to a factor of 2 with insoluble particles showing the largest variability. The recovery of ICP-MS measurements depends on the digestion method and is differentfor different elements and during different climatic periods. EDC and EDML samples have similar dust composition, which suggests a common dust source or a common mixture of sources for the two sites. The analyzed samples further reveal a change of dust composition during the last deglaciation.

  16. Diagnosing causes of cloud parameterization deficiencies using ARM measurements over SGP site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Betts, A. K.

    2010-03-15

    Decade-long continuous surface-based measurements at Great Southern Plains (SGP) collected by the US Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are first used to evaluate the three major reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I and NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II) to identify model biases in simulating surface shortwave cloud forcing and total cloud fraction. The results show large systematic lower biases in the modeled surface shortwave cloud forcing and cloud fraction from all the three reanalysis datasets. Then we focus on diagnosing the causes of these model biases using the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) products (e.g., vertical distribution of cloud fraction, cloud-base and cloud-top heights, and cloud optical depth) and meteorological measurements (temperature, humidity and stability). Efforts are made to couple cloud properties with boundary processes in the diagnosis.

  17. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density measurements: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Howard, G M; Nguyen, T V; Harris, M; Kelly, P J; Eisman, J A

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation and covariation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and their relationships to bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-nine monozygotic (MZ) and 44 dizygotic (DZ) female twins between 20 and 83 years of age (53 +/- 13 years, mean +/- SD) were studied. Digital (phalangeal) QUS (speed of sound [SOS]) and calcaneal QUS (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and velocity of sound [VOS]) were measured using a DBM Sonic 1200 ultrasound densitometer and a CUBA ultrasound densitometer, respectively. Femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Familial resemblance and hence heritability (proportion of variance of a trait attributable to genetic factors) were assessed by analysis of variance, univariate, and multivariate model-fitting genetic analyses. In both QUS and BMD parameters, MZ twins were more alike than DZ pairs. Estimates of heritability for age- and weight-adjusted BUA, VOS, and SOS were 0.74, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Corresponding indices of heritability for LS, FN, and TB BMD were 0.79, 0.77, and 0.82, respectively. In cross-sectional analysis, both BUA and SOS, but not VOS, were independently associated with BMD measurements. However, analysis based on intrapair differences suggested that only BUA was related to BMD. Bivariate genetic analysis indicated that the genetic correlations between BUA and BMD ranged between 0.43 and 0.51 (p < 0.001), whereas the environmental correlations ranged between 0.20 and 0.28 (p < 0.01). While the genetic correlations within QUS and BMD measurements were significant, factor analysis indicates that common genes affect BMD at different sites. Also, individual QUS measurements appear to be influenced by some common sets of genes rather than by environmental factors. Significant environmental correlations were only found for BMD

  18. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches: Assessment by in situ O2 microprofile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, M.; Turnewitsch, R.; Toyofuku, T.; Kitazato, H.; Glud, R. N.

    2016-10-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O2 consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746±103 μmol m-2 d-1; n=27) was 3-times higher than at the Tonga Trench axis site (10800 m; 225±50 μmol m-2 d-1; n=7) presumably reflecting the higher surface water productivity in the Northern Pacific. Comparing benthic O2 consumption rates measured in the central hadal Tonga Trench to that of nearby (60 km distance) abyssal settings (6250 m; 92±44 μmol m-2 d-1; n=16) revealed a 2.5 higher activity at the trench bottom. Onboard investigations on recovered sediment furthermore revealed that the prokaryotic abundance and concentrations of phytopigments followed this overall trend (i.e minimum values at the abyssal site followed by higher values from the Tonga and Izu-Bonin Trenches axis, respectively). Excess 210Pb profiles suggested that mass-wasting events contributed to the deposition of material enhancing the concentration of organic matter in the central trench as compared to the abyssal settings. Our results complement recent findings from the Challenger deep in the Mariana Trench area, which also revealed elevated diagenetic activity in the central trench underpinning the importance of hadal ecosystems for the deep sea carbon cycling.

  19. Study of angle measuring error mechanism caused by rotor run-outs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Dabao; Zhang, Wenying; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-11-01

    In a rotating angle measuring system, errors of grating sensor, installation and rotor run-outs will affect angle measuring error. The error caused by rotor run-outs is usually the biggest and the hardest to eliminate of them. To improve the accuracy, the table should be fabricated precisely, thus, the table system will be complicated and expensive. This paper provides a method to solve the challenge by using two gratings in the same table, whose gratings respectively grooved on end face and side face. The error mechanism of end face and side face caused by axial and radial rotor run-outs by were deduced. It can be concluded from the analysis that end face grating is sensitive when radial rotor run-outs happens, side face grating is sensitive when axial rotor run-outs happens. Due to the conclusion, combined type gratings with one end face grating and one side face grating can be used to restrain the error caused by Rotor Run-outs of table.

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-08-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an improved understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  2. Method for qualitative determination of measurement errors caused by sample fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, David L.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the papers and inks used to produce color hard copy products contain fluorescent materials. Most density and/or color instruments use the ratio of value of the light returned by the sample at each wavelength relative to that returned by a white calibration standard to derive the measurement value. Generally, no effort is made to differentiate between light reflected by the sample and light emitted by the sample due to fluorescence. The blue emitted light resulting from the inclusion of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) in graphic arts materials is excited by violet and ultraviolet (UV) light in the instrument illumination source. Differences in instrument source UV intensity can cause significant differences in the blue reflectance values of FWA containing samples reported by the instrument measurement system. Standard reference materials (SRM) which contain known amounts of FWA are commercially available. These SRMs allow a semiquantitative assessment of the UV content of an instrument's illuminating source. A further refinement, using thin UV cutoff filters, allows the qualitative determination of the presence or absence of FWA in paper samples. We anticipate that with the use of other thin filters, measurement errors caused by visible light excited fluorescence of inks, particular yellows, will be possible.

  3. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ULLAH, Sana; RAHMAN, Khaista; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. Methods: The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were “newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia”, “newborns’ jaundice”, “Physiological Jaundice” and “Patholigical Jaundice”. The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Results: Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Conclusion: Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations. PMID:27398328

  4. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  5. Local Variation in Femoral Neck Cortical Bone: In Vitro Measured Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Jenkins, Thomas; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dunlop, Doug G; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-12-17

    Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally around the circumference of the femoral neck, allowing examination of spatial variability within the cortical bone. Fractured tissue was less resistant to indentation in the thinner superolateral segment compared to other segments and other groups. BMD around the fractured femoral necks appeared more consistent than that of nonfractured tissue, where BMD was reduced in the superolateral segment for the other groups. Cortical bone was thin in the superolateral segment for all groups except for the osteoarthritic group, and was thicker in the inferomedial segment for both osteoarthritic and fractured groups, resulting in the largest variation in buckling ratio (ratio of cortical bone diameter to cortical bone thickness) around the femoral neck for the fractured group. With age, healthy controls appeared to have lower inferomedial cortical thickness, whereas no significant differences in Reference Point Indentation measurements and density were observed. The study has

  6. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T

    2003-11-01

    The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid

  7. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  8. Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Exchange from a Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on a Mineral Soil Measured with Eddy Covariance Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S.; Shurpali, N.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O) in the atmosphere have been linked to anthropogenic activities. Energy production based on fossil fuels is the main sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Strategies to reduce CO2 emissions include use of bioenergy crops as energy source. To evaluate the real atmospheric value of bioenergy, knowledge on CO2 and N2O balances of ecosystems under bioenergy crop cultivation is needed. Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.) is increasingly being used as a bioenergy crop in the Nordic countries. It grows well in northern Europe as it tolerates flooding, requires short growing season and thrives well under low temperatures. Currently RCG is cultivated on an area of about 19000 ha in Finland and it is the highest yielding grass grown for energy purpose in Finland. The long rotation period (about ten years) of RCG cultivation without tilling favors carbon allocation into soil. First results from RCG cultivations on peat soil show that it is a promising land use option on such soils favoring soil carbon sequestration with low N2O emissions (Hyvönen et al. 2009; Shurpali et al. 2009). In order to devise a sound bioenergy policy based on this grass, studies on soils with variable characteristics under different climatic and hydrological regimes is urgently needed. Micrometeorological eddy covariance technique is suitable to study GHG fluxes at an ecosystem level (Baldocchi 2003). It is useful for continuous, direct and long-term measurements. Eddy covariance technique has been successfully used for measuring CO2 exchange in various ecosystems. The eddy covariance technique has also been used to measure N2O emissions (Denmead 2008). Aims of this study are to quantify the CO2 and N2O exchange of RCG cultivation on a mineral soil employing eddy covariance technique and to identify the key factors controlling the gas exchange. The study site on mineral soil is located in Eastern Finland. RCG was sown in spring

  9. Measurement of Cu and Zn adsorption onto surficial sediment components: new evidence for less importance of clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Yu

    2011-05-30

    Clay minerals in surficial sediment samples, collected from the Songhua River in China, were separated via sedimentation after removal of Fe/Mn oxides and organic materials; Cu and Zn adsorption onto the sediment components was then evaluated. Clay minerals were examined via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Clay minerals were found to consist mainly of illite, kaolinite, chlorite and an illite/smectite mixed layer. Non-clay minerals were dominated by quartz and orthoclase. The retention of Cu and Zn by clay minerals was 1.6 and 2.5 times, respectively, greater than that of the whole, untreated surficial sediment. Compared to the other critical components in sediments related to metal sorption (Mn oxides, Fe oxides and organic materials), the adsorption capacity of clay minerals was found to be relatively lower on a unit mass basis. These data suggest that, although clay minerals may be important in the adsorption of heavy metals to aquatic sediments, their role is less significant than Fe/Mn oxides and organic materials.

  10. Measurement of temperature decrease caused by blood flow in focused ultrasound irradiation by thermal imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Hatano, Yuichi; Mori, Yashunori; Shen, Rakushin; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to estimate the local temperature changes caused by a thick blood vessel, the temperature distribution in a tissue phantom with a thick blood vessel during focused ultrasound irradiation was measured by a thermal imaging method. The blood flow rate in the simulated blood vessel was varied and the relationship between flow rate and temperature decrease was examined. The phantom using the thermal imaging method is divided into two parts, and the increases in temperature distribution as a function of blood flow rate are measured using a thermocamera under constant ultrasound irradiation. The irradiation conditions of ultrasound waves were a central frequency of 1 MHz, a wave number length of 200 cycles, and a duty ratio of 0.2. The irradiation duration was 5 min, and the ultrasound intensity I SPTA was 36 W/cm2. The amount of temperature decrease caused by the cooling effect of blood flow increased with the blood flow rate and it became constant at a certain threshold of blood flow rate. The threshold of blood flow rate is about 250 ml/min.

  11. From Nm-Scale Measurements Of Mineral Dissolution Rate To Overall Dissolution Rate Laws: A Case Study Based On Diopside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, D.; Saldi, G.; Hellmann, R.; Knauss, K.

    2011-12-01

    While we expect conventional reactive transport simulations to provide reliable estimations of the evolution of fluid-rock interactions over time scales of centuries and even more, recent experimental studies showed that they could hardly be satisfactorily used on simplified systems (e.g. batch carbonation experiments on single minerals), on time scales of weeks [1]. Among the reasons for such inconsistencies is the nature of the rate laws used in the geochemical codes, which heavily relies on our description of the fundamental mechanisms involved during water(-CO2)-mineral reactions. Silicate dissolution constitutes a key step of GCS processes. Whereas the dissolution rate of silicate minerals has been extensively studied at far-from-equilibrium conditions, extrapolating such rates over a broad range of solution composition relevant for GCS has proven challenging. Regarding diopside, recent studies [2, 3] suggested that below 125 °C, an unexpected drop of the rate occurred for Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔGr) as low as -76 kJ.mol-1, with severe consequences on our ability to predict the rate of complex processes such as carbonation reactions [3]. The mechanism responsible for such a drop remains unclear and therefore needs to be deciphered. An examination of our previous data [3] led us to envisage that two different, non-exclusive aspects were worth investigating: (i) the possible passivating ability of interfacial, nm-thick Si-rich layers developed on weathered silicate surface, and (ii) the stop of etch pits formation on crystal surface, each mechanism being found to be responsible for drops of olivine [1] and albite [4] dissolution rates, respectively. Our ongoing experiments aim at better constraining these two mechanisms, and determining in turn whether one of them could explain the above-mentioned drop of diopside dissolution rate. Classical flow-through experiments with controlled SiO2(aq) concentrations are combined with both ex situ AFM and VSI

  12. Can forearm bone mineral density be measured with dxa in the supine position? A study in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhua; Xing, Yan; Zhou, Qi; Jin, Wenya; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to confirm that forearm bone mineral density (BMD) results obtained with the patient in the supine position are equivalent to results obtained with patient in the sitting position. The subjects were a Chinese sample of 82 healthy adults (35 males and 47 females; age: 22.5-59.8 yr; body mass index: 17.6-32.4). Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with the forearm positioned in the sitting and supine positions. Repeated measurements were available for some subjects, and the average of the repeats for those subjects were used in the analysis. The standard enCORE software (GE Lunar, Madison, WI) adjustment for supine position was applied to the BMD values obtained in the supine position for 33% radius, ultradistal (UD) radius, and radius total regions of interest (ROIs) to give sitting-equivalent values. The supine sitting-equivalent results were regressed on the sitting values through the origin. There were statistically significant differences in the UD and total-radius forearm results between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD. The correlation coefficients of UD and total radius were 0.967 and 0.976, respectively. There was no significant difference between supine sitting-equivalent BMD and sitting BMD in the 33% radius forearm BMD. The correlation coefficient of 33% radius was 0.956. For Chinese subjects, there was no significant difference in BMD for the 33% radius, the only ROI recommended for diagnosis by ISCD. Forearm scans could be accomplished with the patient suitably positioned for the routine lumbar spine and proximal femur scans.

  13. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  14. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  15. Measurement and understanding of single-molecule break junction rectification caused by asymmetric contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hamill, Joseph M.; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-08-07

    The contact effects of single-molecule break junctions on rectification behaviors were experimentally explored by a systematic control of anchoring groups of 1,4-disubstituted benzene molecular junctions. Single-molecule conductance and I-V characteristic measurements reveal a strong correlation between rectifying effects and the asymmetry in contacts. Analysis using energy band models and I-V calculations suggested that the rectification behavior is mainly caused by asymmetric coupling strengths at the two contact interfaces. Fitting of the rectification ratio by a modified Simmons model we developed suggests asymmetry in potential drop across the asymmetric anchoring groups as the mechanism of rectifying I-V behavior. This study provides direct experimental evidence and sheds light on the mechanisms of rectification behavior induced simply by contact asymmetry, which serves as an aid to interpret future single-molecule electronic behavior involved with asymmetric contact conformation.

  16. A Survey of Productivity in the Construction Industry: Measurement and Causes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    The .t topic of leadership in Construction has received alot - F attenti3. in the construction management profession-al journa- lately. It is seen as...MEASUREMENT AND CAUSES(U) GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING P M ARN DEC 87 UNCLASSIFIED F /G 12/08 U mmomEohmoEmiE EEEhhEhE 1𔃺...i 1,7v of tne S.:horn ai+ Civil En~gneering E4~~~~~~ ~ ~ e.l C 91A T7-:-i.’Z + - c~n lv by Partial F:r-.-Fii s f - -I GERI0NTTT FTCNLG A NTOFTEUNVRIT

  17. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  18. Dynamic Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Respirations Caused by Changing Oxygen Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, D.; Saad, N.

    2015-12-01

    The necessity for constant monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is clearly evident now more than ever. Moreover, interpreting and understanding the processes that dictate the production and consumption of these gases will allow for proper management of GHGs in order to mitigate its detrimental climate effects. Presence of oxygen, or lack of it, is the driving force for determining pathways within biochemical redox reactions. Experiments to find correlations between oxygen and greenhouse gases have helped us understand photosynthesis, denitrification and beyond. Within the past few years measurements of O2 and nitrous oxide have been used over a wide ranging array of disciplines; from studying avenues for redox chemistry to characterizing gas profiles in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. We present a full analysis solution, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, for simultaneous measurements of N2O, CO2, CH4, H2O, NH3, and O2 concentrations in soil flux, in order to better understand dynamics of ecological and biogeochemical processes. The stability and high temporal resolution of the five-species CRDS analyzer, coupled with a continuous high-precision O2 measurement (1-σ <200ppm) produces a complete picture of biogeochemical processes, for which a multitude of additional research experiments can be conceived. Adding another dimension to explore to help determine the rate at which these greenhouse gases are produced or consumed, allows scientists to further address fundamental scientific questions. Data is presented showing precision, drift and limitations of the O2 sensor measurement as well as the validity of spectroscopic corrections with the CRDS analyzer caused by changing O2. Experimental data is also presented to explore correlations of soil respiration rates of N2O, CO2 and CH4 due to differing soil O2 contents at varying timescales from minutes to days.

  19. The determination of serum concentrations of osteocalcin in growing pigs and its relationship to end-measures of bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Combs, T R; Colombo, G; Fanti, P

    1996-11-01

    Osteocalcin, a 49-amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein produced by the osteoblast, has been shown in laboratory animals to be a better marker of bone turnover than alkaline phosphatase. To determine serum osteocalcin levels in growing pigs, we isolated pure porcine osteocalcin and developed a double-antibody RIA. To evaluate the effects of dietary Ca and P levels on serum osteocalcin, 36 individually penned crossbred pigs (19.5 kg initial BW) were fed fortified corn-soybean meal diets (.95% lysine) containing four levels of Ca (.42, .66, .90, 1.14%) and P (.35, .55, .75, .95%) in a 30-d test. Increasing dietary Ca and P improved body weight gain quadratically (P < .02). Most bone traits improved quadratically (P < .05) with increasing Ca and P. Pigs were bled on d 0, 10, 20, and 30 to determine serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and osteocalcin. Osteocalcin decreased (P < .02) linearly with increasing Ca and P on d 10, 20, and 30. However, this effect was much more pronounced on d 20 and 30. Alkaline phosphatase decreased with the first incremental increase in dietary Ca and P, but was not affected by higher levels on any day measured. Osteocalcin was inversely correlated with growth rate (r = -.54, P < .01), bone strength (r = -.57, P < .01), metacarpal ash (r = -.29, P < .10), femur ash (r = -.60, P < .01), and femur ash weight (r = -.65, P < .01). Similar results were found for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alkaline phosphatase was not correlated with performance or most bone traits on d 30. Based on this model, these results suggest that serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are better predictors of bone mineralization and(or) turnover in pigs than serum alkaline phosphatase.

  20. Bone mineral content measured by DEXA scan in preterm neonates receiving total parentral nutrition with and without phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Awad, H A; Farid, T M; Khafagy, S M; Nofal, R I

    2010-09-15

    Intravenous phosphorus preparation was not available in Egypt till recently. So we aimed to prove the positive effect of adding intravenous phosphorus to total parentral nutrition (TPN) on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (PO4) metabolism ofpreterm neonates by measuring bone mineral content (BMC) using DEXA scan. A case-control study was conducted in NICU of Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital of Ain Shams University which is a tertiary care unit in Cairo. Thirty preterm infants were prospectively enrolled in the study divided into 2 groups; 15 preterm infants received TPN with phosphorus supplementation (group 1) and 15 preterm received TPN without phosphorus supplementation (group 2). Serum Ca, PO4 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were done together with urinary calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio, abdominal ultrasound and DEXA scan. There were no significant difference regarding serum Ca and PO4 between group 1 and 2. Yet there were highly significant increase in serum ALP and urinary Ca/Cr ratio in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.001). Also group 1 had significantly higher BMC compared to group 2 even with TPN duration less than 15 days (p = 0.001). BMC was significantly positively correlated with G.A and B.W in both groups and was significantly negatively correlated with serum ALP in group 2 and with urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in group 1. Duration of TPN as short as 2 weeks can affect negatively the BMC as documented by DEXA scan in preterm infants receiving TPN without phosphorus supplementation.

  1. Low to Extremely Low Water Abundances Measured in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in Mafic to Granitic Apollo Rock Clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Christoffersen, R.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Mills, R. D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar sample-based volatile studies have focused on assessing the inventory and distribution of water in the Moon. Some have focused on the relatively young mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which result from partial melting of the relatively young lunar mantle. Less certain is the water inventory for the oldest materials available, which have the greater potential to record the earliest history of volatiles in the Moon (and thus provide evidence for the "wet" vs. "dry" accretion hypotheses of the Earth-Moon system. Studies of volatiles in ancient lunar rocks have largely focused on apatite. One recent FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer) study of plagioclase reported a relatively "wet" (approximately 320 parts per million) magma for primordial ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Another, a NanoSIMS study of alkali feldspar, reported a "wet" (approximately 1 weight percentage) felsic magma, but due to the differentiation processes required for silicic magmatism in the lunar crust, predicted an essentially "dry" (less than 100 parts per million) bulk Moon. Thus, despite evidence that appears to complicate the early "dry" Moon paradigm, there is no apparent unanimity among the measurements, even those on apatite. This disparity is clearly seen by the order of magnitude different water estimates for lunar "alkali-rich suite rocks" (Fig. 1). Some of the apparent differences may be explained by recent improvements in the apatite-based water estimates that better account for relative compatibilities of OH-, Cl, and F. In the present work, we seek to expand our understanding of the volatile abundances in early formed lunar magmas, their source reservoirs, and to address the potential role that felsic magmas play on the lunar hydrogen budget over time by employing NanoSIMS analysis of nominally anhydrous minerals.

  2. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  3. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Camelia

    2013-06-14

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  4. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    PRODAN, CAMELIA; SLATER, LEE; NTARLAGIANNIS, DIMITRIOS

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  5. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 1. Mineral abundances inferred from spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weidong; Lucey, Paul G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Di, Kaichang; Wan, Wenhui; Xu, Bin; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei; Xue, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer on board the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission measured the lunar surface reflectance at a close distance (~1 m) and collected four spectra at four different sites. These in situ lunar spectra have revealed less mature features than that measured remotely by spaceborne sensors such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 mission and the Spectral Profiler on board the Kaguya over the same region. Mineral composition analysis using a spectral lookup table populated with a radiative transfer mixing model has shown that the regolith at the landing site contains high abundance of olivine. The mineral abundance results are consistent with that inferred from the compound measurement made by the on board alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer.

  6. Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation.

  7. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  8. Petrographic and isotope constraints on the origin of authigenic carbonate minerals and the associated fluid evolution in Late Permian coal measures, Bowen Basin (Queensland), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. T.; Golding, S. D.; Glikson, M.

    2000-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate minerals are ubiquitous throughout the Late Permian coal measures of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. In the northern Bowen Basin, carbonates include the following assemblages: siderite I (δ 18OSMOW=+11.4 to +17%, δ 13CPDB=-5.3 to +120), Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II mineral association (δ 18OSMOW=+7.2 to +10.20, δ 13CPDB=10.9 to -1.80 for ankerite) and a later calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+5.9 to +14.60, δ 13CPDB=-11.4 to +4.40). In the southern Bowen Basin, the carbonate phase consists only of calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+12.5 to +14.80, δ 13CPDB=-19.4 to +0.80), where it occurs extensively throughout all stratigraphic levels. Siderite I occurs in mudrocks and sandstones and predates all other carbonate minerals. This carbonate phase is interpreted to have formed as an early diagenetic mineral from meteoric waters under cold climate and reducing conditions. Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II occur in sandstones as replacement of volcanic rock fragments. Clay minerals (illite-smectite, chlorite and kaolinite) postdate Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates, and precipitation of the later calcite is associated with clay mineral formation. The Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates and later calcite of the northern Bowen Basin are regarded as having formed as a result of hydrothermal activity during the latest Triassic extensional tectonic event which affected this part of the basin, rather than deep burial diagenesis during the Middle to Late Triassic as previously reported. This hypothesis is based on the timing relationships of the authigenic mineral phases and the low δ18O values of ankerite and calcite, together with radiometric dating of illitic clays and recently published regional geological evidence. Following the precipitation of the Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates from strongly 18O-depleted meteoric-hydrothermal fluids, continuing fluid circulation and water-rock interaction resulted in dissolution of these carbonate phases as well as labile fragments of volcaniclastic rocks

  9. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Regular exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can result in symptoms and signs of peripheral vascular, neurological and other disorders collectively known as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The measurement of the effects of hand-transmitted vibration involves converting the evidence of disorder (symptoms and signs) into information that can be stored. Evaluation requires the use of scales on which to indicate the severity of the various symptoms and signs. Assessment involves a judgement of severity relative to a criterion, usually for a specific purpose (e.g. to decide on removal from work or compensation). The measurement and evaluation of symptoms and signs is necessary when monitoring patient health and when performing epidemiological studies for research. The assessment of the severity of the hand-arm vibration syndrome is currently performed with staging systems, but the criteria are not clear and not related to defined methods for measuring or evaluating the symptoms and signs. Recognizing that similar symptoms can occur without injury from occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration, this paper attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration (i.e. 'unusual symptoms') and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the symptoms (e.g. their extent) and the related signs (e.g. their probability relative to the probability of the sign being present in persons not exposed to vibration) are defined. A method of relating unusual symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. Assessments of severity will vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration, and will depend on local practice and convenience, but a way of combining evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated in a staging system. Although inherently complex, the methods may assist the collection of data required to improve

  10. A long femur scan field does not alter proximal femur bone mineral density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus Eoin; Hocking, Jane; Cournoyer, Susan; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James

    2011-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) femur scan field might be useful for the detection of atypical, subtrochanteric femur fractures (ASFF). Thirty adult subjects underwent triplicate measures of femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA using a conventional (i.e., short) and a longer femur scan field. Differences in measured BMD between the 2 scan field lengths were small and less than the precision error inherent in DXA testing. A longer proximal femur scan field does not substantially alter BMD measurements made at the FN and TH and may be useful for the detection of ASFF in clinical practice.

  11. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  12. Mechanical coupling between myosin molecules causes differences between ensemble and single-molecule measurements.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Warshaw, David M; Debold, Edward P

    2012-08-08

    In contracting muscle, individual myosin molecules function as part of a large ensemble, hydrolyzing ATP to power the relative sliding of actin filaments. The technological advances that have enabled direct observation and manipulation of single molecules, including recent experiments that have explored myosin's force-dependent properties, provide detailed insight into the kinetics of myosin's mechanochemical interaction with actin. However, it has been difficult to reconcile these single-molecule observations with the behavior of myosin in an ensemble. Here, using a combination of simulations and theory, we show that the kinetic mechanism derived from single-molecule experiments describes ensemble behavior; but the connection between single molecule and ensemble is complex. In particular, even in the absence of external force, internal forces generated between myosin molecules in a large ensemble accelerate ADP release and increase how far actin moves during a single myosin attachment. These myosin-induced changes in strong binding lifetime and attachment distance cause measurable properties, such as actin speed in the motility assay, to vary depending on the number of myosin molecules interacting with an actin filament. This ensemble-size effect challenges the simple detachment limited model of motility, because even when motility speed is limited by ADP release, increasing attachment rate can increase motility speed.

  13. Screening for osteoporosis using easily obtainable biometrical data: diagnostic accuracy of measured, self-reported and recalled BMI, and related costs of bone mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, D J; Brandon, S; Dinant, G J; van Wersch, J W

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled body mass index (BMI) for osteoporosis and osteopenia; to determine the diagnostic costs, in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, per osteoporotic or osteopenic patient detected, using different BMI tests; and to determine the extent to which the results can be used within the framework of the current screening program for breast cancer in The Netherlands. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the south of The Netherlands, 1155 postmenopausal women aged 50-80 years were asked for their present height and their weight at age 20-30 years. Subsequently their actual weight, height and BMD of the lumbar spine (DXA) were measured. The BMD cutoff was 0.800 g/cm2 for osteoporosis and 0.970 g/cm2 for low BMD (osteoporosis + osteopenia). After receiver operating characteristic analysis, age was cut off at 60 years and BMI at 27 kg/m2. Diagnostic accuracies of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled BMI were evaluated using predictive values (PV) and odds ratios. The resulting 'true positive' and 'false positive' rates were used to calculate diagnostic costs (i.e., DXA) for each osteoporotic patient or low-BMD patient detected. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the study population was 25%, that of low BMD 65%. Only the age-BMI tests 'age > or = 60, BMI < or = 27' showed PVs for osteoporosis (31-41%) and for low BMD (71-81%) that were higher than the prior probabilities for these conditions. Related odds ratios were 2.14-3.18 (osteoporosis) and 1.87-3.04 (low BMD). The objective BMI test detected 50% of the osteoporotic patients. Using the self-reported BMI test and the recalled BMI test, detection rates increased to 55% and 69%, respectively. Concomitant costs per osteoporotic patient detected rose by 24%. Detection of patients with a low BMD increased from 38% for objective BMI and

  14. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  15. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  17. Pulse thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of sound, de-mineralized and re-mineralized enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Sharp, Nathan; Adams, Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Current limitations for diagnosing mineralization state of tooth enamel can lead to improper surgical treatments. A method is investigated by which the tooth health state is characterized according to its thermal response, which is hypothesized to be sensitive to increased porosity in enamel that is caused by demineralization. Several specimens consisting of previously extracted human teeth a re prepared by exposure to Streptococcus mutans A32-2 in trypticase-soy-borth supplemented with 5% sucrose at 37°C for 3 or 6 days to de-mineralize two 1×1mm2-windows on each tooth. One of these windows is then re-mineralized with 250 or 1,100ppm-F as NaF for 10 days by pH-cyclic-model. Pulse thermography is used to measure the thermal response of these sections as well as the sound (healthy) portions of the specimen. A spatial profile of the thermal parameters of the specimens is then extracted from the thermography data and are used to compare the sound, de-mineralized, and re-mineralized areas. Results show that the thermal parameters are sensitive to the mineralization state of the tooth and that this method has the potential to accurately and quickly characterize the mineralization state of teeth, thereby allowing future dentists to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment for teeth that have experienced demineralization.

  18. [Mineralization of the basal ganglia as the supposed cause of poor tolerance of zuclopenthixol in a patient with long-term untreated paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wichowicz, Hubert M; Wilkowska, Alina; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Kummer, Łukasz; Konarzewska, Joanna; Raczak, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Formations described as intracranial calcifications can appear in the course of diseases of the central nervous system, other systems and organs (e.g. endocrine), but also as a disorder of idiopathic character. They are frequently located in subcortical nuclei and usually constitute an incidental finding. This report presents the case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia for approximately 40 years, who did not agree to any treatment and was hospitalized against her will because she was the threat to the lives of others. She was treated with zuklopentixol resulting in positive symptoms reduction and considerable improvement in social functioning. Unfortunately neurological symptoms appeared: bradykinesis, rigidity--of the type of the lead pipe, balance, posture and gait abnormalities, disturbances in precise hands movements, double-sided Rossolimo's sign, plantar reflex without the participation of the big toe on the left. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated changes in the form of lenticular nuclei calcification and reduction of signal intensity in posterior parts of both putamens. Neurological symptoms decreased significantly after switching to atypical neuroleptic (olanzapine), and the patient did not require any additional treatment. Mineralization of the basal ganglia can often be associated with psychiatric disorders and it shouldn't be neglected because it can require modification of pharmacotherapy or additional neurological treatment.

  19. Geodetic measurements for monitoring rapid crustal uplift in southeastern Alaska caused by the recent deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A.; Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Ohta, Y.; Larsen, C.; Freymueller, J.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers at high latitudes are considered to be extremely sensitive to climate change and thus monitoring of glaciers is a clue to evaluate the future effect of global warming and the related phenomena. Ice mass changes also produce a time-variable surface load and give us useful data to investigate subsurface structure of the earth, especially to constrain the flow characteristics of the mantle. Larsen et al. [EPSL05] have extensively studied on vertical crustal movement in SE Alaska to reveal the world's fastest glacial isostatic uplifting, which can be attributed to the response associated with deglaciation. Displacement data, however, can only be used to constrain the sum of the elastic response to present-day ice melting (PDIM) and the viscoelastic one to past changes in ice. A Japan-US joint research project, ISEA (International geodetic research project in SouthEast Alaska), was initiated in 2005 to add new geodetic data and to refine the viscoelastic model derived by the previous studies. Absolute gravity data have been acquired at the five sites in the stdudy area using a Micro-g LaCoste absolute gravimeter, FG5#111. At each site data were collected over a 48~62 hour period. The long-term variation in absolute gravity at 2 stations, HNSG and BRM, where the measurements were performed in 1987 by Sasagawa et al. [JGR89] demonstrates rapid gravity decrease with rates of -4.4 micro-gal/yr, and -3.0 micro-gal/yr, respectively, and can be attributed to uplifting and mass-redstribution. ISEA supplements pre-existing continuous GPS (CGPS) stations operated by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the UNAVCO (Plate Boundary Observatory, PBO) and improves the spatial coverage in and around Glacier Bay. The time series of the site coordinates obtained for Queen Inlet (QUIC), which locates close to a zone of maximum uplift, shows obvious uplifting, even though there are long- term gaps because of an antenna cable trouble in 2006 and power outage in 2008 causing rather

  20. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. Methods We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution. Results Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause. Conclusions Physician review of verbal

  1. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  2. A Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Metal Adsorption at the Biofilm/Mineral Interface: Comparison Between Thermodynamic Model Results and In-situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Ha, J.; Wang, Y.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Cordova-Ardy, C.; Gescher, J.; Bargar, J. R.; Rogers, J.; Eng, P. J.; Ghose, S. K.; Farges, F.; Spormann, A. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces in water-rock systems. Bacteria are effective adsorbents of metal ions and can form colonies on the surfaces of minerals. The resulting biofilm coatings may create local microenvironments that could change significantly trace metal ion sorption compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify the different types of metal binding sites in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 (wild type) as well as the nature of the functional groups involved in metal complexation. Adsorption affinities of these sites for Pb(II) and Zn(II) as well as site densities were determined by fitting metal adsorption data as a function of pH and ionic strength using a constant capacitance model in the FITEQL computer code. Electrokinetic techniques were used to determine the biofilm influence on the overall mineral surface charge. This influence was quantified by determining the in-situ partitioning of Pb(II) between S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms and highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-alumina (1-102) and hematite (0001) using the long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) method. ATR-FTIR spectra of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 revealed the presence of carboxyl, amide, and phosphate groups, as well as carbohydrate moieties. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of S. oneidensis MR-1 cell surfaces indicate that the bacterial surfaces become negatively charged at pH ~ 3.5, suggesting a high Pb(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of the biofilm. Changes in ionic strengths from 1M to 0.01M NaNO3 had no effect on the interactions of the metal ions with the bacteria, suggesting that the physical structure of the cell wall does not change over this range of electrolyte concentrations. The thermodynamic stability of metal complexes on S. oneidensis and the binding sites concentrations for these metal complexes have been determined by FITEQL

  3. Systematic Errors in the Measurement of Emissivity Caused by Directional Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Vishnevetsky, Irna; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2003-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface emissivity is essential for applications in remote sensing (remote temperature measurement), radiative transport, and modeling of environmental energy balances. Direct measurements of surface emissivity are difficult when there is considerable background radiation at the same wavelength as the emitted radiation. This occurs, for example, when objects at temperatures near room temperature are measured in a terrestrial environment by use of the infrared 8 -14- μm band. This problem is usually treated by assumption of a perfectly diffuse surface or of diffuse background radiation. However, real surfaces and actual background radiation are not diffuse; therefore there will be a systematic measurement error. It is demonstrated that, in some cases, the deviations from a diffuse behavior lead to large errors in the measured emissivity. Past measurements made with simplifying assumptions should therefore be reevaluated and corrected. Recommendations are presented for improving experimental procedures in emissivity measurement.

  4. Comparison of Radiative Forcing Calculations Due to Mineral Dust from a Transport Model, Satellite Measurements and an Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Hsu, Christina; Joiner, Joanna; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1999-01-01

    This study uses information on mineral aerosol from a transport model to calculate global radiative forcing values. The transport model is driven by assimilated meteorology and outputs three-dimensional dust spatial information for various size ranges. The dust fields are input to an off-line radiative transfer calculation to obtain the direct radiative forcing due to the dust fields. During June, July and August of 1988 presence of dust 1) reduces the global net incoming radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by 0.3 to 0.7 W/sq m and 2) reduces net incoming radiation at the earth's surface by 1.3 to 2.0 W/sq m. Over Africa our estimates of the reduction of radiation at the top of atmosphere compare well with TOA reductions derived from ERBE and TOMS satellite data. However, our heating rates are not consistent with analysis temperature increments produced by the assimilation system over regions of high aerosol loading. These increments are based on differences between temperature observations and temperatures from the assimilation general circulation model. One explanation is that the lower tropospheric temperatures retrieved by TOVS are being contaminated by mineral aerosol.

  5. Increased zinc accumulation in mineralized osteosarcoma tissue measured by confocal synchrotron radiation micro X‐ray fluorescence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pemmer, Bernhard; Roschger, Andreas; Turyanskaya, Anna; Smolek, Stephan; Maderitsch, Angelika; Hischenhuber, Peter; Foelser, Martin; Simon, Rolf; Lang, Susanna; Puchner, Stephan E.; Windhager, Reinhard; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wobrauschek, Peter; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Roschger, Paul; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal tissue levels of certain trace elements such as zinc (Zn) were reported in various types of cancer. Little is known about the role of Zn in osteosarcoma. Using confocal synchrotron radiation micro X‐ray fluorescence analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of Zn in high‐grade sclerosing osteosarcoma of nine patients (four women/five men; seven knee/one humerus/one femur) following chemotherapy and wide surgical resection. Levels were compared with adjacent normal tissue. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging as well as histological examinations was also performed. On average, the ratio of medians of Zn count rates (normalized to calcium) in mineralized tumor tissue was about six times higher than in normal tissue. There was no difference in Zn levels between tumor fraction areas with a low fraction and a high fraction of mineralized tissue, which were clearly depicted using quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Moreover, we found no correlation between the Zn values and the type of tumor regression according to the Salzer‐Kuntschik grading. The underlying mechanism of Zn accumulation remains unclear. Given the emerging data on the role of trace elements in other types of cancer, our novel results warrant further studies on the role of trace elements in bone cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. X‐Ray Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28239202

  6. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  7. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  8. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  9. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Elisa; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars. PMID:28382177

  10. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    PubMed

    Ock, Minsu; Lee, Jin Yong; Oh, In Hwan; Park, Hyesook; Yoon, Seok Jun; Jo, Min Woo

    2016-11-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised.

  11. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised. PMID:27775250

  12. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  13. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  14. A field calibration method to eliminate the error caused by relative tilt on roll angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jingya; Wang, Zhao; Huang, Junhui; Yu, Bao; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The roll angle measurement method based on a heterodyne interferometer is an efficient technique for its high precision and environmental noise immunity. The optical layout bases on a polarization-assisted conversion of the roll angle into an optical phase shift, read by a beam passing through the objective plate actuated by the roll rotation. The measurement sensitivity or the gain coefficient G is calibrated before. However, a relative tilt between the laser and objective plate always exist due to the tilt of the laser and the roll of the guide in the field long rail measurement. The relative tilt affect the value of G, thus result in the roll angle measurement error. In this paper, a method for field calibration of G is presented to eliminate the measurement error above. The field calibration layout turns the roll angle into an optical path change (OPC) by a rotary table. Thus, the roll angle can be obtained from the OPC read by a two-frequency interferometer. Together with the phase shift, an accurate G in field measurement can be obtained and the measurement error can be corrected. The optical system of the field calibration method is set up and the experiment results are given. Contrasted with the Renishaw XL-80 for calibration, the proposed field calibration method can obtain the accurate G in the field rail roll angle measurement.

  15. Comparison of Sex Steroid Measurements in Men by Immunoassay versus Mass Spectroscopy and Relationships with Cortical and Trabecular Volumetric Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Singh, Ravinder J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Riggs, B. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Introduction While immunoassays have been used extensively for measurement of serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, there is concern about their specificity, particularly at low E2 levels as present in men. Methods We compared T and E2 measured by mass spectroscopy to levels measured by immunoassay in men (n = 313, age 22 to 91 years) and related these to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at various skeletal sites. Results Serum T and non-SHBG bound (or bioavailable) T levels by immunoassay correlated well with the corresponding mass spectroscopy measurements (R = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, P < 0.001); the correlations for serum E2 measured using the two techniques were less robust (R = 0.63 for total E2 and 0.84 for bioavailable E2, P < 0.001). Overall relationships between serum bioavailable T and E2 levels with vBMD at various skeletal sites were similar for the immunoassay and mass spectroscopic measures. Conclusions Although E2 levels with immunoassay correlate less well with the mass spectroscopic measurements than do the T measurements in men, our findings indicate that the fundamental relationships observed previously between vBMD and the sex steroids by immunoassay are also present with the mass spectroscopic measurements. PMID:18338096

  16. Minimum detectable limits of measuring bone mineral density using an energy dispersive X-ray diffraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, A. W.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    In the clinical environment, the most common method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD) loss is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which relies on the transmission of X-ray photons through the volume of interest. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), which utilises coherent X-ray scattering, potentially is a more accurate method. As part of the development of a precision EDXRD system, an experiment was performed using a range of bone and fat mix phantoms, which were also used for DEXA evaluation. The results are presented here and suggest initial minimum detectable limits of the order of 5% BMD loss for the EDXRD experiment and 10-15% for the DEXA assessment.

  17. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  18. Centimeter-scale surface deformation caused by the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake sequence at the Carter farm site—Subsidiary structures with a quaternary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.; Horton, J. Wright; Carter, Mark W.

    2016-08-25

    Centimeter-scale ground-surface deformation was produced by the August 23, 2011, magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake that occurred in Mineral, Virginia. Ground-surface deformation also resulted from the earthquake aftershock sequence. This deformation occurred along a linear northeast-trend near Pendleton, Virginia. It is approximately 10 kilometers (km) northeast of the M5.8 epicenter and near the northeastern periphery of the epicentral area as defined by aftershocks. The ground-surface deformation extends over a distance of approximately 1.4 km and consists of parallel, small-scale (a few centimeters (cm) in amplitude) linear ridges and swales. Individual ridge and swale features are discontinuous and vary in length across a zone that ranges from about 20 meters (m) to less than 5 m in width. At one location, three fence posts and adjoining rails were vertically misaligned. Approximately 5 cm of uplift on one post provides a maximum estimate of vertical change from pre-earthquake conditions along the ridge and swale features. There was no change in the alignment of fence posts, indicating that deformation was entirely vertical. A broad monoclinal flexure with approximately 1 m of relief was identified by transit survey across surface deformation at the Carter farm site. There, surface deformation overlies the Carter farm fault, which is a zone of brittle faulting and fracturing along quartz veins, striking N40°E and dipping approximately 75°SE. Brecciation and shearing along this fault is interpreted as Quaternary in age because it disrupts the modern B-soil horizon. However, deformation is confined to saprolitized schist of the Ordovician Quantico Formation and the lowermost portion of overlying residuum, and is absent in the uppermost residuum and colluvial layer at the ground surface. Because there is a lack of surface shearing and very low relief, landslide processes were not a causative mechanism for the surface deformation. Two possible tectonic models and one

  19. VOC and VOX in fluid inclusions of quartz: New chemical insights into hydrothermal vein mineralization by GC-MS and GC-IRMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Kirnbauer, Thomas; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Fischer, Jan; Spiekermann, Patrik; Schreiber, Ulrich; Mulder, Ines; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid inclusions (FIs) in minerals are known to contain a variety of different liquids, gases, and solids. The fluids get trapped during mineral growth and can preserve the original mineral-forming fluid or fluids of later events. A new analytical technique developed by Mulder et al. (2013) [1] allows to measure trace gases in FIs. For the measurements, grains of 3-5 mm diameter are ground in an airtight grinding device, releasing the volatiles from FIs into the gas phase, where they can be measured by GC-MS, GC-FID and GC-IRMS. The Taunus covers the southeastern part of the thrust-and-fold-belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The Variscan rock sequences comprise sedimentary and volcanic units ranging from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous. Several types of hydrothermal mineralization can be distinguished, which are - in regard to the Variscan orogeny - pre-orogenic, orogenic, late-orogenic, post-orogenic and recent in age [2]. They include SEDEX, vein, Alpine fissure, disseminated and stockwerk mineralizations. Thus, the Taunus mineralizations enable investigations of different hydrothermal systems at different age in one region. For most of them extensive studies of stable and radiogenic isotopes exist. Quartz crystals of post-orogenic quartz veins and Pb-Zn-Cu bearing veins [3] were selected for our FI investigation. Sulphur containing compounds like COS and CS2 dominate the FIs but there are also volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) like different butenes, benzene, toluene and cyclopentene that were found very often. In some samples volatile halogenated organic carbons (VOX) like chloro- and bromomethane were found. Some FIs even contain iodomethane, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride and -bromide. The non-fossil-fuel subsurface chemistry of VOC and VOX is not fully understood. There are a lot of unknown geogenic sources [4][5]. For a better understanding δ13C- and δ2H-values of CH4 were measured by GC-IRMS to examine if the detected organic compounds are formed biotic

  20. Assessment of eye fatigue caused by 3D displays based on multimodal measurements.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-09-04

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively.

  1. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  2. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  3. Portable Radiometer Identifies Minerals in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Machida, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hand-held optical instrument aids in identifying minerals in field. Can be used in exploration for minerals on foot or by aircraft. The radiometer is especially suitable for identifying clay and carbonate minerals. Radiometer measures reflectances of mineral at two wavelengths, computes ratio of reflectances, and displays ratio to user.

  4. Investigation of the causes for the measurement differences between the natural gas measurement systems of a gas distribution company and of a consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Kazuto; Silva Telles, Rubens

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the methodology used, the checked items and the results obtained in an investigation carried out to identify the causes that generated substantial differences between the natural gas volumes measured by two measuring systems, one from a gas distribution company and another from its industrial consumer, both installed in series in a gas pipeline. The investigation showed that the measurement of the volume of gas performed by the gas distributor metering system was influenced by an erroneous measurement of the gas temperature since it was affected by a complex thermodynamic process involving cooling by the Joule-Thomson effect caused by a pressure reducing valve and heating by heat exchange through the pipe walls.

  5. Measurement of lattice damage caused by ion-implantation doping of semiconductors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsperger, R. G.; Wolf, E. D.; Shifrin, G. A.; Marsh, O. J.; Jamba, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of two new techniques used to measure the lattice damage produced in GaAs by the implantation of 60 keV cadmium ions. In the first method, optical reflection spectra of the ion-implanted samples were measured in the wavelength range from 2000 to 4600 A. The decrease in reflectivity resulting from ion-implantation was used to determine the relative amount of lattice damage as a function of ion dose. The second technique employed the scanning electron microscope. Patterns very similar in appearance to Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns are obtained when the secondary and/or backscattered electron intensity is displayed as a function of the angle of incidence of the electron beam on a single crystal surface. The results of measurements made by both methods are compared with each other and with data obtained by the method of measuring lattice damage by Rutherford scattering of 1 MeV helium ions.

  6. Measurement and Simulation of Signal Fluctuations Caused by Propagation through Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    We present measured magnitude and phase fluctuations of UHF, L band, and C band signals that were transmitted from the ground through a forest canopy to an airborne radar. We find that the measured fluctuations are similar to those calculated by a simple Monte Carlo simulation. Both observed and calculated RMS fluctuations are typically several decibels in magnitude and tens of degrees in phase at all three frequencies.

  7. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  8. Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

  9. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039

  10. Mammographic density measured as changes in tissue structure caused by HRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Nielsen, Mads

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relation between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. These studies indicate that women with high breast density have a four to six fold risk increase. An investigation of whether or not this relation is causal is important for, e.g., hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which has been shown to actually increase the density. No gold standard for automatic assessment of mammographic density exists. Manual methods such as Wolfe patterns and BI-RADS are helpful for communication of diagnostic sensitivity, but they are both time consuming and crude. They may be sufficient in certain cases and for single measurements, but for serial, temporal analysis it is necessary to be able to detect more subtle changes and, in addition, to be more reproducible. In this work an automated method for measuring the effect of HRT w.r.t. changes in biological density in the breast is presented. This measure is a novel measure, which provides structural information orthogonal to intensity-based methods. Hessian eigenvalues at different scales are used as features and a clustering of these is employed to divide a mammogram into four structurally different areas. Subsequently, based on the relative size of the areas, a density score is determined. In the experiments, two sets of mammograms of 50 patients from a double blind, placebo controlled HRT experiment were used. The change in density for the HRT group, measured with the new method, was significantly higher (p = 0.0002) than the change in the control group.

  11. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area. PMID:24958430

  12. Effect of relative humidity on light scattering by mineral dust aerosol as measured in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Jones, X.; Maring, H. B.; Prospero, J. M.

    1998-12-01

    Using an integrating nephelometer, we measured aerosol light scattering during a month-long experiment conducted in April 1994 on Barbados, West Indies (13.17°N, 59.43°W). Concurrent measurements of aerosol composition showed that the trade wind aerosol mass was alternatively dominated by sea salt and by mineral dust transported from North Africa. Dust concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 257 μg m-3, and sea salt ranged from 9.4 to 29 μg m-3. Nonsea-salt sulfate (nss SO4=) was generally a minor component with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.2 μg m-3. We obtained hygroscopic growth factors (HGF) by calculating the ratio of the aerosol scattering coefficient (ASC) measured at ambient relative humidity (RH), which ranged from 67% to 83%, to the ASC measured with the sample air stream heated so as to reduce the RH to under 40%. Over the course of the experiment, HGF ranged from 1.13 to 1.69, with lower values corresponding to high dust concentration periods. By a variety of procedures, including the chemical apportioning of ASC, we derived the HGF for mineral dust; depending on the technique used, values ranged from 1.0 to 1.1. In contrast, we obtain for sea salt an HGF of 1.8±0.2, a value consistent with previously reported measurements. The low HGF values obtained for dusty periods suggest that only minor amounts of hygroscopic materials are associated with dust. Consequently, the radiative properties of North African dust in the atmosphere will be relatively insensitive to RH changes.

  13. Some aspects of sound discomfort caused by streetcar traffic. [noise intensity measurements and health aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursoniu, C.; Puca, N.; Dankner, A.; Moise, G.; Sirbu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.

  14. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, J.; Hakulinen, M.; Rikkonen, T.; Kröger, H.; Tuppurainen, M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Honkanen, R.; Hujo, M.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962–0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  15. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  16. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  17. Radar measurement of L-band signal fluctuations caused by propagation through trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of an L-band, horizontally polarized signal that was transmitted from the ground through a coniferous forest canopy to an airborne radar are examined. The azimuth synthetic aperture radar (SAR) impulse response in the presence of the measured magnitude fluctuations shows increased sidelobes over the case with no trees. Statistics of the observed fluctuations are similar to other observations.

  18. Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS): an in Situ Instrument for Mineral and Volatile-element Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Gruener, J. E.; Gibbons, F. L.; Allton, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soil (TAPS) offers a specific implementation for the generic thermal analyzer/evolved-gas analyzer (TA/EGA) function included in the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) strawman payload; applications to asteroids and comets are also possible. The baseline TAPS is a single-sample differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), backed by a capacitive-polymer humidity sensor, with an integrated sampling mechanism. After placement on a planetary surface, TAPS acquires 10-50 mg of soil or sediment and heats the sample from ambient temperature to 1000-1300 K. During heating, DSC data are taken for the solid and evolved gases are swept past the water sensor. Through ground based data analysis, multicomponent DSC data are deconvolved and correlated with the water release profile to quantitatively determine the types and relative proportions of volatile-bearing minerals such as clays and other hydrates, carbonates, and nitrates. The rapid-response humidity sensors also achieve quantitative analysis of total water. After conclusion of soil-analysis operations, the humidity sensors become available for meteorology. The baseline design fits within a circular-cylindrical volume less than 1000 cm(sup 3), occupies 1.2 kg mass, and consumes about 2 Whr of power per analysis. Enhanced designs would acquire and analyze multiple samples and employ additional microchemical sensors for analysis of CO2, SO2, NO(x), and other gaseous species. Atmospheric pumps are also being considered as alternatives to pressurized purge gas.

  19. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  20. Simulation and measurement of melting effects on metal sheets caused by direct lightning strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    Direct lightning strikes melt metal parts of various systems, like fuel and propellant tanks of rockets and airplanes, at the point of strike. Responsible for this melting are the impulse current and, if occurring, the long duration current, both carrying a remarkable charge Q. For studying these meltings the simulation in the laboratory has to be based on the parameters of natural lightnings. International standards exist defining certain threat levels of natural lightnings and giving possible generator circuits for the simulation. The melting caused by both types of lightning currents show different appearance. Their characteristics, their differences in melting and heating of metal sheets are investigated. Nevertheless the simulation of lightning in the laboratory is imperfect. While natural lightning is a discharge without a counter electrode, the simulation always demands a close counter electrode. The influence of this counter electrode is studied.

  1. Measurements and analysis of surface damage on oil-impregnated insulation paper caused by partial discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaming; Liao, Ruijin; Yang, Lijun; Zhu, Mengzhao

    2011-05-01

    Surface topography, surface roughness, and surface conductivity of oil-impregnated insulation paper were studied during the damage process caused by partial discharge within the cavity of the paper. Products generated on the surface during this process were studied, as well. According to phase-resolved partial discharge patterns, the damage process can be divided into five stages. At each of the stages, surface conditions of insulation were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and high-resistance meter. 'Ablating', 'peeling', 'cracking in silk', 'pitting' and 'electrical treeing' appear on insulation surfaces one after another during the five stages of the damage process, along with sequential generation of droplets and crystalline solids. Surface roughness initially decreases, then increases. Finally, surface conductivity exhibits a general increasing trend, before it eventually stabilizes. However, its growth rate varies in different stages of damage.

  2. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  3. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio hole perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James H; Wilson, D C; Kyrala, George A; Blue, Brent E; Edwards, J; Elliott, James B; Robey, H F; Spears, B

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule, current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials overpredict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (<1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  4. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references.

  5. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A. )

    1990-11-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage.

  6. Information measuring systems with mobile devices for identification of air pollution parameters caused by transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokin, Vitalii B.; Goriachev, Georgii V.; Dziuniak, Dmytro Y.; Bondaletov, Konstantin O.; Zhukov, Serhii O.; Duk, Mariusz; Sailarbek, Saltanat

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of modern information measuring systems (IMS) for identification model parameters of the air pollution is carried out. That allows to increase the accuracy of this identification due to their complex application. The known model based on the fuzzy knowledge base was adapted to this task. It is specified how the offered IMS can increase the accuracy of the parameters identification. The results of the experiment with the use of the offered IMS in Vinnytsia city presented in the paper.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  9. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  10. Modelling the disturbance caused by a dc-electrified railway to geomagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Newitt, L.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.; Fernberg, P.; McKee, L.; Danskin, D.; Jansen van Beek, G.

    2007-08-01

    Magnetic fields created by a dc-electrified railway are a nuisance to the operation of a geomagnetic observatory and also disturb other electromagnetic studies. Theoretical formulas that enable quantitative estimates of the magnetic effect of a dc railway including leakage currents in the ground are presented in this paper. They are illustrated by numerical examples. The validity of the theoretical model was verified by measurements carried out in the vicinity of a nearly north-south railway in Calgary, Canada. The earth structure in that area is approximately layered, which is an assumption included in the theoretical model. The agreement between the measured magnetic fields due to trains and the theoretical values is good. Numerical computations indicate that magnetic fields larger than the maximum allowable noise level (assumed to be about 10 pT) at today's magnetic observatories may extend to distances of tens of kilometres from a railway. We have prepared computer programs based on the theoretical formulas in the MatLab, Octave, FORTRAN and IDL languages, in which the locations (i.e. the latitudes and the longitudes) of the point of observation, of the feeding substations and of the trains, together with the feeding and leakage currents and the heights of the feeding lines, can be given as inputs.

  11. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  12. A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ΔAEI vs ΔVHN (r2 = 0.997), ΔAEI vs ΔKHN (r2 =0.964), ΔII (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.875) and ΔLEI vs ΔΔZ (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

  13. Experimental Measurement of Water Bands in Anhydrous Minerals to Improve Modeling of Adsorbed and Bound Water on the Regoliths of Inner Solar System Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating the characteristics of H2O/OH-absorption bands is critical for understanding their abundance and adherence to remotely observed surfaces. Our goal is to experimentally measure the spectra of anhydrous minerals in thin section and as powders to distinguish between internal H2O, surface adsorbed H2O, adsorbed OH, and OH that was formed as a result of irradiation. From these spectra, we are developing a model that will allow us to better deconvolve the abundance of adsorbed H2O and internally bound OH-/H2O in these materials. With this model, we aim to be able to remove the effects of terrestrial adsorbed H2O, thus enabling us to use the dry spectra to model these materials in the regoliths of airless bodies found in the inner solar system. To complete this task, we created un-mounted thin sections of two ordinary chondrite meteorites (Kilabo - LL6 and Gao-Guenie - H5) and eight ultramafic and banded rocks collected at the Stillwater Intrusion to serve as analogs for the Earth's moon. These rocks host an abundance of three key mineral series of interest: olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase. We conducted EDS scans of each rock to create an elemental map and assess the specific mineral composition of phases in each sample. Transmittance spectra of each thin section were also collected from the visible through mid-IR range using the FTIR microscope to characterize bound water in each sample. These thin sections will be heated up to ~1000°C in a vacuum to remove any internal water and will be measured in transmission for a second time to determine their true anhydrous spectral baseline. Subsets of the samples have been powdered and will be measured under ultra-high vacuum conditions at temperatures ranging from ~293K to 650K to examine the spectral parameters for adsorbed terrestrial water on each sample. Ultimately, these powdered samples will be used for space weathering experiments to examine the nature of the OH- bands induced by irradiation.

  14. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  15. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  16. Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

    2013-05-01

    More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g., antenna beam width and receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the Earth and vertical gradient of refractive index) on scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases. These biases are estimated using differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are less important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable at these frequencies. The biases caused by omitting the antenna beam width in measurement simulations are larger than those caused by omitting the receiver bandwidth, except for V-band where the bandwidth may be more important in the vicinity of absorption peaks. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapour, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapour are associated with the beam width errors.

  17. Nosocomial keratitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report and preventative measures

    PubMed Central

    Braich, Puneet S.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Mukhtar, Sabrina; Almeida, David RP.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old African-American woman was admitted to the intensive care unit of our community hospital for respiratory failure secondary to severe decompensated heart failure, requiring intubation. In the ensuing days, she developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of the cornea, despite no growth of MRSA in multiple blood, sputum, and urine cultures. This unexpected corneal infection complicated her hospital stay, and increased morbidity and disease-related cost. Risk factors, warning signs, and preventative measures for MRSA keratitis secondary to lagophthalmos (inability to completely close one's eyelids) are outlined in this case report. Implementing simple precautions such as taping eyelids shut or using artificial lubrication may reduce patient morbidity and disease-related costs. These recommendations are directed to non-ophthalmic clinicians who provide care to patients in settings where MRSA colonization is widespread. PMID:26486112

  18. Traceable measurement and imaging of the complex permittivity of a multiphase mineral specimen at micron scales using a microwave microscope.

    PubMed

    Gregory, A P; Blackburn, J F; Hodgetts, T E; Clarke, R N; Lees, K; Plint, S; Dimitrakis, G A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes traceable measurements of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of a multiphase material (particulate rock set in epoxy) at micron scales using a resonant Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) at 1.2GHz. Calibration and extraction of the permittivity and loss tangent is via an image charge analysis which has been modified by the use of the complex frequency to make it applicable for high loss materials. The results presented are obtained using a spherical probe tip, 0.1mm in diameter, and also a conical probe tip with a rounded end 0.01mm in diameter, which allows imaging with higher resolution (≈10µm). The microscope is calibrated using approach-curve data over a restricted range of gaps (typically between 1% and 10% of tip diameter) as this is found to give the best measurement accuracy. For both tips the uncertainty of scanned measurements of permittivity is estimated to be±10% (at coverage factor k=2) for permittivity ⪝10. Loss tangent can be resolved to approximately 0.001. Subject to this limit, the uncertainty of loss tangent measurements is estimated to be±20% (at k=2). The reported measurements inform studies of how microwave energy interacts with multiphase materials containing microwave absorbent phases.

  19. Time-dependent Measurements of Dissolution-precipitation Reactions Caused by Caustic Waste Solutions At the Hanford Site Using Synchrotron Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Jones, K. W.; Um, W.; Rockhold, M. L.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Leaking of caustic (hyper-alkaline) radioactive wastes, generated from plutonium production during the Cold War and stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford Site (Richland, WA), has been detected in the subsurface. The caustic wastes leachate induces primary mineral dissolution (releasing Si) and subsequent secondary precipitation (feldspathoids, such as sodalite and cancrinite) in the sediments. The dissolution-precipitation reactions affect the transport of radioactive elements (90Sr and 137Cs) in the sub-surface through changing the morphology of the sediments. We studied here the changes of the morphology of the sediments caused by exposure of quartz sand or Hanford sediments to simulated tank waste leachates (2 M Na+, 1 M OH-, 1.053 M NO3-, 0.05 M Al3+ and 10-5 M Sr2+) using a series of steady-state-flow saturated column experiments. The 3D structures were determined using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Sequential measurements were made at intervals over an exposure time of up to ~620 days with a pixel size of 4 μm in mini columns (ID2.1 mm) packed with quartz sand, or with a pixel size of 11 μm in intermediate size columns (ID19 mm) packed with Hanford sediments. Values for porosity as a function of treatment time were obtained showing major changes. Good agreement was found between the microstructure porosity determinations with results obtained from measurements on the composition of the treatment fluids. The results also show the changes in the three dimensional morphology of the sediment structures as a function of the treatment time. Good agreement was also found between observed and simulated porosity and aqueous chemistry obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP. A comparison of the CMT results with complementary high-resolution scanning electron microscopy scans will also be presented.

  20. Misalignment of the Desired and Measured Center of Pressure Describes Falls Caused by Slip during Turning

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hironari; Onodera, Hiroshi; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo; Masani, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, desired center of pressure (dCOP) was introduced to evaluate dynamic postural stability. The dCOP is defined as a virtual point on the ground, where the moment around the body center of mass (COM) becomes zero when dCOP and the measured COP (mCOP) coincide. We hypothesized that, when the misalignment of the dCOP and mCOP (dCOP-mCOP) increases up to a certain value due to a large perturbation during walking, it becomes difficult to make a compensatory step and to recover balance of COM and to continue gait. Here we tested this hypothesis in slipping during turning. The study involved twelve healthy young adult males with an average age of 21.5±1.9 yrs. The subjects were asked to (1) walk straight and turn 60 degrees to the right with the right foot (spin turn) on a dry floor surface, and (2) walk straight and 60 degrees spin turn to the right on a slippery lubricated surface. The dCOP-mCOP during turning in the slip trial with fall were significantly larger, particularly in x-direction (i.e., the medial-lateral direction during straight walk), than that in no-slip trial and slip trial without fall. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction is good indicator of falling (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93) and the threshold in the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction to distinguish for fall or no-fall was 0.55 m. These results support our hypothesis in slipping during turning. PMID:27166954

  1. Decision making for urban drainage systems under uncertainty caused by weather radar rainfall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiang; Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    With the rapidly growth of urbanization and population, the decision making for managing urban flood risk has been a significant issue for most large cities in China. A high-quality measurement of rainfall at small temporal but large spatial scales is of great importance to urban flood risk management. Weather radar rainfall, with its advantage of short-term predictability and high spatial and temporal resolutions, has been widely applied in the urban drainage system modeling. It is recognized that weather radar is subjected to many uncertainties and many studies have been carried out to quantify these uncertainties in order to improve the quality of the rainfall and the corresponding outlet flow. However, considering the final action in urban flood risk management is the decision making such as flood warning and whether to build or how to operate a hydraulics structure, some uncertainties of weather radar may have little or significant influence to the final results. For this reason, in this study, we aim to investigate which characteristics of the radar rainfall are the significant ones for decision making in urban flood risk management. A radar probabilistic quantitative rainfall estimated scheme is integrated with an urban flood model (Storm Water Management Model, SWMM) to make a decision on whether to warn or not according to the decision criterions. A number of scenarios with different storm types, synoptic regime and spatial and temporal correlation are designed to analyze the relationship between these affected factors and the final decision. Based on this, parameterized radar probabilistic rainfall estimation model is established which reflects the most important elements in the decision making for urban flood risk management.

  2. Analysis of H in Natural and Experimental Nominally Anhydrous Minerals: A Comparison of Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Infrared and SIMS Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, A. C.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments to determine the H storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) can be used to place strong constraints on the degree of hydration required to initiate volatile fluxed melting in the mantle. Moreover, accurate measurements of H in NAMs from mantle xenoliths may be used to constrain the rheological properties of the source region. However, accurate measurements of H concentrations using infrared and ion beam techniques require mineral specific calibrations. Standardless measurements of H using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in some cases have provided valuable verification of calibrations for other techniques, but so far have had limited application to experimental samples owing to sample size and analytical background. Results of recent measurements of H in garnet, pyroxene and feldspar will be used to illustrate the potential of the technique. Some of the results we will present include the following: 1) Forsterites grown at 2 and 3 GPa in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system exhibit low frequency absorption bands in the OH stretching region between 3300 and 3400 cm-1, but very limited absorption at higher frequencies where the strongest absorption bands are usually seen for Al-free olivine. Analyses of H in these samples by ERDA will be used to develop a tentative site-specific molar absorption coefficient for the low frequency OH absorption band. 2) ERDA measurements of H in silicate glass standards verify previous determinations by Karl Fischer titration and FTIR spectroscopy, validating the ERDA technique. Samples of these rhyolitic glasses are available on request for use as analytical standards, and come with a compendium of analyses that have been used to characterize major and minor elemental composition and H content. 3) ERDA measurements of three homogeneous grossular garnets from East Africa show an excellent correlation (r2 = 1) with absorbance in the O-H stretching region and indicate an integral molar absorption coefficient

  3. Continued investigation of kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism. [determining body calcium by measuring argon after neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The total body calcium in humans was determined by measuring expired Ar-37 after neutron irradiation. The excretion of Ar-37 from humans was found to be much slower than the excretion from rats and dogs, and to be related to the age of a person. A study of the uniformity of the Ar-37 production throughout the thickness of the body was studied using phantoms. The results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a uniformity within plus or minus 3% for the production of Ar-37 per unit of calcium by using a bilateral irradiation. New low background, large volume proportional counters were developed and constructed, for more sensitive measurement of Ar-37 in the expired air from patients. A new irradiation enclosure was developed for measuring total body calcium in rats by the Ar-37 method. With this enclosure the Ar-37 production per gram of calcium is constant with a standard deviation of plus or minus 2.8% for any size rat between 100 and 500 grams. The use of Na-22 as measure of bone replacement in the fractured femur of a dog was not successful.

  4. Quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and (1)H MRI measurements of bone mineral and matrix density differentiate metabolic bone diseases in rat models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haihui; Nazarian, Ara; Ackerman, Jerome L; Snyder, Brian D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Hrovat, Mirko I; Dai, Guangping; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Wu, Yaotang

    2010-06-01

    In this study, bone mineral density (BMD) of normal (CON), ovariectomized (OVX), and partially nephrectomized (NFR) rats was measured by (31)P NMR spectroscopy; bone matrix density was measured by (1)H water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI); and the extent of bone mineralization (EBM) was obtained by the ratio of BMD/bone matrix density. The capability of these MR methods to distinguish the bone composition of the CON, OVX, and NFR groups was evaluated against chemical analysis (gravimetry). For cortical bone specimens, BMD of the CON and OVX groups was not significantly different; BMD of the NFR group was 22.1% (by (31)P NMR) and 17.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. For trabecular bone specimens, BMD of the OVX group was 40.5% (by (31)P NMR) and 24.6% (by gravimetry) lower than CON; BMD of the NFR group was 26.8% (by (31)P NMR) and 21.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. No significant change of cortical bone matrix density between CON and OVX was observed by WASPI or gravimetry; NFR cortical bone matrix density was 10.3% (by WASPI) and 13.9% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. OVX trabecular bone matrix density was 38.0% (by WASPI) and 30.8% (by gravimetry) lower than CON, while no significant change in NFR trabecular bone matrix density was observed by either method. The EBMs of OVX cortical and trabecular specimens were slightly higher than CON but not significantly different from CON. Importantly, EBMs of NFR cortical and trabecular specimens were 12.4% and 26.3% lower than CON by (31)P NMR/WASPI, respectively, and 4.0% and 11.9% lower by gravimetry. Histopathology showed evidence of osteoporosis in the OVX group and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (renal osteodystrophy) in the NFR group. These results demonstrate that the combined (31)P NMR/WASPI method is capable of discerning the difference in EBM between animals with osteoporosis and those with impaired bone mineralization.

  5. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  6. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  7. Flow variability and its physical causes in infusion technology: a systematic review of in vitro measurement and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Roland A; Konings, Maurits K; Lucas, Peter; Egberts, Toine C; Timmerman, Annemoon D

    2015-08-01

    Infusion therapy is medically and technically challenging and frequently associated with medical errors. When administering pharmaceuticals by means of infusion, dosing errors can occur due to flow rate variability. These dosing errors may lead to adverse effects. We aimed to systematically review the available biomedical literature for in vitro measurement and modeling studies that investigated the physical causes of flow rate variability. Special focus was given to syringe pump setups, which are typically used if very accurate drug delivery is required. We aimed to extract from literature the component with the highest mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups. We included 53 studies, six of which were theoretical models, two articles were earlier reviews of infusion literature, and 45 were in vitro measurement studies. Mechanical compliance, flow resistance, and dead volume of infusion systems were stated as the most important and frequently identified physical causes of flow rate variability. The syringe was indicated as the most important source of mechanical compliance in syringe pump setups (9.0×10-9 to 2.1×10-8 l/Pa). Mechanical compliance caused longer flow rate start-up times (from several minutes up to approximately 70 min) and delayed occlusion alarm times (up to 117 min).

  8. Emission, transport, and radiative effects of mineral dust from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts: comparison of measurements and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Kang, Litai; Wang, Hao; Ma, Xiaojun; He, Yongli; Yuan, Tiangang; Yang, Ben; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model) was used to investigate a typical dust storm event that occurred from 18 to 23 March 2010 and swept across almost all of China, Japan, and Korea. The spatial and temporal variations in dust aerosols and the meteorological conditions over East Asia were well reproduced by the WRF-Chem model. The simulation results were used to further investigate the details of processes related to dust emission, long-range transport, and radiative effects of dust aerosols over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD). The results indicated that weather conditions, topography, and surface types in dust source regions may influence dust emission, uplift height, and transport at the regional scale. The GD was located in the warm zone in advance of the cold front in this case. Rapidly warming surface temperatures and cold air advection at high levels caused strong instability in the atmosphere, which strengthened the downward momentum transported from the middle and low troposphere and caused strong surface winds. Moreover, the GD is located in a relatively flat, high-altitude region influenced by the confluence of the northern and southern westerly jets. Therefore, the GD dust particles were easily lofted to 4 km and were the primary contributor to the dust concentration over East Asia. In the dust budget analysis, the dust emission flux over the TD was 27.2 ± 4.1 µg m-2 s-1, which was similar to that over the GD (29 ± 3.6 µg m-2 s-1). However, the transport contribution of the TD dust (up to 0.8 ton d-1) to the dust sink was much smaller than that of the GD dust (up to 3.7 ton d-1) because of the complex terrain and the prevailing wind in the TD. Notably, a small amount of the TD dust (PM2.5 dust concentration of approximately 8.7 µg m-3) was lofted to above 5 km and transported over greater distances under the influence of the westerly jets. Moreover, the direct radiative forcing induced by dust

  9. Thorium in mineral products.

    PubMed

    Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

    2001-01-01

    Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products.

  10. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ely, Matthew R; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Chinevere, Troy D; Lacher, Craig P; Lukaski, Henry C; Montain, Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Several sweat mineral element concentrations decline with serial sampling. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (TDF), sweat, and serum during extended exercise-heat stress to determine if these compartments show the same serial changes during repeat sampling. Sixteen heat-acclimated individuals walked on a treadmill (1.56 m/s, 3.0% grade) in a 35°C, 20% relative humidity (RH), 1 m/s wind environment 50 min each hour for 3 h. Mineral concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn were measured each hour from serum, sweat from upper back (sweat pouch) and arm (bag), and TDF from the upper back. Sites were meticulously cleaned to minimize surface contamination. Mineral concentrations were determined by spectrometry. TDF remained stable over time, with exception of a modest increase in TDF [Fe] (15%) and decrease in TDF [Zn] (-18%). Likewise, serum and pouch sweat samples were stable over time. In contrast, the initial arm bag sweat mineral concentrations were greater than those in the sweat pouch, and [Ca], [Cu], [Mg], and [Zn] declined 26-76% from initial to the subsequent samples, becoming similar to sweat pouch. Nominal TDF mineral shifts do not affect sweat mineral concentrations. Arm bag sweat mineral concentrations are initially elevated due to skin surface contaminants that are not removed despite meticulous cleaning (e.g., under fingernails, on arm hair), then decrease with extended sweating and approach those measured from the scapular region.

  11. The effect of 99mTc on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement of body composition and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of 99mTc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40 mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving the administration of a tracer marked with 99mTc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2 h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient measurements, we found a significant dose-related decrease in fat mass and BMD and a corresponding increase in fat-free mass (p < 0.001). Based on the linear regression analysis, we suggest upper dose limits for the measurement of BMD at 0.77 μSv/h and body composition at 0.21 μSv/h (dose rate measured at a distance of 1m from the patient). Caution should be taken when interpreting the results of DXA scans performed in close temporal proximity to procedures involving the administration of 99mTc.

  12. The Usability of a Pressure-Indicating Film to Measure the Teat Load Caused by a Collapsing Liner

    PubMed Central

    Demba, Susanne; Elsholz, Sabrina; Ammon, Christian; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of damage to the teat and mastitis requires determination of the teat load caused by a collapsing liner. The aim of this study was to test a pressure-indicating film designed to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and artificial teats. The Ultra Super Low and the Extreme Low pressure-indicating films were tested on two types of artificial teat. The experiments were performed with a conventional milking cluster equipped with round silicone liners. For each teat and film type, 30 repetitions were performed. Each repetition was performed with a new piece of film. Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to detect differences between the pressure values for the different teats. The area of regions where pressure-indication color developed was calculated to determine the most suitable film type. Both film types measured the pressure applied to both artificial teats by the teat cup liner. Thus, the pressure-indicating films can be used to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and an artificial teat. Based on the results of the present investigation, a pressure-indicating film with the measurement ranges of both film types combined would be an optimal tool to measure the overall pressure between an artificial teat and a collapsing liner. PMID:27690033

  13. The Usability of a Pressure-Indicating Film to Measure the Teat Load Caused by a Collapsing Liner.

    PubMed

    Demba, Susanne; Elsholz, Sabrina; Ammon, Christian; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra

    2016-09-28

    Prevention of damage to the teat and mastitis requires determination of the teat load caused by a collapsing liner. The aim of this study was to test a pressure-indicating film designed to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and artificial teats. The Ultra Super Low and the Extreme Low pressure-indicating films were tested on two types of artificial teat. The experiments were performed with a conventional milking cluster equipped with round silicone liners. For each teat and film type, 30 repetitions were performed. Each repetition was performed with a new piece of film. Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to detect differences between the pressure values for the different teats. The area of regions where pressure-indication color developed was calculated to determine the most suitable film type. Both film types measured the pressure applied to both artificial teats by the teat cup liner. Thus, the pressure-indicating films can be used to measure the pressure between a collapsing liner and an artificial teat. Based on the results of the present investigation, a pressure-indicating film with the measurement ranges of both film types combined would be an optimal tool to measure the overall pressure between an artificial teat and a collapsing liner.

  14. Techniques for Elastic Properties Measurements of Partial Molten Rocks, Hydrous Minerals and Melts in Gas Pressure Vessels and Multi-Anvil Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Roetzler, K.; Schilling, F. R.; Wehber, M.; Lathe, C.

    2008-12-01

    The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earth's deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. For deep crustal to uppermost mantle conditions high performance gas pressure vessels enable a virtually unrestricted optimization of the measuring configurations for high p-T-conditions [1]. Exhumed high pressure rocks can be used as representative samples. The paper presents transient measurements of elastic wave velocities for granulite facies rocks under partial melting conditions. Despite the compact natural rock samples as a result of long-term experiments exceeding pressures of 1.5 GPa and temperatures of 1,000°C newly-formed garnets, orthopyroxenes and potash feldspars could be found in the samples after the experiments. Discovering the huge water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) under high pressure conditions dramatically changed our image of state and dynamics of Earth's deep interior [2]. The simulation of these in situ conditions require using of diamond anvil cells (DAC) and multi-anvil devices (MAD) as well as mostly synthetical samples. MADs are more limited in pressure, but provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger. They offer small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample. The bigger samples make anisotropy and structural effects in complex systems accessible for measurements in principle. Using ultrasonic interferometry the measurement of both elastic wave velocities have no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. Using the 6 to 8 anvils of a MAD as buffers allow the simultaneous recording of acoustic emissions from different directions of space and consequently the localization of the spikes during ongoing phase transitions and dehydration. The recent development of deformation-DIA MADs (D-DIA) make not only deformation measurements under simulated mantle conditions possible, but also the

  15. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  16. Serial bone mineral density ratio measurement for fixator removal in tibia distraction osteogenesis and need of a supportive method using the pixel value ratio.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar; Kim, Tae-Young; Sinha, Shivam; Park, Young-Eun; Kim, Seung-Ju; Hong, Jin-Ho; Song, Sang-Youn; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is one of the common procedures for limb lengthening. However, attempts are being made constantly to establish objective guidelines for early and safe removal of a fixator using a sensitive and quantitative measurement technique. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been evaluated in the past for understanding callus stiffness, and the present study is a step further in this direction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between bone mineral density ratio (BMDR) obtained by a DEXA scan and the pixel value ratio (PVR) on plain digital radiographs at each cortex and various callus pathways and callus shapes as described by Ru-Li's classification. A retrospective analysis of 40 tibial segments in 23 patients operated upon for various indications for limb lengthening was carried out. There were 11 male and 12 female patients with a mean age of 18 years. The Ilizarov method was applied after monofocal osteotomy, and distraction and consolidation were monitored using digital radiographs and DEXA scanning. BMDR was positively correlated with PVR, and the optimal BMDR for removal of the fixator was found to be 0.511. PVR of all cortices, except the anterior cortex, showed significant positive correlation with BMDR of the regenerate. There was good correlation between BMDR and PVR in the homogenous or heterogenous pathway according to callus shape and pathway. Thus, this study shows that BMD measurement can provide an objective and noninvasive method for assessing the rate of new bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis. It can thus function as an effective adjunct to measure callus stiffness, along with PVR, using digital radiographs, especially in cases in which callus maturation and stiffness is doubtful. Further studies especially dealing with callus progression through the lucent pathway as well as those dealing with regenerate fractures may be needed to conclusively prove the efficacy of this method

  17. Self-attenuation artifacts and correction factors of light element measurements by X-ray analysis: Implication for mineral dust composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Klaver, A.; Lafon, S.; Mazzei, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2010-01-01

    On a global scale, mineral dust is one of the major components of atmospheric aerosols and has important effects on the radiative budget of the atmosphere and thus on climate forcing. An accurate measurement of the concentration of crustal elements, namely Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe, is mandatory for the study of desert aerosols. The concentration of light elements, when measured by X-ray emission techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), can be underestimated owing to self-absorption of the emitted soft X-rays inside aerosol particles. In this work, we analyzed dust samples collected in field campaigns and samples produced in the laboratory using dust of known composition. Measurements have been conducted with PIXE and energy-dispersive XRF (ED-XRF), together with an attenuation-free technique such as particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and attenuation corrected wavelength-dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) by internal standard calibration. We focus on the determination of Al and present results of a PIXE versus PIGE intercomparison. Aluminum concentration was measured with both techniques in dust samples collected by aircraft sampling over western Africa during winter 2006 and summer 2007. An underestimation of the Al concentration determined by PIXE was observed (up to 40%), and it was compared with the results of a simple calculation using basic physics and the size distribution of the collected aerosol. Similar attenuation was observed for Mg, Al, and Si in the laboratory samples analyzed by ED-XRF and WD-XRF. In order to use concentration ratios involving light elements as tracers of the region of emission of the sampled dust, these artifacts (i.e., underestimation of the concentration of light elements) induced by self-attenuation should be properly considered and corrected.

  18. Ultrasonic Measurement of Transient Change in Stress-Strain Property of Radial Arterial Wall Caused by Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshita, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    The endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of atherosclerosis. Additionally, it was reported that the smooth muscle, which constructs the media of the artery, changes its characteristics owing to atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is essential to develop a method for assessing the regional endothelial function and mechanical property of the arterial wall. There is a conventional technique of measuring the transient change in the diameter of the brachial artery caused by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after the release of avascularization. For more sensitive and regional evaluation, we developed a method of measuring the change in the elasticity of the radial artery due to FMD. In this study, the transient change in the mechanical property of the arterial wall was further revealed by measuring the stress-strain relationship during each heartbeat. The minute change in the thickness (strain) of the radial arterial wall during a cardiac cycle was measured by the phased tracking method, together with the waveform of blood pressure which was continuously measured with a sphygmometer at the radial artery. The transient change in stress-strain relationship during a cardiac cycle was obtained from the measured changes in wall thickness and blood pressure to show the transient change in instantaneous viscoelasticity. From the in vivo experimental results, the stress-strain relationship shows the hysteresis loop. The slope of the loop decreased owing to FMD, which shows that the elastic modulus decreased, and the increasing area of the loop depends on the ratio of the loss modulus (depends on viscosity) to the elastic modulus when the Voigt model is assumed. These results show a potential of the proposed method for the thorough analysis of the transient change in viscoelasticity due to FMD.

  19. Cretaceous Exhumation of the North American Cordillera Measured through Mineral Multi-Dating: Insights into Basin Filling Models and Orogenic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology is an effective thermochronometer to measure source exhumation in the North American Cordillera, western U.S.A. We use a combination of thermochronology and geochronology to measure lag times, i.e., the difference in time between the cooling and depositional ages of a mineral crystal. These lag-time measurements using source exhumation ages, measured with AFT thermochronology, and depositional ages, measured with biostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, indicate constant to decreasing lag times of 0-5 m.y. throughout the Cretaceous. These lag times are consistent with rapid exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. One pitfall of using detrital thermochronology to measure source exhumation is assuring that the apatite crystals are exhumed apatites and not volcanic apatites introduced into the system from the volcanic arc. To do this we use U-Pb geochronology to remove samples contaminated with young arc derived apatites and keep those with old exhumed apatites. Five of the seven detrital AFT samples were significantly contaminated with young volcanic apatites, showing that U-Pb geochronology should be a routine step in measuring lag times. Our findings demonstrate that coarse-grained foreland basin deposits in the Cretaceous Western Interior, in both the proximal and distal settings, were deposited during times of active tectonism and exhumation and that sediments are not stored in wedge-top and proximal foredeep settings for long periods of time, i.e. >5 m.y., and then subsequently reworked distally. Exhumation rates of ~0.9->1 km/m.y. are not sustainable over the entire orogenic belt for the duration of the Sevier orogeny, indicated by the lack of deep-crustal material exhumed in the North American Cordillera. High exhumation rates were likely concentrated over the eastward-propagating Sevier fold-thrust belt, whereas the Nevadaplano and hinterland experienced much slower rates of exhumation. This variation in

  20. The soy isoflavones for reducing bone loss study: 3-yr effects on pQCT bone mineral density and strength measures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shedd-Wise, Kristine M; Alekel, D Lee; Hofmann, Heike; Hanson, Kathy B; Schiferl, Dan J; Hanson, Laura N; Van Loan, Marta D

    2011-01-01

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density-preserving effects, but the bone strength-preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength (by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography) in healthy postmenopausal women (46-63yr). We measured 3-yr changes in cortical BMD (CtBMD), cortical thickness (CtThk), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), and strength-strain index (SSI) at 1/3 midshaft femur (N=171), and trabecular BMD (TbBMD), PC, and SSI at 4% distal tibia (N=162). We found no treatment effect on femur CtThk, PC, or EC, or tibia TbBMD or PC. The strongest predictors (negative) of tibia TbBMD and SSI and femur CtBMD were timepoint and bone resorption; whole-body fat mass was protective of SSI. As time since last menstrual period (TLMP) increased (p=0.012), 120-mg/d dose was protective of CtBMD. The strongest predictors of femur SSI were timepoint, bone resorption, and TLMP (protective). Isoflavone tablets were negative predictors of SSI, but 80-mg/d dose became protective as bone turnover increased (p=0.011). Soy isoflavone treatment for 3yr was modestly beneficial for midshaft femur vBMD as TLMP increased and for midshaft femur SSI as bone turnover increased.

  1. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ravn, P; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K; Christiansen, C

    1994-12-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year (SEE 0.2-0.9%/year, p < 0.001) and 0.6%/year (SEE 0.4-0.8%/year, p < 0.001), respectively. In the postmenopausal women aged 48-75 years, there was a highly significant exponential decay in BMD with age and years since menopause (YSM) in all regions (-0.58 < r < -0.48, p < 0.001). However, YSM was a better predictor of BMD than age. The decrease in BMD in the first 5 years postmenopause reached values of 9-13%. The estimated bone loss after 20 years was 17-30%, greatest in Ward's triangle and smallest in the intertrochanteric region. BMD correlated highly significantly with BMI (0.26 < r < 0.48, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study indicates a stable premenopausal bone mass of the proximal femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming that low BMI constitutes a potential risk factor for osteoporosis.

  2. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  3. Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the cooking losses of minerals (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper), various food materials were analyzed before and after cooking, and the following results were obtained. (1) The mineral contents of cooked foods in mass cooking were on an average about 60-70 percent of those in raw or uncooked foods. (2) Cooking losses were particularly high in minerals of vegetables. (3) Among various cooking methods, loss of mineral was largest in squeezing after boil and in soaking in water after thin slice, followed by parching, frying and stewing. (4) Cooking losses of minerals in meals cooked in home brought about the similar results as those by the mass cooking procedures. (5) The measures to prevent cooking loss are (a) eating the boiled food with the soup, (b) addition of small amount of salt (about 1% NaCl) in boiling, (c) avoidance of too much boiling, (d) selection of a cooking method causing less mineral loss (stewing, frying or parching).

  4. Postmenopausal women with colles' fracture have lower values of bone mineral density than controls as measured by quantitative ultrasound and densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, P; del Pino-Montes, J; Alegre, J; Pérez-Cano, R; Guerra, G Martínez Díaz; Díaz-Curiel, M; Valero, C; Muñoz-Torres, M; Torrijos, A; Mosquera, J; Gómez-Alonso, C

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of ultrasonographic parameters provides information concerning not only bone density but also bone architecture. We investigated the usefulness of ultrasonographic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate the probability of Colles' fracture. Two-hundred eighty-nine postmenopausal women (62.3 +/- 8.7 yr) with (n = 76) and without (n = 213) Colles' fracture were studied. BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was evaluated in all women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness in the calcaneus were measured by a Sahara ultrasonometer (Hologic). Patients suffering from Colles' fracture had lower values of BMD adjusted by height at the lumbar spine, L2-L4 (0.797 g/cm2 vs 0.860 g/cm2), femoral neck (0.685 g/cm2 vs 0.712 g/cm2 ), SOS (1518 m/sg vs 1525 m/sg), and stiffness (74.6 vs 77.7) (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, BUA values were similar in both groups. After stepwise logistic regression analysis, the area found under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.60 for L2L4 and 0.63 for a formula combining L2L4 and height. Our data suggest that patients suffering from Colles' fracture have lower values of BMD by DXA, SOS, and stiffness. However, the ability of these techniques to discriminate is low because the values for the area under ROC curve are 0.60 for L2-L4 and 0.63 for a formula derived of the combination of L2-L4 and height.

  5. Kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two techniques were studied for measuring changes in bone mass in rats. One technique measures the Ar-37 produced from calcium during neutron irradiation and the other measures the changes in the Na-22 content which has been incorporated within the rat bone. Both methods are performed in VIVO and cause no significant physiological damage. The Ar-37 leaves the body of a rat within an hour after being produced, and it can be quantitatively collected and measured with a precision of - or + 2% on the same rat. With appropriate irradiation conditions it appears that the absolute quantity of calcuim in any rat can be determined within - or + 3% regardless of animal size. The Na-22 when uniformly distributed in bone, can be used to monitor bone mineral turnover and this has been demonstrated in conditions of calcium deficiency during growth and also pregnancy coupled with calcium deficiency.

  6. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  7. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  8. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  9. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  10. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  11. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5-15 years: iowa bone development study.

    PubMed

    Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Francis, Shelby L; Metcalf, Kristen M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral content (BMC; gram) from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Participants from the Iowa bone development study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 369, 449, 452, 410, and 307, respectively). MVPA and VPA (minutes per day) were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kilogram), height (centimeter), linear age (year), non-linear age (year(2)), and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity). The interaction effects of PA × maturity and PA × age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile) and most (90th percentile) active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA, did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age neither modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  12. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  13. Binding of heavy metal ions in aggregates of microbial cells, EPS and biogenic iron minerals measured in-situ using metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Likai; Guo, Yuan; Byrne, James M.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Schmid, Gregor; Ingino, Pablo; Li, Jianli; Neu, Thomas R.; Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Aggregates consisting of bacterial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and Fe(III) minerals formed by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are common at bulk or microscale chemical interfaces where Fe cycling occurs. The high sorption capacity and binding capacity of cells, EPS, and minerals controls the mobility and fate of heavy metals. However, it remains unclear to which of these component(s) the metals will bind in complex aggregates. To clarify this question, the present study focuses on 3D mapping of heavy metals sorbed to cells, glycoconjugates that comprise the majority of EPS constituents, and Fe(III) mineral aggregates formed by the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with metal- and glycoconjugates-specific fluorophores. The present study evaluated the influence of glycoconjugates, microbial cell surfaces, and (biogenic) Fe(III) minerals, and the availability of ferrous and ferric iron on heavy metal sorption. Analyses in this study provide detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of metal ions in the aggregates at the sub-μm scale, which is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of microbe-mineral-metal interactions. The heavy metals (Au3+, Cd2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pd2+, tributyltin (TBT) and Zn2+) were found mainly sorbed to cell surfaces, present within the glycoconjugates matrix, and bound to the mineral surfaces, but not incorporated into the biogenic Fe(III) minerals. Statistical analysis revealed that all ten heavy metals tested showed relatively similar sorption behavior that was affected by the presence of sorbed ferrous and ferric iron. Results in this study showed that in addition to the mineral surfaces, both bacterial cell surfaces and the glycoconjugates provided most of sorption sites for heavy metals. Simultaneously, ferrous and ferric iron ions competed with the heavy metals for sorption sites on the organic

  14. Accounting for Berkson and Classical Measurement Error in Radon Exposure Using a Bayesian Structural Approach in the Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality in the French Cohort of Uranium Miners.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Rage, Estelle; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Ancelet, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure. To address the challenge of accounting for multiplicative and heteroscedastic measurement error that may be of Berkson or classical nature, depending on the year of exposure, we opted for a Bayesian structural approach, which is arguably the most flexible method to account for uncertainty in exposure assessment. We assessed the association between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality in the French cohort of uranium miners and found the impact of uncorrelated multiplicative measurement error to be of marginal importance. However, our findings indicate that the retrospective nature of exposure assessment that occurred in the earliest years of mining of this cohort as well as many other cohorts of underground miners might lead to an attenuation of the exposure-risk relationship. More research is needed to address further uncertainties in the calculation of lung dose, since this step will likely introduce important sources of shared uncertainty.

  15. External validation and comparison of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures for all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Crispo, James A. G.; Cohen, Deborah; McNair, Douglas S.; Mattison, Donald R.; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Assessing prevalent comorbidities is a common approach in health research for identifying clinical differences between individuals. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the predictive performance of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures (ECM) for inhospital mortality at index and at 1-year in the Cerner Health Facts® (HF) U.S. database. We estimated the prevalence of select comorbidities for individuals 18 to 89 years of age who received care at Cerner contributing health facilities between 2002 and 2011 using the AHRQ (version 3.7) and the Quan Enhanced ICD-9-CM ECMs. External validation of the ECMs was assessed with measures of discrimination [c-statistics], calibration [Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, Brier Score, calibration curves], added predictive ability [Net Reclassification Improvement], and overall model performance [R2]. Of 3,273,298 patients with a mean age of 43.9 years and a female composition of 53.8%, 1.0% died during their index encounter and 1.5% were deceased at 1-year. Calibration measures were equivalent between the two ECMs. Calibration performance was acceptable when predicting inhospital mortality at index, although recalibration is recommended for predicting inhospital mortality at 1 year. Discrimination was marginally better with the Quan ECM compared the AHRQ ECM when predicting inhospital mortality at index (cQuan = 0.887, 95% CI: 0.885–0.889 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878–0.882; p < .0001) and at 1-year (cQuan = 0.884, 95% CI: 0.883–0.886 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878–0.881, p < .0001). Both the Quan and the AHRQ ECMs demonstrated excellent discrimination for inhospital mortality of all-causes in Cerner Health Facts®, a HIPAA compliant observational research and privacy-protected data warehouse. While differences in discrimination performance between the ECMs were statistically significant, they are not likely clinically meaningful. PMID:28350807

  16. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jooyoung; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ) scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy young college women. Methods Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg) between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck). The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ) were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm), weight (kg), fat free mass (FFM, kg), percent body fat (%), and body mass index (BMI). Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire. Results There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014) and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007), while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05). When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024), while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015). Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004). There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025), but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in

  17. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  18. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Minerals? What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Fuel for Growth Common Concerns en español Vitaminas y minerales Breakfast cereals advertise that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy with a jolt of vitamins or minerals (sorry, ...

  20. Minerals in our environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weathers, Judy; Galloway, John; Frank, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Minerals are found everywhere in our daily lives. This poster depicts numerous items found throughout a home, and the mineral(s) or mineral resources used in the ingredients of, or construction/manufacturing of those items. Designed for K-8 Teachers this poster can be scaled and is printable at 36" x 60" and legible at 11" x 17" in size.

  1. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  2. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Perrie E.; Dunn, Winston; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether NAFLD influences bone health is unknown. AIM To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. METHODS Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and total percent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analyzed in children with NAFLD. RESULTS Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (p<0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (−1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five percent of children with NAFLD had low bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (p < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (p< 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (−2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (−1.58). CONCLUSIONS NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralization in children with NAFLD. PMID:22111971

  3. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  4. Grazing-induced vegetation patchiness controls net N mineralization rate in a semi-natural grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Bonis, Anne; Bouzillé, Jan-Bernard

    2011-05-01

    Herbivores influence nutrient cycling either through direct effects (e.g. excreta) or through indirect effects such as a modification of plant-soil feedbacks. This work investigated if grazing-enhanced net N mineralization rates were related to (1) enhanced quality of plant litter and/or (2) reduced plant litter inputs. Rates of net N mineralization in soil and both the quantity and quality of litters were characterized in various plant patches occurring within a grazed grassland. Soil incubations were performed in controlled conditions to assess the respective role of litter quantity and quality on N mineralization. In laboratory incubations, the effect of litter quantity on net N mineralization rates was found to depend on litter quality. High inputs of litter produced by grazing-promoted species ( C/ N 11) stimulated net N mineralization rates, while high inputs of litter produced by grazing-reduced species ( C/ N 46) decreased rates of net N mineralization. The intensity of either the negative or positive effects of litter was then regulated by litter quantity. In the field, litter quality only varied within a limited range. Litter with the highest quality in the field ( C/ N 22) increased N mineralization minimally compared to the lowest quality litter ( C/ N 46). Grazing-induced variations in litter quality monitored in the field thus appeared unlikely to cause measured variations in net N mineralization rates. Litter with C/ N ratios of 46 and 22 stimulated N immobilization and reduction of their inputs increased the rate of N mineralization due to decreased microbial N immobilization. Within-grassland variations of litter quantity were large and negatively correlated with net N mineralization rates. Our results support the hypothesis that grazing-induced patchiness modifies net N mineralization rates by controlling microbial N immobilization mainly through changes in the quantity of litter-C supplied to the soil.

  5. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of miners caught in mine accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-12-01

    The profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of fatalities in underground coal mines are the delayed alert of the accident and the lack of information regarding the actual location of the miners after the accident. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath blockage needs to be performed urgently. However, none of the standard technologies - radio-frequency identification (RFID), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), Wi-Fi, emitting cables, which use the stationary technical devices in mines - provide information about the miners location with the necessary precision. The only technology that is able to provide guaranteed delivery of messages to mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology, which is able to operate through the thickness of rocks even if they are wet. The proposed new system for miner localization is based on solving the inverse problem of determining the magnetic field source coordinates using the data of magnetic field measurements. This approach is based on the measurement of the magnetic field radiated by the miner's responder beacon using two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and the inverse problem solution. As a result, a working model of the system for miner's beacon search and localization (MILES - MIner's Location Emergency System) was developed and successfully tested. This paper presents the most important aspects of this development and the results of experimental tests.

  6. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  7. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  8. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  9. Mineral Spirits Purification Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2- propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous decomposition produces, and then distill the mineral spirits from the remaining contaminants.

  10. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  11. Copper isotope variations of copper-rich minerals in seafloor hydrothermal deposits and igneous rocks, measured by a femtosecond LA-MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hirata, T.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the copper isotope systematics has seen an increased interest as a potential tool for understanding copper sources and geochemical processes of copper transport and deposition in ore-forming systems. The copper isotope variations of primary and secondary copper-rich minerals from modern (Mariana Trough) and ancient (Besshi-type and Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Japan) seafloor hydrothermal deposits have been analyzed by a femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS). The δ65Cu (where δ65Cu = [(65Cu/63Cu)sample/ (65Cu/63Cu)NIST-SRM976-1] × 1000) values of copper-rich sulfide minerals of chimney samples from active seafloor hydrothermal deposits are significantly large (δ65Cu = -0.7 to 4.0‰) compared to those of copper-rich minerals in ancient submarine hydrothermal deposits (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.4‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2011) and in igneous rocks (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.3‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2012). These large copper isotopic variations in the chimney samples are most likely explained in terms of a redox-controlled isotope fractionation during hydrothermal reworking of copper sulfides below sea floor or alteration of primary hydrothermal copper sulfides by seawater, involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions. These results also suggest that sub-seafloor recrystallization and metamorphic reequilibration may have reduced the original range of copper isotopes. Secondary malachite (δ65Cu = 2.6 to 3.0‰) and native copper (δ65Cu = 1.4 to 1.7‰) in the Besshi-type deposits have heavier copper isotopic values compared to precursor copper-rich minerals. These variations are mainly due to isotope fractionations during redox reactions (weathering) at low temperatures involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions.

  12. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS AND MINERALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Many phenomena and processes in the earth sciences are a result of the electrochemical properties of rocks and minerals. Examples include formation of mineral deposits and petroleum reservoirs control of drilling muds, and success or failure of toxic waste isolation barriers. Such phenomena can be observed at a distance using geophysical techniques to measure various electrical properties of the earth.

  13. Minerals leasing for landowners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

  14. Dissociation and recombination of positive holes in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Batllo, Francois; Freund, Minoru M.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanisms are described of positive holes - electronic defects in the O2 sublattice - with attention given to detecting the positive surface charge of minerals with these holes. Charge distribution analysis (CDA) is presented which measures dielectric polarization in an inhomogeneous field. CDA can be applied to the detection of the peroxide/superoxide functionality caused by positive holes on the surface. It is demonstrated with obsidian that the measurements provide data on O(-) mobility as a function of surface-charge carrier density and on O(-) generation as a function of temperature.

  15. The performance of functional methods for correcting non-Gaussian measurement error within Poisson regression: corrected excess risk of lung cancer mortality in relation to radon exposure among French uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-12-30

    A broad variety of methods for measurement error (ME) correction have been developed, but these methods have rarely been applied possibly because their ability to correct ME is poorly understood. We carried out a simulation study to assess the performance of three error-correction methods: two variants of regression calibration (the substitution method and the estimation calibration method) and the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. Features of the simulated cohorts were borrowed from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort in which exposure to radon had been documented from 1946 to 1999. In the absence of ME correction, we observed a severe attenuation of the true effect of radon exposure, with a negative relative bias of the order of 60% on the excess relative risk of lung cancer death. In the main scenario considered, that is, when ME characteristics previously determined as most plausible from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort were used both to generate exposure data and to correct for ME at the analysis stage, all three error-correction methods showed a noticeable but partial reduction of the attenuation bias, with a slight advantage for the SIMEX method. However, the performance of the three correction methods highly depended on the accurate determination of the characteristics of ME. In particular, we encountered severe overestimation in some scenarios with the SIMEX method, and we observed lack of correction with the three methods in some other scenarios. For illustration, we also applied and compared the proposed methods on the real data set from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort study.

  16. Mineral Distributions at the Developing Tendon Enthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrea G.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Genin, Guy M.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, “the enthesis”. A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  17. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  18. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance properties of common planetary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; McCormack, Kaitlyn A.; Bell, James F.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Bailey, Daniel T.; Craig, Michael A.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Robinson, Mark S.; Riner, Miriam A.

    2008-09-01

    Ultraviolet spectral reflectance properties (200-400 nm) of a large number of minerals known or presumed to exist on the surfaces of Mars, the Moon, and asteroids, and in many meteorites, were investigated. Ultraviolet reflectance spectra (200-400 nm) of these minerals range from slightly blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths) to strongly red-sloped (reflectance increasing toward longer wavelengths). Most exhibit one or two absorption features that are attributable to Fe sbnd O charge transfers involving Fe 3+ or Fe 2+. The UV region is a very sensitive indicator of the presence of even trace amounts (<0.01 wt%) of Fe 3+ and Fe 2+. The major Fe 3+sbnd O absorption band occurs at shorter wavelengths (˜210-230 nm), and is more intense than the major Fe 2+sbnd O absorption band (˜250-270 nm). Ti-bearing minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile and anatase exhibit UV absorption bands attributable to Ti 4+sbnd O charge transfers. While the positions of metal-O charge transfer bands sometimes differ for different minerals, the variation is often not diagnostic enough to permit unique mineral identification. However, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides can generally be distinguished from Fe-bearing silicates in the 200-400 nm region on the basis of absorption band positions. Within a given mineral group (e.g., low-calcium pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase feldspar), changes in Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ abundance do not appear to result in a measurable change in absorption band minima positions. Absorption band positions can vary as a function of grain size, however, and this variation is likely due to band saturation effects. The intensity of metal-O charge transfers means that some minerals will exhibit saturated UV absorption bands even for fine-grained (<45 μm) powders. In cases where absorption bands are not saturated (e.g., Fe 2+sbnd O bands in some plagioclase feldspars and pyroxenes), changes in Fe 2+ content do not appear to cause variations in band position. In

  19. Wind Tunnel Measured Effects on a Twin-Engine Short-Haul Transport Caused by Simulated Ice Accretions: Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Potapczuk, Mark; Ratvasky, Thomas; Laflin, Brenda Gile

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release the data from the NASA Langley/Lewis 14 by 22 foot wind tunnel test that examined icing effects on a 1/8 scale twin-engine short-haul jet transport model. Presented in this document are summary data from the major configurations tested. The entire test database in addition to ice shape and model measurements is available as a data supplement in CD-ROM form. Data measured and presented are: wing pressure distributions, model force and moment, and wing surface flow visualization.

  20. Characteristics, causes and control measures of disasters for the soft-rock tunnels in the Wenchuan seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Tianbin; He, Chuan; Zhou, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The Guang(yuan)-Gan(su) Expressway is located in the core areas where the Wenchuan earthquake occurred. The surrounding soft-rocks of several tunnels in this region, such as the Dujiashan and Yangjiashan tunnels, are mainly broken into phyllites due to the severe action of the earthquake. Through analyzing the effects of large deformations, lining damage and collapses, which happen frequently in the soft-rock tunnels in the Guang-Gan Expressway, the characteristics and causes of such geological disasters are obtained. It is demonstrated that the large deformation and collapse occur near the vault and tunnel face. The poor mechanical properties and weak self-bearing capacity of the surrounding rock and the softening caused by groundwater are important contributing factors to these disasters. The lack of experience in the design and construction of tunnels in the meizoseismal area, as well as the aftershocks are other important factors to consider. Field test results indicate that the three-bench and the reserved core soil construction method should be applied to control the stability of broken phyllite tunnels, and that this key technology should be strictly controlled during its construction. In particular, increasing the stiffness of the supporting structure and enclosing of the lining in time are efficient methods to control large deformations and collapses in soft-rock tunnels in the meizoseismal area.

  1. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  2. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-11-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

  3. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  4. Measuring the Effect of Gender on Computer Attitudes among Pre-Service Teachers: A Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of gender on pre-service teachers' computer attitudes. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 157 pre-service teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs which explain computer attitude. These were administered during the teaching term where…

  5. Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

    2012-11-01

    More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g. antenna beam width, receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the earth and refractivity) on the scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases as differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are not so important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable. The impact of the antenna beam width is higher than the receiver bandwidth, but, for V-band where they are of similar importance. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapor, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapor are associated with the beam width errors.

  6. Cause and solution for false upstream boat velocities measured with a StreamPro acoustic doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Rehmel, Mike S.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler which does not include an internal compass. During stationary moving-bed tests the StreamPro often tends to swim or kite from the end of the tether (the instrument rotates then moves laterally in the direction of the rotation). Because the StreamPro does not have an internal compass, it cannot account for the rotation. This rotation and lateral movement of the StreamPro on the end of the tether generates a false upstream velocity, which cannot be easily distinguished from a moving-bed bias velocity. A field test was completed to demonstrate that this rotation and lateral movement causes a false upstream boat velocity. The vector dot product of the boat velocity and the unit vector of the depth-averaged water velocity is shown to be an effective method to account for the effect of the rotation and lateral movement.

  7. [Carbon monoxide poisoning caused by medical error. Fatalities in connection with medical measures in Leipzig and Hannover].

    PubMed

    Hunger, H; Tröger, H D; Urban, R

    1990-01-01

    There are significant differences in the frequency of CO intoxication and its relation to other not natural causes of death between the autopsy cases of Leipzig (DDR) and Hannover (BRD). While the percentage of all autopsies in Leipzig runs up to 7.6%, in Hannover it runs up to only 1.5%. Beside the well-known cases of not recognized CO intoxication at the autopsy with or without following intoxication of other persons, two concrete cases of not recognized CO intoxication with the survival of the victims discussed. The not noticed CO intoxication followed by the death of the victim is usually considered in medicolegal opinious as "medical malpractice". In cases of survived not noticed CO intoxications this opinion ist only supposed in special cases with longer anamnesis and a typical seasonal rythmic of symptoms.

  8. On-line measurements in pig carcass classification: Repeatability and variation caused by the operator and the copy of instrument.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Eli V; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta; Oksama, Marjatta; Kien, Stefan; Lisiak, Dariusz; Busk, Hans

    2007-01-01

    For nearly all pigs slaughtered in the EU, the lean meat content is assessed on-line at the slaughter line. The assessment is made indirectly by an instrument performing a number of informative measurements including the thickness of back fat as one of the most important and common measurements. Several types of instruments are used for making the measurements. The quality of the calibration (the prediction ability) has to be approved by the EU Commission. However, the maintenance of instruments, training of operators, working conditions and other factors influencing the routine are quite as important for the accuracy as the calibration. As a part of an EU funded project, partners representing thirteen European countries have investigated the instruments used in their countries focusing on the precision of indirect measurements. The preconditions have differed considerably between the countries resulting in a wide range of estimates of the repeatability and the reproducibility (precision) of fat and muscle thickness. Totally, there have been three different types of manual instruments - invasive probe instruments from three manufacturers, non-invasive ultrasound and callipers. Furthermore, the precision of two automatic instruments with respect to lean meat content has partly been estimated. Even though neither the aim nor the design of the experiments was set for a direct comparison between different instruments, none of them seemed to deviate notably from the others with respect to the precision of fat thickness. In this study, the only investigated influencing factors were the variations in operators and copies of instruments. Generally, the variations between operators were more important than the variation between copies of the same type of instrument.

  9. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    PubMed

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  10. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    PubMed

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-30

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  11. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  12. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  13. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  14. Correlation of ameloblastin with enamel mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, John D.; Schmitz, James E.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Smith, Charles E.; Chun, Yong-Hee P.

    2015-01-01

    In enamel formation, the deposition of minerals as crystallites starts when the mineralization front first forms at the start of the secretory stage. During maturation, the enamel layer accumulates significant amounts of new mineral as the crystallites grow in volume. Inversely related to mineral gain is loss of protein and water from the forming enamel. Both ameloblastin (Ambn) and enamelin are essential components for formation of a functional enamel layer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of mineral and non-mineral material present in developing enamel relative to Ambn concentration using Ambn mutant mice mated with others overexpressing full-length Ambn from the mouse amelogenin promoter at lower (+), similar (++) or higher (+++) concentration than normal. Mandibular incisors (age: 7 weeks, n=8) were imaged by micro-computed tomography and the enamel was analyzed from the apical region to the incisal edge in sequential 1.0 mm volumes of interest. Mineral density was determined using a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms to calibrate enamel density measurements. At the site where the mandibular incisor emerged into the oral cavity, the enamel volume, mineral weight, and mineral density were reduced when Tg Ambn was expressed at lower or higher levels than normal. While in wild-type the % mineral was >95%, it was negligible in Ambn−/−, 22.3% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+), 75.4% in Ambn−/−, Tg(++), and 45.2% in Ambn−/−, Tg(+++). These results document that the deposition of mineral and removal of non-mineral components are both very sensitive to expressed Ambn concentrations. PMID:25158178

  15. In-flight measurements of wing ice shapes and wing section drag increases caused by natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, K.; Juhasz, N.; Ranaudo, R.; Mcknight, R.; Freedman, R.; Greissing, J.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft icing flight research was performed in natural icing conditions with a twin engine computer type STOL aircraft. In-flight measurements were made of the icing cloud environment, the shape of the ice accretion on the wing, and the corresponding increase in the wing section drag. Results are presented for three icing encounters. On one flight, the wing section drag coefficient increased 35 percent over the uniced baseline for cruise conditions while a 43 percent increase was observed at an aircraft angle of attack of 6.2 degrees.

  16. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small, the data suggest that for miners under the age of 60, exposure to chromium is associated with the development of the intestinal rather than the diffuse type of gastric cancer. PMID:8435344

  17. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  18. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  1. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  2. Two Simultaneous Mechanisms Causing Glass Transition Temperature Reductions in High Molecular Weight Freestanding Polymer Films as Measured by Transmission Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Justin E.; Roth, Connie B.

    2011-12-01

    We study the glass transition in confined polymer films and present the first experimental evidence indicating that two separate mechanisms can act simultaneously on the film to propagate enhanced mobility from the free surface into the material. Using transmission ellipsometry, we have measured the thermal expansion of ultrathin, high molecular-weight (MW), freestanding polystyrene films over an extended temperature range. For two different MWs, we observed two distinct reduced glass transition temperatures (Tg’s), separated by up to 60 K, within single films with thicknesses h less than 70 nm. The lower transition follows the expected MW dependent, linear Tg(h) behavior previously seen in high MW freestanding films. We also observe a much stronger upper transition with no MW dependence that exhibits the same Tg(h) dependence as supported and low MW freestanding polymer films.

  3. Identification of Opaque Minerals Using Automated Photomicrographic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, James Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Describes a technique for making reflectance measurements of opaque minerals in polished thin sections. Provides a calibration procedure, reflectance values for common opaque minerals, and a graph showing an example calibration curve of minimum shutter speed of opaque minerals versus published reflectance data. (RT)

  4. Microbial diversity in bioaerosol samples causing ODTS compared to reference bioaerosol samples as measured using Illumina sequencing and MALDI-TOF.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Zervas, Athanasios; Tendal, Kira; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2015-07-01

    The importance of the microbial diversity of bioaerosols in relation to occupational exposure and work related health symptoms is not known. The aim of this paper is to gain knowledge on the bacterial and fungal communities in dust causing organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and in reference dust not causing ODTS. Bacterial and fungal communities were described in personal exposure samples from grass seed workers developing ODTS, in dust generated from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust generated from reference seeds not causing ODTS. Amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS region, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) were used for identification of fungi and bacteria in personal exposure samples and in dust samples from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust from reference grass seeds. Furthermore, activities of enzymes were measured in the same samples. The sequencing data revealed more than 150 bacterial and 25 fungal genera present in each sample. Streptomyces spp., Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus microsporus were dominating in the dust causing ODTS but not in the reference dust. The dustiness in terms of Mucor sp. and R. microsporus were 100-1000 times higher for problematic seeds compared to reference seeds. The bacterial species in the dust causing ODTS included pathogenic species such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptomyces pneumonia, and it contained increased concentrations of total protein, serine protease, chitinase, and β-glucosidase. Twenty-three bacterial genera covered more than 50% of the total reads in the personal and problematic seed dust. These 23 genera accounted for less than 7% of the total reads in the reference seed dust. The microbial community of the dust from the problematic seeds showed great similarities to that from the personal air samples from the workers. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time a shift in the microbial community in aerosol

  5. PERMEABILITY CHANGES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The change in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a temperature gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These changes are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high temperatures, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower temperatures. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.

  6. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  7. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  8. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; ...

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  9. Spaced sensor measurements of artificial airglow emission at 630 nm of ionosphere caused by ``Sura'' facility radiation in November 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Gumerov, Rustam; Shindin, Alexey; Kogogin, Denis; Dementiev, Vladislav

    Some first results on simultaneous observation artificial airglow emission at 630 nm during HF pumping of the ionosphere by “Sura” facility from two spatial situated experimental sites are reported. The measurements of artificial airglow are usually conducted in red and green lines of atomic oxygen (the radiation of levels O((1) D) and O((1) S) under their excitation by electronic impact) with wave lengths of 630 and 557.7 nm and excitation energy of 1.96 and 4.17 eV accordingly. An enhancement of airglow intensity in the red line is related at present to the electron heating by powerful radio waves. The idea of the experiment was to estimate the heated volume three-dimensional structure and drift motion one. The experiment was carried out in November 2013 at the “Sura” radio facility, situated near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (geographical coordinates 56.13(o) N, 46.10(o) E, geomagnetic field declination and inclination are ˜ 10.0(o) east and ˜ 71.5(o) , respectively). Conditions of ionosphere were checked by means of "Cady" ionosonde during “Sura” runs. According to the ionospheric conditions, on the 7(th) of November the “Sura” facility operated at frequency 4.540 MHz. At this frequency the effective radiated power was about 120MW. The HF beam width at the “Sura” facility is ˜ 12(o) . A square wave pump modulation of 5 min on, 5 min off, was used. Measurements were carried out in the period from 14:40 to 17:30 UTC. Optical imaging was performed on two spatial experimental sites: “Vasilsursk” (situated about 500 m from antenna system of “Sura” facility); “Raifa” (situated about 170 km from “Sura” facility at the Magnetic Observatory of Kazan Federal University, geographical coordinates 55.93(o) N, 48.75(o) E). They both were fitted out Peltier-cooled front-illuminated bare CCD cameras with 16-bit slow-scan read-out (S1C3). On “Vasilsursk” site the images were binned down to 256× 256 pixels in addition to cooling, in order

  10. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALCANEAL BONE ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS AND DENSITOMETRY AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH FRACTURES CAUSED BY BONE FRAGILITY

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Frederico Barra; Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães de; Novais, Pierre de Souza; Melo, Murilo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Mara Lúcia Rassi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the correlation between ultrasound (US) measurement on the calcaneus and bone densitometry (DEXA), among postmenopausal women who already presented fragility fractures. Methods: 35 postmenopausal women over 40 years of age, with the ability to walk and presenting osteoporotic fractures of the wrist or spine, without previous treatment for osteoporosis, were analyzed in a retrospective cohort. Of these, 16 were under 60 and 19 were over 60. The broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were compared using DEXA (L1-L4, total femur, femoral neck and wrist). Two different values of BUA were used as cutoff points for osteoporosis: BUA < 60 dB/MHz and BUA < 64 dB/MHz (P < 0.05); and SOS < 1600 m/s. The confidence interval was 95%. The DEXA and US data were plotted on dispersion graphs and, through linear regression, it was possible to establish correlations. Following this, the sample was stratified according to age (up to 60 years and 60 years and over). Thus, the values were again compared and correlated. Results: The best correlation obtained between DEXA and US was between the T-score of the wrist and BUA < 64 dB/MHz, with 92% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Better sensitivity at all DEXA sites was obtained when US was performed on patients over 60 years of age. The SOS compatible with osteoporosis was < 1592.5 m/s (89% sensitivity and 85% specificity). Conclusion: US on the calcaneus can be used for screening the risk of osteoporosis fractures, using a cutoff of BUA < 64 dB/MHz, especially among patients over 60 years of age. PMID:27027001

  12. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  13. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  14. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  15. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  16. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  17. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  18. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  19. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  20. Mineral physics abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert

    During the 1983-1984 academic year, I spent a sabbatical leave in France, during which I had the opportunity to visit several mineral physics laboratories in Europe and meet many of our colleagues there. The purpose of this item is to report briefly on developments of interest to the U.S. mineral physics community.

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  2. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  3. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  7. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  8. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  9. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  10. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  11. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  12. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  13. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  15. Mineral commodity summaries 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2017-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2016 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  17. Mineral Features of EETA79001 Martian Meteorite Revealed by Point-Counting Raman Measurements as Anticipated for In-Situ Exploration on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Kuebler, Karla E.; Jolliff, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of pyroxenes of different Mg' and olivines of different Fo in lithologies A and B were obtained. Three types of olivine formed at different stages of rock formation were found by point counting Raman measurements along linear traverses.

  18. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  19. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  20. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  2. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  3. Geostatistical Analysis of Spatial Variability of Mineral Abundance and Kd in Frenchman Flat, NTS, Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A

    2002-11-01

    LLNL hydrologic source term modeling at the Cambric site (Pawloski et al., 2000) showed that retardation of radionuclide transport is sensitive to the distribution and amount of radionuclide sorbing minerals. While all mineralogic information available near the Cambric site was used in these early simulations (11 mineral abundance analyses from UE-5n and 9 from RNM-l), these older data sets were qualitative in nature, with detection limits too high to accurately measure many of the important radionuclide sorbing minerals (e.g. iron oxide). Also, the sparse nature of the mineral abundance data permitted only a hypothetical description of the spatial distribution of radionuclide sorbing minerals. Yet, the modeling results predicted that the spatial distribution of sorbing minerals would strongly affect radionuclide transport. Clearly, additional data are needed to improve understanding of mineral abundances and their spatial distributions if model predictions in Frenchman Flat are to be defensible. This report evaluates new high-resolution quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data on mineral distributions and their abundances from core samples recently collected from drill hole ER-5-4. The total of 94 samples from ER-5-4 were collected at various spacings to enable evaluation of spatial variability at a variety of spatial scales as small as 0.3 meters and up to hundreds of meters. Additional XRD analyses obtained from drillholes UE-Sn, ER-5-3, and U-11g-1 are used to augment evaluation of vertical spatial variability and permit some evaluation of lateral spatial variability. A total of 163 samples are evaluated. The overall goal of this study is to understand and characterize the spatial variation of sorbing minerals in Frenchman Flat alluvium using geostatistical techniques, with consideration for the potential impact on reactive transport of radionuclides. To achieve this goal requires an effort to ensure that plausible geostatistical models are used to

  4. Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Livia

    2013-04-01

    We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed

  5. Effects of Long-Term Mineral Block Supplementation on Antioxidants, Immunity, and Health of Tibetan Sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhiqi; Huang, Meizhou; Wang, Shengyi; Cui, Dongan; Dong, Shuwei; Li, Shengkun; Qi, Zhiming; Liu, Yongming

    2016-08-01

    Tibetan sheep have been observed with mineral deficiencies and marginal deficiencies in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Adequate amounts of essential minerals are critical to maximize the productivity and health of livestock. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 6 months of mineral block supplementation on the antioxidants, immunity, and health of Tibetan sheep. The study was conducted in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The consumed values of mineral blocks were measured. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to evaluate the trace elements, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) activities, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), triiodothyronine (T3), tyroxine (T4), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined. The toxic effects of the mineral block were also monitored. For Tibetan sheep, the average consumed value of mineral block was 13.09 g per day per sheep. Mineral block supplementation significantly increased the serum levels of Mn, Fe, and Se (P < 0.01), decreased the level of MDA (P < 0.05), and increased GSH activity (P < 0.05). Additionally, the mineral block-treated sheep blood had greater total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) than control sheep. Moreover, the mineral block supplementation improved the levels IgA, IgM, and IGF-1 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Additionally, there were no significant histopathological changes in the organs of Tibetan sheep after long-term treatment with the mineral block. The results demonstrated that the mineral block was non-toxic and safe; the protective effects of the mineral block might be caused by an increase in the antioxidant defense system, as well as an increase in the benefits from immunity-related parameters.

  6. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  8. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading.

  9. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  10. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  11. Nanoindentation hardness of mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Michelle L

    2006-01-01

    A series elastic and plastic deformation model [Sakai, M., 1999. The Meyer hardness: a measure for plasticity? Journal of Materials Research 14(9), 3630-3639] is used to deconvolute the resistance to plastic deformation from the plane strain modulus and contact hardness parameters obtained in a nanoindentation test. Different functional dependencies of contact hardness on the plane strain modulus are examined. Plastic deformation resistance values are computed from the modulus and contact hardness for engineering materials and mineralized tissues. Elastic modulus and plastic deformation resistance parameters are used to calculate elastic and plastic deformation components, and to examine the partitioning of indentation deformation between elastic and plastic. Both the numerical values of plastic deformation resistance and the direct computation of deformation partitioning reveal the intermediate mechanical responses of mineralized composites when compared with homogeneous engineering materials.

  12. Temperature distributions measurement of high intensity focused ultrasound using a thin-film thermocouple array and estimation of thermal error caused by viscous heating.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Kosuke; Narumi, Ryuta; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Akira; Okita, Kohei; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    To improve the throughput of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, we have considered a focus switching method at two points. For this method, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal distribution under exposure to ultrasound. The thermal distribution was measured using a prototype thin-film thermocouple array, which has the advantage of minimizing the influence of the thermocouple on the acoustic and temperature fields. Focus switching was employed to enlarge the area of temperature increase and evaluate the proposed evaluation parameters with respect to safety and uniformity. The results indicate that focus switching can effectively expand the thermal lesion while maintaining a steep thermal boundary. In addition, the influence caused by the thin-film thermocouple array was estimated experimentally. This thermocouple was demonstrated to be an effective tool for the measurement of temperature distributions induced by HIFU.

  13. Effect of aluminium on dissolved organic matter mineralization in an allophanic and kaolinitic temperate rain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Carolina; Matus, Francisco; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) and it influence on the mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and thus on carbon (C) sequestration in forest soils is poorly understood. We hypothesized that an addition of Al to the soil solution beyond a molar Al:C ratio of 0.1, induces precipitation of the organic matter which leads to an excess Al in the soil solution causing an inhibitory effect for growing microorganisms. We investigated the effect of Al concentrations for the potential of C biodegradation at different Al:C ratios from DOM and Ah mineral soil horizons from two temperate rain forest soils from southern Chile. Dissolved organic matter and surface mineral horizons were incubated with initial molar Al:C ratio from 0.08 to 1.38 found under at field conditions. Mineralization was quantified by measurement of C-CO2 evolved during 15 days. Increasing the initial Al:C ratio > 0.12, led to a considerable reduction in mineralization (up to 70%). For Al:C ratio < 0.12, the mineralization rates from DOM and mineral soils were unaffected. Consequently, there would be a considerable reduction in the biodegradation of DOM and thus an increased in the C sequestration in mineral soils with molar Al:C ratio > 0.12. The observed DOM losses in the stream water of pristine southern forests can be explained by increasing the bioavailability of organic C for Al:C ratio < 0.12. Aluminium concentration had a marked effect at the spectral ART-FTIR bands assigned to cellulose-like and aromatic compounds in Ah mineral soil, diminishing the mineralization. The present results were also confirmed by the Al fluorescence using a confocal microscopy.

  14. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  15. Effects of fungicides mancozeb and dinocap on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils.

    PubMed

    Cernohlávková, Jitka; Jarkovský, Jirí; Hofman, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    In our study, effects of fungicides mancozeb and dinocap on C and N mineralization were measured in arable and grassland soil. The soils were treated with these fungicides at the application and 10 times lower doses and then incubated at 20 degrees C for 2 weeks. Carbon mineralization (basal and substrate-induced respiration) and nitrogen mineralization (potential ammonification and nitrification) were evaluated 1 and 14 days after the treatment. After 14 days, ammonification was decreased to 48% and 83% at dinocap application dose in arable and grassland soil, respectively. Application dose of mancozeb caused significant decrease of nitrification to 11.2% and 5.6% in arable and grassland soil, respectively. Basal respiration and substrate-induced growth were rather stimulated by fungicides, especially at lower application doses. To conclude, potential risk may exist to soil microorganisms and their activities in soils treated routinely by mancozeb or dinocap.

  16. Vertebrae length and ultra-structure measurements of collagen fibrils and mineral content in the vertebrae of lordotic gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Boursiaki, Vaia; Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Mente, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal deformities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are a major factor affecting the production cost, the external morphology and survival and growth of the fish. Adult individuals of S. aurata were collected from a commercial fish farm in Greece and were divided into two groups: one with the presence of lordosis, a skeletal deformity, and one without any skeletal deformity. Fishes were X-rayed, and cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae lengths were measured. Vertebrae were taken from the site of the vertebral column where lordosis occurred. One part was decalcified and prepared for collagen examination with transmission electron microscopy, and the rest were incinerated, and the Ca and P contents were measured. The stoichiometries of the samples were obtained by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The same procedure was followed for fish without skeletal deformities (vertebrae were taken from the middle region of the vertebral column). The decalcified vertebrae parts were examined with TEM, collagen micrographs were taken and the fibrils' periods and diameters were measured. There were no significant differences for both Ca and P or the collagen fibrils' periods between the two fish groups. The mean lengths of the cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae where lordosis occurred were similar to the lengths of the respective regions of the individuals without the skeletal deformity. The TEM examination showed a significantly smaller mean vertebrae collagen fibril diameter from the fishes with lordosis compared with those from the controls, revealing the significance of collagen to bone structure.

  17. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  18. The measurement of the ionospheric total content variations caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the perturbations of total electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.

  19. Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Devon; Smith, Richard S.; Mahmoodi, Omid

    2016-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to acquire conductivity data using the EM39 low-induction-number conductivity tool. Measurements were taken in three holes in the Sudbury, Ontario, area: at Victoria in the south-west part of the Sudbury structure; at Levack, in the north range; and at the Lady Violet deposit near Copper Cliff. These data were compared with pre-existing data acquired using four other tools and measurements taken on core extracted from the holes. The four tools are the DGI galvanic downhole resistivity tool, the IFG downhole conductivity tool, and the handheld KT-10 and GDD meters. The comparison shows that each tool has a finite range of sensitivity. The resistivity tool used by DGI Geoscience is sensitive to conductivities primarily in the range 0.01 to 100 mS/m; the EM39 tool is sensitive to conductivities in the range of ~30 mS/m to 3000 mS/m and the IFG tool to conductivities greater than 30 mS/m. In the sub-ranges where the ranges of two instruments overlap, one might expect a good correlation between the measurements derived from the two tools. However, this is not always the case, as the instruments can have a different volume of sensitivity: the EM39 has a coil separation of 50 cm and will see material greater than 20 cm away from the hole; whereas the IFG conductivity tool seems to have a smaller spatial scale of sensitivity due to its 10 cm coil size. The handheld instruments used to log the conductivity of the core are sensitive to more conductive material (greater than ~1 S/m). The scale of the sensors of these handheld instruments is a few cm, so they are focussing on a very local estimate. The spatial characteristics of the handheld instruments are similar to the IFG tool, so there is a reasonable linear correlation between the conductivities derived from these three different instruments. However, the slopes are not unity; for example, the GDD instrument gives values three times greater than the KT-10. When selecting tools for measuring

  20. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  1. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  2. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  3. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  4. Biomineralization of magnetic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.

    1995-07-01

    New developments and discoveries in biomineralization have occurred almost continuously in the intervening decade since the previous IUGG quadrennial report on biomineralization and biomagnetism was published [Kirschvink, 1983]. Biomineralization is widespread in the biosphere and over 60 different inorganic minerals are produced by a variety of organisms from bacteria to humans [Lowenstam and Weiner, 1989]. The literature on biomineralization is interdisplinary, combining research in microbiology, biotechnology, physics, geology, and paleomagnetism. For paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, iron biomineralization of magnetic minerals is of prime importance. From a paleomagnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals can be deposited in sediments and acquire a natural remanent magnetization that preserves a record of the ancient geomagnetic field. From a rock magnetism perspective, biogenic magnetic minerals provide novel sources of magnetic material for experimental studies in fine particle magnetism. Both perspectives are interrelated through a common goal of developing magnetic techniques to detect biogenic magnetic minerals in sediments and soils. For example, the extent to which iron biominerals contribute to the fine-grained magnetic mineral assemblages in freshwater and marine sediments is important for identifying and interpreting the magnetic record of environmental change [Oldfield, 1992; Reynolds and King, this issue].

  5. Minerals: the resource gap

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1980-10-01

    US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

  6. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  9. Sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Rozas, Oscar; Vergara, Carola; Mansilla, Héctor D; Gracia-Pinilla, M A; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-03-01

    Norflurazon (4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridazin-3(2H)-one; C12H9ClF3N3O) is an excellent weed controlling agent being practiced in the agricultural lands. The excessive addition or the undissolved Norflurazon (maximum solubility 28 mg/L at 25 °C) enters into the aquatic environment and causes the adverse effects associated with its high concentration. To avoid the perilous effects, visible light assisted photocatalysis set-up coupled with the 42 kHz ultrasound producing bath type sonicator is used to completely mineralize the Norflurazon. TiO2, ZnO and gold loaded zinc oxide nanocatalysts were utilized to study the mineralization of Norflurazon. Au-ZnO shows the greater efficiency for the sonophotocatalytic removal of Norflurazon among the various nanocatalysts employed to study the mineralization. The order of Norflurazon mineralization was sonophotocatalysis > sonocatalysis > photocatalysis. The additive effect was achieved for the sonophotocatalytic degradation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LCMS) analyses were employed to identify the various intermediates produced during the mineralization. The identification of four pseudo molecular ions and various intermediates using the LCMS analysis evidently suggests the sonophotocatalytic degradation was preceded in various decay pathways. A suitable mechanism has been proposed for the sonophotocatalytic mineralization of Norflurazon.

  10. Examining Non-Linear Associations between Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and All-Cause Mortality Using Segmented Cox Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952–5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from

  11. Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Rabiu; Muxworthy, Adrian; Sephton, Mark; Fraser, Alastair

    2013-04-01

    Experimental investigation of magnetic mineral formation in hydrocarbon environments Rabiu Abubakar, Adrian Muxworthy, Mark Septhon and Alastair Fraser Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London Magnetic anomalies have been observed over oil fields from aeromagnetic surveys. These anomalies have been linked with the presence of hydrocarbons and that has generated a lot of interest over possible application of magnetism in the exploration of oil and gas but there has also been debate over the origin of the magnetic minerals causing the magnetic anomaly. Our approach was to generate crude oil in the lab using three source rocks from the Wessex Basin, England, which is a hydrocarbon province. The source rocks were the Kimmeridge Clay, Oxford Clay and the Blue Lias. The source rocks were powered and pyrolysed in a high pressure vessel. The crude oil was then extracted and the magnetic signal of the remaining pyrolysate measured. We discovered a significant contrast in the magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic properties between the pyrolysate and the unpyrolysed (immature) source rocks. We will present the preliminary results, which indicate that magnetic minerals were generated as a result of heat and therefore related linked to maturation of the source rocks

  12. Mineral/Water Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  13. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  14. Assessing mineral metabolism in children using stable isotopes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral metabolism may be altered in children with acute or chronic illnesses. The effects may be short term, such as hypomagnesemia associated with chemotherapy, or long-term, such as loss of bone mineral mass after steroid use. Understanding the causes, consequences, and potential therapies for mi...

  15. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  16. Rheological Characterization of Bioinspired Mineralization in Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regitsky, Abigail; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    With increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere linked to potentially catastrophic climate change, it is critical that we find methods to permanently sequester and store CO2. Inspired by the natural biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), one future goal of this project is to understand the mechanisms of CaCO3 mineralization in order to ultimately optimize a bioinspired hydrogel system, which produces high value industrial powders that consume CO2 as a feedstock. Along the way, we are developing a rheological technique to study mineral nucleation and growth events by measuring the modulations in mechanical properties of a hydrogel system during mineralization. Our initial system consists of a gelatin hydrogel matrix, which is preloaded with calcium ions, and an aqueous solution of carbonate ions, which are allowed to diffuse through the gel to initiate the mineralization process. In order to monitor how the growth of minerals affects the mechanical properties of the gel network, we measure the storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli of the system in situ. Future work will focus on modifying the properties of the minerals formed by changing the polymer used in the hydrogel network and adding other organic molecules into the system.

  17. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  19. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  20. Magnetic composites from minerals: study of the iron phases in clay and diatomite using Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M.; Maciel, J. C.; Quispe-Marcatoma, J.; Pandey, B.; Neri, D. F. M.; Soria, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; de Carvalho, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic particles as matrix for enzyme immobilization have been used and due to the enzymatic derivative can be easily removed from the reaction mixture by a magnetic field. This work presents a study about the synthesis and characterization of iron phases into magnetic montmorillonite clay (mMMT) and magnetic diatomaceous earth (mDE) by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also these magnetic materials were assessed as matrices for the immobilization of invertase via covalent binding. Mössbauer spectra of the magnetic composites performed at 4.2 K showed a mixture of magnetite and maghemite about equal proportion in the mMMT, and a pure magnetite phase in the sample mDE. These results were verified using XRD. The residual specific activity of the immobilized invertase on mMMT and mDE were 83 % and 92.5 %, respectively. Thus, both magnetic composites showed to be promising matrices for covalent immobilization of invertase.

  1. The life cycle of a mineral deposit: a teacher's guide for hands-on mineral education activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Dave; Galloway, John; Assmus, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide defines what a mineral deposit is and how a mineral deposit is identified and measured, how the mineral resources are extracted, and how the mining site is reclaimed; how minerals and mineral resources are processed; and how we use mineral resources in our every day lives. Included are 10 activitybased learning exercises that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals. The guide is intended for K through 12 Earth science teachers and students and is designed to meet the National Science Content Standards as defined by the National Research Council (1996). To assist in the understanding of some of the geology and mineral terms, see the Glossary (appendix 1) and Minerals and Their Uses (appendix 2). The process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering the resource, also known as beneficiation, and reclaiming the land mined can be described as the “life cycle” of a mineral deposit. The complete process is time consuming and expensive, requiring the use of modern technology and equipment, and may take many years to complete. Sometimes one entity or company completes the entire process from discovery to reclamation, but often it requires multiple groups with specialized experience working together. Mineral deposits are the source of many important commodities, such as copper and gold, used by our society, but it is important to realize that mineral deposits are a nonrenewable resource. Once mined, they are exhausted, and another source must be found. New mineral deposits are being continuously created by the Earth but may take millions of years to form. Mineral deposits differ from renewable resources, such as agricultural and timber products, which may be replenished within a few months to several years.

  2. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  3. High-precision measurements of (33)S and (34)S fractionation during SO2 oxidation reveal causes of seasonality in SO2 and sulfate isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Harris, Eliza; Sinha, Bärbel; Hoppe, Peter; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents high-precision isotope ratio-mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic fractionation during oxidation of SO2 by OH radicals in the gas phase and H2O2 and transition metal ion catalysis (TMI-catalysis) in the aqueous phase. Although temperature dependence of fractionation factors was found to be significant for H2O2 and TMI-catalyzed pathways, results from a simple 1D model revealed that changing partitioning between oxidation pathways was the dominant cause of seasonality in the isotopic composition of sulfate relative to SO2. Comparison of modeled seasonality with observations shows the TMI-catalyzed oxidation pathway is underestimated by more than an order of magnitude in all current atmospheric chemistry models. The three reactions showed an approximately mass-dependent relationship between (33)S and (34)S. However, the slope of the mass-dependent line was significantly different to 0.515 for the OH and TMI-catalyzed pathways, reflecting kinetic versus equilibrium control of isotopic fractionation. For the TMI-catalyzed pathway, both temperature dependence and (33)S/(34)S relationship revealed a shift in the rate-limiting reaction step from dissolution at lower temperatures to TMI-sulfite complex formation at higher temperatures. 1D model results showed that although individual reactions could produce Δ(33)S values between -0.15 and +0.2‰, seasonal changes in partitioning between oxidation pathways caused average sulfate Δ(33)S values of 0‰ throughout the year.

  4. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments

  5. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease: evidence, definition, measurement, atherogenicity, high risk patients, and present and future treatment.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg/dL) in levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol associates with a 2.8-fold increased risk of IHD, independently of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Results from genetic studies also show that elevated levels of remnant cholesterol are causally associated with both low-grade inflammation and IHD. However, elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with IHD, but not with low-grade inflammation. Such results indicate that elevated LDL cholesterol levels cause atherosclerosis without a major inflammatory component, whereas an inflammatory component of atherosclerosis is driven by elevated remnant cholesterol levels. Post-hoc subgroup analyses of randomized trials using fibrates in individuals with elevated triglyceride levels, elevated remnant cholesterol levels, show a benefit of lowering triglycerides or remnant cholesterol levels; however, large randomized trials with the primary target of lowering remnant cholesterol levels are still missing.

  6. Rock expansion caused by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, C.; Gray, A.

    2013-12-01

    It has during many years been reported that materials' elastic modulus decrease when exposed to influences like mechanical impacts, ultrasound, magnetic fields, electricity and even humidity. Non-perfect atomic structures like rocks, concrete, or damaged metals exhibit a larger effect. This softening has most often been recorded by wave resonance measurements. The motion towards equilibrium is slow - often taking hours or days, which is why the effect is called Slow Dynamics [1]. The question had been raised, if a material expansion also occurs. 'The most fundamental parameter to consider is the volume expansion predicted to occur when positive hole charge carriers become activated, causing a decrease of the electron density in the O2- sublattice of the rock-forming minerals. This decrease of electron density should affect essentially all physical parameters, including the volume.' [2]. A new type of configuration has measured expansion of a rock subjected to ultrasound. A PZT was used as a pressure sensor while the combined thickness of the rock sample and the PZT sensor was held fixed. The expansion increased the stress in both the rock and the PZT, which gave an out-put voltage from the PZT. Knowing its material properties then made it possible to calculate the rock expansion. The equivalent strain caused by the ultrasound was approximately 3 x 10-5. The temperature was monitored and accounted for during the tests and for the maximum expansion the increase was 0.7 C, which means the expansion is at least to some degree caused by heating of the material by the ultrasound. The fraction of bonds activated by ultrasound was estimated to be around 10-5. References: [1] Guyer, R.A., Johnson, P.A.: Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soils, Concrete. Wiley-VCH 2009 [2] M.M. Freund, F.F. Freund, Manipulating the Toughness of Rocks through Electric Potentials, Final Report CIF 2011 Award NNX11AJ84A, NAS Ames 2012.

  7. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  8. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone: Column Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Dever, S.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.; Michael, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    While it is well known that organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from degradation, its impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Strong evidence has shown that the adsorption of OM to mineral surface accelerates the dissolution of some minerals, but these observations are limited to bench-scale experiments that focus on specific OM and minerals. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing OM sorption on minerals. Soil samples from two depths, 0-6cm and 84-100cm, were chosen to represent different soil OM content and soil mineralogy. Soil OM was removed stepwise by heating samples to 350℃ for different durations (0-6cm: 100% removed, ~50% removed, and no removal; 84-100cm: 100% removed and no removal). Pretreated soil samples were subjected to flow-through, saturated column experiments using 0.01M LiCl and 5%CO2/95%air gas saturated (pH = 4.5) influent solution. Each column treatment was run in duplicate under a constant flow rate (Darcy velocity ≈ 8cm/hr). All columns reached a steady state after 600~700 pore volumes at which effluent pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and element concentrations were constant. At the 95% significance level, the DOC from OM-present columns was significantly higher, as expected. Correspondingly, effluent pH was lower in higher OM content columns. The chemical denudation rates were calculated from the effluent concentrations of the elements of interest. For the soil columns from both depths, silicon (Si) leaching rate showed that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-3 times higher in OM-removed columns, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes suppress mineral dissolution. The N2-BET specific surface area (SSA) measurement also showed that the removal of OM increased SSA, which supported the idea that OM adsorption had decreased mineral exposure and thus decreased mineral dissolution. The leaching rates of some

  9. Water erosion as a cause for agricultural soil loss: modeling of dynamic processes using high-resolution ground based LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Filin, Sagi; Assouline, Shmuel; Shtain, Zachi; Furman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by rainfall and water flow is a frequent natural geomorphic process shaping the earth's surface at various scales. Conventional agrotechnical methods enhance soil erosion at the field scale and are at the origin of the reduction of the upper soil layer depth. This reduction is expressed in two aspects: decrease of soil depth, mainly due to erosion, and the diminution of soil quality, mainly due to the loss of fine material, nutrients and organic matter. Rain events, not even the most extremes, cause detachment and transport of fertile soil rich in organic matter and nutrients away from the fields, filling and plugging drainage channels, blocking infrastructure and contaminating water sources. Empirical, semi-empirical and mechanistic models are available to estimate soil erosion by water flow and sediment transport (e.g. WEPP, KINEROSS, EUROSEM). Calibration of these models requires data measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Development of high-resolution measurement tools (for both spatial and temporal aspects) should improve the calibration of functions related to particles detachment and transport from the soil surface. In addition, despite the great impact of different tillage systems on the soil erosion process, the vast majority of the models ignore this fundamental factor. The objective of this study is to apply high-resolution ground-based LiDAR measurements to different tillage schemes and scales to improve the ability of models to accurately describe the process of soil erosion induced by rainfall and overland flow. Ground-based laser scans provide high resolution accurate and subtle geomorphic changes, as well as larger-scale deformations. As such, it allows frequent monitoring, so that even the effect of a single storm can be measured, thus improving the calibration of the erosion models. Preliminary results for scans made in the field show the potential and limitations of ground-based LiDAR, and at this point qualitatively can

  10. Government Quality Measures: First Do No Harm.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B

    2015-01-01

    A technical expert panel (TEP) was convened to evaluate all available literature in the area of bone and mineral metabolism and advise the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services on the creation and collection of quality measures. The proposed quality measures were evaluated for importance, usability, feasibility, and scientific acceptability. All are important parameters to avoid unintended harmful consequences of a quality measure causing harm to patients or to the delivery of their health care.

  11. Mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G.; Wisniewski, P.

    1983-12-15

    A mineral mining installation serves to win mineral by explosive blasting. The installation employs a shuttle conveyor arranged alongside a mineral face. Roof supports stand side-by-side at the side of the conveyor remote from the conveyor. The roof supports are connected to the conveyor through shifting rams and have roof-engageable caps or the like supported on hydraulic props. The pans of the conveyor have upstanding walls at the rear side nearest the roof supports which carry rails at their upper ends. The roof caps have wall components pivoted thereto and hydraulic piston and cylinder units serve to swing the wall components up and down. When explosive blasting takes place the wall components are swung down to engage on the walls of the conveyor pans to form a screen between the winning region and the access region of the working.

  12. Performance analysis of mineral mapping method to delineate mineralization zones under tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakila, M. H.; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Susanto, A.

    2016-09-01

    Geothermal explorations and productions are currently being intensively conducted at certain areas in Indonesia such as Wayang Windu Geothermal Field (WWGF) in West Java, Indonesia. The WWGF is located at wide area covering about 40 km2. An accurate method to map the distribution of heterogeneity minerals is necessary for wide areas such as WWGF. Mineral mapping is an important method in geothermal explorations to determine the distribution of minerals which indicate the surface manifestations of geothermal system. This study is aimed to determine the most precise and accurate methods for minerals mapping at geothermal field. Field measurements were performed to assess the accuracy of three proposed methods: 1) Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), utilizing the linear transformation method to eliminate the correlation among the spectra bands and to reduce the noise in the data, 2) Pixel Purity Index (PPI), a designed method to find the most extreme spectrum pixels and their characteristics due to end-members mixing, 3) Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), an image classification technique by measuring the spectral similarity between an unknown object with spectral reference in n- dimension. The output of those methods were mineral distribution occurrence. The performance of each mapping method was analyzed based on the ground truth data. Among the three proposed method, the SAM classification method is the most appropriate and accurate for mineral mapping related to spatial distribution of alteration minerals.

  13. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term.

  14. Mineral find highlights cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

  15. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  16. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  17. Mapping playa evaporite minerals with AVIRIS data: A first report from death valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts in Death Valley, California, were mapped by using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and a recently developed least-squares spectral band-fitting algorithm. Eight different saline minerals were remotely identified, including three borates, hydroboracite, pinnoite, and rivadavite, that have not been previously reported from the Death Valley efflorescent crusts. The three borates are locally important phases in the crusts, and at least one of the minerals, rivadavite, appears to be forming directly from brine. Borates and other evaporite minerals provide a basis for making remote chemical measurements of desert hydrologic systems. For example, in the Eagle Borax Spring area, the AVIRIS mineral maps pointed to elevated magnesium and boron levels in the ground waters, and to the action of chemical divides causing subsurface fractionation of calcium. Many other chemical aspects of playa brines should have an expression in the associated evaporite assemblages. Certain anhydrous evaporites, including anhydrite, glauberite, and thenardite, lack absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range, and crusts composed of these minerals could not be characterized by using AVIRIS. In these situations, thermal-infrared remote sensing data may complement visible and near-infrared data for mapping evaporites. Another problem occurred in wet areas of Death Valley, where water absorption caused low signal levels in the 2.0-2.5 ??m wavelength region that obscured any spectral features of evaporite minerals. Despite these difficulties, the results of this study demonstrate the potential for using AVIRIS and other imaging spectrometer data to study playa chemistry. Such data can be useful for understanding chemical linkages between evaporites and ground waters, and will facilitate studies of how desert ground-water regimes change through time in response to climatic and other variables. ?? 1993.

  18. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. A Novel Mineral Flotation Process Using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Toru; Ohmura, Naoya; Saiki, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals. PMID:10427053

  20. Injuries among Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kyeremateng-Amoah, E.; Clarke, Edith E.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold miners are confronted with numerous hazards often resulting in varying degrees of injuries and fatalities. In Ghana, like many developing countries, there is paucity of information on the causes and nature of the accidents that result in the injuries. The study was a retrospective, cross sectional type that examined the records of injuries of artisanal and small-scale gold miners presented to the emergency department of a district hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana from 2006 to 2013. The causes, types, and outcomes of reported injuries were analyzed for 72 cases. Occurrences of mining accidents reported in selected Ghanaian media during the year 2007–2012 were also analyzed to corroborate the causes of the accidents. Fractures and contusions constituted the most frequently occurring injuries, with collapse of the mine pits and falls being the most frequent cause of accidents reported both by the hospital and media records. This study shows that though varied degrees of injuries occur among the miners, the potential for serious injuries is substantial. Measures to reduce the incidence of injuries and fatalities should include education and training on the use of safe working tools and means of creating a safe working environment. PMID:26404345

  1. Hand injuries in south Wales coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, W J; Harrop, S N

    1985-01-01

    Fifty eight coal miners attended the Royal Gwent Accident and Emergency Department with serious hand injuries over a three year period. The commonest cause of the injuries was falling rock or coal from the pit roof crushing the hand and the commonest type of injury was the crushed, compound fracture of the terminal phalangeal area of the digit, with or without pulp loss. Records of the time off work with the injury were obtained in 52 miners. Only seven (13%) returned to work within one month. Of 40 individual distal phalangeal injuries reviewed after one year, only four (10%) had normal sensation and full movement at the distal joint. Nevertheless, only seven miners (13%) had to alter their initial occupation at the mine and move to lighter duties. Images PMID:4074655

  2. Minerals Price Increases and Volatility: Causes and Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-03

    iron in blast furnaces as their principal ingredient for making steel. U.S. Steel, the largest single steelmaker in North America, supplies 100% of its...steelmakers worldwide is the cost of coking coal. “Annual benchmark ... prices ... have jumped to around $250 to $300 per ton recently from less than

  3. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P < 0.05). Water consumption decreased 5.9 times while total fluid consumption increased 1.6-1.9 times in the group consuming cola drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). While we did not detect any pathological oesophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  4. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  5. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  6. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  7. Atrazine mineralization potential in two wetlands.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen L; Wheeler, Kevin A; Robinson, Jayne B; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2002-11-01

    The fate of atrazine in agricultural soils has been studied extensively but attenuation in wetland systems has received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mineralization of atrazine in two wetlands in central Ohio. One was a constructed wetland, which is fed by Olentangy River water from an agricultural catchment area. The other was a natural fen (Cedar Bog) in proximity to atrazine-treated cornfields. Atrazine mineralization potential was measured by 14CO2 evolution from [U-ring-14C]-atrazine in biometers. The constructed wetland showed 70-80% mineralization of atrazine within 1 month. Samples of wetland water that were pre-concentrated 200-fold by centrifugation also mineralized 60-80% of the added atrazine. A high extent of atrazine mineralization (75-81% mineralized) was also associated with concentrated water samples from the Olentangy River that were collected upstream and downstream of the wetland. The highest levels of mineralization were localized to the top 5 cm zone of the wetland sediment, and the activity close to the outflow at the Olentangy wetland was approximately equal to that near the inflow. PCR amplification of DNA extracted from the wetland sediment samples showed no positive signals for the atzA gene (atrazine chlorohydrolase), while Southern blots of the amplified DNA showed positive bands in five of the six Olentangy wetland sediment samples. Amplification with the trzD (cyanuric acid amidohydrolase) primers showed a positive PCR signal for all Olentangy wetland sediment samples. There was little mineralization of atrazine in any of the Cedar Bog samples. DNA extracted from Cedar Bog samples did not yield PCR products, and the corresponding Southern hybridization signals were absent. The data show that sediment microbial communities in the Olentangy wetland mineralize atrazine. The level of activity may be related to the seasonality of atrazine runoff entering the wetland. Comparable activity was not

  8. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  9. Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Oberfield, S.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.; Zemel, B. S.; Hangartner, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. Introduction Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. Methods We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined. Results At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. Conclusions If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  13. Combined aerosol in-situ measurements during the SALTRACE field experiment for the investigation of Saharan mineral dust microphysical and CCN properties and their spatial-temporal evolution during trans-Atlantic long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walser, Adrian; Dollner, Maximilian; Sauer, Daniel; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) was a field experiment conducted in June/July 2013, which aimed to investigate the transport and modification of Saharan mineral dust from the Sahara across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. In addition to ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing, the DLR Falcon research aircraft was equipped with a number of aerosol in-situ instruments to gain direct information on the properties of airborne aerosol such as size distributions, microphysical, optical and cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) properties. For the first time, several outbreaks of Saharan dust were probed with the same airborne instrumentation on both sides of the Atlantic. During transport, various processes may take place that modify the aerosol composition. Dry and wet deposition lead to a size-dependent aerosol removal. In case of wet deposition, the removal additionally depends on the particle's ability to act as CCN. Processes in the aqueous phase in subsequently re-evaporating cloud droplets can further alter microphysical and CCN properties of re-released particles. All resulting changes in the size distribution and particle properties impact the radiative feedback and CCN activity of the aged aerosol. This study aims to use combined airborne in-situ measurements to retrieve and compare vertically resolved aerosol size distributions, microphysical and CCN properties for both, short-range transported Saharan dust in the Cape Verde region and long-range transported dust in the Caribbean. We use this data to investigate the influence of long-range transport and associated processes on those properties. We will present vertical profiles of size-resolved aerosol concentrations and volatile fractions as well as CCN activated fractions and draw conclusions for aerosol mixing state, CCN activation diameters and particle hygroscopicities. We will discuss differences in vertical profiles and

  14. Pulmonary disability in former Appalachian coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective case-control study was undertaken to assess respiratory disability in 133 former coal miners who were claimants for "black lung" benefits. Consecutive assignment was made to either case or control group based on their chest radiograph having shown coal workers' pneumoconiosis or no coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A respiratory occupational survey was completed with physical examination that placed special emphasis on the cardiorespiratory systems. Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing while 92 of these also received arterial blood gases to assess respiratory disability and pulmonary insufficiency. Arterial blood gases were superior to spirometry in assessment of pulmonary insufficiency/disability. Smoking interacts with coal workers' pneumoconiosis to cause pulmonary insufficiency. The most frequent spirometric pattern was obstructive. Disability was caused by occupational injuries and comorbidities, both of which occurred with greater frequency in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis than in controls. Pulmonary insufficiency appears to be a better discriminator than respiratory disability in coal miners, suggesting that arterial blood gases replace spirometry in their evaluation. Greater emphasis on smoking intervention among coal miners should be given. Images Figure PMID:8803434

  15. A possible analytical and clinical role of endogenous antibodies causing discrepant adrenocorticotropic hormone measurement in a case of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saiegh, Leonard; Odeh, Majed; Chen-Konak, Limor; Elias, Nizar; Sheikh-Ahmad, Mohammad; Reut, Maria; Slobodin, Gleb; Bejar, Jacob; Shechner, Carmela

    2014-07-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are well described, but poorly appreciated interferents and is often not a recognized problem affecting most immunoassays. We report a patient presented with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS), but repeated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range and not elevated, most probably as a result of antibody interference. A 36-year-old woman, presented with large gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and severe ectopic CS, while repeated plasma ACTH concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range. As we expected ACTH concentration to be higher, we performed several tests to evaluate whether there was any assay interference causing falsely lower than expected ACTH results. We measured ACTH using a different immunoassay, assayed the sample in dilution, assayed the sample after being incubated in heterophilic antibody blocking agent tube and performed recovery studies. Tests indicated the presence of interfering compounds, most probably heterophilic antibodies. When clinicians find ACTH concentrations to be lower than expected, we recommend the laboratory investigate antibody interference.

  16. Infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of carbonaceous chondrites: Amount of hydrous minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared diffuse reflectance spectra (2.53-25 microns) of some carbonaceous (C) chondrites were measured. The integrated intensity of the absorption bands near 3 microns caused by hydrous minerals were compared with the modal content of hydrous minerals for the meteorites. The CM and CI chondrites show larger values of the intergated intensity than those of the unique C chondrites Y82162, Y86720 and B7904, suggesting that the amount of hydrous minerals in the CM and CI chondrites is larger, which supports the contention that hydrous minerals were dehydrated by thermal metamorphism in the unique chondrites. Orgueil (CI) has the largest value of the integrated intensity among the C chondrites we measured and shows a sharp absorption band at 3685/cm (2.71 microns) that is not seen in the spectra of the CM chondrites. There is an excellent correlation between the observed hydrogen content in C chondrites and the integrated intensity. The CM chondrites show a wide variation in the strength of absorption bands at 1470/cm (6.8 microns), despite the similarity in absorption features near 3 micron for all CM chondites. The 1470/cm band could be due to the presence of some hydrocarbons but may also be a result of terrestrial alteration processes.

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  19. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  20. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  1. Mineral bridges in nacre.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2011-12-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (>100nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (<60nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  2. Mixtures and Mineral Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.

    The monograph Mixtures and Mineral Reactions contains a large amount of information of value to mineralogists, petrologists, and geochemists. The first four chapters are a succinct account of the thermodynamic description of crystalline solutions. In these early chapters a comparison is made between different mathematical treatments of activitycomposition models, there is a discussion of the unmixing by exsolution of a single solution into two phases, and methods of computing phase equilibria in assemblages of different minerals are given. If the reader is perplexed by the discussion of standard states (cf. Figure 1.3), not to worry. That is a normal condition for anyone forced to choose between equivalent reference frames yet knowing, somewhere down the line, that the choice will ultimately make one's computational life more or less difficult.

  3. Trace minerals in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kasama, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The kidneys are famously responsible for maintaining external balance of prevalent minerals, such as sodium, chloride, and potassium. The kidney's role in handling trace minerals is more obscure to most nephrologists. Similarly, the impact of kidney failure on trace mineral metabolism is difficult to anticipate. The associated dietary modifications and dialysis create the potential for trace mineral deficiencies and intoxications. Indeed, there are numerous reports of dialysis-associated mishaps causing mineral intoxication, notable for the challenge of assigning causation. Equally challenging has been the recognition of mineral deficiency syndromes, amid what is often a cacophony of multiple comorbidities that vie for the attention of clinicians who care for patients with chronic kidney disease. In this paper, I review a variety of minerals, some of which are required for maintenance of normal human physiology (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of essential minerals), and some that have attracted attention in the care of dialysis patients. For each mineral, I will discuss its role in normal physiology and will review reported deficiency and toxicity states. I will point out the interesting inter-relationships between several of the elements. Finally, I will address the special concerns of aluminum and magnesium as they pertain to the dialysis population.

  4. Changes in mineral soil biogeochemical cycling and environmental conditions following tree harvest in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern United States, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions have been attempted by using local wood as a renewable alternative to oil. Although woody biomass products are readily available, recent findings suggest that forest disturbance may cause release of carbon from the deeper mineral soil. Worldwide, deep soils sequester more than half of soil carbon, making it critical in the global carbon cycle; however, most studies on the effect of harvesting have focused on the organic soil horizon. Our research aimed to uncover changes in biogeochemistry and environmental conditions in deeper, mineral soil after clear cutting forests. We quantified post-harvest mineral soil carbon pools through a regional study. We utilized stands of different ages to measure the recovery of soil carbon over time since harvest. Stands included in this study were cut approximately 5, 12, 25, 50, or 120 ybp, in order to identify changes in soil carbon over time since harvest. We sampled harvested stands in six research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the surface of the mineral soil using a gas-powered augur and 9.5 cm diameter drill bit. Soil samples were analyzed at Dartmouth College. In order to understand specific changes in mineral soil carbon dynamics following harvest, measurements of carbon fluxes, such as soil respiration and DOC transport were conducted at five different-aged stands at Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. While parameters that may influence carbon storage—such as pH, clay content, tree cover and elevation— did not vary across the different-aged stands in each forest, carbon pools did vary over time. We found changes in carbon pools in at least three experimental forests across the northeast. At Bartlett Experimental Forest, we found a gradual decline in mineral soil carbon storage from between 85-87 Mg ha-1 in 120 year old and primary forest stands

  5. Remote Pulsed-Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Angel, S. M.; Ghosh, M.; Hubble, H. W.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectra of carbonate, silicate, and hydrous silicate and sulfate minerals, our new remote-pulsed Raman system, indicating that it can be used to analyze the minerals on planetary surfaces to a distance of 10 to 66 meters. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  7. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    .... 34-63793; File No. S7-40-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary... that issuer to disclose in the body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated...

  8. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  11. Rocks, minerals, and a dusty world

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Earth`s troposphere and hydrosphere contain abundant naturally generated dust. The ultimate source materials from which the terrestrially produced dust is generated are the various rock types exposed at the Earth`s surface. Natural dust is a composite of (1) lithic, primary mineral grains; (2) mineral grains formed by secondary chemical reactions; (3) volcanic ash and dust; (4) salts from sea sprays; (5) extra-terrestrial dust; and (6) biologic materials. In this paper the various pathways to the natural generation of dust (via the hydrologic cycle) will be discussed, and two geologically well-known natural dust sources will be described, paying particular attention to quantitative measurements of the dusts from these areas. General dust studies that provide data on possibly global background levels will be presented as well.. A few general aspects of the mineralogical characterization of dust particles and a discussion of some of the mineralogy of several mineral groups are first presented. 89 refs., 39 figs.

  12. Rare gases in cyclosilicates and cogenetic minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Dragon, J. C.; Zashu, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclosilicate minerals, beryl, tourmaline, and cordierite, typically contain large amounts of He-4 and Ar-40 which are not in situ radiogenic products. In the study of excess rare gases in cyclosilicates, one of the most enigmatic observations is the age effect, a qualitative tendency for geologically older samples to contain more excess He-4 and Ar-40 than younger samples. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the abundance and isotopic composition of all five rare gases in a number of cyclosilicates as well as in their cogenetic minerals. The significance of the obtained data is discussed. The data indicate that cyclosilicates sample the rare gases present in the environment in which they crystallize. This 'sampling' involves major elemental fractionations which are variable but mineral specific. Cyclosilicates can, therefore, be used to probe the isotopic ratios and elemental compositions.

  13. Monitoring iron mineralization processes using nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Kristina

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements can be used to probe the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of water in the pore space of geological materials. In geophysics, NMR relaxation measurements are used in to measure water content and estimate permeability in the top 100 m of Earth's surface. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to determine if NMR can also be used in geophysical applications to monitor iron mineralization processes associated with contaminant remediation. The first part of the research presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effect of iron mineral form and redox state on the NMR relaxation response of water in geologic material. Laboratory NMR measurements were made on Fe(III)-bearing minerals (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, and hematite), Fe(II)-bearing minerals (siderite, pyrite, and troilite), and a mixed valence iron-bearing mineral (magnetite). The results of these measurements show that the relaxation rate of water is strongly dependent on the mineral form of iron. Shown in the final section of this thesis are results from an experiment exploring temporal changes in the measured NMR relaxation rates during the reaction of ferrihydrite with aqueous Fe(II). These results show that NMR can be used to monitor temporal chemical changes in iron minerals. I conclude that this research shows that NMR indeed has the potential to be used as a tool for monitoring geochemical reactions associated with contaminant remediation.

  14. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  15. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Roberto; Carnelli, Lino; Simon, Anna; Kao, Albert; Monforte, Alessandra d'Arminio; Riccò, Moreno; Bianchi, Daniele; Belcher, Angela

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a biologically catalyzed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was modeled and evaluated at an industrial scale. A yeast display system in Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to screen several carbonic anhydrase isoforms and mineralization peptides for their impact on CO2 hydration, CaCO3 mineralization, and particle settling rate. Enhanced rates for each of these steps in the CaCO3 mineralization process were confirmed using quantitative techniques in lab-scale measurements. The effect of these enhanced rates on the CO2 capture cost in an industrial scale CO2 mineralization process using coal fly ash as the CaO source was evaluated. The model predicts a process using bCA2- yeast and fly ash is ~10% more cost effective per ton of CO2 captured than a process with no biological molecules, a savings not realized by wild-type yeast and high-temperature stable recombinant CA2 alone or in combination. The levelized cost of electricity for a power plant using this process was calculated and scenarios in which this process compares favorably to CO2 capture by MEA absorption process are presented.

  16. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  17. Fractionation of mineral species by electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. D.; Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The fractionation of fine-grained aggregates into their major components is a problem in many scientific areas including earth and planetary science. Electrophoresis, the transport of electrically charged particles, immersed in a suspension medium, by a direct current field (Bier, 1959), was employed in this study as a means of separating simulated lunar soil into its constituent minerals. In these tests, conducted in a static analytical cylindrical microelectrophoresis apparatus, samples of simulated lunar soil and samples of pure mineral constituents were placed in the chamber; the electrophoretic mobilities of the lunar soil and the individual mineral constituents were measured. In most of the suspension buffers employed separability was indicated, on the basis of differences in mobility, for all the constituent mineral species except ilmenite and pyroxene, which were not efficiently separable in any of the buffers. Although only a few suspension media were employed, the success of this initial study suggests that electrophoresis may be an important mineral fractionation option in fine-grained aggregate processing.

  18. Enzymatic mineralization of silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Declercq, Heidi A; Gheysens, Tom; Dendooven, Jolien; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Cornelissen, Ria; Dubruel, Peter; Kaplan, David L

    2014-07-01

    The present study focuses on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals on porous silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds. Porous SFP scaffolds impregnated with different concentrations of ALP are homogeneously mineralized under physiological conditions. The mineral structure is apatite while the structures differ as a function of the ALP concentration. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, and colonization of osteogenic MC3T3 cells improve on the mineralized SFP scaffolds. These findings suggest a simple process to generate mineralized scaffolds that can be used to enhanced bone tissue engineering-related utility.

  19. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of mineral-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.; Raymond, R.; Saffiotti, U.; Aust, A.; Mossman, B.

    1996-04-01

    Many minerals are known to cause disease following inhalation, including asbestos, silica, zeolites, and clays. The mineralogical properties that determine toxicity are not known, hindering effective risk assessment. Consequently, many minerals that do not pose risks are controlled excessively and many minerals that do pose risk remain uncontrolled. The authors are integrating mineralogy and biology in an interdisciplinary scientific investigation of the mechanisms of mineral-induced disease. The biological endpoints include the formation of ferruginous bodies and chemical signaling (e.g., production of cytokines or active oxygen species) by cells; the mineralogical variables include structure, composition, and surface properties. The authors are also determining what information about the biological reaction is preserved in the mineral surface.

  1. Systems genetics of mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fleet, James C; Replogle, Rebecca; Salt, David E

    2011-03-01

    Minerals are essential and toxic elements that have an impact on human health. Although we have learned a tremendous amount about the metabolism, biological roles, and health effects of minerals with the tools of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular genetics, there are gaps in our knowledge of mineral biology that will benefit from new approaches. Forward genetics, whereby variations in phenotypes are mapped to natural genetic variation in the genome, has been successfully used to increase our understanding of many biologically important traits but has not yet been used extensively for mineral metabolism. In addition, the well-appreciated existence of interactions between minerals justifies a broader, systems approach to the study of mineral metabolism, i.e., ionomics. This short review will explain the value of forward genetics and ionomics as tools for exploring mammalian mineral metabolism.

  2. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  3. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  4. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  5. Mineral homeostasis and regulation of mineralization processes in the skeletons of sharks, rays and relatives (Elasmobranchii).

    PubMed

    Dean, Mason N; Ekstrom, Laura; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Ballantyne, Jim; Witten, P Eckhard; Riley, Cyrena; Habraken, Wouter; Omelon, Sidney

    2015-10-01

    Sharks, rays and other elasmobranch fishes are characterized by a skeletal type that is unique among living vertebrates, comprised predominantly of an unmineralized cartilage, covered by a thin outer layer of sub-millimeter, mineralized tiles called tesserae. The mineralized portion of the skeleton appears to grow only by apposition, adding material at the edges of each tessera; maintenance of non-mineralized joints between tesserae is therefore vital, with precise control of mineral deposition and inhibition at the many thousands of growth fronts in the skeleton. Yet, we have only scattered evidence as to how the elasmobranchs mineralize and grow their skeletons. In this review, we take an "environment to skeleton" approach, drawing together research from a vast range of perspectives to track calcium and phosphate from the typical elasmobranch habitats into and through the body, to their deposition at tesseral growth fronts. In the process, we discuss the available evidence for skeletal resorption capability, mineral homeostasis hormones, and nucleation inhibition mechanisms. We also outline relevant theories in crystal nucleation and typical errors in measurements of serum calcium and phosphate in the study of vertebrate biology. We assemble research that suggests consensus in some concepts in elasmobranch skeletal development, but also highlight the very large gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regards to endocrine functional networks and biomineralization mechanisms. In this way, we lay out frameworks for future directions in the study of elasmobranch skeletal biology with stronger and more comparative links to research in other disciplines and into other taxa.

  6. Intermittent Suckling Causes a Transient Increase in Cortisol That Does Not Appear to Compromise Selected Measures of Piglet Welfare and Stress †

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Diana L.; Langendijk, Pieter; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Lines, David; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This study assessed the effects intermittent suckling (IS) had on physiological and behavioral indices of piglets before and after weaning. Piglets were allocated to either a control treatment (conventional weaning) or an IS treatment (separation from the sow for 8 h per day starting the week before weaning). Apart from an initial peak in cortisol at the start of IS, piglets subjected to IS did not show physiological changes suggestive of a chronic stress response before and after weaning. The event of weaning still caused a decrease in growth rate and an increase in white blood cell parameters in both treatment groups. However, the IS piglets tended to gain more weight in the second half of the week after weaning. The results of this study suggest that short periods of separation (e.g., 8 h/day) do not appear to compromise piglet welfare over the peri-weaning period. Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that piglets subjected to intermittent suckling (IS) would show changes in physiological and behavioral indices indicative of compromised welfare in the peri-weaning period. A total of 21 primiparous sows and their litters were allocated to either a control treatment (n = 10) where piglets were weaned conventionally, or an IS treatment (n = 11) where piglets were separated daily from their sows for 8 h starting the week before weaning. Performance, physiological and behavioral measures were taken at various time points during the week before and after weaning. Plasma cortisol levels were higher (p = 0.01) in IS piglets 7 d before weaning. Regardless of treatment, the N:L ratio at 3 d and 7 d after weaning was higher (p < 0.05) than that at 1 d before weaning. The IS piglets ate more creep feed during lactation (p < 0.05), and there was a tendency for the IS piglets to gain more weight between 3 d and 7 d after weaning (p < 0.1). This study showed that, aside from an increase in cortisol at the start of IS, piglets subjected to IS did not display

  7. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  8. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment.

  9. The role of phosphatases in the initiation of skeletal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Millán, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    Endochondral ossification is a carefully orchestrated process mediated by promoters and inhibitors of mineralization. Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene cause hypophosphatasia, a heritable form of rickets and osteomalacia, caused by an arrest in the propagation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals onto the collagenous extracellular matrix due to accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological TNAP substrate and a potent calcification inhibitor. However, TNAP knockout (Alpl(-/-)) mice are born with a mineralized skeleton and have HA crystals in their chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived matrix vesicles (MVs). We have shown that PHOSPHO1, a soluble phosphatase with specificity for two molecules present in MVs, phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine, is responsible for initiating HA crystal formation inside MVs and that PHOSPHO1 and TNAP have nonredundant functional roles during endochondral ossification. Double ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function leads to the complete absence of skeletal mineralization and perinatal lethality, despite normal systemic phosphate and calcium levels. This strongly suggests that the Pi needed for initiation of MV-mediated mineralization is produced locally in the perivesicular space. As both TNAP and nucleoside pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) behave as potent ATPases and pyrophosphatases in the MV compartment, our current model of the mechanisms of skeletal mineralization implicate intravesicular PHOSPHO1 function and Pi influx into MVs in the initiation of mineralization and the functions of TNAP and NPP1 in the extravesicular progression of mineralization.

  10. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  11. Multi-frequency metal detector in high mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatescu, Laurence; Harmer, Gregory; Nesper, Oliver; Bordean, Dorin; Tkachenko, Yuri

    2009-05-01

    The successful detection and discrimination of mines is very difficult in areas of high soil mineralization. In these areas, the soil can make a significant contribution to the received signal that causes false detections or masks the true mine response. To address this problem, Minelab has developed a continuous wave (CW) multi-frequency digital detector (MFDD). It transmits four frequencies (between 1 kHz and 45 kHz) and each has a high dynamic range that approaches 120 dB. The mineralized soil with high magnetic susceptibility affects the characteristics of the sensor-head, in particular the inductance of the transmitting and receiving windings. These in turn affect the front-end electronics and measuring circuits and can lead to excessive ground noise that makes detection difficult. Minelab has modeled the effect that the soil has on the sensor-head and developed methods to monitor these effects. By having a well calibrated detector, which is demonstrated by the tight agreement of raw ground signals with theoretical ground models, the tasks of ground balance and discrimination become much more reliable and robust.

  12. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  13. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-11-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  14. Koch Mineral Services Response to Section 114 Information Request

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Koch Minerals asserts EPA's request exceeds the scope of the Clean Air Act; but does provide site information for its KCBX, Duluth, and Green Bay petroleum coke staging and handling facilities, throughput logs, and fugitive emissions prevention measures.

  15. Mineral composition of basidiomes of Amanita species.

    PubMed

    Vetter, János

    2005-06-01

    Basidiomes of 43 samples of eight Amanita species were gathered from different habitats of Hungary. The mineral composition (22 elements) was analysed by the ICP method in three independent replications, and mineral compositions found as discussed and compared. The Amanita species analysed were very different in As-, Cd-, Cr-, Mo-, Mn-, Se- and mainly in V-content. Other elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, Ti, Zn) occur in the basidiomes in balanced concentrations. The K and P contents have the lowest differences. Summarizing all the data (n = 43), the average mineral status of species of Amanita can be deduced. The lowest variability measured was for K and P, and the highest for chromium, nickel and vanadium. Specific, significant accumulation was found only for vanadium, due to the previously demonstrated occurrence of a binding molecule 'amavadine' in the basidiomes of A. muscaria. Remarkable Cd-levels were estimated in A. pantherina and A. muscaria (11.4 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) D.M., respectively). The higher contents of other elements (e.g. K, practically in all species; Se in A. strobiliformis) are analytical facts but, not accumulations. The mineral compositions of the ectomycorrhizal genus Amanita, of litter decomposing Agaricus and of wood decaying Trametes were compared. Some significant differences were found (AsAmanita < AsAgaricus; CdAmanita < CdAgaricus; CuAmanita < CuAgaricus; PAmanita KTrametes; PAmanita > PTrametes) but it seems that the mineral composition of the basidiomes is practically independent of the ectomycorrhizal habit. The specificities of the fungi-tree symbiotic interactions are known, and well documented (higher uptake and transport of certain elements first of all of P), however, the differences found in the mineral components are due to other factors (e.g. substrates, accumulating ability) and not to the mycorrhizal status.

  16. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition

  17. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  18. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  20. Fracture sealing by mineral precipitation: The role of small-scale mineral heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Trevor A.; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2016-07-01

    Fractures are often leakage pathways for fluid in low-permeability rocks that otherwise act as geologic barriers in the subsurface. Flow of fluids in chemical disequilibrium with fracture surfaces can lead to mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. To directly evaluate the role of small-scale mineral heterogeneity on mineral precipitation, we measured CaCO3 precipitation in a transparent analog fracture that included randomly distributed small-scale regions of CaCO3 on one of the borosilicate surfaces. Steady flow of a well-mixed CaCl2-NaHCO3 solution (log(ΩCaCO3) = 1.44) resulted in significant mineral precipitation during the 82 day experiment. Localized mineral precipitation reduced flow within regions of the fracture, but small-scale reaction-site heterogeneity allowed preferential flow to persist through pathways that contained 82% less area of CaCO3 regions than the fracture-scale average. This resulted in a significant reduction in measured precipitation rate; excluding these effects results in more than an order-of-magnitude underestimation of fracture sealing timescales.

  1. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  2. Boiling Temperature and Reversed Deliquescence Relative Humidity Measurements for Mineral Assemblages in the NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O System

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A; Staggs, K J; Day, S D; Carroll, S A

    2005-12-01

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made at ambient pressure for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range, along with those of the single salt systems. Boiling temperatures were also measured for the four component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures, where the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 134.9 C; for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 165.1 C at x(NaNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.46 and x(KNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.54; and for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C at x(NaCl) {approx} 0.25 and x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.75. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms molten salts below their maximum boiling temperatures, and the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. Mutual deliquescence/efflorescence relative humidity (MDRH/MERH) measurements were also made for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture from 120 to 180 C at ambient pressure. The NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. This salt mixture also absorbs water at 180 C, which is higher than expected from the boiling temperature experiments. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture was found to have a MDRH of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.5% at 180 C. The investigated mixture

  3. N mineralization and microbial dynamics in manured and non-manured fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm comparison of microbial and mineralization dynamics in two conventionally-managed fields were conducted to compare the impact of manure application. In-situ mineralization chambers at two depths (0-10 cm and 0-20 cm) were used to measure cumulative-net mineralization and microbial-biomass ch...

  4. Clay minerals for advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The author describes new and improved beneficiation techniques available to allow the production of clay minerals of exceptionally high purity. This is particularly true for kaolins and smectites. Wet processing techniques include particle size separation, high intensity magnetic separation, chemical leaching, flotation, and selective flocculation. The blending of clay minerals with other minerals provides opportunities to make special ceramic materials such as cordierite and other minerals that have very special ceramic properties including low heat expansion, high fired strength, low absorption, and other desired qualities.

  5. New AGU mineral physics committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A new Committee on Mineral Physics consisting of Orson Anderson (chairman), Peter Bell, Raymond Jeanloz, Robert Lieberman, Murli Manghnani, Alexandra Navrotsky, Tom Shankland, Joseph E. Smith, and Donald Weidner has been approved by the AGU Executive Committee.The increasing number of research groups in an area that combines the study of mineral properties and solid state sciences (materials research) created the impetus for this new committee. At AGU meetings, mineral physics studies have been included in recent years in sessions of Volcanology, Petrology, and Geochemistry and sessions of Tectonophysics. A portion of the charter for the new committee includes arranging special sessions for mineral physics that would bridge the two sections.

  6. Minerals Bill introduced in House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A bill that aims to strengthen a national minerals policy and to establish a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of this policy was introduced in the House of Representatives on April 30 by James D. Santini (D-Nev.). Entitled the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), the legislation, if passed, also would amend tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic minerals; it would provide the means for the Secretary of the Interior to make withdrawn public lands available for mineral development; and it would create a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals.Santini estimates that 4 billion tons of minerals are needed annually to sustain the nation's economy. Much of the minerals are supplied by other nations, however; Santini wants to see an end to the United States' dependence on foreign countries, especially those that seem relatively unstable politically. ‘The U.S. has placed its national security in the hands of a few foreign nations,’ Santini said in a recent press conference. ‘We are heavily dependent on the region of southern Africa for 76% of our cobalt, 93% of our platinum, 48% of our chromium, and a host of other strategic and critical minerals. Without these minerals, we cannot build jet aircraft, weapons, or other military hardware vitally important to our national security.’

  7. Carbon mineralization in surface and subsurface soils in a subtropical mixed forest in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tian, Q.

    2014-12-01

    About a half of soil carbon is stored in subsurface soil horizons, their dynamics have the potential to significantly affect carbon balancing in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors regulating subsurface soil carbon mineralization are poorly understood. As affected by mountain humid monsoon, the subtropical mountains in central China has an annual precipitation of about 2000 mm, which causes strong leaching of ions and nutrition. The objectives of this study were to monitor subsurface soil carbon mineralization and to determine if it is affected by nutrient limitation. We collected soil samples (up to 1 m deep) at three locations in a small watershed with three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, below 30 cm). For the three layers, soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 35.8 to 94.4 mg g-1, total nitrogen ranged from 3.51 to 8.03 mg g-1, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) ranged from 170.6 to 718.4 μg g-1 soil. We measured carbon mineralization with the addition of N (100 μg N/g soil), P (50 μg P/g soil), and liable carbon (glucose labeled by 5 atom% 13C, at five levels: control, 10% MBC, 50% MBC, 100% MBC, 200% MBC). The addition of N and P had negligible effects on CO2 production in surface soil layers; in the deepest soil layer, the addition of N and P decreased CO2 production from 4.32 to 3.20 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1. Glucose addition stimulated both surface and subsurface microbial mineralization of SOC, causing priming effects. With the increase of glucose addition rate from 10% to 200% MBC, the primed mineralization rate increased from 0.19 to 3.20 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1 (fifth day of glucose addition). The magnitude of priming effect increased from 28% to 120% as soil layers go deep compare to the basal CO2 production (fifth day of 200% MBC glucose addition, basal CO2 production rate for the surface and the deepest soil was 11.17 and 2.88 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1). These results suggested that the mineralization of subsurface carbon is more

  8. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  9. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  10. The minerals of milk.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The salt of milk constitutes a small part of milk (8-9 g.L(-1)); this fraction contains calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium for the main cations and inorganic phosphate, citrate and chloride for the main anions. In milk, these ions are more or less associated between themselves and with proteins. Depending on the type of ion, they are diffusible (cases of sodium, potassium and chloride) or partially associated with casein molecules (cases of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and citrate), to form large colloidal particles called casein micelles. Today, our knowledge and understanding concerning this fraction is relatively complete. In this review, the different models explaining (i) the nature and distribution of these minerals (especially calcium phosphate) in both fractions of milk and (ii) their behaviour in different physico-chemical conditions, are discussed.

  11. The Mineral Physics Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineral Physics Committee members for the period July 1, 1986, to J ne 30, 1988, have been announced. They are Murli H. Manghnani (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu), and Orson L. Anderson (University of California, Los Angeles), Thomas J. Ahrens (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), Subir K. Banerjee (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), William A. Bassett (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Michael Brown (University of Washington, Seattle), Robert M. Hazen (Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, D.C.), Raymond F. Jeanloz (University of California, Berkeley), Robert C. Liebermann (State University of New York (SUNY),(Stony Brook), Alexandra Navrotsky (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), Robert N. Schock (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.), and Donald J. Weidner (SUNY Stony Brook).

  12. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1988: Thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestically were derived from imported materials, existing company stocks, and thorium nitrate released from the National Defense Stockpile. Major nonenergy uses were in refractory applications, ceramics, and mantles for incandescent lanterns. The only energy use of thorium in the United States was in the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGC) nuclear reactor at Fort St. Vrain, CO. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, and world review--(Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique).

  14. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  15. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively s